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Undertake project work

Subject Overview .............................................................................................................. 4

Element 1. Define project .................................................................................................. 5

Key Concepts of a Project Scope………………………………………………………………..6

1.2 Define project stakeholders ......................................................................................... 7

1.3 Seek clarification from delegating authority of issues related to project and project
parameters........................................................................................................................ 8

1.4 Identify limits of own responsibility and reporting requirements ................................... 8

1.5 Clarify relationship of project to other projects and to the organisation's objectives ..... 9

1.6 Determine and access available resources to undertake project ............................... 13

Element 2. Develop project plan ..................................................................................... 14

2.1 Develop the project plan in line with the project parameters ...................................... 14

Sample of RAM ............................................................................................................... 18

2.2 Identify and access appropriate project-management tools ....................................... 18

What cause Risks in Project management? .................................................................... 22

2.4 Develop and approve project budget ......................................................................... 25

Estimating income and expenditure……………………………………………………………25

2.5 Consult team members and take their views into account in planning the project ..... 27

2.6 Finalise project plan and gain necessary approvals to commence project according to
documented plan ............................................................................................................ 28

Element 3. Administer and monitor project ...................................................................... 29

3.1 Take action to ensure project team members are clear about their responsibilities and
the project requirements ................................................................................................. 30

3.2 Provide support for project team members, especially with regard to specific needs, to
ensure that the quality of the expected outcomes of the project and documented time
lines are met ................................................................................................................... 30

3.3 Establish and maintain required record-keeping systems throughout the project ...... 32

3.4 Implement and monitor plans for managing project finances, resources and quality . 33

Monitoring the budget……………………………………………………………………………33

Managing Quality ............................................................................................................ 34

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Acceptance Criteria………………………………………………………………………………35

User Acceptance Testing………………………………………………………………………..35

3.5 Complete and forward project reports as required to stakeholders ............................ 36

3.6 Undertake risk management as required to ensure project outcomes are met .......... 37

3.7 Achieve project deliverables ...................................................................................... 38

Element 4. Finalise project .............................................................................................. 38

4.1 Complete financial record keeping associated with project and check for accuracy .. 39

4.2 Ensure transition of staff involved in project to new roles or reassignment to previous
roles ................................................................................................................................ 40

Element 5. Review project .............................................................................................. 41

Source: http://www2.cit.cornell.edu/computer/robohelp/cpmm/PM-lifecycle-overall-
small.htm ........................................................................................................................ 43

Sample Project Plan ....................................................................................................... 44

References/Recommended resources for this unit: ......................................................... 55

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Subject Overview

A project is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore
defined scope and resources. A project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a
specific set of operations designed to accomplish a goal. So a project team often includes
people who don’t usually work together – sometimes from different organizations and
across multiple geographies.

The development of software for an improved business process, the construction of a

building or bridge, the relief effort after a natural disaster, the expansion of sales into a
new geographic market — all are projects. And all must be expertly managed to deliver
the on-time, on-budget results, learning and integration that organizations needs.
Project management, then, is the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to
execute projects effectively and efficiently. It’s a strategic competency for organizations,
enabling them to tie project results to business goals — and thus, better compete in their

It began to emerge as a distinct profession in the mid-20th century. Project

management processes fall into five phases:

 Initiating
 Planning
 Executing
 Monitoring and Controlling
 Closing

This subject introduces the basic knowledge of project management, describes the
performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to undertake a straightforward a
project. It addresses the management of projects, including developing a project plan,
administering and monitoring the project, finalising the project, and reviewing the project
to identify lessons learned for application to future projects. Many practical tools, models,
and templates that are utilized in project management will be introduced too. Such as
Work Breakdown Structure, Responsibility Assessment Matrix, Gantt Chart, Failure Model
Effect Analysis, Budgeting and Variance Analysis, and so forth...

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Element 1. Define project
Performance criteria

1.1 Access project scope and other relevant documentation


What is a project?

A project is usually defined as a set of distinct processes and tasks and runs for a set period of
time, and delivers academic, business or technical objectives. According to the Project
Management Institute, “a project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product,
service, or result” Therefore, a key feature of projects, as opposed to operations, is that they have
distinct beginnings and ends.

Why do businesses conduct projects? Some of the reasons include:

 Market demand for a quality product or service (New product Research and
 Technological advances (Use latest software or systems)
 Solving a business need (Office reallocation or seasons big recruitment)
 Request from a customer (Reduce processing time)
 Ensure new laws and regulations can be complied with (Update or revise
organizational policies and procedures)
 Response to competition (New promotional campaign)

What is project management?

There are numerous definitions of project management. Definitions may differ depending
on whether the focus is on organisational change management or on the delivery of
products goals or outcomes. Project management is a formalised and structured method
of managing change in a rigorous manner to meet these outcomes. According to the Project
management institute, 'project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools,
and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements'.

 Project management concentrates on using knowledge and skills to achieve specific

outcomes to be accomplished by a certain time, to a clear quality standard and within a
given level of resources or budget.

 Wherever you work, the chances are that you will need to understand the language and
concepts of project management and to apply the skills you will learn in this course of

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What is project scope?

It is the summation of all the deliverables required as part of the project including products,
services and results. It outlines what the project is expected to achieve, by when, as well
as what is NOT expected. It is a key part of every project plan and a clearly scoped
project ensures that the project stays focused.

Key Concepts of a Project Scope

 Scope planning contains different levels according to the complicity of the project.
 The scope baseline consists of the project scope statement, project milestones,
key deliverables, boundaries (Inclusions and Exclusions), and organizational
 All stakeholders must understand the scope baseline to minimize scope creep
during project execution.

The Project Scope pertains to the work necessary to deliver a product. Requirements
and deliverables define the project scope, and it is critical that the stakeholder is in
agreement with the information discussed in the proposed plan.

What are Project Deliverables?

The fundamental objective of a project is to deliver something new.

It is not always easy to distinguish between aims (goals), objectives and deliverables. If the project is to
create new products/services or modify existing ones, then the list of deliverable items may be as simple as
a set of part or product numbers

 Any measurable, tangible, verifiable item that must be produced to complete the project. Often
used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to
approval by the project
 Deliverables include intermediate products or services that are necessary for achieving the
project’s final results. Deliverables are always measurable because they can be counted or
observed in some way.

Apart from Project deliverables, other documents below need to accessed by project
team and closely monitored, Details of those documents will be discussed in other
elements :

 Project resources
 Quality standards for project
 Timeframes for project.

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Performance Criteria

1.2 Define project stakeholders


"Stakeholder management is critical to the success of every project in every organization I

have ever worked with. By engaging the right people in the right way in your project, you
can make a big difference to its success... and to your career."
As you become more successful in your career, the actions you take and the projects you
run will affect more and more people. The more people you affect, the more likely it is that
your actions will impact people who have power and influence over your projects. These
people could be strong supporters of your work – or they could block it.

Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people use to win

support from others. It helps them ensure that their projects succeed where others fail.
Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify the key people who have to be won

Your boss Shareholders Government

Senior executives Alliance partners Trades associations
Your coworkers Suppliers The press
Your team Lenders Interest groups
Customers Analysts The public
Prospective customers Future recruits The community
Your family

Anyone from the table above could be your project stakeholders, and they are either directly or
indirectly involved in your project. The project will have certain level of impacts ON / BY the

There are a number of roles directly associated with project management

 Project owner - initiator/financer of project

 Project sponsor - executive responsible for the project (often the owner)
 Project manager - manages the project's implementation
 Project team - undertake tasks involved in the project
 Project specialists (Outsourcing team members)
 Funding bodies (Investors)
 Customers (Could be funding bodies too)
 Suppliers
 Government and Industrial associations

Extra readings on Stakeholder management


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Performance Criteria

1.3 Seek clarification from delegating authority of issues

related to project and project parameters


Even "Super-You" needs help and support. There is no shame in asking for assistance.
Push aside the pride and show respect for the talent others can bring to the table. And,
remember that there is no such thing as a single-handed success: When you include and
acknowledge all those in your corner, you propel yourself, your teammates and your
supporters to greater heights. Therefore, as a Project Manager, you should choose the
right moment, delegate the right tasks to the right people, so that team members’
knowledge and skills could fully utilized, their confidence and motivation level could rise
and their true potential could be discovered.

On the other hand, if you are taking tasks from top management, clients or funding bodies,
it is crucial to clarify what exactly the objectives are, what outcomes they expect, any
deadlines, any resources available, report lines and so forth… in other words, it is
important to ensure you and your team has mutual understanding of Project Parameters.
Several key questions to help determine the information required for a project:

o What are the expected outcomes?

o Does the outcome relate to the organisation’s broader goal?
o How does my team relate to the project? What skills, experience and
knowledge does my team have?
o Who is the project sponsor?
o Do I have a copy of the business case?
o What is the timeframe within which the project must be completed?
o Does the project have to meet any specified quality standards?

Extra readings on Workplace delegation:



Performance Criteria

1.4 Identify limits of own responsibility and reporting


Large group projects typically involve complex interactions between multiple team
members. Experience tells us that establishing roles and responsibilities helps eliminate
confusion as the project progresses. Creating and maintaining a responsibility
matrix defines the tasks, roles and accountability. To do this efficiently:

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1. Assign team members to the project. Assess each person's skills and knowledge.
Encourage team members to volunteer for stretch assignments to broaden their
2. Download a template or define your own format. For example, create a spreadsheet and
list the project tasks in the first column. Label the second column as "Responsible." Label
the third column as "Accountable." Label the fourth column as "Consulted" and the fifth as
"Informed." Put the names of people in the cells. Alternatively, label the columns with
each person's name and use colours to indicate the level of responsibility for each task.
Designate only one person to be accountable for each task.
3. Establish roles for each project meeting. Each team typically includes a project manager,
team leader, meeting facilitator, meeting scribe and team members. Using this model,
each team member knows their role at each project team meeting. When expectations
are clear, work proceeds more smoothly!
4. Add new tasks and roles as the project proceeds. By keeping track of the skills and
knowledge acquired by each team member, the project manager can assign new tasks
and responsibilities more efficiently and fairly.
5. Delegate tasks to team members who have the right training to complete the work. If team
members lack skills, provide courses, workshops or self-paced alternatives to get them up
to speed.
6. Save your file in a location that all team members can access and refer to over the course
of the project. By clarifying expectations, you can minimize conflicts and improve
communication between team members.

Source: http://voices.yahoo.com/defining-team-roles-responsibilities-group-projects-11962457.html

Extra readings on RASCI responsibility matrix


Performance Criteria

1.5 Clarify relationship of project to other projects and to

the organisation's objectives


As project managers, we sometimes get caught in the heat of the project management
“moment” and lose sight of the fact that projects are part of a larger initiative. The
objective of this article is to remind project managers of the important role they have in
bringing a company’s organizational strategy to fruition.

How many times as a project manager have you been tempted to say the following:

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“Where did this project come from?”
“Should I stop working on this project and start on this one?”
“Why are we doing this project?”
“We don’t have the resources to do this project!”

One of the reasons project managers worry so much is because they tend to accept the
projects assigned to them and don’t take the time to understand how the project aligns
with the company’s organizational strategy. It is certainly appropriate to assume that
“There must be a need for this project if someone is willing to pay for it.” However, the
project manager must recognize that this approach may not take into account what is truly
in the best interest of the client or company.

Organizational strategy alone is a rather broad topic. By its very nature organizational
strategy can apply to all business functions—Finance, Human Resources, Marketing, and
Operations being some of the most important to the project manager. This article focuses
specifically on the technical project manager and introduces a practical approach to help
the project manager to effectively align projects to a company’s organizational strategy.

Focus on Strategy from Project Start

Now for the million dollar question: How does a project manager recognize if a project
aligns with the company’s organizational strategy? Instead of “how”, perhaps it is better to
ask “at what point” does a project manager recognize their project aligns or may not align
with a company’s organizational strategy? The short answer is—anytime during the pre-
planning stage.

In most cases the Requirements Document or other similar business requirements

document would be the first piece of documentation a project manager should consult to
analyze the request. Full knowledge of business requirements, along with input from
available SMEs (Subject Matter Experts), will help the project manager understand from
the very beginning if the approach is best for the company.

Basic understanding of how to ensure successful alignment between the company’s

organizational strategy and the project:

 Recognize the Strategic Value of the Project

 Inform the Client of Potential Value Gained or Lost
 Ensure Success Through Participation

Recognize the Strategic Value of the Project

Project managers need to remind themselves that every project must contribute value and
is designed to meet the future needs of its clients. The key word is “value.” From a
management standpoint, it is essential to be able to relate the value of the project to the
organization’s strategy in both quantitative and qualitative terms. I believe everyone would
agree that the most successful companies have an organizational strategy. Unfortunately,

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few project managers take the time to understand the value linkage between the
organizational strategy and their projects.

Inform Clients of Potential Value Gained or Lost

It is important that the project manager helps the client to recognize the risks associated
in selecting one alternative over another. You may even find that the client has, in his or
her mind, already selected the cheapest alternative. When informing a client about risks it
is imperative to be quick and competent in your response. This can be done in three easy

Brainstorm – Schedule a 30-minute brainstorm session with no more than two

SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).
Understand – Clearly understand the technical aspects of all options. Open a
document on the computer and draft (in business terms) a clear response to the
Respond – After you have gathered your thoughts, it is best to arrange a meeting
with the client and invite no more than one SME (to make the client feel important
yet not threatened) to present your response.

It is important to use common sense when speaking to the client and avoid using words
such as “in the best interest of the company” or “the best choice for long-term goals and
objectives.” Most clients are professionals in their field and they will always feel there is a
real business need to their request. The key is to give the client the perception that you
are working together with them to address this business need.

Ensure Success Through Participation

The project manager must actively engage the client and create an environment where
the client is a key participant in the decision making. Far too often the project team and IT
staff and will go behind closed doors, have little or no interaction with the client, and then
return to the client with the supposed perfect solution.

In order to effectively align projects with the company’s organizational strategy, it is critical
to create an open and honest dialogue. Make sure the client knows you want to include
them in determining the approach which best aligns with the company’s organizational
strategy. For example, explain that you held a 30-minute brainstorming session with the
SMEs to obtain a clear understanding of all technical options and the pros and cons of
each option. Remember to speak in business terms that will make sense to everyone
listening to the conversation.

Some may argue that the crucial factor to ensure the success of integrating organizational
strategy with projects lies in the company’s ability to create a process that is open and
transparent. As project managers, we have a similar responsibility to create an
environment with our client that is open and honest.

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Make Strategy Your Concern
The outcome of effectively recognizing, brainstorming, understanding and responding to
client requests results in:

 Clearer organizational focus

 Best use of scarce organizational resources such as people, equipment, and
 Improved communications across projects and departments.

No matter what tools you use as a project manager, it is essential to be competent and
well informed when working with the client to ensure successful alignment between the
company’s organizational strategy and the project.

To sum up, how to relate project to organizational objectives, you and your team should :

o Ensure the expected project outcomes contribute to the organizational goals

o Ensure the project objectives do not create any conflicts among other
departments or projects
o Understanding how your project fits in with other completed, current or
upcoming projects or activities within the organisation
o Communicate the benefits, importance and relevance of the project to the staff
o Share resources or work with other project managers to share experiences,
learn from each other, give encouragement and assistance

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Performance Criteria

1.6 Determine and access available resources to

undertake project


In general, business resources refer to four main categories:

 Human Resources (Staff who work within the organisation and experts who can
contribute to the business)
 Capital (Initial investment, funds, equipments, buildings, offices)
 Raw materials (Materials that directly being transferred to the final product, essentially
within manufacture business)
 Information (Information that organization needs to plan, control and review its activities)

Below are the brief tips of Estimating and access resources:

 How much the organisation wants to allocate to the project?

 What the project goals and time frames suggest?
 The total budget estimate and your resource allocation responsibilities within this budget
 The reason or background of the project should be clearly understood by all stakeholders,
so the right resources can be allocated to the project

Extra reading on Person/Non Person resources estimation:


Further details of implementing and controlling resources within the project will be discussed in
Element 3.

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Element 2. Develop project plan

Once the project has been initiated, objectives are clear and agreed and options have
been evaluated the project can be planned.

Early in the inception of the project a Business Case might be required before the project
is approved. It is good practice to include a preliminary or high-level Project Plan in the
Business Case. The planning tools described in this section may be applied at high level
or they may be used to plan the project in detail once approval has been given to proceed
with the detailed planning of the project.

Detailed planning requires increased commitment of resources. Therefore there is a

logical approval GO-NO GO decision at the end of the Initiation Phase before the
commencement of the Planning Phase.

Performance criteria

2.1 Develop the project plan in line with the project


The Project Plan is the basis for monitoring and controlling the project. All changes to
the project must be recorded against the project plan. In other words, the project plan is
the guidance throughout the entire project period and this master document must be
followed by all personnel involved in the project. It is a key communication and decision-
making document.

Why plan a project?

 Enables scarce (lack of) resources to be shared

 Helps delegate tasks more effectively
 Project team members are focused and gain satisfaction, motivation
 Project team members are dedicated to the goals of the project
 The length of time allowed for each activity
 Budget for materials and labour
 Details what needs to be done and how it should be done
 Who is responsible for completing each task
 The resources required to complete project tasks

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 The standard of work required for each task

The Project Plan literally brings together the:

 Scope Definition
 Timeframe for the project and each deliverable
 Organisational, team roles and responsibilities
 Resources allocation
 Budget
 Risk management / control
 Quality Processes
 Communication Strategy
 Procurement Strategy

Extra readings on project plan items:


From Milestones to sub-tasks (What needs to be done?)

A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a model of the work to be performed in a project

organized in a hierarchical structure. The WBS is an important tool which helps you keep
an overview of the project, a breakdown of the tasks that need to be completed for the
project's goals to be achieved.

 It forms the basis for organization and coordination in the project.

 It shows the amount of work, the time required, and the costs involved in the

The work breakdown structure is the operative basis for the further steps in project
planning, for example, cost planning, scheduling, capacity planning as well as project

The project structure can be represented according to different criteria:

 Phases (logic-oriented)
 By function (function-oriented)
 By object (object-oriented)

Sample WBS provided below...

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Source: http://msproject2010primer.com/cracking-the-microsoft-project-2010-wbs-code/

Source: https://www.workbreakdownstructure.com/how-to-make-a-work-breakdown-structure.php

Matchware ® (WBS Software) 30 days free trial available on:


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Assign right tasks to right people (Who is doing what?)

Responsibility Assessment Matrix (RAM) is also called Responsibility Allocation Matrix, or

Responsibility Matrix. The purpose of the document is to identify early on which
departmental roles or individuals will be assigned to complete certain categories of
activities (tasks). Next, define the extent of responsibility and the relationships among
groups (Involvement). Complete this matrix in the early planning stages before your
commit to more detailed resourcing or scheduling. In other words,

 RAM determines

 Skills and capabilities of each team member

 Current and future workloads of project team members

 What would be a fair and appropriate allocation of duties

 Who is responsible for completing the activity

 The names of specialists who need to be consulted at various stages

 Managers who need to be involved to give approvals

 Clients who need to be notified when certain phases of the project are completed

Tips for setting up a RAM, (for large projects, a separate document should be developed for each
milestone or sub-project)

 List the major activities in the project based on WBS (in the matrix rows)
 List the stakeholder group (in the matrix columns)
 Specify the involvement level, authority role, and responsibility of each
stakeholder by codifying the responsibility matrix
 Incorporate the responsibility matrix into the project rules (the original version
of the responsibility matrix and all future changes in it must be approved by
project stakeholders)

There are various ways to create RAM based on project and tasks requirements, and also need
to take into consideration of organizational policies and procedures

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Sample of RAM
Responsibility Assessment Matrix

WBS / Positions PM: David SPO: Sarah PC1: Lisa PC2: Michael
Key Task 1 A I R S P R P P
Sub-task 1 I A
Sub-task 2
Key Task 2
Sub-task 1
Key Task 1
Sub-task 1
Sub-task 2


A: Accountable Holds ultimate responsibility for the task

P: Participant Actively participate tasks and involve in implementation
I: Input Bring in ideas / thoughts for the task, low level contribution
R: Review Review tasks output and adjustment
S: Sign-off Authorise the task completion or further requirements

Performance Criteria

2.2 Identify and access appropriate project-management



In the late 1800s, Polish engineer Karol Adamiecki developed a visual work flow chart that
he called a "harmonogram." In around 1910, Henry Gantt, a management consultant and
engineer, took Adamiecki's concept to the next stage. His chart was designed to help
manufacturing supervisors see whether their work was on, ahead of, or behind schedule,
and it formed the foundation of the tool we use today.

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The Gantt chart is one the most popular tools in managing project progress. A Gantt chart is
developed as a horizontal graph or chart to review the progress of your project and track your
performance. On the vertical axis, list each task in order; and on the horizontal axis, list the
timeframe for the project.

Gantt chart (Who is doing what by when?)

 Clearly state the commencement date and completion date of entire project
 Clearly state the starting time and finishing time of each milestones, key tasks and
 Demonstrate the relationship (sequence) among tasks
 Indicate the progress of each task at a particular timeline
 In case of delays, reset deadline and/or re-allocate resources

Sample Gantt Chart

Source: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Gantt-Chart-Diagram-Example-1.htm

Free online Gantt chart creators available through the links below:




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Brief notes on other project management tools

Cost schedule control system

Used to determine and monitor your costs for a project through evaluating, estimating,
budgeting, monitoring, forecasting and reporting all the cost information for the project

Critical Path Method – (CPM)

– Helps identify the sequence of tasks and timing that will be vital to
successfully complete the project on time
– Identify the activities or tasks that, if disrupted will have the most impact on
your ability
– Meet the project timeframe

CPM (Critical path method) example

• To develop a CPM, we need to identify the components of the schedule:

– The longest path(s) throughout the schedule
– The path(s) or task(s) with zero float (where zero float means that a path or
task cannot be started later than the scheduled start date of each task on
the path without delaying the project’s scheduled completion time
– The task(s) or milestone driving the end date of the project (where the end
date is the scheduled finish date of the project)
– The shortest completion time of the project (where the project cannot be
completed in any less time within the current schedule)

Lifecycle cost analysis

– Method of project evaluation where all costs over the life of a project are
considered to be important. It involves capturing, recording and computing
all expenses associated with the project

PERT Charts (Program Evaluation Review Technique)

– Used to schedule, organise and coordinate tasks within a project

– Time consuming and complicated to produce and suited to long or complex

Key steps for PERT Chart

– Identify the specific activities and milestones.

– Determine the proper sequence of the activities
– Construct a network diagram
– Estimate the time required for each activity
– Determine the critical path
– Update the PERT chart as the project progresses

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Logistics support analysis (LSA) – your LSA contacts are the people or processes you
need to gain support.

– It also:
• Identifies and uses support systems
• Influences or assists with project activities
• Promotes early identification of potential support problems

Extra readings on Project Management tools



Performance Criteria

2.3 Formulate a risk-management plan for a project, including work health and
safety (WHS)

In any project, things don't always go as planned. Unexpected events can threaten your project
outcomes. Therefore, a detailed risk management plan plays significant role in ensuring project
being conducted properly and deliver the expected outcomes.

Source: ISO 31000 Risk Management Process

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Risk management is the systematic identification, assessment and control of risks to business
or project objectives. Risk management approaches, such as the methodology described in the
recognised Australian standard for risk management, AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009, include the
following phases (or similar) as applied to projects:

1. Identify and characterise potential threats to the project.

2. Determine the risk (i.e. analyse the probability and impact of these occurring).
3. Evaluate the acceptability of the risk with respect to the project and business

4. Identify strategies to manage the risk.

5. Prioritise risk reduction measures based on a strategy.

What cause Risks in Project management?

External factors:
 Political, Economic, Social/Culture, Technology (PEST)
 Conflicting contractor priorities
 Partnering relationship
 Increasing (global) competition
 Variable contractor/supplier performance
Internal factors:
 Poor project definition
 Unreliable task estimation
 Fast tracking decision-making processes
 Availability of management
 Poor tracking capability
 Lack of reporting procedures
 Communication bottlenecks
 Managerial incompetence
 Undefined quality requirements
 Fluctuating commitment
 Limited resource availability
 Low-level skill sets
 Lack of accountability
 Variable stakeholder expectations

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Sample Risk events during project and the Impacts on project and stakeholders
Type of risk Impact

Project schedule Increased project time

Budgets/funding Increased cost

Personal issues Loss of key team member - not enough team members
for the project
Quality Doesn't meet standards

Key stakeholder consensus Conflicts and project delays

Scope changes Increased project time and cost

Project plan Increased project time and cost, impact on quality, poor
direction and communication

PM methodology Increased project time and cost

Business risk Poor public image

Management risk Re-organisation resulting in loss of team members

Vendor issues Delivery delays

Legal issues Increased costs, poor public image

Political issues Poor public image

Environment risk Increased costs, delays to schedule, poor public image

Weather or natural disasters Schedule delays, delivery delays, increased costs

Technology risks Not available when needed

Project complexity Inexperience of project team

Project manager skills Inexperience of project manager

Team skills and abilities Inexperience of team members, lack of training

Other Risk management methods, such as FMEA, are widely used in modern business
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was one of the first systematic techniques
for failure analysis. It was developed by reliability engineers in the 1950s to study
problems that might arise from malfunctions of military systems. An FMEA is often the first
step of a system reliability study. It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies,
and subsystems as possible to identify failure modes, and their causes and

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effects. FMEA is used to structure Mitigation for Risk reduction based on either failure
(mode) effect severity reduction or based on lowering the probability of failure or both.

FMEA is a systematic, proactive method for evaluating a process to identify where and how it
might fail and to assess the relative impact of different failures, in order to identify the parts of the
processes that are most in need of change. FMEA includes review of the following:
– Failure modes (What could go wrong?)
– Failure effects (What would be the consequences of each failure?)
– Failure causes (Why would the failure happen?)
– Failure detection (How difficult it can be detected?)

Simple method to identify Risk Priority Number (RPN)

RPN = Probability Occurrence X Consequence Severity X Likelihood of detection

Key steps in Risk management plan:

 Identifying possible risks

 Defining risks in terms of potential impact and extent
 Developing contingency plans that detail how each risk will be prevented and/or
 Acting on plans and monitoring outcomes

Five steps to controlling risks that you and your team need to identify:

 Prevent the risk from happening

 Reduce the probability of risk occurring
 Transfer the impact of the risk to third party so there is minimal impact on your
project ( penalty clauses in contracts you provide to subcontractors so financial
loss is transferred)
 Use contingency and corrective plans
 Accept that some risk will exist and will need to be monitored throughout the

Extra readings on WHS risk management


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Performance Criteria

2.4 Develop and approve project budget


The project budget is the estimate of the costs of the project. These costs will likely include
labour, materials, and other related expenses. The project budget is often broken down into specific
tasks, with amounts assigned to each task. Budgets are an essential part of good financial
management and are used to estimate your income and expenses over a certain amount
of time. Developing accurate budgets will help your organisation to provide better services,
successfully apply for grants and meet your financial reporting obligations.

Most organisations develop a budget that covers all of their income and expenditure for
the financial year. This budget will be based on your organisations planned activities for
the year developed by the management committee and staff. The budget for the
organisation will need to be approved by the management committee and should be
developed by someone with a good understanding of book-keeping.

Although the budget for the organisation will include projects that you want to run, you
might also need to develop a budget for each project. This will be essential if you are
applying for funding but it is also useful if you want to compare the budget with the actual
income and expenditure for the project. You may also decide to develop budgets for
different parts of your organisation. If you have paid staff, they may develop these
budgets before they are approved by the organisation.

Budget process:

Estimating income and expenditure

Whether you are developing a budget for your organisation or a project, you will need to
identify the probable sources of your income, where your expenditure is most likely to
occur and an estimate for each of these amounts. It is also a good idea to estimate when
you will receive income and when you will have expenses to ensure that you will be able
to make payments when they are needed.

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For the organisation as a whole, income might include membership fees, payments for
services, bank interest, grants, donations and other types of fundraising. For individual
projects, you might be relying on one or more grants and/or sponsorship from other
people or organisations.

One way of estimating your organisations income for next year is to look at what was
received in the previous year and decide if this is likely to increase or decrease and by
what amount.

You will also need to determine the areas where the organisation will have expenses. The
larger items will usually include salaries and wages, rent, phone, electricity/gas, stationery,
postage, insurance, photocopying and other expenses. Your organisation may also need
to include amounts for items that might be needed, such as staff payments including long
service leave.

There are particular rules about how organisations budget for more expensive items such
as computers and if you are unsure about this, you should seek professional advice.

The amounts that were spent in the previous year can help you to determine your
organisation's budget expenditure for the next year. You will then need to decide if these
amounts need to be adjusted for increases in costs or additional expenses. Wherever
possible, you should also ask for one or more quotes for budget items.

Individual projects may have expenses across some or all of the same areas as your
organisation. When you are developing a budget for a project, some of your costs will
involve staff time and a proportion of the organisations costs such as electricity and rent.
You will probably also have other costs such as paying other people to work on the
project, catering, travel, venue or equipment hire and other items.

If you are applying for funding from a funding body, you may only able to include certain
expenses, so you will need to check before completing your application.

Unless the budgeted income for your organisation and projects equals or is greater than
your budgeted expenditure, you will have financial problems and should not approve the

Extra readings on Budgeting methods



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Performance Criteria

2.5 Consult team members and take their views into

account in planning the project

Lack of clear roles and responsibilities with respect to the work of the team often causes
confusion, frustration and duplication of efforts within teams. Clarity of roles is often
assumed, yet not clarified. Effective teams clarify their roles at significant times such as
organizational change, new member(s) entering the team, team member(s) leaving the
team, new projects, etc. and these roles are captured in a clear and concise role
statement. As the project manager, it is your responsibility to ensure team members know
what is expected of them, have a thorough understanding of the scope of the project and
are clear about how the team will operate.

A roles and responsibilities matrix is used to capture the results of the discussion by
assigning codes to a roles-responsibility matrix using the P-A-R-I-S coding system
identified below.

 P = Perform (primary responsibility to initiate action and/or carry out task.)

 A = Approve (must be reviewed by the role occupant who has the option to
approve or veto.)
 R = Review (the role occupant must review. Feedback and/or contribution are
 I = Inform (the role occupant must be informed but does not have direct influence.)
 S = Support (the role occupant provides logistical support and/or resources for

PS: It is very similar as RAM legends introduced in “Develop Project Plan”. They both can
be used in clarifying project responsibilities.

• A: Accountable - Holds ultimate responsibility for the task

• P: Participant - Actively participate tasks and involve in implementation
• I: Input - Bring in ideas / thoughts for the task, low level contribution
• R: Review - Review tasks output and adjustment
• S: Sign-off - Authorize the task completion or further requirements

Some tips to help team members to clarify their roles and responsibilities


 Is this a new or existing team?

 Is this a temporary or permanent team? (Project vs. Functional)
 Who is the sponsor of the team?
 Describe the team objective and the metrics that will be used (e.g. timeframe,
budget, specifications).
 How does this team fit within the organization?
 Logistics.
o How will the team communicate? (set up meetings if necessary?)
o What resources are needed? (are they available? who will get them?)

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 Team members (full time/part time).
 Role/Skills/Development Path/Motivated by.

 Choose meeting time and location (when will it least impact productivity)?
o Send meeting notification, include agenda.
 Ask each team member to describe their role.
o Why is this role important to the project?
o What is the measure of success?
 Ensure that everyone agrees on their own and the role of other team members.
o Write roles and responsibilities on board.
o Review communication protocol.
o Review actions (deadlines and commitments).
 Encourage camaraderie/collaboration.

Be available for support!

Performance Criteria

2.6 Finalise project plan and gain necessary approvals to

commence project according to documented plan

Before you start implementing your project, make sure that you communicate the plan to relevant
stakeholders and that you are given the necessary approval for the project to go ahead. This may

 Submitting reports/presentations to management or other stakeholders

 Conducting a project approval meeting.

The key to project approval meetings is to be ready with options and alternatives for finishing
earlier, spending less money and using alternative resources. Good project managers are
eager to change the plan to fit senior management needs and preferences as long as the
scope, budget and duration are feasible. Remember, trade-offs are important!

Ensure what you have created meets the shareholders’ needs:

Have I prepared the plan in accordance with stakeholder expectations,

organisational standards and relevant industry regulations?
Is the plan in a format that is accessible to stakeholders?
Who is responsible for granting approval to the project plan?
Does the plan contain all the information needed by those responsible to sign-
off on it?
What processes need to be followed for the plan to be approved?

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When to gain approval:

o Prepare and make a presentation for stakeholders

o Consult specialists within your organisation about project planning procedures
o Attend a panel interview where several stakeholders ask you questions about the
o Submit completed documents to your sponsor and discuss in detail every aspect of
the plan
o Attend meetings with individual stakeholders to discuss different aspects of the plan
in detail
o Make yourself available to answer queries by telephone, email or in person

Element 3. Administer and monitor project

It is important that project managers are able to manage their team and activities through meetings,
communicating, supporting, and helping with decisions (but not making them for people who can
make them for themselves).

One of the big challenges for a project manager is deciding how much independence to give
for each specific task. Stringent parameters and lots of checking are necessary for team
members who like clear instructions, but this approach may result in the kiss of death to
experienced, entrepreneurial and creative people. For the latter, they tend to prefer a wider
brief, more freedom, and less checking.

Manage people by the results they get - not how they get them. It is important for project managers
to differentiate in personality and working styles in their team.

Misunderstanding personal styles can get in the way of team cooperation (that's why their role
here is to enable and translate). Face-to-face meetings, when you can bring team members
together, are generally the best way to avoid issues and relationships becoming too personalised
and emotional. It is important to constantly communicate the progress and successes of the
project regularly to everyone.

Give the people in your team the recognition, particularly when someone high up expresses
satisfaction, while trying not to accept plaudits yourself. Conversely, a good project manager
must be able to stand up and take the blame for anything that goes wrong - and be sure to
never 'dump' problems or stresses on anyone in the project team. As project manager, any
problem is always ultimately down to you anyway.

Use empathy and conflict handling techniques, and look out for signs of stress and manage it
accordingly. A happy, positive team with a basic plan will outperform a miserable team with a
brilliant plan every time.

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Performance Criteria

3.1 Take action to ensure project team members are clear

about their responsibilities and the project requirements

3.2 Provide support for project team members, especially

with regard to specific needs, to ensure that the quality
of the expected outcomes of the project and documented
time lines are met


You may want to commence implementation with a meeting to 'kick-off' the project and reiterate
the project details with the team.

An effective start-up meeting will ensure that all project team members have an
understanding of:

The project objectives

Scope and constraints
Roles and responsibilities in the project
Work plan (deliverables and milestones)
Tracking their project time
Finding project documentation

They should have a good handle on the details but may need to be refocused since considerable
time may have passed between planning and implementation.

People have spent their lives studying the dynamics of team interactions, how teams form
and develop, and the skills needed for team members to be successful. When thought
about from this perspective, it is hard to fathom how leaders can ever master these

On the other hand, people have been working in groups for a very long time, and so while
complex, there are things people to do work together better, and so there are things that
we as leaders can do to support those efforts

Expect and encourage teamwork.

It is difficult to expect people to come together as effective teams if there isn’t a clear and
definitive expectation of the importance of that. It may seem obvious to you, but you
probably know what assuming can do… if you want great teams, start by making your
expectations clear. Then make sure you are encouraging teamwork through your
conversations, feedback, recognition and rewards systems and more. Expectations are

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great, but your daily actions will show how important teamwork is to you and your

Source: http://blog.kevineikenberry.com/leadership/six-ways-leaders-can-support-team-success/

Be committed to team success and help grow the commitment of others.

The best teams are committed to their success and to each other. Are you committed to
both of those things? As the leader of a team you are also part of the team, too. Yes your
role is different, but are you all in for the team? If you aren’t, how can you expect them to
be? While being committed yourself is important, you must recognize the importance of
this commitment and engagement and encourage it in others as well. This may require
conversations, coaching and even conflict resolution, but doing the things that help teams
become more committed to the work and each other will pay huge dividends in results.

Create a team vision and help people personalize it.

A team can be committed and “get along” and do great work, but if they aren’t moving in
a direction that is the desired direction for overall organizational success, they are less
effective than they could be. Whether you set the goals or involve them in setting them,
no team can succeed without them. Goals alone aren’t enough however. We must help
people connect their personal work to the goals of the team and the vision of the
organization. Our role as leaders is to help make that happen.

Focus on relationships and encourage others to do the same.

Often leaders make the mistake that if people get to know each other, they will get along
better and most, if not all, team problems will melt like the Wicked Witch of the West.
While many consultants make a living based on this basic premise, it is short sighted and
incomplete. That said, relationships among team members matter and will aid in team
development and success. If you want highly successful teams, be a relationship builder
and allow time and space for team members to build relationships while they accomplish

Be available to help and let your team grow independent of you.

Your team will need you, you are committed and are excited and believe in the goals of
the team. You must have time and invest time in your team. And . . . you must leave
them alone. Don’t micromanage them. People grow and learn with help, but you can’t do
things for them. Give them space, opportunity and be patient. Finding this balance may be
a challenge, but remember that as they learn and grow you are leveraging that learning
for the lifetime of the team.

Be supportive and encourage team members to support each other.

Be supportive both of the team as a whole, which we have already talked about in several
ways, but also of the individuals on the team. Remember that a team is made up of
individuals, and when you support them you are building their confidence and creating
positive attitudes. Since you know that confidence and a positive attitude and energy will
improve individual (and team) results, it is important that you not only do this, but help
people do the same for each other. Creating this upward spiral or support and
encouragement will grow your team’s results as fast as almost any other thing, and it
starts with you.

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Pick something on this list and get started, and I recommend you start with the thing you
feel least comfortable with, then make a plan to integrate all of these actions into your
ongoing team leadership approach. You will create tremendous team results and learn a
lot for yourself too.

Plans will only be effective if the project team members are consulted and the benefits
of their views, opinions and experiences are sought and used in the planning phrase

 New skills can be discovered

 Establish a culture of co-operation
 Keep in touch with all members (project newsletter or email)
 Discuss timelines (realistic or unrealistic)
 Discuss resources allocated (are they sufficient)
 Manage consultation with team

Support team members, use different techniques

 Supervision involves holding informal or formal discussions with team

members to track their progress: monitor the output of individuals or groups
within the team and track individual or group progress against set goals
and objectives
 Mentoring includes gaining an understanding of team members’ own
aspirations and goals and assigning tasks and challenges that help them
achieve their objectives. You may appoint a more experienced person to
provide guidance to another team member on an ongoing basis.
 Coaching essentially means working with each individual to help them
reach their full potential, which is of benefit to the team member as well as
the project. Coaching involves determining areas of weakness or skills
gaps; helping to improve skills and supporting team member efforts to
learn new techniques and work practices

Performance Criteria

3.3 Establish and maintain required record-keeping

systems throughout the project

A certain amount of record keeping and core documentation is required in any project. We
have attempted to keep the proposed documentation to the minimum essential in order to
define and manage the project and measure its success.

Well-managed records will not only help you manage a project, they will help you and/or
others the next time round. Many projects are repeated or have certain aspects that have
been done or researched before. Well organised and accessible records allow people to
review what has gone before and either avoid pitfalls or see how to get out of them. Many

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managers new to project management may be asking ‘How much time will be devoted to
filling in forms or records. The real question however is ‘How important are the forms and

Most of the key documents associated with your project will:

 be referred to repeatedly during the course of the project

 need updating periodically

This includes the Business Case, Project Plan, Risk and Issue logs and possibly many
other documents. The possibility for error by having different versions of documents
‘floating about’ a project’s team members and management is too high not to address it
with a little formality. Even in today’s electronic environment, many people prefer to read
documents on paper and they will be printed out in multiple copies, put in desk drawers or
filing cabinets and pulled out again at some point whether the latest version or not.

It is important therefore to apply some Information and Records Management techniques

to all project documentation, to ensure that there is an authoritative source of the latest
version and that the master of each document is kept safely.

In a large project it is probably best to ensure that someone within the team has special
responsibility for version control, storage of master copies of documents etc. In a small
project, the Project Manager may be able to fulfill this role. In an organisation running
many projects or programmes, this function can be handled by a dedicated Support Office,
with staff who will handle the files, logs and records for multiple projects or programmes.

Performance criteria

3.4 Implement and monitor plans for managing project

finances, resources and quality

Monitoring the budget

After you have developed your budget and it has been approved, you will need to ensure
that your income does not exceed your expenditure. Even if your budget was realistic, you
might have unexpected costs or earn less income than planned. To avoid serious
financial difficulties, it is important to monitor your budget regularly to make sure that it is
still accurate.

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The management committee is responsible for monitoring the organisations finances by
checking the financial reports provided by the Treasurer. These reports should show the
monthly income and expenditure as well as amounts for the year to date. You will also
have responsibilities under the Associations Incorporation Act to provide certain financial
information at the end of each financial year.

Project income and expenditure will be included as part of the organisations financial
reports but will also need to be monitored separately. Financial reports for the project may
be prepared by staff but will need to be checked by a manager or the management
committee. If the project is being funded by another organisation, they will usually expect
financial reports during or at the end of the project.

If there are differences between the organisations budget and actual amounts, you will
need to understand the reason why this has occurred and look at ways to either cut down
on your expenses or earn more income. If there are changes to your project budget, you
will probably be expected to let the funding body know as soon as possible and it might
affect the conditions of your grant.

Developing realistic budgets can help your organisation to run effective short-term
projects and continue to deliver services into the long-term future.

Managing Quality

We have previously mentioned Time, Resources and Quality as key factors in project
management. Assessing performance in terms of time and resources is relatively easy
but quality is harder to define and measure. A high quality project may be one whose

 Meet the specification

 Meet stakeholder requirements

Or alternatively one whose outputs:

 Are fit for purpose

 Satisfy the stakeholders

These don’t all mean the same thing. The chances of the initial specification being correct
or indeed of the stakeholders being able to adequately articulate their real needs are
slight. We warned earlier of the dangers of hitting the targets but missing the point.
Managing quality is about keeping an eye on the bigger picture and aiming for outputs
that are in line with the second definition.

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Elements of managing quality within a project include:

 A formal project management framework

 Adoption of recognised standards where they exist
 User Acceptance procedures
 Impartial evaluation

Many projects have some form of external quality assurance role built into the project
structure. This could be external to the organisation e.g. a third party consultant or simply
external to the project. Ideally such an assessor should be impartial and have experience
of project management. Remember this person is only evaluating quality the Project
Manager is responsible for quality.

Acceptance Criteria

For each phase of the project you are likely to need to define acceptance criteria that
allow you to determine whether the deliverables have been produced to an acceptable
There could be many elements to the acceptance criteria and it is likely that there will be
required quality standards for many sub-products in addition to the final project outcome.
As an example, a project to streamline a business process may have as sub-products: a
set of paper forms for capturing data, a computerised information system with
requirements for each data entry screen and a set of report outputs.

Acceptance criteria can take many forms, but a few examples could be:

 target date
 functions required
 performance levels
 capacity
 downtime/availability
 running cost
 security levels
 level of skill required to operate

User Acceptance Testing

In many projects, particularly those that involve system implementation or process review,
the assessment of product quality can be made via a formal User Acceptance Test (UAT).
A formal UAT involves defining a ‘script’ that gives an end-to-end test of the business
process or system. UAT is usually an iterative process rather than a one-off as users work
through the script and document any errors or issues. When all the issues are resolved
the test is formally signed-off. When implementing a system the UAT scripts are likely to
be largely based on the test scripts used to select the system in the first place..

Defined and measurable acceptance criteria and formal sign-off procedures, based on
fitness for purpose, are important if you are to avoid the scope-creep associated with
users trying to introduce ‘nice-to-have’ features at the last minute. Involvement in UAT
also helps to give users a feeling of ownership and to manage their expectations of the

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Performance Criteria

3.5 Complete and forward project reports as required to



It is the time to complete project reports and communicate progress with stakeholders. Project
report is an essential document to keep stakeholders up-to-date, in regards to:

 Project objectives
 Project scope
 Key milestones and deliverables
 Timeline/Schedule
 Budget
 Resource allocation
 Risk management plan
 Project progress
 And any major changes need to inform all stakeholder

For example: Status reports

A status report is often a one- to two-page document that provides an overview progress on a
project. The format normally incorporates the following three sections.

1. What we did last period.

2. What we're doing next period.

3. Issues we're working on now.

The report is formatted to allow stakeholders and team members to quickly assess a project's
status, progress, and key current activities.

Many project managers use special software (such as MS Project) to track progress on project tasks
as well as for project reporting

Different methods to communicate project report with stakeholders:

 Face to face informal communication

 Meetings, Tele-conference
 Formal briefings
 Emails, Newsletters
 Manuals and informal project documents
 Project blogs

Performance criteria

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3.6 Undertake risk management as required to ensure
project outcomes are met


Based on the risk management plan formulated at project planning stage, we are now able to
undertake risk management to ensure the plan has been thoroughly followed, risk events have
been correctly assessed and mitigation plans are properly conducted.

In order to effectively manage risk it is important that each risk is allocated to an identified
owner. This should be someone within the project team whose responsibility it is to keep
an eye on the situation and ensure that the necessary mitigating actions are actually
carried out. Responses to the initial risk assessment may include:

 Risk Transfer – move the risk to someone more able to deal with it e.g. contract
out the supply and support of the hardware infrastructure
 Risk Deferral – alter the plan to move some activities to a later date when the risk
might be lessened e.g. wait till a statutory change has ‘bedded-in’ before changing
a related process
 Risk Reduction – Either reduce the probability of the risk occurring or lessen the
impact e.g. increase staffing resource on the project
 Risk Acceptance – Sometimes there’s not a lot you can do other than accept the
risk and ensure that contingency plans are in place
 Risk Avoidance – Eliminate the possibility of the risk occurring e.g. use alternative
resources or technologies

Prepare the team to implement the risk management plan.

 Through regular review and assessment of risk

It is important to ensure risk management plans remain current and become a regular aspect of
the performance reporting and review of a project, with responsibility for particular risk mitigation
activities assigned to individuals who are accountable to the programme or project owner

 Throughout the course of implementation

Risks identification should continue to occur to take account of changing circumstances so the risk
plan should identify who is responsible for its maintenance and at what points it will be reviewed.

Managing risk is an ongoing process. The nature of the risks you are facing will alter as
the project progresses e.g. staff recruitment may be a big issue at the start of a project
whereas staff retention is the issue as the project draws near to an end. At the very
minimum you should review your risk assessment and management plan at each stage
boundary before moving into the next stage of the project.

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Performance criteria

3.7 Achieve project deliverables


Project implementation involves coordinating people, resources, integrating, performing, controlling

and monitoring the activities of the project plan, ensuring that the deliverables are produced as outputs
of the processes, performed in accordance with the project plan.

The project manager is accountable for achieving the project outcomes:

 On time
 Under budget
 To agreed specifications

Therefore, a critical aspect of managing projects is to ensure that project activities are properly
executed and controlled. Items to manage therefore include:

 Time
 Costs
 Communication

Project monitoring is a process. It needs to be done regularly and consistently. Setting the
boundaries of the monitoring process is critical from the outset of your projects. Plan how you
will monitor progress right along with how you will accomplish the work. Set the process in
motion and keep it moving from the beginning.

Element 4. Finalise project

A project has a beginning (Project Start-up) a middle (the iterative loop of Planning,
Managing, Controlling, Reporting and Re-planning) and an end (Project Closure). This
may be stating the obvious but we can probably all think of projects that have either gone
on since time immemorial or simply faded away. Without senior management involvement
there is no one to pull the plug on resources. Such projects enter a downward spiral in
that they are seen to be a farce and soon everyone apart from the Project Manager (who
feels they must carry on because they haven’t been told to bring the project to a close)
stops engaging with it or taking an active part. Turning up to a meeting that no one else
attends is not the way to find out a project has finished…

And to ensure the success of the project and the value of lessons learnt, project closure
involves three processes: commissioning, handover and project evaluation. Project
closure should be planned.

 The users/customers have formally accepted all outcomes

 Operational procedures are in place
 The handover to operational staff has been completed
 Documentation and reference material is in place

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 Any further actions and recommendations are documented and disseminated
 The results are disseminated to relevant people
 There are no loose ends

Project closure can be a very hectic time when reporting is on a daily (or even more
frequent) basis and the manager is working at a much lower level of detail than previously
(probably with itemised check-lists) to ensure that all loose ends are tied up but planning
for this phase must commence much earlier on.

Performance Criteria

4.1 Complete financial record keeping associated with

project and check for accuracy


Projects are about achieving certain goals using limited and predetermined resources within a set
period of time. Financial records must be finalized to ensure that:

– Financial data have been maintained in accordance with your project plans and
according to any guidelines or standards you have been asked to follow

– The data is in a state that will make it possible to accurately compare planned and
actual expenditure

– The data is accurate and supported by evidence such as invoices, remittance

advices or log sheets of hours worked

– Documents can be easily transferred or copied to departments within your

organisation, in formats that are easily accessible, for auditing and checking as
per your organisation’s standard financial practices.

– All financial records are prepared and presented in accordance with legislative

Checking financial records for accuracy

– Internal audits

Whether conducted by yourself or your organisation's accountant, audits are a means

of verifying the accuracy and validity of financial records and ensuring that the records
match actual expenditure.

– External audits
In some circumstances it is mandatory that financial records are audited by a
certified public accountant external to the organisation to determine whether the
records and reports are accurate and valid, comply with any relevant legislation
and fairly represent the project’s operation and financial position.

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Performance Criteria

4.2 Ensure transition of staff involved in project to new

roles or reassignment to previous roles


Human Resource Issues

The tendency to escape before closure is completed is very high amongst members of
the project team, contractors and suppliers!

The end of the project is also the start of routine use of the outcomes. The handover to
staff who will carry out normal operations must also be planned so that those staff feel
ownership of the project outcomes and are ready to champion them.

Where personnel have been seconded to a large project for a period of time there can be
a significant adjustment period on return to their normal working environments. This can
be due to the different pace. Projects can create exciting and intense work environments.
Alternatively it can be due to anxiousness over the viability of returning to a previous
position in the organisation and loss of contact with former colleagues and with the
When personnel are seconded on a full-time basis to a large project from elsewhere in
the organisation it is important that they are permitted to maintain links with their
functional unit, by attending regular meetings and staff functions.
Performance Criteria
4.3 Complete project documentation and obtain necessary sign-offs for concluding


Once all remaining activities have been completed, and you are confident all project outcomes
and deliverables have been achieved and the financial data associated with the project has been
checked for accuracy, it is time for the project to be signed off and formally concluded. It will then
be reviewed and analysed for future learning and continuous improvement purposes

Depending on the nature and scope of your project, you may need to obtain sign-off for the
project from numerous individuals or groups such as clients, customers, funding bodies,
management or project sponsors. Project managers need to identify the sign-off protocols and
requirements during the planning phase. If the organisation received funds for the project, you will
have to submit a financial acquittal statement to show where the money was spent. This may
require specific forms and procedures you need to follow such as having the finances
independently audited

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Element 5. Review project
Performance criteria

5.1 Review project outcomes and processes against the project scope and plan
5.2 Involve team members in the project review
5.3 Document lessons learned from the project and report within the organisation


In many cases the benefits (or unexpected problems) of a project can’t be assessed until
the change has been in place for some time. The review process is therefore incomplete
without a post project review and evaluation. This is required to check whether:

 outcomes are those expected

 projected benefits have occurred
 operational working is as planned
 costs are as expected

The Project Sponsor has overall responsibility for ensuring that the desired business
benefits are achieved and it may be the Sponsor who leads the review, particularly if the
Project Manager has gone on to other duties.

The review will also highlight any unanticipated issues and highlight any further changes
required.Perhaps it will even provide the stimulus for your next project…

Sample Post project review form is available:


Knowledge Management

The final phase of the project provides the opportunity to capture and transfer project
knowledge for use in future projects.

Evidence suggests that of the information captured on projects only a very small
percentage is stored appropriately and even less converted to useful data to inform future

Archiving Project Records

Once the project has been completed provision should be made to archive the

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files. Project information should be entered into an appropriate database. The
establishment of centralised databases is particularly important for technical projects as
information about the installation conditions in one technical area can seriously affect a
project from another technical area. Quick and easy access to data about installations is
essential if disasters are to be averted.

A ‘Lessons Learned’ report gathers all information that may be useful to other projects. It
documents what went well and what went badly and why. It describes methods used to
estimate, to plan, to manage and control the project and how effective/efficient they were.
It contains any recommendations for future projects to either take up, or avoid, ways of
working and should contain some measurement of how much effort was required to
produce the various products or process changes.

The Issues and Risk logs will be of immense value in producing this report. A further
technique is to interview various stakeholders and members of the Project Team, Project
Board and User Group to ask for their opinions

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Another model to oversee project processes:

Source: http://www2.cit.cornell.edu/computer/robohelp/cpmm/PM-lifecycle-overall-small.htm

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Sample Project Plan

Pacific Senior Health Officials Network

Nutrition Project

Project statement

To undertake a scoping study to identify the current food environment and context,
programs, resources and communication practices in Pacific Island countries.

Relevant outcome/ partnership area/s

The project will inform the identification of possible niche areas of focus for the
Pacific Senior Health Officials Network, with the aim of contributing to improved
governance and a more strategic approach to the promotion of healthy eating.

The project has been funded under the Pacific Governance Support Program (PGSP)
by the Australian Agency for International Development (AUSAID). The PGSP was
established to provide funding for governance activities linking Australian Government
Agencies directly with Pacific counterparts and supporting shared regional governance

Document Revision History

Version Date Prepared by Comments

1 28/07/05 L White

2 13/10/05 L White Edited following project approval by PSHON

Project scope


The purpose of the project is to:

 Establish collaborative relationships at project officer level to improve

implementation of public health nutrition interventions in the Pacific.
 Provide an area where the Pacific Senior Health Officials Network
(PSHON) can best
add value to public health nutrition in the region, contributing to good

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 Examine the feasibility of developing regional communications strategy
and resources for use in health promotion activities.

Key performance indicator/s

 Countries participating in scoping study and providing relevant

information and comments on draft report.
 Report provided to PSHON.


Achievement of the project purpose should contribute to the following benefits:

 More accessible network of public health nutritionists to share

information and resources across the Pacific.
 A clear indication of a beneficial role for the PSHON in public health nutrition.
 A picture of the need for and/or suitability of a regional approach to
nutrition promotion in the Pacific.


Adequate, nutritious food is fundamental to promote good health and

help prevent disease. In the Pacific, the shift away from consumption of
locally produced foods has been shown to increase obesity.

Poor nutrition comes at a significant cost – to individuals and to nations. In

Australia, the financial burden of diet related heart disease, stroke and cancer
was estimated in 2002 by the National Health and Medical Research Council
to be about $6 billion per year.

The significant health risks include:

 Type 2 diabetes
 coronary heart disease
 stroke; and
 some cancers, just to name a few.

Yet, chronic disease due to poor diet is largely preventable. That’s why
we need to promote healthy eating and physical activity, especially to
young people, before their behaviours result in unhealthy weight or

The Tonga Commitment to Promote Healthy Lifestyles and Supportive

nutrition. The Commitment states:

An obvious trend being experienced throughout the Pacific is the increasing

prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases, including diabetes:

 Type 2 diabetes appears in Pacific Island countries at levels that exceed

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most other countries in the world.
 Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in most
Pacific Island countries.
 Obesity is so common in Pacific societies as to appear normal.
Overweight and obesity have been recorded at levels that exceed 80%
(males) and 90% (females) of the adult population, and is being
increasingly recorded in children.
 Up to 60% of the health budget in some countries of the Pacific is spent
on overseas referrals of patients, often with chronic disease,
particularly diabetes.
The evidence for prevention is overwhelming:

 Lifestyle interventions can reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes

in high-risk populations by up to 58% in four to six years.
 Weight reduction through a combination of dietary and physical activity
interventions can reduce obesity in high-risk populations within one
The Tonga Commitment made the following recommendations to promote healthy diets:

 National and community-level awareness-raising and advocacy for intervention.

 Assessment of the nutritional value of local foods leading to the promotion
of healthy traditional food use and cooking methods.
 Implementation of national food and nutrition policies and legislation
encompassing food security, safety, marketing practices, labelling,
and nutritional standards. This project may assist in addressing the
first two recommendations.

At the meeting of Pacific Senior Health Officials Network in November

2004 members expressed interest in:

 strategic approaches to promoting good nutrition,

 collaboration to promote healthy eating amongst Pacific Island peoples, and
 promoting consumption of local foods.

The Nutrition Project was proposed to address these areas of interest and
to help with progress against the Tonga Commitment.


The aim of the Nutrition Project is to work in collaboration with Pacific

Ministries of Health to:

1. Examine options for health eating promotion through:

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assessing the feasibility of a regional healthy eating communication
strategy based on the needs and culture of member countries and
existing activities,

 study of regional resources for promoting healthy eating and potential

for common communications messages, and
 researching the role of local nutritionists in health promotion activities.
2. Recommend areas for collaborative action for the Network by
identifying regional needs and gaps in existing measures.

The Project would acknowledge the need to:

 coordinate with existing strategies, committees and health promotion centres,

 involve Pacific Islander people with nutrition expertise,
 involve Departments of Agriculture and Fisheries regarding local food promotion,
 focus on nutrition issues rather than weight, and
 consider different requirements in individual Pacific countries.
By the end of the project we will have:

 Established collaborative relationships with key personnel to foster long-term links,

 Identified existing initiatives to promote healthy eating in the Pacific (existing
programs, activities and resources/publication),
 Gathered information on food supply, eating patterns and nutrition of
key population groups,
 Considered gaps in the available information and made
recommendations for further studies,
 Determined communication objectives and shared needs within the region,
 Identified a potential regional response, and
 Made recommendations for further action based on findings.

Key performance indicators

 Links established with major partners.

 Identified programs/initiatives relating to healthy eating promotion.
 Showcase of programs identified and information documented.
 Project report written, which includes analysis and recommendations for the PSHON.


 Contact and establish working relationships with key nutrition staff in

participating countries,
 Utilise existing expertise to share and access information (ie SPC and WPRO),
 Join relevant mailing lists and discussion groups if available,

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 Research relevant topics to inform reporting,
 Visit Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Kiribati to highlight focus of study,
 Partner with Pacific Island colleagues to prepare and finalise reports, and

Environments (WHOWPR 2003) provides a context for activity targeting

Consider opportunity of progress with high level support from


 That all stakeholders will be actively involved and support the PSHON Nutrition
 That funding will be available to implement recommendations.

 Funding at present is only secured for 5 months.

 Not all stakeholders may want to be actively involved.
 The scope of the Nutrition Project may be difficult to obtain agreement from
all members of PSHON.

•Communication with Pacific Island staff may be difficult (due to

technology, timeframes and cultural preferences).


 The project will not be able to address issues around economic trade
and import/export of food between Pacific Islands and Australia or New
Zealand. This has been raised as a significant issue but is outside the
scope of the project.
 The preparation of nutrition strategies for countries without them is
also outside the scope of the project.

Related activity/projects

 A proposal, Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health

(DPAS) Implementation from the WHO has been received by AusAID. The
requested budget is A$150,000 to support countries in the Western
Pacific Region to implement the strategy for the prevention and
control of chronic, non-communicable diseases. Activities are based
on the WHRO DPAS implementation plan developed by Marion Dunlop
and Western Pacific Regional Office staff.

Project partners/clients/stakeholders

 Pacific Senior Health Officials Network (PSHON)

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 Australian Government Health Department colleagues (PHD & International Branch)
 AusAID
 Pacific Island Governments/Health Departments
 Current Pacific Island nutrition workforce

Other stakeholders

 Secretariat of the Pacific Community
 Universities and Training Institutes
 Food industry
 NGO’s: Diabetes Australia, ANF, Heart Foundation
 Local Governments in Pacific
 Pacific Island Governments/Agriculture and Fisheries Departments
 Pacific Island Governments/ Environmental Departments (health)
 Pacific Island Governments/Education Departments

Project timeframe

5 months (August 2004-December 2005)

Note: Project timeframes have been affected by the delay in endorsement

of the project and in selection of the countries to be analysed. A report to
the PSHON at the meeting to be scheduled in March 2006 is required.


Project costs

Item Costs1

1. Investment by permanent staff (FTE estimates only) 1.0

2. Project budget:
a) Temporary project staff – APS EL1 $30,810
b) Associated non labour and corporate overheads (includes on costs) $5,085
c) Other – travel and production of reports $9,800
Project budget-total A$46,108

Additional funding of $10,000 will be provided by AUSAID to support travel

for a regional expert to participate in the research tour of selected Pacific
Island countries to facilitate local ownership of the Project and improve

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Resource contribution from stakeholders

Staff time of PSHON committee and Pacific

Departmental staff. Assistance where required
from AusAID staff.

Estimated margin of error

+/- 5%

Cost implications post-project

Costs will not be identified as part of this project.

Overall project risk

The overall risk to this project is low-moderate.

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Part B: Project Management
Human resource management


a) St ruct ure
This project will be managed by the Nutrition Section, DoHA in
collaboration with the Pacific Island Regional Expert. Advice will be provided
to the section through the Pacific network staff involved.

Roles and responsibilities

Project role Name/s Responsibilities
Project Sponsor Pacific Senior  Provide representation on behalf of their
Health Officials country.
Network  Advise country contacts.
 Consider recommendations provided.
Project Officer Leticia White  Develop and agree project objectives and brief with
AusAID and Network members.
 Collaborate with identified Pacific Island
stakeholders to undertake the project.
 Provide nutritional expertise.
 Visit selected countries to inform preparation of the
 In collaboration with the Network member
countries develop a report with
recommendations on possible areas of focus for
the Network.
Pacific Island Wila Saweri  Work with the Australian Health Department
Regional Expert project officer to provide expertise, information and
advice on existing activities.
 Assist in developing a program of appointments for
the detailed analysis in nominated countries.
 Take part in the study tour of up to three
selected countries.
 Work with the small group and the Australian
Health Department project officer to develop
recommendations on possible further work for
consideration by the Network.
 Collaborate with the Australian Health
Department project officer to prepare and
comment on the report.

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c) Key decision points (ie. higher authority)

Project role Name/s Responsibilities

Detailed Analysis Republic of the  Work with the Australian Health Department
Selected Fiji Islands – project officer to provide expertise, information and
Countries – Nisha Khan advice on existing activities.
 Assist in developing a program of appointments for
Project Advisory Group Papua New the detailed analysis.
Guinea –  As part of a small group work with the
Australian Health Department project officer to
Wila Saweri develop recommendations on possible further work
Kiribati – for consideration by the Network.

Tinai iuta Metai  Provide strategic advice regarding the progress of

the project.
 Collaborate with the Australian Health
Department project officer to prepare and
comment on draft reports.
 Provide timely feedback on drafts
 Ensure the information about the project is shared
with other internal and external partners including
Network representatives.
Network Samoa  Work with the Australian Health Department
Vanuatu project officer to provide expertise, information and
member Pacific
advice on existing activities.
Ministries of Health Republic of  Collaborate with the Australian Health
Nauru Department project officer to comment on the
Solomon  Provide ongoing feedback to the Network
Italicised countries not confirmed.
Kingdom of

Manager Lesley Paton
New Zealand  Provide day to day supervision and guidance.
Liaison Point Policy &  Provide liaison point to PSHON.
International  Provide liaison point with AUSAID.
Branch  Provide advice on international liaison.
 Manage funds provided for project and travel.
Beth Slatyer
Anna Bauze

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Risk management

Risk Risk Management Activities

Key stakeholders won’t Actively communicate benefits from being involved with project
support/commit to project and ensure key stakeholders are kept informed of progress
Project partners/ Project High level advocacy and active promotion of value of being
Advisory Group members do involved with PSHON
not actively contribute

Quality management

Quality standards/benchmarks/guidelines

 Good communication practices

 Timely dissemination of information/reports

Communication management

What How With/To Whom When/how often
PIC Contacts Email/fax As needed
Project Advisory Group Teleconference? Monthly?
meetings Email As needed
Progress Reports Email/paper As scheduled

Information management

Document Type/Name Electronic Location Hard copy location

Nutrition Project Plan S/Subsections/Nutrition/Pacific File, Health CO
Nutrition Project PSHON/Project
Admin/ Nutrition Project Plan
Nutrition Project Report S/Subsections/Nutrition/Pacific File, Health CO
Nutrition Project PSHON/Project
Papers/ Nutrition Project Report

Procurement and cost management




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Costs will be managed by Internationals Branch with liaison with AusAID when

Recommendations and decisions

Recommendations (project manager)

Next Step Prepared by

Progress to implementation Name:

Comments: Date:
Cleared by (if relevant)

Name: Signed:
Position: Date:

Approval/decision (higher authority)

Next Step Project manager2

Progress to implementation phase

Revise project plan and present again
Project sponsor2


Resources approved?
Parameters of project manager authority

Yes Amount $ Time:

No Cost:
N/A Quality:

Name: Signed:
Position: Date:

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References/Recommended resources for this unit:

Agile & Project Management Resources: cPrime project management resourses, books
and recommendation readings. https://www.cprime.com/training/online/project-

Mullaly, M E. (2003). The Accidental Project Manager: Coming in from the Cold.
Ganthead. http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=165059

Turner, J Rodney. (1999). The Handbook of Project-Based Management, Second Edition.

McGraw Hill.




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