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CONTROL CABLES
CONTROL CABLES

CONTROL CABLES

CONTROL CABLES AND TERMINALS

Cables are linkage in primary flight control systems.

Cable-type linkage is also used in engine controls, emergency extension systems for the landing gear, and various other systems throughout the aircraft.

Aircraft control cables are fabricated from carbon steel or stainless steel.

Advantages:

It is strong and light weight, and its flexibility makes it easy to route through the aircraft.

An aircraft cable has a high mechanical efficiency and can be set up without backlash, which is very important for precise control.

Disadvantage :

Tension must be adjusted frequently due to stretching and temperature changes.

CABLE CONSTRUCTION

The basic component of a cable is a wire.

The diameter of the wire determines the total diameter of the cable.

A number of wires are preformed into a helical or spiral shape and then formed into a strand.

These

preformed

strands

are

laid

around

a

straight center strand to form a cable.

Cable designations are based on the number of strands and the number of wires in each strand.

CABLE CONSTRUCTION

The most common aircraft cables are the 7 × 7 and 7 × 19.

The 7 × 7 cable consists of seven strands of seven wires each. Six of

these strands are laid around the center strand.

This is a cable of medium flexibility and is used for trim tab controls, engine controls, and indicator controls.

The 7 × 19 cable is made up of seven strands of 19 wires each. Six

of these strands are laid around the center strand.

This cable is extra flexible and is used in primary control systems and in other places where operation over pulleys is frequent.

Aircraft control cables vary in diameter, ranging from 116 to 38 inch.

CABLE FITTINGS

End fittings:

terminals, thimbles, bushings, and shackles.

Terminal fittings are generally of the swaged type.

The threaded end, fork end, and eye end terminals are used to connect the cable to a turnbuckle, bell crank, or other linkage in the system.

The ball end terminals are used for attaching cables to quadrants and special connections where space is

limited.

TURNBUCKLES

A turnbuckle assembly is a mechanical screw device consisting of two threaded terminals and a threaded

barrel.

As shown in diagram turnbuckles are fitted in the cable assembly for the purpose of making minor adjustments

in cable length and for adjusting cable tension.

One of the terminals has right-hand threads and the other has left-hand threads.

TURNBUCKLES

The

barrel

has

internal threads.

matching

right-

and

left-hand

The end of the barrel with the left-hand threads can usually be identified by a groove or knurl around that end of the barrel.

TURNBUCKLES

When installing a turnbuckle in a control system, it is

necessary to screw both of the terminals an equal

number of turns into the barrel.

It is also essential that all turnbuckle terminals be

screwed into the barrel until not more than three threads are exposed on either side of the turnbuckle barrel.

After a turnbuckle is properly adjusted, it must be safe tied.

TURNBUCKLES

TURNBUCKLES

PUSH-PULL TUBE LINKAGE

This type linkage eliminates the problem of varying tension and permits the transfer of either

compression or tension stress through a single

tube.

A push-pull tube assembly consists of a hollow

aluminum alloy or steel tube with an adjustable

end fitting and a checknut at either end.

The check nuts secure the end fittings after the tube assembly has been adjusted to its correct

length.

Push-pull tubes are generally made in short lengths to prevent vibration and bending under

compression loads.

CABLE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Turnbuckles Used in cable control systems to adjust cable

tension.

The turnbuckle barrel is threaded with left-hand threads inside one end and right-hand threads inside

the other.

Cable Connectors In addition to turnbuckles, cable connectors are used in some systems. These connectors enable a cable length to be quickly connected or disconnected from a system. This type is connected or disconnected by compressing the spring.

CABLE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Gust lock A cam on the control quadrant shaft engages a spring-

loaded roller for the purpose of centering and neutralizing the

controls with hydraulic system off (aircraft parked). Pressure is trapped in the actuators and since the controls are neutralized by the cam and roller, no movement of the control surfaces is permitted.

Cable guides Cable guides consist primarily of fairleads, pressure seals, and pulleys.

CABLE GUIDES

Fairlead Made from nonmetallic material, such as Phenolic or a metallic material such soft aluminium.

Completely encircles cable where it passes through holes.

used to guide cables in a straight line through or between structural members of the aircraft. never deflect the alignment of a cable more than 3mm from a

straight line.

Pressure seals Installed where cables (or rods) move through pressure bulkheads.

Pulleys

Used to guide cables and also to change the direction of cable

movement.

MECHANICAL LINKAGES

The linkage consists primarily of control (push pull) rods, torque tubes, quadrants, sectors, bell cranks and cable drums. Control rods are used as links in flight control system to give a

push-pull motion.

They may be adjusted at one or both ends.

Torque tubes Where an angular or twisting motion is needed in control system,

a torque tube is installed.

Quadrants, bell cranks, sectors, and drums change direction of motion and transmit motion to parts such as control rods, cables and torque tubes.

Cable drums are used primarily in trim tab system.

As the trim tab control wheel is moved clockwise or counter clockwise, the cable drum winds or unwinds to actuate the trim tab cables.

Control (Push Pull) Rods Control (Push Pull) Rods & Bell Crank

Control (Push Pull) Rods

Control (Push Pull) Rods Control (Push Pull) Rods & Bell Crank

Control (Push Pull) Rods & Bell Crank

BOWDEN CABLES

A Bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable (most commonly of steel or stainless steel) relative to hollow outer cable housing. The housing is generally of composite construction, consisting of helical steel wire, often lined with plastic, and with a plastic outer sheath. Usually provision is made for adjusting the cable tension using an inline hollow bolt (often called a barrel adjuster ), which lengthens or shortens

the cable housing relative to a fixed anchor point.

Lengthening the housing (turning the barrel adjuster out) tightens the cable; shortening the housing (turning the barrel adjuster in) loosens the cable.

the barrel adjuster out) tightens the cable; shortening the housing (turning the barrel adjuster in) loosens

CABLE ASSEMBLY INSPECTION

Cables should be inspected for broken wires by passing a cloth along their length and observing points where the cloth snags.

To thoroughly inspect the cable, move the surface control to its extreme travel limits. This will reveal the cable in pulley, fair lead, and drum areas.

If the surface of the cable is corroded, relieve cable tension.

Then carefully force the cable open by reverse twisting, and visually inspect the interior for corrosion. If there is no internal corrosion, remove external corrosion

with a coarse weave rag or fibber brush.

Never use metallic wools or solvents to clean flexible cable.

Control cables and wires should be replaced if worn, distorted, corroded, or otherwise damaged. Special attention should be given to areas where cables pass through battery compartments, lavatories, and wheel wells.