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BANJARSARI MINE-MOUTH

COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER


Project Name PLANT 2 X 135 MW LAHAT –
SOUTH SUMATERA, INDONESIA

File Number

Contract No.

Boiler Operation Manual

China National Electric Engineering Technology Co. Ltd.

Version Editor Date Preliminary Date Auditor Date Translator Date Approver Date
auditor
st
1 version

nd
2 version

rd
3 version

th
4 version

Final submission version Version


approver
Contents
1 Main Design Parameter of Boiler ............................................................................... 1
1.1 Coal Analysis ............................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Fire And Combustion Supporting Oil ......................................................................... 2
1.3 Technical Specification of Boiler................................................................................. 2
1.4 Environment Conditions.............................................................................................. 3
2 Main Parts and Structure of Boiler ............................................................................. 4
2.1 System Overview and Related Equipment ............................................................... 4
2.2 Drum ............................................................................................................................. 6
2.3 Internal Equipment Boiler ........................................................................................... 7
3 Equipment Technical Data .........................................................................................13
4 Boiler Auxiliary Equipment Technical Regulation ....................................................14
4.1 ID fan ................................................................................................................ 14
4.2 HP seal blower .................................................................................................. 14
4.3 S.A fan .............................................................................................................. 14
4.4 P.A fan............................................................................................................... 15
4.5 P.A booster fan .................................................................................................. 15
5 Acceptance and Tests After Boiler Maintenance .....................................................17
5.1 Acceptance After Boiler Maintenance ................................................................ 17
5.2 Hydrostatic Test of Boiler ................................................................................... 18
5.3 Safety Valve Calibration .................................................................................... 22
5.4 Valve and Damper ............................................................................................. 25
5.5 Static Adjustment Test of I&C Adjustment System.............................................. 26
5.6 Tests on Boiler Interlocking Protection and Signal System................................. 26
5.7 Boiler Main Fuel Trip(MFT) Interlocking Protection Test..................................... 27
5.8 OFT Interlocking Protection Test........................................................................ 28
5.9 Boiler Fuel Oil Leakage Test .............................................................................. 29
6 Startup/shutdown of Boiler.........................................................................................31
6.1 Overview ........................................................................................................... 31
6.2 Test Before Boiler Startup .................................................................................. 31
6.3 Boiler Proper Checking Items Before Startup..................................................... 31
6.4 Inspection Items Before the Startup of Boiler Combustion system ..................... 32
6.7 Checking Items Before Startup of Boiler Material returner and External Heat
Exchanger Fluidizing Air System ..................................................................................... 35
6.8 Feeding Water to Boiler ..................................................................................... 35
6.9 Main Checking Items Before Boiler Ignition ....................................................... 36
6.10 Boiler Cold Startup ............................................................................................ 36
6.12 Warm Startup of Boiler....................................................................................... 41
6.13 Hot Startup of Boiler .......................................................................................... 41
6.14 Precautions During Boiler Startup ...................................................................... 42
7 Normal Operation Regulation of Boiler.....................................................................44
7.1 Operating Parameter control ............................................................................. 44
7.2 Operation And Regulation ................................................................................. 44
7.3 Steam Pressure Regulation ............................................................................... 44
7.4 Steam Temperature Regulation ......................................................................... 45
7.5 Steam Drum Water Level Regulation ................................................................. 47
7.6 Combustion Regulation ..................................................................................... 48
7.7 Bed Temperature Regulation ............................................................................. 49
7.8 Bed Pressure Regulation................................................................................... 50
7.9 Regulation of Flue Gas SO2 And NOx............................................................... 50
7.10 Operation and Maintenance of Drum Water Level meter ................................... 51
7.11 Boiler Blowdown ................................................................................................ 52
8 Boiler Shutdown .........................................................................................................54
8.1 Preparation for Shutdown .................................................................................. 54
8.2 Normal Shutdown .............................................................................................. 54
8.3 Sliding Parameter Shutdown ............................................................................. 55
8.4 Fire-banking for Hot Standby and Hot State Re-startup ..................................... 57
8.5 Emergency Shutdown of Boiler.......................................................................... 59
8.6 Precautions After Shutdown .............................................................................. 62
8.7 Cooling Of Boiler After Shutdown ...................................................................... 62
8.8 Maintenance of Boiler After Shutdown ............................................................... 63
9 Boiler Accident Handling............................................................................................66
9.1 Principal for Accident Handling .......................................................................... 66
9.2 MFT Protection .................................................................................................. 66
9.3 Steam Drum Water Shortage ............................................................................. 68
9.4 Full Water of Steam Drum ................................................................................. 69
9.5 Water Level Gauge Failure ................................................................................ 71
9.6 Steam and Water Carryover .............................................................................. 72
9.7 Economizer Pipe Damage ................................................................................. 74
9.8 Damage of Water Wall and Platen ..................................................................... 75
9.9 Damage of Superheater Pipe ............................................................................ 77
9.10 Damage of Reheater Pipe ................................................................................. 79
9.11 Safety Valve Faults ............................................................................................ 80
9.12 Too High or too Low Bed Temperature............................................................... 81
9.13 Too High/Low Bed Pressure .............................................................................. 83
9.14 Coal Feeding is Interrupted ............................................................................... 84
9.15 Boiler Flame Out ............................................................................................... 85
9.16 Improper Bed Material Fluidization .................................................................... 86
9.17 Coking ............................................................................................................... 87
9.18 Detonation ......................................................................................................... 88
9.19 Secondary Combustion at Rear Flue Gas Duct ................................................. 90
9.20 Secondary Combustion of Separator ................................................................. 91
9.21 Ash Slag With Large Carbon ............................................................................. 92
9.22 Furnace Wall Damage ....................................................................................... 93
9.23 Air Chamber Slag Leakage................................................................................ 93
9.25 Drastic Decrease of Load .................................................................................. 95
9.26 Auxiliary Power System ..................................................................................... 96
10 Auxiliary System of Boiler ..........................................................................................98
10.1 Checking Before Rotary Machine Startup .......................................................... 98
10.2 Rotary Machine Test-rum................................................................................... 98
10.3 Standards for Rotary Machine Test .................................................................... 98
10.4 Precautions of Rotating Machine ....................................................................... 99
10.5 Maintenance of Rotating Machine during Operation .......................................... 99
10.6 Startup and Shutdown of ID fan ....................................................................... 100
10.7 Startup and Shutdown of Fluidizing Air Fan ..................................................... 101
10.8 Startup and Shutdown of HP Secondary Air Fan.............................................. 101
10.9 Startup and Shutdown of PA Fan ..................................................................... 102
10.10 Startup and Shutdown of Coal Distribution Fan ......................................................... 103
10.11 Startup and Shutdown of Coal Feeder ......................................................................... 104
10.12 Startup and Shutdown of Fuel Oil System .................................................................. 105
10.13 Operation and Shutdown of Startup Burner ................................................................ 106
10.14 Operation and Shutdown of Continuous Blowdown Flash Tank ....................... 107
10.15 Operation And Shutdown of Boiler Bottom Heating.......................................... 107
11 Trouble-shooting for Boiler Auxiliary System.................................................... 108
11.1 Trouble-shooting for Rotating Machine ............................................................ 108
11.2 ID Fan Faults ................................................................................................... 109
11.3 HP Fluidizing Air Fan Faults ............................................................................ 110
11.4 SECONDARY AIR FAN FAULTS ......................................................................111
11.5 Primary Air Fan Faults ..................................................................................... 112
11.6 Coal Feeder Faults .......................................................................................... 113
11.7 Inlet Slag Chute of Ash cooler is Blocked ........................................................ 114
11.8 Cooling Water Pipe Leakage Inside Ash cooler ............................................... 115
11.9 Ash Hopper of Slag Conveyor is Deformed and Jammed ................................ 115
11.10 Slag Conveyor Bearing Damage ..................................................................... 115
11.11 Limestone Pipeline Blockage........................................................................... 116
11.12 Oil Gun or Oil Pipeline Blockage ..................................................................... 116
11.13 Oil Gun Ignition Failure Or No Flame Signal .................................................... 117
11.14 Flame Disorder After Oil Gun In Operation ...................................................... 117
11.15 Duct Ignition Burner Temperature Too High or Air Duct Catch Fire................... 118
1 Main Design Parameter of Boiler
1.1 Coal Analysis

Items Symbol Unit Design coal type Verified coal type

Carbon of as 48.05 43.23


Car %
received basis
Hydrogen of as 3.51 2.79
Har %
received basis
Oxygen of as 12.94 9.45
Oar %
received basis
Nitrogen of as 0.63 0.70
Nar %
received basis
Sulfur of as received 0.67 2.35
Sar %
basis
Ash content of as 5.59 9.38
Aar %
received basis
Total moisture 28.61 32.10
Mar %
content
Water content of air 16.04 9.30
Mad %
dry basis
Volatile content of as 33.45 30.22
Var %
received basis
Hiher heating value 4632 4153
Qgr.ar Kcal/kg
of as received basis
Lower heating value 4271 3809
Qnet.ar Kcal/kg
of as received basis
Hardrove grindability 54 41
HGI
index

Ash content analysis, based on weight ratio

Ash fusion point

Ash deformation 1189


DT ℃
temperature
Ash softening 1303
ST ℃
temperature
Ash melting 1351
FT ℃
temperature

AL2O3 % 19.72

Fe2O3 % 5.88

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CaO % 6.54

MgO % 3.00

SO3 % 6.12

K2O % 0.33

Na2O % 3.31

SiO2 % 52.96

TiO2 % 0.64

P2O5 % 0.25

Mn2O3 % 0.11

Design coal size: Dmax=10mm, D50=1.8mm


As-received size of limestone: Dmax=1.5mm, D50=0.45mm
1.2 Fire And Combustion Supporting Oil

Fire and combustion supporting adopts #0 light diesel oil


1.3 Technical Specification of Boiler
1.3.1 Boiler parameters
Items Unit BMCR

Superheated steam flow rate t/h 440

Superheated steam outlet pressure MPa.g 13.8

Superheated steam outlet temperature ℃ 540

Reheated steam flow t/h 359

Reheated steam outlet pressure MPa.g 2.44

Reheated steam inlet pressure MPa.g 2.59

Reheated steam outlet temperature ℃ 540

Reheated steam inlet temperature ℃ 326

Feed water temperature ℃ 249


1.3.2 Boiler feedwater quality standard
No. Name Unit Index Remarks

Total
1 μmol/L ≈2 During boiler running≤5.0μmol/L
hardness

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μg/L
2 Oxygen ≤7

μg/L
3 Iron ≤20

4 PH 8.8-9.3

Ensure steam SiO2 is During boiler running≤80μg/L


5 SiO2
accepted.

6 Conductivity μs/cm ≤0.3

1.4 Environment Conditions

a) Installment location: outdoor

b) Maximum temperature: 35℃

c) Minimum temperature:25℃

d) Average relative humidity: 83%

e) Atmosphere pressure: 1013 mbar

f) Earthquake information: the power plant is located in seismic-tectonic zone


of Indonesia; it is in Zone-4 of Sumatera seismic region. Earthquake
acceleration is 0.2, important coefficient is 1.50.

g) Maximum wind speed is 25.7m/s

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2 Main Parts and Structure of Boiler

2.1 System Overview and Related Equipment


2.1.1 Arrangement of DG440/13.8 type boiler
It is a CFB that is of super HP, natural circulation, mediate reheat, single furnace
balance ventilation, solid slag removal and whole steel structure, which is laid out in
the open air.

The boiler is mainly consisted of three parts: membrane water wall furnace, two
steel plate type cyclone separator and one tail shaft cladded by steam cooling
enclosure wall.

The platen heating surfaces are arranged inside furnace: eight membrane
superheater tube bundles, four membrane reheater tube bundles and one water
cooling isolating wall. There are six coal feeders and four limestone inlets which
are arranged evenly along the the width direction of front wall water wall lower
part contraction section. The bottom of furnace is water cooling wind box
surrounded by bended water wall tube. There are two under bed air duct burners
in the primary air duct under furnace water cooling wind box; the burners are
equipped with high energy ignition device. Two ash coolers are set for the boiler.

There are two steel plate cyclone separators between furnace and tail convection
gas duct and one “U” material return valve is installed under the two cyclone
separators. The tail part is separated by enclosure wall and forms dual gas duct
structure in boiler depth direction. Two groups of low temperature reheaters are
installed in front gas duct; high temperature superheaters, low temperature
superheater are set in rear gas duct; the front gas duct and rear gas duct will
combine into one gas duct at the lower parts and the finned tube type
economizer and horizontal air heater is installed inside the one gas duct. The air
heater adopts light tube type and it is double inlet and double outlet along boiler
width direction. Two stage desuperheater is equipped in superheater system and
the reheater adopts gas baffle temperature regulating mode with emergency
spraying desuperheater and slight spraying desuperheater.

The boiler is arranged in bilateral symmetry and is hung on boiler steel frame.

2.1.2 Steam and water flow


Boiler feed water is guided in the two sides of tail convection gas duct
economizer inlet header and enters into economizer outlet header after flowing
upstream through the horizontal arranged economizer tube bundle and then
enters boiler drum from drum heads through economizer outlet pipe. When there
is no water entering into boiler drum, economizer recirculating system could

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guide the boiler water to economizer inlet header from centralized downcomer to
avoid the perched evaporation of water inside economizer pipe

DG440/13.8 type circulating fluidizing bed boiler is natural circulating boiler. The
water circulation of boiler adopts centralized water supply, distributed flowing in
and flowing out mode. The feed water flow in boiler drum water space and enter
into water wall and water cooling isolating wall inlet header through centralized
downcomer and connection pipe. Boiler water is heated to be steam and water
mixture when flows upward through furnace water wall, water cooling isolating
wall and enter into boiler drum to conduct water and steam separation through
the upper outlet header and steam and water outlet pipe. The separated water
returns to the water space of drum and conduct recirculation; the separated
saturated steam is leaded out from the steam connection pipe at the top of drum.

After the saturated steam is leaded out, it flows into tail convection gas duct side
wall enclosure upper header through saturated steam connection pipe, flows
downwards into side enclosure wall lower header through two sides side
enclosure wall; then it flows into front and rear enclosure lower header through
enclosure wall connection pipe, flows upwards into middle enclosure wall upper
header, flows downwards to middle enclosure wall lower header which is low
temperature superheater inlet header, flows upstream to cool down rear gas duct
low temperature superheater tube bundle, and then flows into boiler front platen
type superheater inlet header from the two sides connection pipe. It flows to the
high temperature superheater in the tail shaft rear gas duct through the two sides
connection pipe and the qualified superheated steam will be leaded out from the
two sides of high temperature superheater outlet header.

The exhausted steam from steam turbine HP casing flows into through tail shaft
front gas duct low temperature reheater inlet header; after flowing through two
groups of low temperature reheater, it flows out through low temperature reheater
outlet header and comes into boiler front platen type reheater inlet header from
the connection at the two sides of boiler. After it flows upstream to cool down
platen reheater, the qualified reheated steam is guided into steam turbine
intermediate pressure casing from the two sides of furnace upper platen type
reheater outlet header.

2.1.3 Flue gas and air system


Combustion system: boiler is equipped with two primary air fans, two secondary
air fans and two induced air fans whose air amount adopts inlet guide vane
regulation mode.

The material circulation of CFB boiler is achieved and maintained by the kinetic
energy of P.A fan, S.A fan and ID fan.

The air from primary air fan is divided into three way and then is delivered to

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furnace; the first way, after being heated by primary air heater, the hot air enters
into the water cooled wind box at the bottom of furnace, fluidizes the bed material
through the air nozzle arranged in air distributor and forms gas solid two phase
flow; the secondary way, after being pressurized by coal feeding pressurized fan,
the hot air is used for coal spreading; the third way, some cold primary air without
preheating is taken as the seal air of coal feeding belt. The air at the outlet of
secondary air fan is delivered to furnace through the secondary air box at the
upper part of furnace after being preheated.

The gas and its carrying solid particles enters into cyclone separator through
separator inlet gas duct which is arranged in the rear wall of water wall. Most
material particles are separated by separator and the gas flow is leaded out
through cyclone separator center casing and flows into tail shaft gas duct through
separator outlet gas duct and enter into front and rear gas duct through the gas
window at the upper part of front enclosure wall and middle enclosure wall and
flow downwards and flush the horizontal convection heating surface tube bundle
arranged inside it to transmit the heat to the heating surface and then the gas
enters into dust suppressor after flowing through tubular air heater, finally it is
discharged to atmosphere after being extracted into chimney by induced draft fan.
There are three high head fluidizing fan for “U” valve material return device and
the output of each fan is 50%; in normal condition, two fans are in operation and
one for standby.

Boiler adopts balance ventilation and the pressure balance point is in the outlet of
furnace; there are governing baffle in the whole flue gas and air system in
convenience for the control and regulation during the operation.
2.2 Drum

2.2.1 Structure
The drum is in the boiler front top part and spans over the boiler in boiler width
direction. The drum is taken as the water receiver of boiler evaporation loop;
separating device and dosing pipe, feed water distributing pipe and blowdown
pipe are installed inside it..

There are manholes in the two ends of drum and the internal parts which could
be taken out from manhole conveniently.

2.2.2 Water level


The normal water level of drum is 76mm under drum center line; the allowable
highest and lowest water level (alarm water level) is 125mm above normal water
level and 200mm under normal water level respectively. The quantity of water
level sampling hole and water level measuring range should meet the
requirement of measuring drum highest water level, lowest water level and
protection; it is equipped with local water level meter(one at either side); in order

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to observe drum water level accurately, the industry TV is equipped. It is full
range water level meter and make use of CCD colorful TV camera to send the
actual water level measured by local bi-color water gauge to the colorful TV
installed in unit control room through special video cable and display in the
screen of unit control room
2.3 Internal Equipment Boiler

The internal equipment includes water and steam separator, drying box, feed
water distributing pipe, continuous blowdown pipe, dosing pipe and so on.

The connecting box is set inside drum to avoid the boiler water and feed water
entering into drum and contacting with high temperature drum wall directly or
impacting the water, which will reduce drum wall temperature difference and heat
stress.

The downcomer hole, inlet water pore under drum water chamber wall and other
pores which may have temperature difference should adopt reasonable pore
structure type and water distribution type to avoid heat fatigue cracking

2.3.1 Superheater, reheater and temperature regulation device


a) Low temperature superheater

The low temperature superheater is located in the lower part of tai


convection shaft rear gas duct. Low temperature superheater is formed by
double wound horizontal tube coils along boiler width direction and adopts
in-line, countercurrent arrangement. The tube bundle of low temperature
superheater is fixed on the tail enclosure wall through fixed block and
expand along with enclosure wall. The steam is guided in from middle
enclosure wall lower header, flows reversely in gas direction through low
temperature superheater tube bundle, enters into low temperature
superheater outlet header and then is guided out from the two ends of outlet
header. The low temperature superheater takes conventional wearing
protection. The restrict baffle is set between the inlet of each group of low
temperature superheater tube bundle and around wall to avoid gas delection;
the wearing proof cover plate is adopted in front row tube windward side of
each group low temperature superheater tube bundle.

b) Platen superheater

There are altogether eight platen superheater which is arranged in furnace


upper part near furnace front wall; the superheater is membrane structure
and the lower turning section of platen superheater is coated with wearing
resistance material and the whole platen superheater expands from lower
part to higher part.

c) High temperature superheater

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High temperature superheater is double wound serpentine tube bundle. The
tube bundle of low temperature superheater is fixed on the tail enclosure wall
through fixed block and expand along with enclosure wall. The steam is
guided in from the two ends of boiler external high temperature superheater
inlet header, flows reversely in gas direction through high temperature
superheater tube bundle, enters into high temperature superheater outlet
header and then is guided out from the two ends of outlet header. The high
temperature superheater takes conventional wearing protection
measurements. The restrict baffle is set between the inlet of each group of
high temperature superheater tube bundle and around wall to avoid gas
deflection; the wearing proof cover plate is adopted in front row tube
windward side of each group high temperature superheater tube bundle

d) Low temperature reheater

The tube bundles of low temperature reheater is fixed on the tail enclosure
wall by fixed block and expand along with enclosure wall. The low pressure
steam from turbine is guided in from the two ends of low temperature
reheater inlet header, flows reversely in gas direction through low
temperature reheater tube bundle, enters into low temperature reheater
outlet header and then is guided out from the two ends of outlet header.

Low temperature reheater is formed by three wound horizontal tube coils


along boiler proper width direction and adopts in-line, countercurrent
arrangement.

The low temperature reheater takes conventional wearing protection


measurements. The restrict baffle is set between the inlet of each group of
high temperature superheater tube bundle and around wall to avoid gas
deflection; the wearing proof cover plate is adopted in front row tube
windward side of each group high temperature superheater tube bundle

e) Platen reheater

There are altogether four platen reheaters which are arranged in furnace
upper near to furnace front wall; the reheater is membrane structure. Control
tube wall temperature is within 500 oC through regulating fuel feeding amount
when the boiler is started with no bypass system. The lower part of platen
reheater is covered by wearing resistance material and the whole platen
reheater expand from lower part to higher part.

2.3.2 Steam temperature regulation


The superheater system takes the spraying water desuperheating which could be
regulated flexibly as the method of regulating steam temperature and protecting
various stages of heating surface tubes; there are two stage spraying water

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desuperheater for superheater system; primary desuperheaters (one at either
side) are arranged at the inlet pipelines between low temperature superheater
and platen superheater which is taken as rough regulation; secondary
desuperheaters (one at either side) are arranged at the connection pipelines
between platen superheater and high temperature superheater which is taken as
fine regulation;

The tail double gas duct baffle temperature regulation is the main regulating
method of reheated steam temperature. Adjust the openness of gas regulating
baffle in tail superheater and reheater parallel gas duct to control the gas amount
flowing through reheater side and superheater and regulate reheated steam
temperature based on the proportional relationship between gas amount and the
outlet temperature of reheated steam. The gas amount flowing through reheater
side will increase along with the decrease of boiler load, which could maintain the
reheated steam temperature at rated value in certain load range. In order to
increase the flexibility, there is a two stage desuperheater in reheating system;
the primary desuperheating is arranged in the connection pipeline between low
temperature reheater and platen reheater(one at either side), which is taken as
emergency spraying desuperheater; the secondary desuperheater is arranged in
the connection pipeline between low temperature reheater and platen
reheater(one at either side), which is taken as slight spraying desuperheater;
both of the above two stage spraying desuperheater could regulate the spraying
water amount at either side to eliminate the steam temperature difference at the
two sides.

2.3.3 Economizer
The economizer is set in the boiler tail gas duct and is finned tube structure. the
material is 20G light tube; it adopts double wound in-line arrangement. The
economizer tube takes conventional wearing protection measurements. The
restrict baffle is set between the inlet of economizer tube bundle and around wall
to avoid gas deflection; the feed water is guided in from the two ends of inlet
header, flows through economizer tube bundle and then is guided into boiler
drum from the right end of outlet header through connection tube.

The economizer adopts finned tube, in-line arrangement to avoid wearing


effectively; the wearing proof cover is set in tube bundle elbow.

2.3.4 Air heater


a) The air heater adopts horizontal in-line four return arrangement; air flows
inside the tube while gas flow outside the tube; it is located in double gas
duct of tail shaft lower part. The air side of each tube box is connected by
connection box. The primary air and secondary air from individual fan passes
through their own channel from the tube.

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b) Boiler adopts light tube horizontal air heater. The shockproof baffle is set in
air heater to avoid the resonance of tube box. The air heater adopts wearing
proof measurements. The tube along gas direction and two side tube adopts
thickened tube; the tube of low temperature section is corrosion proof to
increase its use lifetime and is convenient to replace.

2.3.5 Cyclone separator


The upper half part of cyclone separator is casing and the lower part is conical.
The gas outlet is casing steel plate part and form one casing with open end. The
fine particle and gas flow down to the bottom of casing in rotary firstly and then
flow upward and left cyclone separator. The coarse particle falls into the vertical
tube of “U” valve material return device which is connected with cyclone
separator directly.

The cyclone separator is rolled by steel plate and the internal side is laid with
wearing resistance, heat insulation layer.

2.3.6 Material return valve


a) There are two “U” valve material return device which are arranged under
each cyclone separator correspondingly and are supported on the framed
structure beam. The separator and material return device, material return
device and lower furnace are connected by flexible expansion joints; it has
two key functions: the first one is to make the recycle bed material return to
furnace from cyclone separator continuously and stably; the second key
function is to provide the seal between the negative pressure of cyclone
separator and the active pressure of combustion chamber. The static
pressure of separator is close to the atmosphere pressure while the
pressure of material return point of combustion chamber is very high, so the
seal between them should be provided; or the gas of combustion chamber
will return to separator. The “U” valve achieves it through the material level
of bed material at the separator bottom outlet in vertical pipe. The air for
material return device is supplied by individual high pressure “U” valve
fluidizing fan; the air enters into “U” valve through bottom air box and four
layer air charging hole in vertical pipe; there is air flow measuring point for
each layer air charging pipeline giving accurate flow; the manual and
electrical governing valve is used to distribute the air amount and achieve
fixed air supply. The pressure measuring point is set in the vertical pipe to
monitor the material level. The supplementary inlet of startup material is
arranged in the upper part of “U” valve and there is emergency slag
discharging port in the lower part of “U” valve material return device for
maintenance and discharge the slag in emergency condition

2.3.7 Ash cooler

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a) Two ash coolers are set for boiler. The slag is discharged furnace slag
discharging port. The furnace discharging port is a little higher than bed
surface to ensure that the slag could be discharged to ash cooler from
furnace smoothly. The high pressure flow field formed by air nozzle on air
distributor pushes the coarse and heavy ash particle flows to the ash cooler.

b) The output of each set of ash coolers is 100% of the total slag amount of
boiler.

They could guarantee that the temperature of discharged slag is not more
than 150℃ no matter it is intermittent or continuous ash discharging and they
can operate for a long term. When one ash cooler stops or has fault, another
ash cooler could guarantee the boiler could operate for a long term under
BMCR working condition and the temperature of discharged slag is not more
than 150℃. When the two ash coolers fail to operate due to the fault, the
boiler could operate for one hour under BMCR working condition.

2.3.8 Coal feeding port, material return port


a) The coal is delivered from furnace front wall and spread the coal using high
speed air; the coal feeding port is set in reduction zone which is laid with
refractory material and is far away from secondary air inlet point to ensure
there is longer detention time for fine coal before being entrained by high
speed air. The pressure at material inlet is higher than the pressure in
furnace and takes anti-blocking measurements to prevent the back blowing
from furnace.

b) The material return port could distribute the return material in air distributor
plate evenly and local accumulation and overheating phenomenon will not
occur and it could also avoid the return back of secondary air.

2.3.9 Air distribution plate


The air distributor plate adopts large bore internal screw tube and is laid with
refractory and wearing resistance material to avoid the burning down and
blocking; the air nozzle on air distributor plate could form stable bed and the
material will not accumulate around the furnace. The return material could
distribute on air distributor plate and prevent the reverse flow and slag leakage of
secondary air. The structure of air distributing device is convenient for the
maintenance and cleaning.

2.4 Sootblowing System


In order to maintain the clean of heating surface, the soot blowing system is
designed for the boiler. It takes superheating steam as the medium of soot
blowing; the superheated steam with certain pressure purges the heating surface
after blowing out from venture nozzle and clear the slag and ash through the

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internal energy of superheated steam and impacting kinetic energy, meanwhile
carry the slag and ash away through air flow.

2.5 Start Combustion Equipment


a) There are two under bed air duct igniters, four oil burners and six above bed
oil burners

b) There are two under bed air duct igniters in primary air air duct under
furnace wind box. The total thermal capacity is designed as 15% B-MCR
total input heat. The total heat capacity of above bed oil gun is designed as
35% B-MCR total input heat.

The under bed air duct igniter could increase the bed temperature to 600C
quickly and ensure the reliability of the ignition.

c) Startup burner adopts spark high energy ignition

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3 Equipment Technical Data
Items Inlet gas Outlet gas Working Working Excessive
temperature temperature medium medium air factor
inlet outlet
temperature temperature
Unit ℃ ℃ ℃ ℃
Furnace 343 343
1.17
Separator 883 883 1.17
Wall 882 341 352 1.17
enclosure
superheater
LT 669 531 351 373 1.17
superheater
Platen 360 500 1.17
superheater
HT 829 669 483 540 1.17
superheater
LT reheater 857 534 326 435 1.17
Platen 433 540 1.17
reheater
Economizer 530 305 249 322 1.17
Air heater 305 149 35 263 1.17
Superheated steam temperature regulation method: spray water desuperheating
(consider by put HP heater out of service in 168℃ )
Primary spray water D1 t/h 14.76
volume
Secondary spray water D2 t/h 7.92
volume

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4 Boiler Auxiliary Equipment Technical Regulation

4.1 ID fan

4.1.1 Mode and model


Mode: double suction centrifugal type
Model:Y5-2×3629.3F
Full pressure: 8960Pa
Air flow: 524425m3/h
Medium temperature: 153.8℃
4.1.2 Motor model and specification
Model: YKK710-6
Power: 1800KW
Voltage: 6000V
Speed: 996r\min
Rated current: 210A
Insulation class: F 级
Cooling method: air cooling
4.2 HP seal blower
4.2.1 Mode and model
Mode: roots fan
Model:ARF-290
Air flow: 6108m3/h
Full pressure: 67800Pa
Quantity:3 sets for each furnace
Operation mode: 3 HP seal blowers are in operation during boiler operation; 2 HP
seal blowers are in operation, 1 is in standby when boiler is in rated load.
4.2.2 Motor model and specification
Model: HJN315L1-4-W
Power: 287.7KW
Voltage: 380V
Insulation class: F
Cooling method: air cooling
4.3 S.A fan
4.3.1 Mode and model
Mode: single suction centrifugal type

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Model: G6-3022.7F
Full pressure: 17800Pa
Air flow: 159490m3/h
Medium temperature: 35℃
4.3.2 Motor model and specification
Model: YKK560-4
Power: 1120KW
Voltage: 6000V
Speed: 1484r\min
Rated current: 123.8A
Insulation class: F
Cooling method: air cooling
4.4 P.A fan
4.4.1 Mode and model
Mode: single suction centrifugal type
Model: G6-2524F
Full pressure: 24185Pa
Air flow: 137275m3/h
Medium temperature: 35℃
4.4.2 Motor model and specification
Model: YKK560-4
Power: 1250KW
Voltage: 6000V
Speed: 1482r/min
Rated current: 138.6A
Insulation class: F
Cooling method: air cooling
4.5 P.A booster fan
4.5.1 Mode and model
Mode: single suction centrifugal type
Model: G6-20 14.5F
Full pressure: 22660Pa
Air flow: 43146m3/h
Medium temperature: 267℃

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4.5.2 Motor model and specification
Model: YKK450-2
Power: 400KW
Voltage: 6000V
Speed: 2954r/min
Rated current: 44.5A
Insulation class: F
Cooling method: air cooling

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5 Acceptance and Tests After Boiler Maintenance

5.1 Acceptance After Boiler Maintenance


a) After maintenance, trial run and acceptance must be taken to the system
step by step to check the maintenance quality, and to test the working
performance of equipment and system.

b) After overhaul and maintenance of boiler, sectional acceptance and


step-by-step trial run should be taken under the guidance of maintenance
or operation engineer with relevant maintenance and operation personnel
engaged. The step-by-step trial operation can only be conducted when
maintenance and quality check is finished. The final acceptance and overall
trial operation after the overhaul and maintenance of boiler should be
conducted under the guidance of chief engineer or other designated
personnel with cooperation of production & technical department and safety
supervision department etc. Startup and whole-set trial operation should be
confirmed by chief engineer (or the designated person) according to quality
inspection, sectional acceptance and step-by-step trial run and the on-site
inspection result. Trial run includes all hot state and cold state tests and
tests under load.

c) Detailed inspection and acceptance should be conducted by relevant


personnel. If any defect that will affect the safe operation, it should be fixed
before trial run.

d) If the equipment is abnormal after overhaul, hand over TECHNICAL


REPORT ON ABNORMAL EQUIPMENT before trial run so that the
designated operation technician can modify operation measures which
are the accordance for operators.

e) The engaged operation personnel should take the following items as a key:

1) Conduct thorough inspection inside and outside the boiler, auxiliary


equipment and common system according to the inspection standards
before operation. Check that all work permits are terminated.

2) Check the conditions of equipment and system to see whether the rotary
equipment is flexible and the system leaks or not.

3) Check whether system sign, indication, signal, automatic and protective


device, instruments and on-site illumination are in good condition.

4) Check the changes of the equipment system.

5) Check the site and equipment for neatness.

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5.2 Hydrostatic Test of Boiler

5.2.1 Relevant Regulation


The hydraulic test should be conducted under the guidance of maintenance head
with personnel from operation department, production department and safety
supervision engaged. The overpressure test should be conducted under the
guidance of chief engineer with the maintenance and operation director,
personnel from production department, chief of safety inspection department as
well as specialized technicians engaged.

Hydrostatic test includes working pressure and overpressure test. The test
pressure for superheater and water wall tubes etc. is the rated working pressure
of steam drum; overpressure test pressure is as 1.25 times as the rated working
pressure of steam drum; the pressure of reheater should be calculated according
to the inlet working pressure, which overpressure is as 1.5 times as the inlet
working pressure.

5.2.2 Hydrostatic test under working pressure


The hydrostatic test under rated working pressure should be conducted after
boiler overhaul and maintenance or the maintenance of partial heating surface
and pressure components.

5.2.3 Hydrostatic test under overpressure


Hydrostatic test under overpressure (for boiler proper, it is as 1.25 times as the
working pressure; for reheater, it is as 1.5 times as working pressure) can only be
conducted with the permission of chief engineer. It should be conducted under
the following conditions.

a) Before the newly-installed boiler is put into operation;

b) After 1 year’s outage and before the boiler is put into operation.

c) Maintenance or replacement of pressure bearing heating surface in large


area. (E.g. the area replaced accounts for 50% of total area of water wall.
Groups of tubes of superheater, reheater, or economizer need to be
replaced)

d) Deformation in large area caused by severe water shortage.

e) Severe overpressure which is as 1.25 times as the working pressure.

f) Boiler under operation for 6 to 8 years without overpressure test.

g) When equipment stability is suspected according to the real operation


condition.

5.2.5 Test Scope


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It covers all pressure bearing components including the overall equipment
system from inlet of feed water pipe to main motor-driven steam valve of boiler,
but water level meter and safety valve. The scope for hydrostatic test of reheater
is from the steam exhaust tube of HP casing, reheater to IP governing valve. It
mainly includes the following equipment:

a) Steam drum: steam drum and the fittings, man hole and pipe seats.

b) Feedwater system: economizer pipes and its inlet & outlet header, feedwater
pipes and economizer recirculating pipe section from economizer to the
steam drum connecting pipe, downcomer, water transferring pipe, water
cooling pipe of air distributor, water wall tube and its inlet & outlet header,
connecting pipe from upper header of water wall tube to steam drum,
water-cooled spacer and header.

c) Superheater system: outlet pipe of saturated steam, lower header of


enclosed wall, enclosed wall tubes, upper header of enclosed wall, inlet
header of suspended tubes, LP superheater, primary platen superheater,
secondary platen superheater, high temperature superheater and inlet &
outlet header, the connecting pipes between superheaters of all the stages,
attemperator and main steam pipes at high temperature superheater outlet
(in front of main steam valve).

d) Reheater system (performed individually): pipes after high pressure steam


exhaust valves, LP reheater, HP reheater and its inlet & outlet headers,
desuperheaters, pipes before IP governing valve.

e) Pipes in boiler part: the desuperheating water pipes of superheater and


reheater, emergency water discharge pipe, continuous blowdown pipes,
dosing pipes, chemical steam & water sampling pipes, air venting pipe
assembly, drainage and bottom blowdown pipe assembly, safety valves,
water level meter (only engaged in working pressure hydrostatic test),
pressure gauge coil tube, pipe seat connected with thermometer, pipes and
valves in front of primary valve of pressure and temperature sampling.

5.2.6 Hydrostatic test of boiler proper under working pressure


a) When the above items are prepared, fill water with temperature of 20-70℃.
The water filling speed should be controlled. (Not less than 2 hours). Keep
the temperature difference between the upper water and lower wall of steam
drum no more than 50℃; otherwise, refill water when it is normal.

b) Stop filling water when the level reaches -100mm of steam drum. Conduct
thorough inspection to check whether the expansion indication is normal
and take record. If abnormal, find out causes and handle them.

c) When filling water, close the air vent valve on the heating surface after water

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flows out for 1-2 minutes.

d) Report to the main operator when closing air vent valve of HP superheater
and stop filling water. Conduct overall inspection.

e) Control pressure boosting gradient no more than 0.3MPa/min when there is


no abnormity. Stop boosting pressure temporarily when pressure reaches
1.5MPa. Continue raising the pressure if there is no leakage or deformation.

f) Stop increasing the pressure when pressure reaches . Check the sealing of
water inlet valve, if no abnormality, increase pressure with the gradient no
more than 0.2MPa/min

g) When pressure is increased to steam drum working pressure, stop


increasing it, close water feeding valve, perform overall check, and record
pressure decrease 5 minutes later. It meets the requirement when decrease
gradient ≯0.5Mpa.

h) After check, start to reduce pressure, gradually reduce feedwater flow till
feedwater governing valve is closed, and pressure should be reduced by
≯0.5MPa/min at each stage.

i) When pressure is reduced to 0.5Mpa, open superheater drainage valve. In


addition, water of good quality should be recycled. When pressure is
reduced to 0.2Mpa, open superheater vent valve and steam discharge valve
to perform drainage with pressure to the required water level.

j) Record all expansion indications. Calibrate residual deformation values.

5.2.7 Boiler proper ultra-hydrostatic test operation


To perform overpressure test, the following should be performed after working
pressure test is successfully finished.

a) Disconnect drum local water level, drum safety valve and superheater safety
valve and close all valves connected to instruments except for pressure
gauges.

b) Continue to increase the pressure after receiving the instruction, and the
pressure should be increased by ≯0.1MPa/min at each stage.

c) When drum pressure is increased up to 18.81MPa, stop increasing pressure.


Keep the pressure for 5 minutes later, and then reduce pressure to drum
working pressure and perform thorough check.

d) After check, pressure should be released by no more than 0.5MPa/min at


each stage. Activate water level indicator when drum pressure reaches
0.5MPa.

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5.2.8 Hydrostatic test on boiler reheater under working pressure
Reheater hydrostatic test should be performed based on reheater inlet working
pressure, and the pressure of overpressure test is 1.5 times of inlet working
pressure.

a) When turbine HP steam exhaust valve, IP unite valve, Ⅰ/Ⅱ bypass and
water-spray attemperators are successfully isolated, open vent valves of hot
and cold reheaters, and close all reheater drain valves.

b) Start feedwater pump, open feedwater pump intermediate tap, and finally
open low temperature reheater emergency water-spray manual valve to
slowly supply water.

c) When vent valve water-spray lasts 1-2min, close vent valve. Check to
ensure everything is in good condition, and then perform pressure boosting
by desuperheating water regulation valve and controlling feedwater pump
rotation. Pressure should be increased by ≯0.1MPa/min at each stage.

d) When pressure goes up to 1.3MPa, stop pressure boosting and perform


thorough system check. When nothing abnormal, continues to increase the
pressure

e) When pressure goes up to 2.59MPa, maintain pressure by desuperheating


water regulation valve and control feedwater pump rotation. Perform
thorough checking on site and record pressure decrease 5 minutes later. It
meets the requirement when decrease gradient ≯ 0.25 MPa.

f) After check, slowly perform pressure release, and pressure should be


released by ≯0.5MPa/min by stages. If pressure drops to 0.5Mpa, open
reheater side drain valve. If pressure drops to 0.2MPa, open reheater side
vent valve, steam discharge valve to perform drainage with pressure.

5.2.9 Boiler reheater overpressure test operation


For reheater overpressure test, after reheater working pressure tests successfully
performed, pressure increasing continues till it gets to 3.89 (gradient
≯0.1MPa/min). The pressure should be kept for 5 minutes. Thorough check
should be performed after pressure is decreased to working pressure.

5.2.11 Criteria for successful boiler hydrostatic test


a) When close water feeding valve and stop pressure boosting, for boiler
proper hydrostatic test, pressure should be decreased by ≯0.5MPa within 5
minutes. For reheater hydrostatic test, the pressure should be decreased by
≯0.25 MPa within 5 minutes.

b) No leakage and water seepage in test part.

c) No residual deformation on pressure parts after test is finished.

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5.2.12 Precautions for hydrostatic tests
a) Before hydrostatic test, test steam discharge valve and emergency water
discharge valve to make sure they work freely and well. Besides,
emergency predictions as well as Solution should be available.

b) In the process of pressure increasing, if leakage exists at pressure parts,


pressure increasing should be stopped, and checking personnel should not
get close to leakage point. Checking can be continued only when there is no
further leakage. In case of severe leakage, hydrostatic test should be
stopped.

c) Hydrostatic test cannot be performed continuously for twice. In the process


of hydrostatic test, personnel must not be close to dangerous places such as
against welding seal plug, and also must not do any checking on pressure
parts.

d) Only demineralized water of good quality can be used for hydrostatic test.
Feedwater should be heated up to 20℃ in advance when steam drum wall
temperature and inlet water temperature are both less than 20℃; otherwise
pressure increasing cannot be performed.

e) In the process of pressure boosting, the pressure increasing speed should


be within required range.

f) Before hydrostatic test, turbine should be well isolated to prevent water from
entering turbine.

g) During hydrostatic test, readings on both remote pressure gauge and local
pressure gauge should be regularly calibrated. Pressure boosting should be
stopped in case of inaccurate pressure gauge reading. And pressure
boosting can be continued only after pressure gauge calibration to prevent
overpressure. Personnel should be designated locally to monitor feedwater
valve and pressure gauge.
5.3 Safety Valve Calibration

5.3.1 Purpose
To ensure boiler safe operation and prevent equipment damage due to
overpressure, boiler safety valve action value should be regularly calibrated
according to requirements to ensure reliable and accurate operations.

5.3.2 Calibration conditions


In case of any of the following, safety valve calibration should be performed.

a) After boiler major overhaul, calibration should be performed on all safety


valves.

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b) After maintenance of safety valve control system or mechanical parts.

5.3.3 Regulations on calibration


a) Personnel involved: Boiler maintenance leader and technical personnel, all
related I&C and boiler maintenance personnel, boiler operation personnel
and safety personnel.

b) All personnel should be under the leadership of shift leader, and


maintenance leader should be responsible for work organization and
cooperation.

c) Chief shift operators as well as other involved personnel should do the work
under the command of shift leader.

d) I&C and boiler maintenance personnel should be responsible for safety valve
setting.

5.3.4 Calibration principal


a) Usually, safety valve calibration should be performed under no load condition.
For safety valve calibration, special boiler startup and pressure increasing is
necessary. When on-load calibration is necessary, measures should be
formulated by technical department.

b) Safety valve calibration should be performed from high pressure to low


pressure.

c) The complete calibration instruction and safety measures for safety valve
calibration should be formulated before the safety valve is calibrated. Special
personnel should be designated for directing the operation, and special
personnel for calibrating the valve.

d) Pressure setting principle: generally, steam drum controls opening pressure


of safety valve 1.05 times of working pressure, mechanical safety valve
pop-up pressure of superheater is 1.08 times of working pressure, and
reheater safety valve pop-up pressure is 1.1 times of working pressure.

5.3.5 Check and preparation before calibration


a) Safety valve as well other equipment maintenance work has been finished,
and work permits have been returned and terminated.

b) Anti overpressure prediction and Solution should be well prepared.

c) Communication equipment such as walkie-talkie as well ear plugs should be


available.

d) Check all atmospheric steam discharge valve switches to ensure they work
freely and reliably.

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e) Turbine is isolated from boiler.

f) Safety valves not need to be calibrated should be well locked.

g) Remote pressure gauges and local pressure gauges of steam drum,


superheater and reheater should be calibrated before calibration on safety
valve is carried out to ensure they indicate accurately.

5.3.6 Safety valve calibration methods


a) The calibration on safety valve can be carried out no matter boiler is under
load and under no load.

b) Start boiler pressure increasing, adjust combustion intensity, and control


pressure increasing ratio within 0.2MPa/min.

c) When pressure is increased up to 60-80% of rated working pressure, stop


pressure boosting. Perform manual steam discharge once and remove
impurities such as rust, otherwise calibration result may not be as desirable
as expected.

d) When pressure gets to rated working pressure, pressure increasing speed


should be ≯0.1 MPa/min.

e) When pressure gets to the operating pressure of safety valve to be calibrated,


the safety valve should act. Otherwise, maintenance personnel should adjust
the operating valve till safety valve pop-up and return pressure are both as
required.

f) In the process of calibration, to prevent abnormal operating pressure due to


heated spring. The activation interval of the same safety valve should be
more than 30 minutes.

g) In the process of calibration, pressure changing speed should be controlled


according to setting requirements. In case of big difference between
pressure rise and drop, combustion should be adjusted. In case of slight
difference, it should be controlled by steam discharge and superheater
drainage.

h) In the process of on-load calibration, if safety valve does not reseat after
pop-up, decrease the pressure and take measures to make it reseat. When
pressure is decreased to such a degree that it cannot meet turbine
operation requirement, boiler should be shut down.

5.3.7 Boiler Safety Valve Performance List


No. Installation Model Setting Reseat Release Qty.
position pressure ratio (%) volume(t/h)
(Mpa)

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1 Steam drum 1755WB 15.85 4 173 1
2 Steam drum 1755WB 16.32 4 179 1
3 Superheater 1792WD 14.46 4 50 2
outlet
4 ERV valve 1538VX 14.32 2 67 2
5 Reheater 1705RRWB 2.90 4 159 2
inlet
6 Reheater 1765WD 2.65 4 45 2
outlet

5.4 Valve and Damper

Valve and damper test should be performed: before newly built boiler is put into
service; before the boiler is put into service after maintenance; before each
start-up of boiler. Confirm that everything is ready for valve/damper test, that
valves or dampers are all completely closed, that the test will not affect operation
system. Related I&C and maintenance personnel should be on site.

Power should be on and air supply should start, and signal, opening degree
indication on control room CRT display should be accurate.

Check valve/damper to be tested to ensure the local switch is at remote control


position

Appropriately adjust CRT display, manually operate valve/damper once; Check to


ensure that signal indications on CRT display is in accordance with those on site.
Valves can be opened and closed freely. Perform interrupted and continuous
opening, close stroke tests.

Check to ensure driving device works freely, valve opening direction is correct
and no pneumatic valve leakage.

Precautions for valve/damper test:

If valve/damper test is necessary during unit operation, operation safety should


not be affected. The test cannot be performed on such systems and equipment in
operation.

During the test, there should be a good interaction between operation field and
control room, also there should be supervisor. Full opening, closing position
should be tested for correctness. Switch opening, closing time and angle should
be recorded.

In case of abnormal situation occurring in the test, test should be stopped;


causes should be ascertained and solved.
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I&C and maintenance personnel should be responsible for the test, and operation
personnel should be cooperative in operation and make records.

Actuation connecting lever as well as pin should be tight, safe and unbent.

Damper manhole should be opened to ensure its actual operation is in


accordance with local marking and remote operation.

After test, results and potential troubles found should be recorded and reported to
personnel in charge.
5.5 Static Adjustment Test of I&C Adjustment System

Actuation mechanism commissioning should be performed after all automatic


control and adjustment system commissioning items have been finished.
Actuation mechanism commissioning should be performed like this:

When adjustment system is in manual mode, actuation mechanism operation


direction and position should be in accordance with manual operation signals.

When adjustment system is in auto operation mode, actuation mechanism


operation direction and position should be in accordance with adjustment output
signals.

Actuation mechanism operation should be checked by manual operation signals


to ensure it works freely without stiffness and skip. The whole travel time should
meet the requirement.

Check actuation mechanism opening degree to ensure it is in accordance with


adjustment mechanism opening degree valve position indicator.

As for actuation mechanism with self-locking protection, its self-locking functions


should be checked one by one.

Travel switch and torque switch should be adjusted and calibrated to ensure
correctness.

5.6 Tests on Boiler Interlocking Protection and Signal System


5.6.1 Test requirement
a) Before unit startup after major, minor overhaul, online driving operation test
with working medium should be performed for I&C interlock protection,
sequence control system and signal system. All interlock and protection
tests on auxiliaries should be performed before sectional test running. All
protections for unit should be performed after successful static test without
working medium.

b) Actual driving test with working medium should be performed for main
protection interlock driving test, the test cannot be performed with signal

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short-circuited method. Operation personnel should be responsible for
driving test under the cooperation of I&C personnel. After all protection
interlock driving tests are finished, system should be restored, and test
results should be recorded in detail.

5.6.2 I&C interlocking protection system driving operation test unit


a) Operation personnel should be in good cooperation with I&C personnel to
perform all driving tests according to the logic principle of unit main
protection (MFT) system and interlock protection system of main auxiliaries.

b) When performing the above tests, operation parameters should be measured


and recorded by special primary elements.

c) For such operation parameters, which should be measured and recorded


after unit startup, signals can be connected on primary element side to
perform

5.7 Boiler Main Fuel Trip (MFT) Interlocking Protection Test


MFT, main fuel trip, is such a situation in which fuel as well as other kinds of
material to furnace is cut off. MFT can happen many times, sometimes it is
caused by emergency situation, and sometimes it is caused by emergency
prevention measures. Whatever the causes, it does not mean that MFT is a bad
phenomenon for unit safety. Primary causes for MFT shall be recorded.

5.7.1 Boiler MFT operation conditions


a) Manual MFT operation

b) All induced draft fans shut down.

c) All primary air fans shut down.

d) All secondary air fans shut down.

e) All fluidized air fans shut down.

f) Steam drum level reaches HH high value

g) Steam drum level reaches LL low value

h) Low total air volume <25%.

i) Low pressure of HP fluidized air header (50Kpa).

j) High bed temperature in lower furnace (990℃)

k) Low bed temperature in lower furnace (650℃ and combustors are not put
into service)

l) Low bed temperature in lower furnace (540℃ and no matter combustors are

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in operation or not )

m) Furnace pressure is HH (+2489pa)

n) Furnace pressure is LL (-2489pa)

o) Turbine trips.

p) Logic control system power is off.

q) After purging, ignitor does not produce flame within 15min.

r) Cyclone separator level is H (with time delay for 5s)

5.7.2 Objects to be activated when boiler OFT protection takes action


a) Stop all coal feeders and limestone feeders.

b) Fuel oil OFT is activated, shut down fuel oil quick-shut-off valve, remove
igniter.

c) Stop bottom ash cooler.

d) Switch desuperheating water regulating valve into manual position and shut
down desuperheating water holding valve.

e) Shut down soot blowing system.

f) Switch air volume control into manual position and keep the position.

g) If MFT is not caused by the air fan, all the fan control mode is in the manual
position. If not, the air fan control is conducted in interlock mode.

5.7.3 Boiler MFT reset


When any of the following condition is ready, MFT reset will be performed by
pressing MFT button.

a) Boiler purge is finished.

b) Boiler hot startup is ready.

5.8 OFT Interlocking Protection Test


5.8.1 Action condition of boiler below-bed oil OFT
a) Boiler MFT is activated.

b) Oil inlet valve of any oil gun below bed is not at off position and main pipe oil
pressure of below bed oil is low.

c) Oil inlet valve or return oil valve of any oil below bed fail to close.

d) Oil inlet valve of oil gun below bed is not at off position and oil inlet quick

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closing valve of below bed has been closed.

e) Oil inlet valve of any oil gun below bed is not at off position and quick closing
valve of below bed d oil return has been closed.

f) Below bed OFT button (Pulse DCS)

5.8.2 Action object of boiler bed oil OFT


a) Close oil inlet quick closing valve below bed.

b) Close oil return quick closing valve below bed.

c) Close all oil corner valve below bed.

5.8.3 OFT below bed reset


a) Finish the test of oil leakage below bed.

b) No any condition of oil below bed OFT

5.8.4 Action conditions of boiler bed oil OFT


a) Boiler MFT is activated.

b) Oil inlet valve of any oil gun on bed is not at off position and main pipe oil
pressure below bed is low.

c) Oil inlet valve or oil return valve of oil gun on bed fail to close.

d) Oil inlet valve of any oil gun on bed is not at off position and oil inlet quick
closing valve has been closed.

e) Oil inlet valve of any oil gun on bed is not at off position and oil return quick
closing valve has been closed.

f) OFT button on bed (Pulse DCS)

5.8.5 Action object of boiler oil on bed OFT


a) Close oil inlet quick closing valve

b) Close oil return quick valve on bed.

c) Close all oil corner valve on bed.

5.8.6 Below bed OFT reset of boiler


a) Finish the oil leakage test on bed.

b) No any condition of oil on bed OFT.

5.9 Boiler Fuel Oil Leakage Test


5.9.1 Permit conditions of lower oil leakage test

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a) All oil inlet of starting up oil gun below bed is completely closed.

b) The pressure of supply oil main pipe is normal (The pressure of main pipe in
front of lower quick closing valve >3.2Mpa).

c) Total air flow>25% BMCR.

d) Primary air flow>critical fluidization air flow

5.9.2 Test steps of lower oil leakage


a) Open the lower quick oil inlet valve, close lower oil return valve, test pipeline
pressure.

b) Close the lower oil inlet quick valve after 10 seconds.

c) Recording the pressure and keeping down pressure 120.

5.9.3 Fuel oil leakage test accomplishment judgment


a) The main pipe pressure drop to less than 0.3MPa within 120 seconds.

b) The g command is accomplished in test procedure.

5.9.4 Permissive conditions of upper oil leakage test.


a) All upper startup oil gun inlet valves are not closed completely.

b) Supply oil main pipe pressure is normal (Main pipe pressure in front of upper
quick closing valve should more than 3.2Mpa).

c) Total air flow >25% BMCR.

5.9.5 Upper oil leakage test step


a) Open oil inlet quick closing valve, close upper oil return valve, and test the
pipeline pressure.

b) After 10 seconds, close upper oil inlet quick closing valve.

c) Record the pressure, keeping down pressure 120.

5.9.6 Fuel oil leakage test accomplishment judgment


a) After 120 seconds, the pressure decrease of main pipe should less than
0.3MPa.

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6 Startup/shutdown of Boiler

6.1 Overview
Carry out individual or integral trial running and acceptance for related equipment
system of boiler after maintenance. The minor maintenance or other
maintenance acceptance should be carried out appropriately.

For boiler after major and minor overhaul, terminate all work permits before
startup and the related test should be carried out under the direction of the chief
engineer or the assigned person based on the actual condition of site. There are
tests such as boiler air-leakage, air-distribution plate resistance, hydrostatic test,
fluidization state inside furnace, safety valve action (Hot state), boiler MFT and
protection, opening/closing of all electrically-operated valves and governing
valves of boiler and interlock.

Carry out detailed checks for all equipment and systems before boiler startup.
After repairing boiler temporarily, important check should be checked for the
equipment system relating to the temporary maintenance items and the others
can be treated based on the standby boiler before boiler startup.

After receiving boiler startup command of shift leader, the foreman should inform
all posts in advance for check and preparation before ignition according to the
time and requirements.

6.2 Test Before Boiler Startup


Boiler rotary equipment switch-on test and emergency button test.

Boiler interlock device test.

Boiler protection/alarm/signal device test.

Boiler DCS and control system test.

Boiler electric valve/governing valve or damper tests.

Boiler ignition device interlock test.

Boiler MFT/OFT interlock protection test.

Boiler safety valve setting/hydrostatic test.

Boiler air distributor resistance test and fluidization state test.

6.3 Boiler Proper Checking Items Before Startup


Maintenance personnel check air distribution plate, returning-material valve, ash
cooler and air nozzles in external bed to ensure there is no blockage and foreign

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matter.

All man-holes and sighting holes are complete and closed firmly.

Opening and closing of all flue gas duct, air passage damper and interlock
actuator is flexible with the correct indication and opening degree indication is
correct. After inspection, they should be at correct position.

All expansion indicators are correct with clear graduation and the initial value is
recorded.

The heat insulations support and hangers are safe and sound.

There is no foreign matter in all operation platforms, ladders or around equipment


and with free passages and enough lighting (Including Emergency Lighting).

Put the auxiliary steam/industrial cooling water/ compressed air system into
service and the working medium parameters are normal.

Service conditions of dust removal system/slag discharge system are met.

The conditions for fuel oil system startup include: fuel oil begins circulating and
the fuel oil angle valve is opened. Start burners and the test on ignition gun action
are in good condition. The startup burner soot blowing is smooth. Put the fire
detector cooling air and startup burner sealing air into service.

The local water level meter is clear with correct normal water level, high/low
water level marks.

The trial-running of rotating machine is normal.

Check all valves of steam/water systems to ensure they meet the ignition
requirements.

6.4 Inspection Items Before the Startup of Boiler Combustion system


Check the following are satisfactory: furnace, separator, material returner and
light oil burner.

Check instrument air sources and all air consumption equipment.

Check the ignition transmitter and the control system power supply of flame
detector and burner.

Check pressure switch, relief valve and instruments to ensure they meet service
conditions and ready for startup.

Checks all interlock protection of CFB combustion system.

Check the positions of all air dampers and valves/fittings are correct.

Check if all valves and holes are closed with good sealing. Make sure there is no

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person inside the equipments.

All sighting holes are clean.

Check material returner

Check if all light oil burners can be put into service.

Check if the limestone system can be put into service and if there is enough
limestone in the limestone bunker.

Check if the coal feeder system can be put into service and if there is the enough
coal inside the coal bunker.

Check if the compressed air system can be put into service and if the flow of all
compressed air consumption equipment is reasonable.

Check if the soot blowing and sealing air system can be put into service and if the
flow of all air consumption equipment is within the range.

Check if the cooling water system can be put into service and if the flow of all
cooling water equipment is within prescribed range.

Check if there is enough bed material with high-quality in bed material system
and hopper.

Check if ESP can be put into service.

Check if the ash discharging system can be put into service.

6.5 Checking Items Before the Startup of Boiler Steam/feedwater System


Check if the following are ready: economizer, superheater system, steam drum,
sample station, chemical dosing system and blowdown system.

Check instrument air sources and all air consumption equipment.

Check to ensure pressure switch, relief valve and instrument meet service
conditions and are ready for start-up.

Check all interlock protections related to steam/water systems.

Check if all valves/holes are closed and if the air sealing check is finished.
Confirm there is no person working inside the equipment including no leakage of
all pipe systems, support and hangers in good condition.

Check if there is a leakage of valve piping in steam/water systems.

Check if the locking device is removed on the constant-force hangers and spring
hangers.

Check to ensure valve and accessories positions of feedwater/boiler

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water/steam/drainage system are correct.

Check if the feedwater system, including pumps can be put into service.

Check if the blowdown system can be put into service.

Check if the locking device of the safety valve is removed.

Check if the auto vent valve of reheater can be put into service.

Check if all soot blowers are in withdrawal position and if they can be put into
service.

Check if all water-spray desuperheaters inside the superheater system can be


put into service.

Check if all water-spray desuperheaters inside the reheater system can be put
into service.

Check if the HP bypass, including water-spray desuperheater can be put into


service.

Check if the LP bypass, including water-spray desuperheater can be put into


service.

Check if chemical water sample station can be put into service.

Check if chemical dosing system can be put into service.

6.6 Checking Items Before Startup of Boiler Primary/Secondary Air


System
Check and the followings should be satisfied: primary air fan system, secondary
air fan system, primary air system, secondary air system.

Check instrument air sources and air consumption equipment.

Check to ensure switches and instrument meet service conditions and ready for
start-up.

Check the interlock of primary air/secondary air systems and ensure they are in
enabled state.

Check all valves and holes are closed with good sealing and without person
working inside equipment.

Check if the cooling water system can be put into service.

Check if all air valves and cooling water valves and accessories are in enabled
state.

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6.7 Checking Items Before Startup of Boiler Material returner and
External Heat Exchanger Fluidizing Air System

a) Check the material returner and the external heat exchanger fluidized air fan,
external heat exchanger system and air heater pipe bundles system, making
sure they meet the requirements.

b) Check to ensure pressure switches and instrument meet service conditions


and are ready for startup.

c) Check if all holes and valves are closed and with good sealing and there is
no person inside the equipment.

d) Check if all air ports are in the correct positions.


6.8 Feeding Water to Boiler

6.8.1 Requirements and Precautions of Feedwater


a) Water quality requirements: feed water must be good quality demineralized
water and the feeding temperature must be within the range of 20-70℃ and
no less than the steam drum wall temperature.

b) Feeding water time: not less than 2 hours.

c) Precautions: the speed of water feeding should be equal and slow. The
differential temperature of the upper/lower walls of steam drum should be
≤50℃.

6.8.2 Water Filling Steps


a) Check and close the water wall blowdown valves, downcomer blowdown
valves, steam drum emergency-discharging water valves, steam drum
connection valves, feedwater pipe drain valves and the economizer drain
water valves.

b) Check and open the vent valve of boiler proper, drain valves of superheaters
and the drain valves of reheaters.

c) Check and put the drum water level meter, electric contact water level meter
and balancing vessel water level meter into service.

d) Get contact with the turbine personnel for starting water filling pump or
feedwater pump.

e) Use the feedwater bypass to forward water to the steam drum. Fully open
the electric valves before/behind the bypass governing valve and manually
adjust the opening degree of the bypass governing valve and control the
feeding flow.

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f) Close the vent valve of economizer after water is overflowing continuously.

g) When the drum water level reaches -100 mm, stop feeding water and open
the recirculation water valve of economizer. Thoroughly check there is no
leaking for the feedwater pipes and valves.

h) Record the expansion indicator of boiler once before and after feeding
water.

i) Bottom heating is adopted according to specific cases.

6.9 Main Checking Items before Boiler Ignition


Fully check on boiler proper.

The tests for all electric valves/governing valves and I&C interlock protection
have been finished and with normal action.

The resistance test of air distributor is finished and the nozzles are not
obstructed.

The instrument and auxiliary compressed air system have been put into service
and the instrument compressed air pressure is in the prescribed limit.

The chemical department had prepared enough and high quality demineralized
water.

There is enough fuel oil and coal for ignition or coal has been fed into bunker.

There is enough cooling water for all rotating equipment.

The emergency power supply has been on for all rotating machines and I&C
power supply for all electric valves and protection has been on.

Prepare for putting the bottom heater into service based on the requirements.

Put the fuel oil system into service and starts oil circulation. The oil pressure is
within the prescribe limit

Remind the related departments to take records.

Put the soot blowing system of all measurements points into service. Carry out
ventilation and soot blowing for all measurements points.

6.10 Boiler Cold Startup


Carry out soot blowing before “Cold Startup”. The cold startup includes following
steps:

Boiler ventilation and purging

Startup of boiler burner

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Boiler ignition for warming furnace

Boiler coal handling system startup

6.10.1 Boiler ventilation & purging


Considering safety, there should be no residual explosive gas inside combustion
system, convection flue gas duct and flue gas pipes before ignition. It is required
and regulated to carry out purging for the equipment. The purging steps should
be combined to the interlock program. The following regulations should be
obeyed during purging.

a) Put all air fans into service for blowing the related pipes.

b) Based on requirements, each time should be more than or equal to 5


minutes. The sootblowing pipes should include air passages, flue gas duct,
air heater, air heater, material returner external heat exchange bed and
fluidization bed. The purging ratio should be no less than 25% of design full
load of quality air flow.

c) After purging, ignite the boiler. Meanwhile, manually start the flue gas duct
burner.

d) Before the first light oil burner is put into service and if the first light oil burner
cannot be ignited, carry out purging for the furnace and the flue gas passage
of downstream connection pipe to guarantee there is no explosive gas
mixture exiting in the combustion system. For the subsequent light oil burner
and all those light oil burners being put into service, the ignition cannot be
successful because of other emergency or the fault of any one light oil
burner, as will make the fuel flowing to the light oil burner which is going to
stop. But if there is still light oil burner in service, it is unnecessary to carry
out the purging. But the ignition interval should be extended

e) Conditions of boiler purging

Any primary air fan in service and the damper is not closed yet.

Any secondary air fan in service and the damper is not closed yet.

Any ID fan in service and the damper are not closed yet.

No conditions for hot startup

Fuel oil quick shut-off valve is closed.

All limestone feeders stop

Operate two high pressure fluidizing air fans.

All coal feeders stop.

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No MFT command

Total Air Flow>25%

6.10.2 Startup/shutdown of boiler burner


6.10.3 Boiler ignition and warm-up
a) Start up fire-detection cooling air. Put the burner into service.

b) Observe the burner and monitor oxygen change and regulate air volume to
ensure combustion stability.

c) Adjust the combustion power of the burner based on the temperature rise
and air chamber temperature condition and keep the temperature increasing
ratio of the boiler bed within 60-80℃/h. Control the outlet flue gas
temperature of the air duct burner at ≯920℃. The air chamber temperature
is less than 950℃ and note the drum wall temperature variance ratio is
△ t<50℃/h to prevent over-temperature of superheater/reheater mental
pipes.

d) After ignition is finished, immediately open the turbine bypass system and
slowly open the bypass valve as the steam pressure increases. If there is no
vacuum established on the turbine side, the low pressure bypass cannot be
put into service. But the electric steam discharge valve of reheater can be
opened.

e) When the steam drum pressure reaches to 0.2MPa, close the vent valve and
drain valve. Shut down superheater and reheater air exhaust valve and put
into service.

f) Put the drum continuous blowdown system into service based on the
chemical requirements and open the intermittent blowdown valve based on
the actual needs.

g) When the drum pressure reaches to 0.3-0.4 MPa, wash and calibrate the
local water level meter and carry out the intermittent blowdown once.

h) When the drum pressure reaches to 0.3-0.5MPa, remind the maintenance


personnel to tighten flange and man hole screws on hot basis.

i) When the superheat steam flow is more than 10% B-MCR, all drain vales can
be closed based on the actual conditions.

j) Put desuperheating water into service based on the actual condition of steam
temperature. But before put the desuperheating water into service, carry out
backwashing for the desuperheaters to prevent temperature too low. If there
is steam in the reheater, and reheater temperature exceeds the rated value
causes by various factors, spray water to cool down for reheater protection.

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k) Communicate with the turbine personnel for starting feedwater pump, fill
water to the boiler through bypass based on the actual condition of the steam
drum water level

l) Report the condition to the shift leader and get contact with the turbine
personnel for rolling turbine if the boiler main steam parameters cannot reach
the following values:

Superheat steam pressure is 1.0MPa and superheat temperature is 300℃.

The reheat steam temperature is 237℃

Main steam temperature is over 50℃ higher than the regulated range.

Test the main steam by chemical personnel. It should be satisfactory.

No serious fault of all equipments and boiler in normal operation with stable
combustion and normal water level

m) After turbine is rotated, gradually close HP and LP bypass and strengthen


contact with turbine and boiler to keep the parameters stable in order to
satisfy the requirements of turbine side.

6.10.4 Operation of coal feeding into boiler


Coal feeding conditions

Bed temperature is higher than 560℃

Main interlock conditions of boiler and turbine are all normal.

No MFT action signal

Both coal spreading air and sealing air are normal.

Coal feeder meets the conditions for startup.

Startup of coal feeder

After bed temperature reaches 560℃, start up two coal feeders (one set is mounted
on left and right side of furnace area)and control the output at 10 t/h and keep
feeders operating for 2 minutes and then stop them. Watch the bed temperature
change: the bed temperature should begin to decrease and then increase. The
oxygen content of flue gas does not change at the beginning but later it will
decrease by several percent. Repeat the above process for three times and the
results are the same as the above. Based on the actual condition, put the coal
feeder into service under the proper coal flow. As the bed temperature and unit
load increase, put the coal feeder into service based on the above method. While
increases the flow of coal, the oxygen content will decrease and then gradually
increase the primary air flow to keep the minimum fluidization. Adjust the

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secondary air flow to keep the total air flow in a good condition and keep the
oxygen content is within the prescribed limit. Meanwhile slowly decrease the
power of the oil burners to reduce the burner temperature and the thermal load.
As the unit load goes up, increase the combustion intensity of the fuel coal and
adjust the ratio between the air and coal. Continue decreasing the oil gun output
till the oil gun is out of service. Put the ash cooler into service at proper time
based on the pressure of the bed.

6.10.5 Precautions for boiler cold startup


a) When putting the oil gun into service, the bed temperature should be even.
The ignition air duct wall temperature should be prevented to be more than
1150℃.

b) Do not start the boiler if there is no monitoring on oxygen content of flue gas.

c) Monitor the wall temperature of superheater/reheater; they should be in the


prescribed limit.

d) Before ignition, put cooling air of the fire detector into service. Do not cut off
the cooling air of fire detector after ignition and before shutdown.

e) Keep the temperature difference between the upper and lower walls of
steam drum less than 50℃ at all times

f) Open the recirculation valve of economizer when no water is being filled to


boiler but it should be closed firmly.

g) The steam temperature adjustment should be mainly achieved by the


combustion adjustment before the turbine rotates under load and the
desuperheating water should be decreased as much as possible. During
rolling, the superheated steam should have a superheating degree of more
than 50℃.

h) The key parameters variation is required as follows in the boiler startup


process.

1) Steam drum wall temperature change ratio ≤50℃/h. it changes slowly at the
beginning, but fast later.

2) Temperature change ratio of the saturated steam is <56℃/h.

3) Bed temperature change ratio is ≤60~80℃/h.

4) Temperature change ratio of cyclone separator is ≤ 70℃/h.

5) Temperature change ratio of main steam is 0.5~1.5℃/min.

6) When steam drum pressure is ≤ 5 MPa, the increase ratio of the main steam
pressure is 0.02-0.05 MPa/min.

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7) When steam drum pressure is > 5 MPa, the increase ratio of the main steam
pressure is 0.05-0.10MPa/min.

8) The decrease ratio of main steam pressure is 0.02-0.05 MPa/min.

j) The superheat steam flow of boiler should not exceed 440t/h.

k) During boiler startup, periodically monitor expansion conditions of all parts of


boiler and make the good record. If there is an abnormal condition, slow
down the pressure increase and even stop increasing pressure and
strengthen blow down and adjust the combustion to solve the abnormal
expansion. Continue increasing the pressure after the abnormal condition is
solved.
6.12 Warm Startup of Boiler

The warm startup is that the bed temperature is lower than that of feeding coal
and it is the startup method when the coal cannot be directly put into service

Before warm startup, checking and preparation are the same as that in the cold
startup. But the checking inside furnace and the interlock test are not necessary.

The purging operation of the warm startup boiler is the same as that the cold
startup.

Put startup burner into service.

After ignition, the steam drum pressure reaches 0.1~0.2 MPa and all vent valves
and drain valves are closed. Put high pressure or low pressure bypass into
service. Warm up the pipe for 15-20 min before putting the bypass into service.
During warming pipe, the steam discharging valve and drain valves of
superheater/reheater should be opened.

The other operations of boiler under cold startup.


6.13 Hot Startup of Boiler

After boiler is tripped or when the fire is banked in furnace, if re-startup is needed,
it is not necessary to carry out the furnace purging before putting main fuel into
service when the bed temperature is higher than the permitted value. Then
quickly increase the air flow a little bit higher than the minimum operating air flow
and put the coal feeder into service. During the above process, the speed should
be quick and the air flow should be kept in a good range to prevent the bed
temperature lower than that when putting coal into service. During outage, if the
bed temperature has been lower than the permitted value of feeding coal, the
furnace purging must be carried out based on the regulations.

The inspection and preparation before boiler starts in hot state is the same as
that in cold state but the checking inside furnace and the interlock test are not

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necessary.

6.13.1 Hot startup conditions of boiler


a) No MFT Command

b) All coal feeders stop

c) Shut down the under-bed burner inlet/returning oil quick shut-off valves.

d) The average bed temperature is higher than that when putting coal into
service.

e) The primary air flow to the air chamber is higher than the minimum fluidizing
air flow.

f) The coal spreading air and sealing air flow are both higher than the
minimum.

6.13.2 Hot startup steps of boiler


a) After the air fan is started up, directly put the coal into service without
purging if the bed temperature is higher than that when putting coal into
service. Do not carry out purging for furnace or put the startup burner into
service and after it is fired for about 30 min under the minimum speed of coal
feeder, the boiler can be raised to full load.

b) After the air fan is started up, boiler should be ventilated and purged if the
bed temperature is lower than that when putting coal into service. All purge
steps should be finished as soon as possible to prevent the bed temperature
from deceasing quickly.

c) If the coal fed is not burnt in 5 min, the hot startup fails. Stop feeding coal to
the burner and put the oil guns into service to increase the bed temperature
and re-feed the coal after re-purging.

d) After the oil guns are ignited, the bed temperature will increase. The
subsequent coal feeding can be carried out. With reference to the cold state
sliding parameters or actual condition, finish the startup process and the
subsequent operation to increase the unit load to the required level.

6.14 Precautions during Boiler Startup


Monitor the drum water level and keep it stable. For instance, when forward
water into boiler; firstly close the recirculation valve of economizer till feeding is
stopped.

Control the temperature difference between upper and lower wall of drum no
more than 50℃. But if there is up tendency, immediately slow down pressure and
temperature increasing.

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After rolling, keep the steam with a superheated degree of more than 50℃. The
temperature difference between both sides of superheating/reheat steam is no
higher than 20℃.

Carefully increase temperature and pressure based on the unit startup curve.
Monitor wall temperatures of superheater/reheater to prevent over-temperature.

Strengthen maintenance /adjustment/keeping atomizing/good combustion of


startup burner.

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7 Normal Operation Regulation of Boiler

7.1 Operating Parameter control


Superheated steam flow is 440 t/h

Superheated steam pressure is 13.8±0.1 MPa

Superheated steam temperature is 540℃

Reheated steam flow is 359t/h

Reheat steam inlet pressure is 2.59MPa

Reheated steam outlet pressure is 2.44MPa

Reheated steam inlet temperature is 326℃

Reheated steam outlet temperature is 540℃

Feedwater temperature is 249.℃

Steam drum water level is ± 50 mm

Normal bed temperature range is 790~920℃

Oxygen content of flue gas is 3.05%

7.2 Operation and Regulation


Keep the evaporation of boiler in the prescribed limit to meet the requirements of
the unit full load and users from outer source

Keep normal steam pressure/temperature and normal bed temperature/pressure.

Balance the feedwater and keep the normal water level of drum.

Keep the boiler water and steam with good quality.

Keep the combustion in a good condition and reduce the thermal loss and
improve the boiler thermal efficiency.

Timely adjust the operation condition of boiler and keep all operation parameters
within optimal.

Strengthen monitoring operation and find and solve the equipment fault timely to
keep the boiler equipment in a safe and stable operation.

Reduce NOx emission.

7.3 Steam Pressure Regulation


It is use constant pressure method during operating, and the outlet pressure of

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surperheater should be kept at the range of 13.8±0.1MPa.

When the superheated steam pressure changes, timely analyze the cause for
flowability, so as to take corresponding measures and handle quickly, in case of
drastic pressure fluctuation.

Strengthen operating adjustment of coal feeder and limestone system to keep the
feeding of coal and limestone even and stable.

Strengthen communication with relevant department, such as turbine and


electric.

During normal operation, the steam pressure is adjusted by changing the feeding
coal flow. Keeps equivalent coal feeding quantity on all feeding coal lines. Do not
adjust the steam pressure by putting coal-feeder line into/outlet of service.
Normally, do not decrease the steam pressure by opening safety valve and
steam discharge valve.

Notice the relationship between the steam pressure, load and furnace pressure
differential. The furnace pressure differential means the particle concentration of
the dilute phase region, which plays an important role in controlling the steam
pressure and load.

Watch the steam temperature fluctuation for the following conditions:

a) When load increases

b) Unstable combustion.

c) When putting high pressure heater into/out of service.

d) When the coal type changes a lot.

e) When carry out sootblowing on heat surface.

f) When adjusting primary/secondary air.

g) When the bed temperature changes a lot.

h) When unit rejects load

7.4 Steam Temperature Regulation


During normal operation, carefully monitor and adjust the superheat/reheat steam
temperature at 540℃ (Permitted fluctuation range +5-10℃) and the temperature
difference between both sides should not exceed 20℃ and the temperature
difference between superheat steam and reheat steam should not exceed 20℃.

During normal operation, keep the steam temperature stable and watch the
steam temperature influence on the steam pressure and the feedwater pressure
influence on the desuperheating water flow and the feedwater temperature

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influence on the steam temperature. Grasp the fluctuation and make predictive
adjustment.

The superheat steam temperature is mainly maintained by adjusting outlet


dampers of reheater and superheater flue gas duct. The primary desuperheating
water should be put into service all the time and used as the rough adjustment to
control the severe fluctuation of steam temperature. The secondary
desuperheating water is mainly used as fine adjustment to control the steam
temperature fluctuation within minimum range to keep it in the prescribed limit.

The reheat steam temperature is mainly adjusted by the external-bed heat


exchanger to decrease the temperature by controlling the ash flow with the
conical valve. When various reason cause over temperature of reheater and
threaten the reheater, immediately cool down the reheater with the emergency
water-spray attemperator to protect the reheater.

When adjusting the steam temperature, make predictive adjustment with


combination of two-stage desuperheating water, which should be put in auto
mode and the adjustment quality should be checked all the time. When manually
adjust the temperature, the spray-water flow should be even; it should not be
dramatically close or open to prevent substantial fluctuation of steam
temperature.

The steam temperature can be raised by increasing the air flow but the air flow
should not be too big.

The steam temperature can be increased by soot blowing on the heat surface.

During the steam temperature adjustment, carefully control the temperature of


superheater/reheater /all pipes stages within the prescribed limit.

Report the situation to shift leader to decrease the load properly if the steam is
still over-temperature after adjustment.

Watch the steam temperature change for the following conditions:

a) When the load increases or decreases.


b) When the combustion is not stable.

c) When the high pressure heater is put into service.

d) When the coal type changes a lot.

e) When the feedwater pressure changes a lot.

f) When soot blowing the surface heat.

g) When boiler is flooded severely.

h) When the primary/secondary air is adjusted

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i) When the bed temperature changes a lot.

j) When the unit rejects load.

7.5 Steam Drum Water Level Regulation


The normal water level (zero position) of the boiler drum is 76 mm lower than its
center line. The normal fluctuation range is 0 ±50 mm.

Compared to the normal water level of steam drum.

+125mm, high water level alarm value

+200mm, HH water level protection value (MFT)

-200mm Low water level alarm value

-280mm LL water level protection value (MFT)

Take the measurement of local water level meter as criterion and use the
secondary water level meter as the basis of monitor and adjustment. During
normal operation, there are two water level meters at least for the reference of
the operator.

Each shift should wash and calibrate the primary and secondary water level
meters. High/low water level alarm test should be carried out periodically to
guarantee reliable and correct operation.

When the feedwater is in automatic mode, carefully monitor its operation and
water level change. If the auto mode is not working, switch it to the manual
adjustment timely.

During operation, keep the water level within the prescribed limit and carefully
grasp the change pattern among steam flow, feedwater flow and feedwater
pressure to control the differential value of the feedwater flow and steam flow.
Regulate the water level timely when it changes.

When the boiler load is low, the feed water is adjusted in single-impulse way.
Make the inlet water equivalent to prevent large fluctuation of water level with
reference to the indication of feedwater flow and steam flow.

If the fake water level is caused by dramatic change of load, adjust the water
level correctly and timely based on the water level change tendency. Blind
operation should be avoided to prevent the water level accident of the steam
drum because of improper operation.

If the water level is too low because of low feedwater pressure or leakage on
heat surface, properly decrease the boiler load to keep the water level normal.

Strengthen monitoring and control of the water level under following conditions:

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When the boiler is started up and shut down.

When the unit load increases or decreases.

When the unit rejects the load.

When the combustion is not stable.

When the leakage of heat surface happens.

When the steam drum continuous blow down and intermittent blowdown is put
into service.

When the safety valve or the steam discharge valve acts.

When the feedwater pipe or pump is switched.

7.6 Combustion Regulation


During operation, adjust the primary and secondary air flow based on the boiler
load requirements. But the air speed of the air chamber should not be less than
1.2m/s (24.78Nm3/s). Based on safety, achieve the best economic effect to make
the boiler heat loss minimum. During normal operating, the fluidization bed
temperature should be kept within 790~920℃.

During operation, keep negative pressure of furnace normal value. For increasing
load, firstly increase the ID air flow and then increase the FD air flow and fuel
quantity. However, for decreasing load, firstly decrease the fuel quantity and FD
air flow and then decrease the ID air flow.

Watch the fluidization, combustion and returning-material condition inside the


furnace. If found fault, solve it immediately. Adjust the ratio of primary/secondary
air flow, the feed coal quantity and reflux quantity of external bed timely when the
furnace temperature increases or decreases.

When the boiler load changes, firstly increase the air and then the coal, and then
decrease the coal and the air flow. Repeat the above sequence to achieve
“Less-Amount Many-Times” adjustment method and prevent the big fluctuation of
the bed temperature. Meanwhile, watch the corresponding relationship with the
furnace differential pressure under various loads. The furnace differential
pressure reflects the heat transfer of the dilute phase region.

The adjustment principle of primary/secondary air: the primary air is used to


adjust the bed material fluidization, furnace temperature and the differential
pressure of the material layers. The secondary air is used to control the total air
flow. Under the conditions that fluidization, furnace temperature and differential
pressure of the material layer are met by PA flow. The total air flow does not
change, gradually open the secondary air valve. As the load increases, the
secondary air flow will increase to keep the negative pressure of furnace and the

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oxygen content, supply the air flow needed by the combustion.

During the boiler operation, watch the temperature and resistance change of all
parts at all times. If the flue gas temperature or the resistance is not normal,
check if it is caused by the air leakage or excess oxygen or coking or heat
surface leakage or abnormal combustion and take the measurement to solve the
abnormal condition. Then, check the air leakage of the boiler proper and all sight
holes and man-holes should be closed firmly. If found air leakage, take the
measures to block it.

During operation, watch the coal quality and take the corresponding adjustment
based on the quality.

The chemical operator on duty should analyze and tests the coal fed to the boiler,
ash slag and flying ash combustibles once in each shift. Inform the boiler
operators of test results to control the coal type change timely and achieve the
economic adjustment. Meanwhile control SO2 emission within prescribed limit.

Non-periodically carry out soot blowing for the measurement points of bed
pressure/temperature/furnace negative pressure to improve the accuracy of
indication and the combustion adjustment quality.

7.7 Bed Temperature Regulation


The normal temperature range of boiler bed is 790 ~ 920℃. The minimum
operating bed temperature is 790℃, in which it is forbidden to surpass it without
auxiliary combustion.

The high alarm of bed temperature is 955℃. When the temperature reaches
990℃, the main fuel should be cut off (MFT). The low alarm of the bed
temperature is 790℃. If the temperature is lower than 650℃, and the startup
burner is not put into service yet, the main fuel should be automatically cut off
(MFT). When the bed temperature is lower than 540℃, the main fuel is cut off
automatically, no matter whether the startup burner is put into service or not.

Monitor the inner temperature of furnace and the outlet flue gas temperature of
furnace at all times, in which it has a pre-warning function to monitor the bed
temperature.

Change the combustion quota of the dense phase to control the bed temperature,
which can be effectively controlled by changing the ratio of primary and
secondary air, discharged slag amount, feed coal quantity, returning material
quantity, ash flow of external bed, limestone quantity and change of the coal
particle.

Increase on the primary air flow can decrease the bed temperature and vice
versa.

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Increase the thickness of the bed material and improve the circulating quantity,
which can decrease the bed temperature; raising the discharged slag amount
and decreasing the bed pressure and material quantity can increase the bed
temperature.

Decrease on the feeding coal flow can reduce the bed temperature and vice
versa.

Increase on the returning material quantity can decrease the bed temperature
and vice versa.

Increase on ash flow of external bed can reduce bed temperature and vice versa.

7.8 Bed Pressure Regulation


The bed pressure is one of most important parameters to be monitored of CFB,
which is the important index of monitoring the fluidization quality and the
thickness of material layer.

During normal operation of boiler, keep the bed temperature within the prescribed
limit which should not exceed 4KPa based on the unit load. If the unit load is high,
the bed pressure should be high and vice versa. The bed pressure should be
kept within the range of 4-7KPa.(Decided based on commissioning result)

Change the discharged slag quantity, adjust the speed of ash cooler and keep
the bed pressure within the prescribed limit.

The bed pressure can be adjusted by changing the limestone quantity. If the bed
pressure is high, decrease the limestone quantity.

If the bed pressure is high, increase the primary air flow to make slag discharging
easy and strengthen slag discharging to decrease the bed temperature to be
within the prescribed limit.

7.9 Regulation of Flue Gas SO2 And NOx


7.9.1 Factors influencing the desulfurizing agent amount
a) Desulfurizing agent composition. (CaCO3 Content)

b) Desulfurizing agent granularity.

c) Reaction characteristics of desulfurizing agent.

d) Explosion characteristics of desulfurizing agent.

e) Retention time of desulfurizing agent in furnace.

f) Furnace combustion temperature.

g) Sulfur content of fuel.

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h) Required desulfuration efficiency.

7.10 Operation and Maintenance of Drum Water Level meter


7.10.1 Operating steps for water level meter service
Open the discharge valve, and then fully open the primary valve of steam side
and then 20% open the secondary valve of steam side.

Warm up the pipe for 30 min to make the level meter proper temperature stable
and then close the primary/secondary valves at turbine side as well as the
discharge valve.

Open the primary valves of steam/water side and then firstly 20% open
secondary valve of steam side and then 20% open the secondary valve of water
side.

Watch water level in the water level meter and slightly fluctuate. After the water
level meter is normal, alternatively open secondary valves on steam and water
sides to fully open position.

7.10.2 Normal stop operation steps of water level meter


Close secondary valves on steam and water sides.

Slowly open the discharge valve.

Close the primary valve of steam/water sides.

7.10.3 Flushing operation steps of water level meter


a) Open water release valve, flush steam pipe, water pipe and glass plate (tube).

b) Close water valve, flush steam pipe and glass plate (tube).

c) Open water valve, close steam valve, flush water pipe and glass plate (tube).

d) Open steam valve, close water release valve, recover the operation of water
level gauge.

e) After flushing, it is required to compare the water level with that of the other
drum level gauge. If indication is abnormal, flush again. It is required to flush the
water level gauge slowly and apply protection in accordance with relevant safety
requirement.

7.10.4 Precautions:
a) Complete lighting on water level meter

b) The pipe warming should be correct so as to prevent the dramatic change of


mica and metal which will cause damage and leakage.

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c) The water level meter should be verified and washed periodically and
washing is not allowed if the water level is fluctuating badly.

d) Pay attention to the safety of personnel and equipment and operate slowly.
Do not face the sight hole of the water level meter and but stand by one side
of the meter. After operation, check the positions of all valves to make sure
the valves of water/steam sides are fully opened.

e) Do not use two water level meters flushing at the same time.

7.10.5 Operation and maintenance of water level meter


a) Each shift should have thorough flushing of the water level meter during
operation.

b) Strengthen flushing for water level meter if the water quality of the meter is
bad or scaled which cause the water level indication blur and dark image
display.

c) Timely communicate with the maintenance personnel for treatment if


leakage of the water level guide valve is found or emergency lighting fails
during operation.

7.10.6 Water level determination method of boiler


If the indication of local water level meter is not clear and it is hard to judge by the
electric contact water level meter as well as the menu in CRT is not correct,
immediately apply for shutdown and stop feeding water and judge the water level
and the operation step is as follows:

a) Slowly open the meter discharge valve. If the level drops a little, it indicates
the boiler is slightly full of water

b) If the water level does not decrease, close the valve of steam side. Wash the
pipes and valves on water side.

c) Slowly close the water discharging valve of the water level meter. If the water
level appears in the water level meter, it means there is still water inside the
steam drum, and the boiler is slightly lack of water.

d) If there is no water seen in the water level meter, it means that the water
level of steam drum has been decreased below the connection pipe of water
side, and it indicates boiler is seriously lack of water.

e) Close the valve of water side and open the water discharging valve. If there
is water level or the water level is decreasing, it indicates the boiler is
severely full of water.

7.11 Boiler Blowdown

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In order to keep the inside of heat surface clean and guarantee the steam with
good quality, blow down of boiler must be done to keep the boiler water and
steam quality within the prescribed limit.

Blowdown types: Continuous and periodical type

The continuous blowdown quantity is controlled by a governing valve, which is


adjusted based on the chemical water quality.

The operator carries out the periodical blowdown with the supervision of chemical
personnel. During operation, fully open the primary valve first, and then open the
secondary valve. During closing, close the secondary valve first, then close the
primary valve and the blowdown time is 30s, which should not be too long to
prevent damage on water circulation.

The periodical blowdown should be carried out based on regulations. Meanwhile,


increase the periodical blowdown time based on the notification of chemical
personnel.

Precautions of periodical blowdown

Strengthen monitoring of the water level and communicate with the turbine
personnel to guarantee the water level of deaerator normal during blowdown.

Prepare the isolation measurements to prevent personnel and equipment


damage if there is a maintenance work.

Check all check valves before blowdown and stop blowdown if there is serious
fault or leakage threatening personnel safety. There should be enough lighting for
the blowdown site and with special tools. Do not directly face the valve.

Do not blow down two lines or two circulating loops at the same time. Do not use
bottom heating for blowdown.

Stop blowdown if the combustion is unstable or the feedwater pressure is low or


the water level is low or fault happens.

Stop blowdown if the blowdown pipe has impact. Continue to blow down after
impact is solved.

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8 Boiler Shutdown

8.1 Preparation for Shutdown


After receive shutdown command, the shift leader should remind the foreman of
shutdown purpose, method and requirement and explain the related notices and
remind the turbine/chimerical/electric/coal-handling/I&C personnel.

Based on the predicted shutdown time, early remind the fuel operator on duty of
stopping feeding coal to the coal bunker and stopping feeding limestone to the
limestone silo.

Remind the personnel on each post to fully check all equipments under their
control and ask them to correctly record the detailed fault items in the “Equipment
Fault Log”.

Carry out full purging on the heat surface of boiler. (Before 50%BMCR)

Check the fuel oil system which should be in the standby state and carry out the
insertion and withdrawal test on the oil gun for putting the oil gun into service to
stabilize combustion in time. The purging system should be in good condition.

8.2 Normal Shutdown


Switch main control of boiler to manual mode. Switch all auto control modes of
boiler to manual mode.

When boiler load decreases, watch and guarantee the differential pressure of
furnace not exceed the maximum value. Discharge the bed material from furnace
if necessary; otherwise it has the possibility to fail to set up the circulation when
restarting up boiler.

Stop the limestone feeder system and close all manual inlet valves.

Based on the steam temperature decrease, timely adjusts the desuperheating


water flow and guarantee the following within the prescribed limit: the decrease
speed of the superheat steam temperature is within the range of 1.0~1.5℃/min.
The decrease speed of the reheat steam temperature should not exceed
2.5℃/min. The decrease speed of the main steam pressure should not exceed
0.1MPa/min. The decrease speed of the steam drum pressure should not exceed
0.15MPa/min. The temperature difference between main and reheat steam
should not exceed 20℃ and the superheat degree of steam should not be lower
than 50℃.

During load decreasing, the temperature difference of the upper and lower drum
wall should be less than 50℃ and the decrease speed of the flue gas
temperature should be less than 1 ℃/min.

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During boiler shutdown, manually stop one primary air fan, one secondary air fan
and one ID fan when the load decreases to 50%BMCR.

Decrease the electric load of unit to the minimum stable load and the boiler load
to 30%BMCR. Keep the minimum electric load operation of unit for 30min or so
as to cool down the refractory materials inside the cyclone gradually.

Gradually decrease the coal feeder output to zero and lower the material level of
coal bucker to the minimum safe store level or clean the coal from the coal
bucket. Close the outlet electric valve of the coal bucker and keep the coal feeder
running till the signal of cut-off coal supply alarm, and then stops the coal feeder
and close all outlet valves of coal feeder.

Monitor the oxygen content and bed temperature of furnace. When the oxygen
content increases dramatically and the bed temperature begins to decrease,
gradually reduce the output of air fan and reduce the supplying air flow of furnace.
But pay attention to adjust the primary air flow to guarantee good fluidization of
the bed material all the time.

After the flame is out, keep I.D fan, high pressure fluidization air fan, secondary
air fan, primary air fan running for 5min, and then purge the combustibles inside
the furnace.

If the boiler needs long-time outage or maintenance, continue using the air fan for
ventilation and cooling down of the boiler. Meanwhile use the ash cooler to
discharge the bed material. Before the flame is out completely, keep the pressure
of boiler bed not exceed 4KPa and cool down the unit as evenly as possible.
There is still steam generated within a time because of furnace wall and element
heat-storage, during which the water level of the drum should be kept at the
upper limit. Open the recirculation electric valve of economizer if the water is not
fed to the steam drum temporarily.

Stop the high pressure fluidization air fan after the material returner is cooled
down to the safe temperature.

Cut off the ash handling system.

There must be a special operator monitoring CRT if the water/bed material is not
discharged out yet and all rotating parts are not de-energized.

If the water/steam system of boiler needs to be ventilated, open the drain valve
when the steam drum pressure decrease to 0.5Mpa (The water temperature
should not exceed 120℃ during draining water) and open the vent valve when
the steam drum pressure decreases to 0.1MPa, discharge all water in boiler.

8.3 Sliding Parameter Shutdown


Gradually decrease the feed coal quantity and air flow, slowly decrease the load

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based on the actual condition. Switch all automatic modes into manual modes
when the boiler load decreases to 50%BMCR.

Gradually increase the desuperheating water flow (mainly by combustion


regulation) and decrease the superheat/reheat steam temperature based on the
turbine requirements.

When the boiler load and parameters decrease, watch the coordination of boiler,
turbine and generator. Pay attention to the steam drum water level and steam
temperature.

Stop the limestone feeder system and close all manual inlet valves of boiler.

If the bed temperature is lower than 770℃, put the burner into service and retreat
ESP based on the actual condition. Continue decreasing the feed coal quantity to
the minimum till shutdown and open the steam discharging valve or the turbine
bypass based on the actual condition.

Gradually decrease the coal feeder output to zero and lower the material level of
coal bunker to the minimum safe store level or clean the coal from the coal
bunker. Close the electric outlet valve of the coal bunker and keep the coal
feeder running till the signal of cut-off coal supply alarm appears, and then stop
the coal feeder and close all outlet valves of coal feeder.

Decrease the combustion power of burner, but pay attention to control the
decrease speed of steam/flue gas temperature. The load should be reduced to
the minimum stable load, and keeps the boiler running under minimum load for
30 min. Cool down the refractory material of furnace gradually.

Stop burner, and flame is out. Close all fuel oil angle manual valves when the bed
temperature decreases to 540℃.

Latch off the turbine, stop the burner but keep the steam drum water level at
+150 or higher. Open the recirculation valve of economizer when stop feeding
water.

After stop supplying fuel and the ventilation lasts for 5min, stop all air fans and
close the corresponding electric inlet/outlet valves and governing dampers.

Continue running all ash removal systems till the ash hopper are empty. Stop
ESP and the ash removal and transmitting system based on the regulations.

Take correspondent corrosion proof measurement of the pressure-containing


parts based on the actual condition. Carry out the measurements according to
the technology of cooling down boiler and discharge out bed material. Prepare
the anti-freezing measurements in winter to prevent freezing the equipment.

During sliding parameter shutdown, strengthen communication with the turbine

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personnel for close cooperation to prevent big fluctuation of all parameters.

During sliding parameters shutdown, control the decreasing speed of the main
steam pressure ≤0.05Mpa/min and that of the main steam temperature ≤1℃/min
and that of the reheat steam temperature ≯2~2.5℃/min.

During sliding parameters shutdown up to cold state of boiler, keep the


temperature difference of steam drum walls ≯50℃/min.

After shutdown, keep the steam drum water level at +200mm or higher till the
steam temperature of drum is lower than 200℃.

There must be special operator monitoring CRT if the water/bed material is not
discharged out yet and all rotating parts are not de-energized.

Unless otherwise noted, do not cool down the boiler fast.

8.4 Fire-banking for Hot Standby and Hot State Re-startup


8.4.1 Fire-banking for hot standby
a) Before fire-banking, all auto modes of boiler have been switched to manual
modes.

b) Keep high bed material level and when bed temperature is 50℃ higher than
the normal operating temperature, stop the coal feeder before banking up.

c) When banking the fire, the heat accumulation of boiler is high. Watch the
steam drum water level and close the blowdown valves to keep a certain
water level. Open the electric recirculation valve of economizer.

d) When banking the fire, stop the coal feeder first, then stop the secondary air
fan and keep coal on the feeder belt.

e) After the coal feeder stops, quickly decrease the unit electric load based on
the boiler pressure to keep the main steam pressure a little higher at all
times and watch the oxygen content of the boiler outlet. When the oxygen
content increases to 13~15%, immediately stop I.D fan and trip the primary
air fan, secondary air fan by interlock. After banking up fire, quickly close the
damper to prevent the cooling air entering the furnace.

f) During the boiler shutdown for hot standby, keep the average bed
temperature at 650℃ or higher, follow the cold startup steps when the bed
temperature is lower than or equal to 650℃.

g) When boiler is shut down for hot standby, keep the boiler pressure. Close all
air fans and the related air dampers after finish sootblowing. Make the unit in
the hot standby state and ensure the materials have been discharged out
from the ash cooler. When the steam drum pressure decreases lower than

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the minimum setting pressure of the safety valve, and steam temperature is
not exceed the requirement, confirm there is not enough heat accumulation
to produce steam and open the safety valve, close the drain water valve and
steam discharge valves on the steam-collection header and main steam
pipe.

h) During boiler shutdown for hot standby, open the drain valve of main steam
header, the drain valves of main steam connection pipe and start water
supply system and keep the normal water level of steam drum during
combustion before raise fire combustion to guarantee the steam pressure
and the bed temperature.

i) If the fire banking time is longer, start to increase the temperature in the
midway. Re-bank up the fire after the bed temperature increases to normal
level.

8.4.2 Hot state re-startup


a) The hot startup conditions include: No MFT command. All coal feeders stop.
Inlet/returning oil quick shut-off valves of flue gas duct burners under bed are
closed. The average bed temperature is higher than 650℃. Primary air flow
to the air chamber is higher than the minimum fluidization air flow. The coal
spreading air flow is higher than the minimum.

b) Before hot startup, put the fuel oil system into service and carry out the oil
circulation. Once the hot startup fails, immediately put the burner into
service and shorten the startup time.

c) Start up ID fan, high pressure fluidizing air fan, secondary air fan, and adjust
the air flow to the ignition operation air flow. Subsequently, start up the coal
feeder, which should be operated quickly. If the bed temperature is higher
than 650℃, it is not necessary to carry out the blowdown. Watch the oxygen
content and bed temperature. After 5min, put the coal into service, it means
there is flame if the oxygen content decreases but the bed temperature
increases but if the oxygen content does not change and the bed
temperature has the decrease tendency, it means it is not fired yet. So stop
the coal feeder immediately and carry out purging on the furnace and then
start up the boiler based on the boiler cold startup steps.

d) When starting up air fans, communicate with the turbine personnel to slightly
open the high/low pressure bypass to achieve protection of the reheater.
Because the heat accumulation of the circulating fluidized boiler is big, the
heat exchange will take place between the hot bed materials and the heat
surface during starting up of air fans. Meanwhile, pay attention to steam
temperature. If it rises rapidly, cooperate with shift leader to adjust
combustion and desuperheating water.

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e) When the steam parameters meet the requirements of turbine, starts rolling,
synchronization and on-load operation.

f) Before starting up the air fan, carry out the ventilation and purging of boiler.
And then conduct the cold startup if the bed temperature is lower than 650℃.
All purging steps should be finished as soon as possible so as to prevent the
bed temperature from swift drop

g) After the oil gun is ignited, the bed temperature will increase and the coal
can be put into service based on the normal steps. The subsequent
operations should be finished with reference to the cold state sliding
parameter startup. Increase the unit load to the required value.

8.5 Emergency Shutdown of Boiler


8.5.1 Conditions for emergency shutdown
a) Severe full water of boiler (water level+200mm).

b) Severe lack water (water level -280mm)

c) All water level meters are damaged and the water level of steam drum
cannot be monitored.

d) The severe pipe explosions of water wall, which make the normal water level,
fail to be maintained.

e) The main feedwater pipe, superheater and main steam pipes are exploded
and threaten the personnel and equipment safety.

f) Reheat steam of boiler is cut off.

g) The steam pressure is higher than the action value of the safety valve and
the safety valve refuses to act and the primary/secondary bypass and
atmospheric steam-discharge steam valve cannot relieve.

h) Boiler flame is out and failed to be restored.

i) Re-combustion at the flue gas duct causing the discharge flue gas
temperature up to 250℃ or higher.

j) Furnace or flue gas duct is exploded which damage the equipment severely.

k) There is a fire on equipment in the range of boiler unit, which directly


threaten the safe operation of boiler.

i) MFT acting conditions are met, but the protection failed to act.

m) I&C power supply is completely cut off, the boiler operation cannot be
monitored or controlled

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n) Emergency shutdown of turbine and electrical.

8.5.2 Condition for normal boiler shutdown


a) The leakage happens to the main pressurized parts of boiler. Basically
normal water level of steam drum can be kept.

b) The main feedwater governing equipment of boiler is damaged and the


water level of steam drum is hard to be controlled after the measurement is
taken.

c) All secondary water level meters are damaged and cannot be restored in
short time.

d) The safety valve cannot reseat after action.

e) The boiler feedwater, boiler water and steam quality are severely over
normal parameters and cannot be restored after the measurement is taken.

f) Fluidization inside the furnace is worsened and cannot be restored after the
measurement is taken.

g) Partial power supply of I&C meters is off (flame is not out yet), and cannot be
restored in the short time.

h) The cyclone separator and bed temperature is 990℃ or higher for a long
time. The measurement adopted is ineffective, and there is a trend of going
up.

i) Boiler is partially coked, and the measures adopted are ineffective.

j) The furnace wall, cyclone separator, standing pipe, material returner and the
outside expansion joint of material U-beam are burnt to be red and will
possibly worsen.

k) If the ash cooler fails and it is hard to discharge slag. The problem is still
unsolved after multiple adjustments and the boiler cannot be guaranteed for
normal operation.

l) The material returner is blocked and external bed cone valve has leakage or
ash pluggage has not been eliminated, which is still unsolved after multiple
adjustments.

m) The superheat and reheat steam temperature or the metal wall surface
temperature exceeds the limit and it cannot recover to the normal range after
multiple adjustments are carried out.

n) There is a fire in the boiler house which threatens the equipment operation.

8.5.3 Operation of boiler emergency shutdown

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a) Manually press MFT button, reset the switch of tripped equipment, turn down
the damper of air fan, keep the negative pressure of furnace at -50Pa, and
carry out ventilation. (Immediately stop two ID fans and close all dampers if
the secondary combustion happens)

b) Cut off all automatic modes and manually adjust the water level of drum and
close all desuperheating water valves.

c) Report the situation to the shift leader and the department leader.

d) If the turbine has been latched off, timely put the primary and secondary
bypass into service and properly open the steam discharging valve.

e) If the leakage happens to the combustor, promptly stop water feeding to


boiler and remove bed material.

f) If the secondary combustion happens in the flue gas duct, timely apply for
stopping all air fans after emergency shutdown, and firmly close all dampers
of the flue gas system and ventilation is forbidden.

g) If the leakage happens to the convection flue gas duct, keep the normal
water level of the steam drum.

h) Keeps the air fan running when the boiler is full of water. Restore the ignition
if the water level is back to normal.

i) If the boiler lacks water severely, the feeding time is decided by the chief
engineer.

j) If the leakage happens to the economizer and water walls, do not open the
recirculation valve of economizer.

k) If the heat surface is exploded and causes shutdown, keep one I.D fan
running till the steam is dried inside the furnace.

l) If the water wall and convection heat surface is exploded, apply for stopping
the shutdown after immediately stop the dust catcher.

m) During emergency shutdown, guarantee the bed temperature not drop


dramatically and control the temperature difference of the steam drum walls
within the prescribed limit. The temperature of all heat surfaces should not
exceed the limit.

n) After shutdown, record all expansion indications and the temperatures of all
heat surfaces based on the related regulations.

o) The other operations should be carried out based on the normal shutdown
and record the reason and treatment process after finishing treatment.

p) If the shutdown is caused by the mis-action of protection, immediately reset

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the protection and operate it based on the hot startup under shift leader’s
permission.

8.6 Precautions After Shutdown


After shutdown, carefully monitor the steam drum pressure. It should not exceed
the limit. Open the bypass or the steam discharging valve to decrease pressure if
necessary.

The steam drum pressure does not decrease to zero and the power supply of the
boiler equipment has not been cut off yet. The operator should continue
monitoring the panel.

Keep the water level of the steam drum in high level before the steam drum
pressure decreases to zero

Do not cut off the standby equipment interlock or carry out the maintenance on
the standby equipment without the shift leader’s approval.

Firmly close all dampers to decrease the heat loss of furnace during shutdown for
thermal standby.

Carefully monitor the metal wall temperature of reheater superheater, economizer


overhead pipes; they cannot exceed the prescribed limit.

Close all manual fuel angle valves.

8.7 Cooling Of Boiler After Shutdown


Firmly close all flue gas dampers within 4~6 hours after shutdown to prevent
dramatic cooling down.

Open ID fan damper and man hole for natural ventilation 4~6 hours after boiler
shutdown. Open the discharge water valve of the lower header when the steam
drum pressure decreases to 0.5MPa and open all vent valves of boiler proper
when the pressure decreases to 0.1MPa.

Start up the air fan for ventilation and cooling down at low flow 24hours after
boiler flameout. Based on the requirements, discharge the bed material. Watch
the temperature difference of upper and lower walls of steam drum which should
less than 50℃.

During shutdown and cooling down, slow down the cooling down operation when
the temperature difference of steam drum does not exceed the regulated value.

The quick cooling down is carried out based on the following method:

During shutdown, increase the discharged slag amount to decrease the storage
heat amount of boiler.

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During shutdown of boiler, when the bed temperature decreases to 400℃, do not
stop the air fan for forced ventilation and cooling down. But the opening degree
of the air damper should be not too big and the temperature decrease ratio
should not exceed 80℃/h.

When the bed temperature decreases to 150℃, stop the high pressure fluidizing
air fan, primary air fan and secondary air fan. Open the man hole at the bottom of
the boiler wall to keep the ID fan running. Properly increase the furnace negative
pressure value based on the temperature decrease ratio.

Stop the ID fan when the bed temperature decreases to 60℃.

Do not cool down the boiler quickly unless otherwise noted.

8.8 Maintenance of Boiler After Shutdown


The chemical personnel should supply detailed technical measurements for
boiler maintenance after shutdown.

8.8.1 General
a) In order to guarantee safe and economic operation of the thermal equipment
and prevent corrosion during the outage according to the related regulations
of Thermal Power Plant Shutdown (Standby) Thermal Equipment
Anti-corrosion Guide Rules SD223-87.

b) If the outage time exceeds one week, charge nitrogen for maintenance. If the
outage time is within one week, use the steam pressure method or
feedwater pressure method or residual-heat drying method. If the pressure
parts needs maintenance during outage, use the residual heat drying
method for maintenance.

8.8.2 Waste heat drying method


a) After the normal shutdown, open the drain valve of boiler to discharge out
the residual water inside the boiler when the steam drum pressure
decreases to 0.5-0.8MPa.

b) When the steam drum pressure decreases to 0.1~0.2MPa, fully open the
vent valve of the drum proper to discharge out the boiler water. Use the
residual heat to dry the heat surface and remove the humidity from the boiler
till the air humidity of boiler reaches to standard. (The air relative humidity is
<70% or equal to the environment relative humidity).

c) During drying process, use the hot water sampler and vacuum pump to
extract the air inside the furnace for measurement.

d) Measure the humidity once every hour. The humidity should meet the
standard.

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e) When the furnace temperature decreases to 105℃, measure the air humidity
of the furnace which is still higher than the standard so that the ignition
should be started. Otherwise put the temporary hot air into service to dry it.

f) During pressure decreasing of boiler, controls the temperature difference of


the steam drum wall not over 40℃ and the maximum is 50℃.

8.8.3 Hydrazine and ammonia solution method


a) After using residual heat for drying, remind the chemical personnel of using
the ammonia dosing pump to add the hydrazine and ammonia to the
feedwater system.

b) Stop filling water to the boiler till the water appears in the vent valve of the
superheater and the hydrazine concentration is 150~~200mg/L

c) If the ammonia concentration of the boiler water decreases or the hydrazine


content is low or PH is not satisfactory, the chemical personnel should use
the dosing pump to charge chemical to the boiler and use the ammonia to
adjust the PH value to range of 10.0~10.5.

d) During boiler protection, use the boiler water sampler to measure if the
solution content is satisfied.

e) Measure the hydrazine content and PH value once every week. Adjust them
if they are lower than the standard. Find out the cause and solve the
abnormal condition immediately.

f) Measure the hydrazine content and PH value once every week during
protection period.

g) The chemical solution has the corrosion influence on the copper parts, which
should be isolated.

h) After exit the boiler protection, strengthen backwashing from the boiler
proper to the superheater before ignition. Carefully control the ammonia
content of the steam at less than 2mg/kg to prevent the pipe corrosion by
ammonia.

i) The chemical solution is irritant and the hydrazine is poisonous, which should
be used with protection measurement on operators. Treat the solution to
satisfy the discharge standard before discharging the hydrazine solution.

g) Take anti-frozen measures in winter.

8.8.4 Method of Nitrogen Filling


a) After the boiler shutdown, when the drum pressure decreases to 0.5MPa,
connect with nitrogen filling system. It is required that the nitrogen pipe

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diameter is no less than 20mm and the nitrogen system can be connected
through high-temperature superheater air pipe.

b) When the drum pressure decreases to 0.3MPa, start filling nitrogen into the
boiler. In condition that the nitrogen pressure is kept within 0.3-0.5MPa,
open the water discharging valve. After the water in the boiler is discharged
using compressed nitrogen, close all the drain valves.

c) Check the boiler steam and water system thoroughly, tightly close all the air
valves and drain valves, feed water and main steam pipeline and its drain
valve, so as to keep the nitrogen system airtight

d) Use the nitrogen tank outlet regulating valve to control the pressure at
0.3MPa. When the pressure inside the boiler is lower this value, nitrogen
should be refilled into the boiler.

e) During the period of boiler with nitrogen, keep the nitrogen pressure inside
the boiler is higher than 0.03MPa (from indication of pressure gauge) and
the nitrogen purity is high than 98%. Meanwhile, the operating personnel on
shift should record the nitrogen pressure twice each shift.

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9 Boiler Accident Handling

9.1 Principal for Accident Handling

a) Limit the spread of the accident, eliminate the accident source and remove
the danger to personnel safety.
b) Isolate the faulted equipment and make sure the non-faulted equipment is
operating normally.
c) Remove the fault as soon as possible, restart the equipment and the system,
adjust the operating parameter and recover the normal unit operation.
d) When fault occurs to the unit, all operating personnel should analyze
parameter variations and the fault detail. They should judge the cause and
the possible effect. Under the unanimous leadership of the supervisor and
team leader, the shifting personnel should try to solve the accident quickly
and properly, reduce the loss to minimal.
e) In a situation that the personnel and equipment safety is ensured, try to keep
the boiler in operation. Report the accident and the progress to the
engineers and related leaders at any time.
f) When the accident which is not listed in this manual occurs, the personnel in
charge should take measures for trouble-shooting as soon as possible
based on trouble shooting principles and their own experiences.
g) After the accident is solved, keep a detailed record on the accidents original
parameters and report it to the related leaders. Organize for accident
analyzing meeting and learn lesson from it.

9.2 MFT Protection

9.2.1 Boiler MFT will:


a) Stop all coal and limestone feeders

b) Stop all limestone feeders

c) Stop sootblowing system, and put soot blower out of operation.

d) Close superheater and reheater attemperation water motor-driven valve


e) Trigger OFT, and cut off fuel oil quick-closing valve, and exit burners under
the bed.
f) Stop Ash cooler
g) All air fans will be controlled by manual mode and keep their final position.
9.2.2 MFT activation causes
a) Manual MFT operation

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b) Shut down all ID fans

c) Shut down all PA fans

d) Shut down all SA fans

e) Shut down all fluidized air fans

f) Steam drum level reaches HHH value

g) Steam drum level reaches LLL value

h) Low total air flow

i) Low pressure of HP fluidized air header

j) High temperature of combustor lower part

k) Low temperature of combustor lower part

l) Cyclone inlet fume temperature is high

m) Cyclone outlet fume temperature is high

n) Water cooling chamber pressure HH

o) Furnace pressure HH

p) Furnace pressure LL

q) Turbine trip
r) Logic control system powers off.

s) Fuel control system powers off (signal from automatic combustion control
system).

9.2.3 Solution
a) Check if the MFT action process is right or not immediately. If the protection
is triggered by mistake, reset the protection and restore the tripping power
equipment. Start the boiler under hot state and report to the shift leader at
same time.

b) Make sure fuel oil is cut off and desuperheating water is closed. Control the
going down speed of parameters. (For example, furnace negative pressure,
steam drum water level, steam temperature, steam pressure and bed
temperature).

c) Check tripping causes. Inform all posts to check equipment and systems.
Reset the tripping signals and equipment. Adjust total air quantity by about
30% for purging. Prepare for re-startup.

d) After the causes are found and eliminated. Purge the furnace for 5 min after

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receiving the notice from the shift leader. Reset the MFT boiler and ignite for
restart.

e) If the startup conditions could not be met in a short period of time, stop all
rotary equipment, and then perform according to the normal boiler shutdown
requirements.

9.3 Steam Drum Water Shortage

9.3.1 Description
a) The steam drum water level indication is below the normal value and alarms.
If water level is -200 mm lower than the lowest allowable water level of
steam drum, alarm will be given; if lower than -280 mm, MFT will be
activated.

b) Feed water flow is abnormally less than the steam flow (when the water wall
or the economizer explodes, the feedwater flow will be the opposite)

c) When it is seriously short of water, the local water gauge indication is lower
than the visible water level; the superheated steam is abnormally high.

9.3.2 Cause
a) Feedwater automatic control fails or water level protection fails.

b) Feedwater valve, feed pump or hydraulic coupler fails.

c) I&C instrument power failure, wrong indications of water level gauge and
steam & water flow meter causes operators to work in a wrong way.
Adjustment is not made after feedwater pump is started or operation is not
properly done when switching between feedwater lines.

d) Low feedwater pressure or adjustment is not made in time due to too much
steam flow added.

e) Improper blowdown or sudden change of load, the corresponding automatic


tracking doesn’t follow up in time and the improper operation adjustment.

f) Serious leakage of feedwater pipe or tube explosion of the water wall or


economizer.

g) Too much load shedding and the steam exhaust valve or safety valve close
so quick.

h) Improper judgment on fake water level after safety valve is open which
opens the emergency discharge by mistake. After safety valve sit back, the
adjustment is not done in time.

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I) Load sudden change and adjustment of steam drum water level is not in
time.

j) Feed pump fails and its output falls. The operating pump trips, but the
standby pump does not start up by interlock. The standby pump is started up,
but the output isn’t adjusted timely.

9.3.3 Solution
a) When the water level is found lower than normal, check the water gauges to
see if their indications are right or not, according to the steam and water flow.

b) After confirm the water level is low, judge the causes, switch the automatic
water supply into manual, open the feedwater governing valve further or put
the auxiliary pipeline into operation for supplying more water. If the valves
are jammed, eliminate the problem timely.

c) When the steam drum water level is reduced to -50 mm, judge the causes.
Pay attention to that whether the automatic feedwater control can work
normally. If necessary, switch it to manual mode to increase feed water
amount.

d) Check whether the blowdown valve and water discharge valve are closed
tightly, damaged and has any leakage. Tightly close the water discharge
valves, blowdown valves and sampling valves.

e) Reduce boiler load based on the actual situations.

f) If the water supply pressure is low, inform the turbine operator to increase
feedwater pressure or to start a standby feedwater pump. Reduce steam
drum pressure if necessary.

g) When water level is down to -280 mm, shut down boiler in emergency and
report to the shift leader.

h) For the emergency shutdown of boiler due to serious water shortage,


approval from the chief engineer must be got for loading water again.

9.4 Full Water of Steam Drum


9.4.1 Description
a) The steam drum water level indication is above the normal value and alarms.
If water level is +200 mm higher than the maximum allowable water level,
alarm will be given. If it is higher than +250 mm, MFT will be activated.

b) If the steam drum is seriously full of water, local water gauge indication is
above the upper visible water level, steam temperature drops rapidly with
water attack sound. The poor sealing position of the pipe valves and flanges

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will see steam leakage.

c) Feedwater flow is abnormally larger than the steam flow.

9.4.2 Cause
a) Feedwater automatic control fails or water level protection fails.

b) Feedwater valve, feed pump or hydraulic coupler fails.

c) I&C instrument power failure, wrong indications of water level gauge and
steam & water flow meter causes operators to work in a wrong way.
Adjustment is not made after feedwater pump is started or operation is not
properly done when switching between feedwater lines.

d) Abnormally increase of feedwater pressure and improper operation of


switching feedwater line.

e) Carryover of steam and water, and sudden increase of load.

f) Improper operation when opening safety valve or air exhaust electrical valve
which is caused by fake water level.

g) Rapid recovery of combustion after boiler flameout, water level rises too fast
but improperly handled.

h) Serious boiler load fluctuations and water level adjustment is not made in
time.

i) When the feedwater bypass is switched to main line, the water supply
pressure and the steam drum pressure have a large difference, and
operation is improper.

9.4.3 Solution
a) When the water level is higher than normal, check the water gauges to see if
their indications are correct according to the steam and water flow.

b) After confirming the water level is high, judge the causes, switch the
automatic feedwater control into manual mode, close the feedwater
governing valve a little or exit the standby pipeline in operation to reduce
water flow. If the valves are jammed, eliminate the problem timely.

c) When the steam drum water level is up to +50 mm, judge the causes. Note if
the automatic feedwater control is easy to operate. Reduce feedwater
quantity manually if necessary.

d) If the hydraulic coupler fails, put the standby pump into operation
immediately. If the feedwater valve fails, eliminate the problem or adjust
steam drum water level through the feed pump hydraulic coupler.

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e) When the water level is up to +150 mm, close the feedwater valve a little or
completely close the valve. Open the emergency drain valve to discharge
water.

f) If the main steam temperature drops too rapidly, cut off desuperheating
water supply and open drain valves of each stage superheater. Contact the
turbine operator to drain water of the main steam system and prepare for
emergency shutdown.

g) When the water level is up to +200 mm, shut down the boiler in emergent
and report to the shift leader. Discharge water further and pay attention to
water level changes.

h) After confirming that boiler is full of water, shut down the boiler in emergency
and inform turbine operator to pay attention to steam temperature changes.

i) Pay attention to water level changes. Stop discharging water after the water
level is restored to the normal. Check and confirm other conditions are met,
report to the shift leader, inform turbine and boiler operator for re-startup.

9.5 Water Level Gauge Failure


9.5.1 Description
a) Water level indication from the industrial TV in the control room isn’t
accurate.

b) Blockage of water gauge steam collecting pipe or steam valve leakage and
water level too high.

c) Blockage of water gauge water collecting pipe or water valve leakage and
water level too lower.

d) Water level gauge steam and water connecting pipe is blocked and the
water level is too high.

e) The indication difference between water level gauges at the both sides is
large. Indications of the bi-color water level gauge, electric contact water
level gauge, and water level gauge of the DCS display doesn’t coincide.

f) Water level of the gauge stuck.

9.5.2 Cause
a) Water slag and suspended matter in the steam drum come into the steam
and water connecting pipe.

b) The feedwater quality is bad and foreign matters accumulate at the primary
and secondary valves.

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c) The water gauge is not cleaned regularly.

d) Maintenance is not satisfied and material doesn’t meet the requirements.

e) Improper operation of water level gauge flushing.

9.5.3 Solution
a) If the local bi-color water gauge leaks, disconnect it timely, close the valves
at the water and steam side, then inform the maintenance personnel.
Meanwhile, check if the indication of other bi-color water gauge is correct or
not.

b) When the local bi-color water gauge explodes, cut off the lighting of this
water gauge and then disconnect the water gauge.
c) If the local bi-color water gauges of the steam drum are all damaged, and
automatic feed water control is in place, high and low water level alarm and
water level protection are activated reliably, and water gauges of the electric
contact and equalizing reservoir are checked with the local water gauge not
long time ago. If they are confirmed reliable, the water gauges of the electric
contacts and equalizing reservoir can be used to monitor water level and
maintain boiler in operation for 2 hours. Pay attention to the balance
between the feedwater and steam flow, keep boiler load stable and isolate
the damaged water level gauge for maintenance.

d) If the local color water level gauges of the steam drum are all damaged,the
feedwater control is under automatic mode, and the High or low water level
alarm is not reliable, but the equalizing reservoir, or the electric contact water
level gauge had been calibrated recently, then it is allowed to run the gauges
for short time of 15-20 minutes.

e) Under the above mentioned situations, the water level gauge must be
repaired in emergency. Stabilize the load and pay attention to that the
feedwater flow and the steam flow should be balanced, during which the
blowdown work, water discharge and sootblowing work of boiler is not
allowed.

f) If all the local bi-color water gauges of the steam drum are damaged, the
automatic feed water control, high and low water level alarming and water
level protection are not reliable, and the water gauges of the electric contacts
and equalizing reservoir are also unreliable, the boiler should be shut down.

g) Once one water level gauge is repaired, ignition for re-startup can be
performed.

9.6 Steam and Water Carryover


9.6.1 Description
a) Steam drum water level fluctuates violently. The local water gauge is not

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clear when condition is worse.

b) Salt content of the saturated steam increases.

c) When it gets worse, the superheat steam temperature drops rapidly and
water impact will happen to steam pipeline, and steam will leak from the
flange.

9.6.2 Cause
a) Feedwater and boiler water quality deteriorate.

b) Chemicals are adjusted improperly or the blowdown work isn’t done


periodically.

c) Too much chemicals are put into boiler.

d) Boiler load increases or steam pressure drops rapidly.

e) The steam and water separator is not good and operates overload for a long
time.

9.6.3 Solution
a) Report to the shift leader immediately, reduce boiler load and keep boiler in
stable operation condition.

b) Adjust the set value or switch from automatic to manual mode according to
the steam temperature condition. Reduce desuperheating water amount and
isolate the desuperheating water if necessary.

c) Drain water from the superheater system and inform the turbine operator of
draining water from the main steam system to prevent the deteriorated
steam from coming into turbine.

d) Inform the chemical operator to take sample and analyze boiler water. Then,
blow down to improve boiler water quality according to the results.

e) Open the continuous blowdown valves and blow down more regularly to
improve boiler water quality.

f) Change the feedwater control to manual mode. Keep the steam drum water
level at -50 mm, and then closely monitor the saturated steam quality.

g) Flush and check the water level gauges once thoroughly.

h) Before boiler water quality improves, keep boiler in operation under low load
and it is forbidden to add load.

i) After the boiler water meets the requirements, increase the load slowly and
restore to normal operation.

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j) Through the above Solution, if the situation continues to deteriorate, and the
superheated steam temperature is less than 480℃, then apply for boiler
shutdown.

9.7 Economizer Pipe Damage


9.7.1 Description
a) Steam drum water level drops, so does the feedwater pressure. Feed water
flow is abnormally larger than that of steam. When it gets worse, the steam
drum water level could not be maintained.

b) There is abnormal sound at the leakage spot or steam leaks out from boiler
water wall or the spot is damp. Water flows out from the bottom of the flue
gas duct.

c) Negative pressure in the furnace decreases or become positive. Current of


ID fan increases and fluctuates.

d) After leakage and pipe explosion, the flue gas temperature will be reduced
and the flue gas temperature difference at the both sides will increase. The
hot air temperature reduces and white smoke is seen from the stack.

e) If water leaks from the bottom of the flue gas duct, the ash handling device
could be blocked and the ash blowdown could not be smooth.

f) Serious pipe explosion, steam and water spray out from the nearby poor
sealing areas. Water level is hard to maintain, which leads to MFT.

9.7.2 Cause
a) Feedwater doesn’t meet the requirements, which causes scaling or corrosion
of the pipes.

b) Feedwater temperature and flow fluctuate all the time.

c) Pipe material doesn’t meet the requirements or the welding is poor.

d) Serious abrasion of pipe external wall.

e) Improper use of the economizer recirculation valve during startup and


shutting down of the boiler.

f) Secondary combustion happens nearby the economizer.

g) Improper boiler sootblowing operations or leakage of the soot blower which


damage the pipe.

h) The flue gas temperature difference is too high, leading to over temperature
of the partial pipe wall.
i) Flue gas corridor formed due to bad installation or maintenance performance,

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which leads to serious abrasion and corrosion.

9.7.3 Solution
a) Report to the shift leader timely. Monitor the adjustment and local inspections.
Pay attention to that if the damage situation deteriorates quickly.

b) Stop the lime stone system immediately. Retreat ESP operation.

c) When the damage is not very serious, supply more water for maintaining the
normal water level and operation under low load. Then, apply for boiler
shutdown.

d) When the pipe explodes seriously, the steam drum water level is hard to
maintain or the MFT protection is activated, the boiler should be shut down in
emergency.

e) One ID fan is used to maintain the furnace negative pressure. Stop it when
flue gas and steam in flue gas duct almost disappear. It is forbidden to
supply water to the boiler or open the electrically recirculating valve of the
economizer.

f) Before steam and water disappear in the flue gas duct, manhole is forbidden
to be opened for inspection.

g) After boiler shutdown, try to discharge ash from the ash hopper below the
dust remover and flue gas duct.

9.8 Damage of Water Wall and Platen


9.8.1 Description
a) Steam drum water level drops rapidly. Feed water flow is abnormally larger
than steam flow.

b) There is leaking sound in the furnace. When the pipe explodes, the furnace
negative pressure will become positive. The poor sealed spot of the boiler
wall leaks. The oxygen content will decrease.

c) Output of ID fan abnormally increases and its baffle opening is abnormal


increased.

d) Furnace bed temperature drops obviously. Flue gas temperature at the inlet
and outlet of the cyclone separator drops and temperature of returning
material at the leg position decreases.

e) The temperature difference of flue gas at the both sides is too wide. The
smoke exhaust temperature decreases and bottom ash is difficult to be
discharged.

f) Feed pressure increases and pressure difference between bed layers also

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increase. Fluidization is not in good condition. Bed temperature drops
unevenly, and the current of primary fan increases.

g) After pipe explosion, steam in the boiler is not completely exhausted. After
the boiler is cooled down, material on the bed is likely to be hardened.

h) White smoke (or steam) emits from the stack (or steam)

9.8.2 Cause
a) Feed water and boiler water is over limits for a long time, leading to the
scaling inside the piper inner wall, in which result in over temperature of pipe
wall or corrosion under the scaling.

b) Pipe external wall is worn severely. There is serious coking, and pipe
explode due to partial overheat.

c) Long time operation under low load or improper blowdown leads to bad
water circulation.

d) Serious boiler water shortage.

e) Pipe material, fabrication and installation have problems. Maintenance


doesn’t meet the requirements. Foreign matters are left inside the pipes.
Pipe welded junction doesn’t meet the requirements.

f) Boiler startup and shutdown are not operated according to the regulations.
Each part expands unevenly and large thermal stress is produced.

g) Coal granularity exceeds the standards for a long time. To ensure


fluidization, increase the air speed, which leads to serious abrasion of the
heating surface and thinner pipe wall.

h) Water in steam drum downcomers and bottom header of water wall is


frozen when the boiler is under outage or the recirculation pipe is blocked
by foreign matters.

9.8.3 Solution
a) If there is leakage and the normal water level of the steam drum can be
remained and keep operation under low load, report it to the shift leader and
apply for boiler shutdown.

b) Stop the limestone system in operation immediately. Retreat ESP operation.


Continue running ash cooler and ash handling system and control the output
to be max.

c) Check and pay attention to that if the damage situation expands rapidly or
not. Closely monitor water level, steam temperature, bed temperature and
bed ash discharge conditions. Adjust boiler negative pressure and bed

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pressure. Communicate with the turbine operator to start up more feedwater
pumps according to the actual facts. If the problem expands, shut down
boiler urgently.

d) When bed temperature decreases and the combustion is unstable, supply


more oil to support combustion.

e) Reduce the primary and secondary air to ensure boiler negative pressure is
-100pa.

f) If the water wall is seriously damaged, after supplying more water, the steam
drum water level is still hard to maintain, shut down the boiler urgently.

g) One ID fan is in operation for exhausting steam and flue gas in the boiler.

h) After boiler is shut down, continue supplying water to maintain water level. If
the water consumption is too much and water level is hard to remain, stop
water supply accordingly.

i) When stop water supply, it is forbidden to open the economize recirculation


valve and air exhaust valve.
j) When the water and steam in the boiler is almost disappeared, shut down
ID fans to make the natural ventilation of the flue gas duct.

k) Other operations can be performed according to the normal boiler shutdown.


9.9 Damage of Superheater Pipe

9.9.1 Description
a) Unit load reduces suddenly, furnace negative pressure decreases or
becomes positive and the oxygen content drops.

b) Obvious fake water level happens to the steam drum.

c) Steam pressure decreases. Steam flow is abnormally less than feed water
flow.

d) Superheater explosion parts have abnormal sound. Flue gas leaks from the
poor-sealed position of boiler wall or enclosure wall.

e) Behind the leakage and pipe explosion, flue gas temperature decreases,
steam temperature and flue gas temperature difference increases and ID fan
current increases.

f) Superheated steam temperature changes. If the inlet side of the superheater


leaks, steam temperature will increase. If the outlet side of the superheater
leaks, steam temperature will decrease.

g) When the platen superheater leaks, bed pressure will fluctuates seriously,
bed temperature and separator inlet and outlet temperature decrease.

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9.9.2 Cause
a) Scaling or corrosion of the pipe inner wall leads to bad heat transfer.

b) Pipe external wall abrasion or serious high temperature corrosion.

c) Pipes are not fixed firmly and tremble in operation for a long time.

d) The temperatures of main steam or pipes in operation are over limits for a
long time, which result in superheater over temperature for a long time.

e) During boiler startup, drain water is not enough or the desuperheating water
is improperly put into operation under low load. This cause water blockage,
and leads to partial overheat.

f) Pipe material or equipment is damaged. Material or welding doesn’t meet the


requirements.

g) Superheater is of bad structure and boiler is seriously overpressure.

h) Sootblowing of the superheater is improper.

i) Pipe blockage by foreign matters leads to uneven steam flow, which results
in superheater partial pipe over temperature.

9.9.3 Solution
a) Report to the shift leader timely, monitor closely and pay attention to that if
the damage situation spreads rapidly.

b) If the leakage is not serious, steam temperature and combustion remain


normal, short-time operation is allowed. But the load should be reduced
properly. At the same time, report to the shift leader and apply for boiler
shutdown to avoid worse leakage.

c) When the pipe explodes seriously, shut down the boiler urgently so as to
avoid the accidents from spreading. Report to the shift leader and related
leaders.

d) Keep one ID fan in operation to exhaust steam in boiler and flue gas duct
after boiler shutdown.

e) Make up feedwater in small flow after boiler is shut down to keep a higher
water level of the steam drum. Open the economizer recirculation valve after
the water supply is stopped.

f) Steam in the boiler and flue gas duct almost disappears. Stop the ID fan for
natural ventilation.

g) Other operations should be done according to that of the normal boiler


shutdown.

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9.10 Damage of Reheater Pipe

9.10.1 Description
a) There is leaking sound at the pipe explosion places of the superheater.
Boiler negative pressure decreases suddenly or becomes positive. The
oxygen content decreases.

b) When cold reheater pipe explodes, flue gas or steam leaks from the
poorly-sealed places of the enclosure wall. when platen reheater pipe
explodes, flue gas or steam leaks from the poorly-sealed places of the
enclosure wall.

c) Reheat steam flow decreases abnormally and reheat steam pressure drops.

d) Behind the leakage and pipe explosion, flue gas temperature decreases,
steam temperature and flue gas temperature difference increases and ID
fan current increases.

e) When platen reheater leaks, bed temperature and separator inlet&outlet


temperature decreases, which may cause unstable combustion.

9.10.2 Cause
a) Improper combustion adjustment, too wide flue gas temperature difference
at the both sides, and uneven heat leads to the partial pipe wall over
temperature for a long time.

b) Pipe inner wall scaling or corrosion leads to deteriorated heat transfer.

c) Pipe external wall is worn or serious high temperature corrosion takes place.

d) Pipes are not fixed firmly and tremble in operation for a long time.
e) Reheat steam temperature or pipe wall temperature is over limit and in
operation for a long time, making the reheater pipe wall is in over
temperature condition for a long time.

f) During boiler startup, drain water is not enough or the desuperheating water
is improperly put into operation under low load, thus water is stopped,
leading to partial overheat.

g) Water wall scaling, and superheater ash blockage causes the increase of
flue gas temperature, and result in pipe wall over temperature.

h) Pipe material or equipment is damaged. Material or welding doesn’t meet the


requirements.

i) Improper design and fabrication, uneven steam flow and too low flow rate.

j) Pipe wall is seriously abraded.

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K) Insufficient monitoring by the operator, improper adjustment and long time
over temperature operation.

l) During the startup, shutdown and load shedding process, the bypass system
isn’t put into operation timely, thus result in the pipe wall over temperature
without cooling.

m) Pipe blockage by foreign matters leads to uneven steam flow, which results
in superheater partial pipe over temperature.

n) Sootblowing of the superheater is improper.

9.10.3 Solution
a) Report to the shift leader timely. Monitor it more closely. Pay attention to that
if the damage situation is worsened or not.

b) If the leakage is not serious, steam temperature and combustion remain


normal, short-time operation is allowed. But the load should be reduced
properly. At the same time, report to the shift leader and apply for boiler
shutdown, to avoid deteriorated leakage.

c) When pipe explodes seriously, shut down the boiler urgently, prevent the
accidents from spreading. Report to the shift leader and related leaders.

d) Keep one ID fan in operation to exhaust steam in boiler and flue gas duct
after boiler is shut down.

e) When the steam in the boiler and the flue gas duct is almost disappeared,
shut down ID fans for natural ventilation.

f) Other operations should be done according to that of the normal boil


shutdown.
9.11 Safety Valve Faults

9.11.1 Description
a) Safety valve doesn’t open when it reaches the action pressure.

b) Safety valve open when it doesn’t reach the action pressure

c) After opening, the safety valve doesn’t reseat or reseats too fast.

d) Safety valve inner leakage.

9.11.2 Cause
a) Blockage of the safety valve.

b) Spring material is not good.

c) Thermal instrument is abnormal.

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9.11.3 Solution
a) If safety valve isn’t open when it reaches the action pressure. And the air
exhaust valve and turbine bypass system can’t reduce the pressure
effectively, and then stop the boiler urgently.

b) If safety valve is open when it doesn’t reach action pressure, report to the
shift leader, keep boiler operation under reduced load, reduce steam
pressure to make the safety valve reseat as soon as possible. Contact the
maintenance personnel for maintenance. If it could not be solved under hot
state, apply for boiler shutdown based on the actual facts.

c) When the safety valve is open, the pressure is lower than the reseating
pressure but it doesn’t reseat, contact the turbine operator to reduce load.
Contact the maintenance personnel to take measures to make it reseat.
When the pressure is reduced and cannot meet turbine requirements, report
to the shift leader and apply for boiler shutdown.

9.12 Too High or too Low Bed Temperature


9.12.1 Description
a) Temperature indication of the thermometers in the boiler is higher or lower
than the normal.

b) There is an alarm of bed temperature too high or too low.

c) When the bed temperature is too high, the fire is much brighter than that
under normal bed temperature, which is observed from the observation hole;
when the bed temperature is too low, the fire is darker than that under
normal bed temperature, which is observed from the observation hole;

d) Bed temperature too high leads to scaling of bed material, causes improper
fluidization. When it becomes serious, large scale of scaling may happen.
Bed temperature too low results in darker flame in combustion and may
cause fire accidents. When it becomes serious, the boiler may be out of
flame.

e) When bed temperature is high, boiler is likely to scale, leading to boiler


shutdown. When bed temperature is low, the combustion is unstable and
furnace pressure fluctuates greatly.

9.12.2 Cause
a) Wrong indication due to sudden changes of coal type or bed temperature
thermocouple failure.

b) Coal feeder operates abnormally. Coal feeding amount is measured wrongly


which result in too much or less coal.

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c) Air and coal ratio is not proportional. The primary air of distribution plate is
too high or too low. Coal particle size deviates too much from the normal
value.

d) Bottom ash fails to be discharged and the discharge amount is not properly
controlled, causes bed pressure deviated from the normal value.

e) Slag discharge system failure or mis-operation causes bed pressure to


fluctuate greatly, results in the bed temperature too high or too low.

f) Limestone supply is uneven, and causes bed temperature too high or too
low.

9.12.3 Solution for too high bed temperature


a) Judge high bed temperature causes. If the bed temperatures of several
measuring points are too high, take corresponding measures. If bed
temperatures of many measuring points are normally higher, the following
measures should be taken.

b) If the bed temperature is up to 950℃, reduce coal supply amount, keep


boiler in operation under reduced load, and stabilize combustion to recover
bed temperature to the normal range.

c) Adjust air and coal proportion. Increase primary air ratio properly and the
total air amount. Keep the oxygen content within the normal range.

d) Increase limestone amount, return ratio in the boiler properly or add bed
material by starting material feeding system.

e) Check if the coal supply is normal or not. If abnormal, take corresponding


measures.

f) Keep the bed temperature within normal range. If the ash cooler fails,
contact the maintenance personnel for repair.

g) When bed temperature is 990℃, MFT will be activated.

9.12.4 Solution for low bed temperature


a) Purge bed temperature measuring points to judge indication correctness. If
the measuring points fail, contact the maintenance personnel for repair. If the
bed temperature decreases, find out causes.

b) If the coal feeding line fails, solve it and restore coal feeding timely.

c) Adjust primary, secondary air and air &coal proportion properly. Reduce
primary air amount of the air distributor properly. But good inner boiler
fluidization should be ensured. Control the oxygen content under the normal
range.

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d) When the bed temperature drops rapidly, stop the limestone system in
operation. Reduce cone valve opening properly to decrease material
returning.

e) Reduce or stop limestone supply properly.

f) Bed temperature too low makes the combustion unstable, supply oil to
stabilize combustion and prevent MFT activation.

g) If the MFT is activated, handle it according to relative regulations.

9.13 Too High/Low Bed Pressure


9.13.1 Description
a) High or low bed pressure alarm.
b) Bed pressure decrease or increase, which deviates from the normal value.
c) Output value of bed pressure regulator is too high or too low.
d) Ash cooler ash discharging flow is too big or small.

e) Air pressure of the water cooling air room is too high or too low.

9.13.2 Cause
a) Blockage of bed pressure measuring points or incorrect bed pressure
measured value.

b) Continuously uneven slag discharging leads to too much slag or no slag


discharge at all.

c) Abnormal fluidizing primary air quantity

d) Coal property changes a lot.

e) Slag inside boiler and uneven fluidization.

f) Load is increased or reduced too fast and the adjustment is not carried out in
time.
g) Ash cooler failure.
h) Material crushing system fails and particle size changes greatly.

9.13.3 Solution
a) If the bed pressure is too high, discharge more bottom ash, reduce or stop
bed material or limestone feeding to the boiler. On the contrary, reduce
bottom ash discharge. Feed bed material to the boiler if necessary.
b) If bed pressure measuring points fail, inform the I&C personnel to handle it. If
the bed pressure measuring points are blocked, purge them with the
compressed air.

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c) If the slag discharging system fails, inform the maintenance personnel to
repair. If can’t be restored in a short period of time, reduce load immediately.
d) When the coal property changes a lot, contact coal handling personnel to
change coal type. Reduce boiler load according to the operating conditions.
e) When the crushing system fails, handle it timely to have material particles in
the required range.

9.14 Coal Feeding Interruption


9.14.1 Description
a) Coal feeding amount is reduced gradually till it is to zero.
b) Coal feeder trips and DCS send fault alarm.
c) Oxygen content increases abnormally.
d) Furnace negative pressure increases.
e) Bed temperature, steam pressure and temperature drops greatly. Unit load
decreases obviously.
f) Steam drum level is low first, and then becomes higher.
g) Unstable combustion, unevenly bed pressure distribution and not timely oil
assistance which may lead to MFT.

9.14.2 Cause
a) Power supply of coal feeder is off.
b) Coal feeder fails or the coal feeder is shut down by mistake.
c) Coal is wet and blocks up the coal chute, leading to activation of coal feeder
coal blockage switch. Coal feeder trips.
d) Coal bunker “bridging” or empty coal bunker.
e) MFT protection action results in coal feeder trip.

9.14.3 Solution
a) If the coal bunker is empty, contact coal handling personnel to supply coal.
b) If it is the coal bunker bridging, start the vibrator, the manual rapping also
should be carried out at the same time. If it is the coal bunker bridging and
could not be eliminated timely, it should be regarded as deviation of bed
temperature, flue gas temperature and steam temperature. Adjust coal
feeder amount in other coal bunker. If necessary, reduce the load and supply
oil to help combustion at the same time.
c) If the coal feeder trips, try to put it in to operation once. If successful, restore
the original working condition, thoroughly check and find out the tripping
causes. Increase coal amount in other coal feeders, report to shift leader and
check thoroughly, and treat it if necessary.
d) If the coal feeder trips and its operation could not be restored, close the
outlet valves of coal feeder so as to prevent hot flue gas from damaging coal

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feeder belts.
e) When the bed temperature is lower than 650℃, put the oil gun into
operation to help combustion and to stabilize bed temperature, as well as
reduce boiler load timely. Reduce or disconnect desuperheating water to
prevent the main steam temperature from dropping drastically.
f) If electric failure leads to the coal supply interruption of all the coal feeding
lines, put the oil gun into operation, reduce unit load, find out the causes and
restore coal supply.
g) If MFT protection is activated, solve the problems according to the relevant
regulations.
9.15 Boiler Flame Out
9.15.1 Description
a) Bed temperature and flue gas temperature drops rapidly.
b) Bed pressure decreases. Particle density in the boiler becomes significantly
smaller.
c) Boiler becomes dark inside and the flame can’t be seen. Oxygen content
increases.
d) Temperature and pressure of superheated and reheated steam drop quickly.
e) If the turbine DEH power loop hasn’t been put into operation, unit load will
drops quickly.
f) If the automatic control of steam drum water level isn’t in service, water level
will decrease first, and then increase.

9.15.2 Cause
a) Auxiliary power electrical system of 6KV or 400V fails, which leads to
auxiliary equipment power failure.
b) Coal feeder fail and stop, which isn’t found out timely and leads to long time
coal interruption and bed temperature reduced to MFT activation value.
c) Material returning device and external bed return material work abnormally,
large amount of return feeding happens to pulse. If lots of bed materials
accumulated on the bed, it will cause flameout of burning coal due to sudden
oxygen loss.
d) When operates under low load, improper adjustment causes bed
temperature reduce to MFT activation value.
e) Coal property changes and is not adjusted timely.
f) Auxiliary equipment fails and trips, leading to MFT activation.
g) Main interlock protection of turbine, electrical and boiler is activated, leading
to MFT action.
h) Heating surface pipe explosion and water/steam leakage cause bed
temperature in the furnace decrease or intense furnace pressure fluctuation,
leading to MFT activation due to furnace pressure.

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i) MFT will be activated when other MFT conditions are met.

9.15.3 Solution
a) Stop coal feeder system and limestone system immediately. All automatically
controlled systems should be changed to manual control mode.
b) Put oil into operation to help combustion to increase bed temperature.
c) Reduce air amount, adjust circulating ash amount and cone valve opening.
Discharge some circulating ash or slag of external bed if necessary.
d) Reduce feed water amount and keep steam drum water level at -30mm.
e) Reduce or close desuperheating water according to steam temperature
down trend.
f) If the bed temperature meets the hot startup condition, perform the hot
startup immediately. If not, purge and perform the cold startup. It is forbidden
to supply coal blindly. Otherwise, secondary combustion or explosion or
coking will be caused.
9.16 Improper Bed Material Fluidization
9.16.1 Description
a) Uneven bed temperature, large bed pressure and bed density changes
significantly.
b) Serious air pressure fluctuation in the air chamber, so is the negative
pressure in furnace.
c) Large emission of NOx/CO and SO2.
d) Steam temperature and pressure and flow decreases.
e) Boiler is hard to take load.

9.16.2 Cause
a) Too much or too less bed material.
b) Too high or too low primary air proportion.
c) Fire-resistant and wear-resistant materials inside the boiler strip off and
block the air distribution plate.
d) Blockage of air nozzle.
e) Air fan fails or air damper is mis-operated by the operators.
f) Slag discharging system and bed material returning system fail.
g) Partial slag formation or load increase and decrease too fast.
h) Material particle size too big or small.

9.16.3 Solution
a) Adjust fluidizing air flow or pressure.

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b) Evenly adjust coal and limestone supply in the furnace.
c) If the bed material is too high or particle size is too big, strengthen slag
discharge. If the level of bed material is too low, then add bed material as
soon as possible.
d) If the particle size is too big or too small, discharge slag further and supply
and replace bed material to the boiler.
e) If local coking happens, the primary air pressure and air amount can be
increased properly.
f) When the adjustment fails and the situation becomes worse, shut down
boiler immediately.
9.17 Coking
9.17.1 Description
a) Bed temperature increases radically and exceeds 950℃.
b) Oxygen content indication drops and even to zero.
c) Electric current of primary air fan decreases . Furnace negative pressure
increases and electric current of ID fan decreases.
d) Bed material isn’t fluidized. Bed temperature and pressure measuring point
indications are not evenly distributed.

e) Slag is difficult to be discharged. Furnace has positive pressure and flames


of the some part of the bed layer or a large area are white.
f) Combustion is extremely unstable, relative parameters fluctuate and deviate
greatly.
9.17.2 Cause
a) Before boiler startup, too much fluidized nozzles are blocked or foreign
matters like fire-resistant materials are left in the boiler.

b) Improper monitoring and adjustment leads to bed over temperature.

c) Air and coal proportion is too low and coal supply is too much for a long time
when boiler is in operation.
d) Primary air flow is too low, lower than critical fluidizing air flow. Bed material
cannot be fluidized normally.
e) When putting flue gas duct igniter into operation, air distribution is out of
proportion seriously or the combustion power is too high.

f) During igniting and pressure increasing, coal is added too fast and too much
or the air flow isn’t adjusted when adding the coal.
g) Bed temperature is too high, bed material fusion point is too low or the
coking is produced due to bad fluidization for a long time.
h) Coal property changes a lot, so does the lime stone content.

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i) Return feeding is abnormal or blocked.
j) Load is increased too fast and the air flow is not adjusted in time.

k) Air nozzles are damaged and slag leaks into air chamber, causing uneven
air distribution.
l) Slag is discharged too much, leading to too low bed pressure.

m) The slag isn’t discharged timely, causing bed material layer too thick.
n) Boiler is started for a long time and the air and oil mixture combustion is too
long. Particle bed temperature is too high.

o) Improper fire banking or slow fire banking startup causes the bed materials
fail to be fluidized, and leads to partial coking.
p) During boiler shutdown, the fuels and materials are not fully burnt and tar is
separated out, leading to LT coking.

9.17.3 Solution
a) Increase primary air flow of the coking area.
b) Increase bed material replacement, discharge bad fluidized bed material and
make up with fresh bed material.
c) Reduce bed temperature properly, especially during startup process to
prevent bed temperature from increasing rapidly.
d) If the fluidization condition of the boiler is poor or operation is carried out
under low load for long time, try to improve it in time.
e) Test coal property and limestone content timely.
f) After adjustment, if it still cannot be improved, apply for boiler shutdown.
9.18 Detonation
9.18.1 Description
a) There is a huge sound inside the furnace. When it becomes serious, the
furnace will be deformed.
b) Combustible materials accumulate in the flue gas duct. After ignition, the
combustible materials will be fired, leading to flue gas temperature over
limit.
9.18.2 Cause
a) Before ignition, the furnace isn’t sufficient ventilated for purging. Flammable
gas and materials are not discharged.
b) During startup process, when the temperature for coal feeding isn’t met, but
the coal is fed. The bed temperature doesn’t increase, coal supply isn’t
stopped but even increase coal supply amount blindly.c) During startup, the
pulse coal feeding isn’t performed, but coal is fed directly.

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d) When shutting down boiler, coal accumulates on the upper part of gate
valve on the coal chute. When igniting, put the coal feeder into operation
and large amount of coal comes into the coal chamber.
e) After boiler is shut down and fuel is cut off, the air fan is stopped too early.
Boiler is not purged and ventilated thoroughly.

9.18.3 Solution
a) Before boiler startup, purge for enough ventilation to discharge flammable
gas and materials in the flue gas duct.
b) Before startup, perform the oil gun atomization test to avoid bad atomization,
which lead a large amount of oil accumulated in the ignition duct or in the
rear duct along with flue gas.

c) During the ignition, if the oil gun is out of flame, timely closes the oil valve.
Keep the fan in operation for 5 min, and then ignite the oil gun again.
d) If the oil gun mouth is blocked, oil gun has bad atomization condition. The
bed temperature is hard to increase and reach coal feeding temperature.
Stop the oil gun for cleaning or replacement and repeat ignition.
e) During ignition, open secondary air valve properly. This not only cools down
the secondary air port but also ensures adequate air ventilation of the dilute
zone, reduces and eliminates flue gas stagnation area and diminishes
flammable material accumulation timely.
f) Control coal feeding temperature properly. When the temperature is not
satisfactory for feeding coal, it is forbidden to add coal in advance.
Otherwise, coal will not be ignited and lots of flammable gas will be
separated and stored in furnace, separator and flue gas duct. Once there is
fire, detonation will happen. Even coking of equipment and beds will
happen.
g) Proportion of air with primary or secondary air should be adequate to
prevent incomplete burnt coal from being taken away and accumulating in
rear part of flue gas duct and horizontal flue gas duct. If the primary air is too
big, air rising speed will increase and coal volatile content is just separated
and the hard coke is blown up without combustion. If the secondary air is
inadequate, then disturbance will be decreased and the coal has no
adequate oxygen, thus the complete combustion conditions could not be
met.
h) Perform sootblowing on the rear part of flue gas duct periodically to take
accumulated combustible substance away.
i) Strictly control the coal particle size. Fine coal particles should not be too
much. Otherwise, the fine particles which haven’t been combusted will be
taken to the rear flue gas duct and settle down there.

j) During boiler ignition, oxygen content in the flue gas should be controlled
strictly and kept within 3~5%. During boiler load increase, add air first and
then the coal. When boiler load decreases, reduce coal first and then the air,
so as to stop boiler from operating under oxygen shortage working

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condition.

k) During operation under low load, bed temperature should be well controlled.
It is forbidden to operate under low bed temperature condition.
l) During boiler banking, the coal supply must be stopped. When the bed
temperature tends to be stable or to decrease a little, the FD fan can be
stopped. Prevent too much coal in the bed material after boiler banking
from producing a large amount of flammable gas and dry pulverized coal.
9.19 Secondary Combustion at Rear Flue Gas Duct
9.19.1 Description
a) Negative pressure of flue gas duct and furnace fluctuates severely. Oxygen
amount reduces. Temperature of flue gas, working media and exhaust rises
abnormally. Black smoke emits from the stack.
b) Secondary combustion at air heater causes increase of primary and
secondary air temperature, even over the designed value.
c) Electric current of induced draft fan fluctuates and increases. Air and gas
duct that are not airtight may have smoke or spark. Anti-explosive valve will
be activated.
9.19.2 Cause
a) Air and coal ratio or primary and secondary air ratio is improperly distributed.
Incompletely combusted coal is carried away by gas flow and deposits in
rear and vertical flue gas duct.
b) Separating efficiency of the separator is low. Particle deposits in flue gas
duct with gas flow.
c) Under boiler start-up or emergency state, putting oil gun into service takes
longer. Oil and coal combust together, which causes incomplete combustion
of coal due to insufficient oxygen.
d) Sootblower fails or ash is not timely blown out. Deposited combustible
cannot be blown away.
e) There is too much fine particle in coal. Incompletely combusted particle is
carried away to flue gas duct and deposits.
f) Oil gun atomization is poor. Oil drop flows to flue gas duct and adheres to
heating surface.
g) Ventilation and purging are not done in cold or hot start-up.
h) Bed layer temperature or coal volatile is too low. Taking anthracite as an
example, due to longer combustion than black and brown coal, those
un-combusted will be carried away to flue gas duct and deposits if air
amount and speed is not adjusted timely.
i) Coal is fed when bed temperature has not reached feeding value.
Continuous coal feeding is conducted instead of pulse coal feeding, which
causes the coal carried away and deposit, thus secondary combustion at
rear flue gas duct happens.

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j) Secondary combustion will happen when: Low load operation; low bed layer
temperature; Coal which is not burnt in time will be carried to flue gas duct
and deposits;

9.19.3 Solution
a) When flue gas temperature rises abnormally, conduct combustion
adjustment and sootblowing in secondary combustion area.
b) Put steam extinguisher into operation at secondary combustion area.

c) When secondary combustion happens and cannot be eliminated, carry out


emergency shut-down. Stop air fan and maintain steam drum water level.
Tightly close each damper, air valve in flue gas duct. Do not supply oxygen
to secondary combustion area. Combustion will gradually weaken due to
oxygen deficit and combustion will finally stop automatically
d) Put bypass system into operation after boiler shut-down. Maintain small
water inlet flow to economizer to cool the economizer, superheater and
reheater.
e) Confirm there is no fire source in flue gas duct. Start air fan and maintain air
flow above 30% to purge the furnace. Remove the residual flammable.
f) Repeat startup if flue gas duct and boiler inner equipment are not damaged.
9.20 Secondary Combustion of Separator
9.20.1 Description
a) Negative pressure in furnace fluctuates severely. Oxygen reduces. Exhaust
temperature rises abnormally.
b) ID fan current fluctuates and increases. Even the anti-explosive valve on top
of separator will be activated.
c) Flue gas temperature at separator outlet rises substantially.
d) Expansion joint at separator is burned red when serious.
9.20.2 Cause
a) Primary air is too big. Incompletely combusted coal is carried to separator
and burnt.
b) Coal granularity exceeds the set value or coal is too fine.
c) Coal volatile content is low.
d) Oxygen amount is insufficient during operation, which is lower than rated
value.
e) Bed layer temperature is too low.

9.20.3 Solution
a) Adjust primary air appropriately to lower the combustion area. Maintain good
fluidization of bed material.

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b) Increase secondary air to keep oxygen content within the set value.
c) Increase bed temperature. Incomplete combustion is not allowed.
9.21 Ash Slag with Large Carbon
9.21.1 Description
a) Ash and slag sample indexes exceed rated value through chemical test

b) Separated ash from the dust remover is dark gray.

c) Slag discharged from ash cooler contains incompletely-combusted coke

9.21.2 Cause
a) Operate in long-time lower-temperature bed layer condition

b) Operate in condition that bed layer thickness is too high or too low, which is
unreasonable.

c) Separator and material returning device work abnormally with blockage or


jamming.

d) Distribution ratio of primary air and secondary air is unreasonable, making


the coal incompletely oxidized, producing the fly ash.

e) Coal granularity is unqualified; if the particles diameter is larger, carbon


cannot be fully oxidized with the oxygen, the combustion time is lengthened,
the combustion efficiency is lower, the fly ash carbon content is increased; if
the big particles are exhausted before completely combusted, the slag
carbon content is increased; if the particles diameter is smaller, the the flue
gas fine-particle-carried ability is strengthened, and so is the fly ash density.

f) Impact of coal property: water content is larger, it’s required to absorb some
calories during combustion, bed layer temperature is kept as lower, the
combustion time is lengthened, the fly ash carbon content is increased; with
the ash content increasing or calories decreasing, fly ash carbon content
increases due to incomplete combustion.

g) If the separator efficiency is lower, the fly ash carbon content will be higher.

h) During cold sate startup, if the coal is supplied too early, the combustible
element cannot burn instantly.

9.21.3 Solution
a) In the premise that HP coking is not formed, it’s better to raise bed layer
temperature; make sure the separator inlet fume temperature is not too high,
in case of secondary combustion inside the separator.

b) In premise of sufficient total air flow and fluidization, reduce primary air,

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increase secondary air, so as to strengthen flowability

c) Adjust ratio between upper and lower secondary air, increase the upper
secondary air and decrease the lower secondary air; when increasing upper
secondary air, try to reduce impact on lower bed temperature, so as to help
increasing bed temperature; keep primary air as proper index, keep bed
material well fluidized, make less adjustment; control oxygen content mainly
by adjusting secondary air ratio.

d) Control the slag exhaust volume properly, discharge the slag evenly, try to
keep the exhaust volume of each ash cooler consistent; do not discharge
slag continuously with a large volume; do not operate without discharging
slag for a long time.

9.22 Furnace Wall Damage


9.22.1 Description
a) Furnace guard board and fire-resistant or heat insulation material fall off. The
exterior side of furnace is burned red or slag or ash emits outward.
b) Support and ring beam are heated or even burned red.
c) Furnace has air leakage or smoke emission.
9.22.2 Cause
a) Improper combustion adjustment; uneven bed layer fluidization.
b) Inappropriate design and installation is not reasonable or maintenance
quality does not meet the requirement.
c) Undesirable fire-resistant material quality.
d) Severe coking erodes fire-resistant material.

9.22.3 Solution
a) If furnace is not seriously damaged, reduce load for further operation.
Increase furnace negative pressure. Pay much attention to furnace damage
situation.
b) If furnace is severely damaged, negative pressure cannot be maintained,
bed material spray by positive pressure or furnace frame is burned red, carry
out emergency shut-down and report to shift leader.
9.23 Air Chamber Slag Leakage
9.23.1 Description
a) Influence material fluidization, making the air chamber pressure increase
abnormally.

b) PA fan outlet pressure increases, which is easy to damage the primary air
duct.

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9.23.2 Cause
a) Related with the evenness of bed material and its fluidization, and related
with the air distributor resistance.

b) Air nozzle declines or is seriously damaged, and the adjacent air nozzles
blow towards each other, causing air nozzle damage.

c) Air nozzle outlet flow rate is uneven, minor flow rate causes material to leak
into air chamber from air nozzle of lower rate.

d) Returning material of material returning device is too concentrated, bed


pressure is too large, especially when the returning is incontinuous; when
the bed pressure is too large, air distributor partial slag leakage is serious.

9.23.3 Solution
a) When it is found that there is slag leakage, reduce air fan operations,
stabilize operation and timely report to shift leader.

b) When the slag leakage is serious, retain the operation, try to keep the load
stable, and prepare for applying for boiler shutdown.

c) When the slag leakage is serious, a large part of the ignition air duct has
been blocked, the bed material fluidization is uneven, apply for shutdown
immediately as required.

9.24 Coking and Jamming of Material Returning Device


9.24.1 Description
a) Material level gauge indicates higher

b) Refeeder air chamber pressure is too high

c) Bed pressure decreases.

d) Primary air flow increases.


e) temperature, pressure and load decrease.

f) Furnace negative pressure decreases and that of flue gas duct increases.

g) Bed layer temperature increases beyond control.


h) Output of HP fluidized fan increases obviously. Electric current and header
pressure increase result in opening of safety valve.
9.24.2 Cause
a) Material returning air is insufficient. Returning ash cannot be normally
fluidized.
b) Anti-wear material strips off and covers air nozzle, which causes abnormal
material returning.
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c) HP fluidized fan fails and material cannot be returned.
d) Air nozzle inside material returning device is damaged. Returning ash is not
well fluidized and material returning not free.
e) Over temperature of material returning device and over temperature coking
caused by secondary combustion.
f) Air distribution plate and air nozzle are damaged. Ash leaks to lower air
chamber, which makes fluidized air insufficient
g) Material returning air and loosening air ratio is not proper.

9.24.3 Solution
a) When there is slight ash blockage, reduce coal feeding and slag discharge.
Reduce load and disturb by repeatedly switching and adjusting loosening air
and material returning air. Enhance slag discharge of material returning
device and its air chamber.
b) If air nozzle is blocked, anti-wear material fall off and coke is formed, shut
down for handling.
9.25 Drastic Decrease of Load
9.25.1 Description
a) Main steam pressure increases drastically. High steam pressure alarms.
Safety valve actuates if not timely handled.
b) Steam flow decreases dramatically.
c) Steam drum water level decreases first, and then rises. Water feeding
becomes less when it is in auto mode. Steam temperature rises.
9.25.2 Cause
a) Electric or power grid system fails.
b) Steam turbine or generator trips.
c) Mis-operation by operator.
d) Electrically-operated main stop valve is closed automatically.

9.25.3 Solution
a) According to steam pressure and pressure rising, open vent valve for
pressure relief and put LP bypass system of steam turbine into operation.
b) If safety valve is activated, check it after it seat back. Observe whether it is
tightly closed.
c) According to pressure rising, switch some governor into manual. Reduce
coal feeding or stop part of coal feeding for a short period. Strengthen
monitoring and adjustment of steam drum water level, steam pressure, bed
temperature, pressure and air amount.
d) According to bed temperature, if boiler minimum stable combustion cannot
be maintained, fire oil to support combustion. Reduce material circulation

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furnace differential pressure when necessary.
e) If steam pressure is reached but it is not open, and air vent and bypass
cannot relieve sufficient pressure, perform an emergency shutdown and fire
banking.
f) If fault cannot be eliminated timely and condition for synchronization and
loading are not met, then put boiler into banking state as standby.
9.26 Auxiliary Power System
9.26.1 Description
6KV auxiliary power is interrupted.
6KV voltage indication is zero, AC lighting is off, emergency lighting is on and
emergency loudspeaker sounds.
All running power equipment stop and current indication is zero.
Boiler firing is off, steam temperature, steam pressure, flow and water level
decreases.
All MOV and actuator power are off.
380V auxiliary power is interrupted.
380V voltage indication is zero, AC lighting is off, emergency lighting is on and
emergency loudspeaker sounds.
All running power equipment stop and current indication is zero.
Boiler firing is off, steam temperature, steam pressure, flow and water level
decreases.
All MOV and actuator power are off.
9.26.2 Cause
Cause for 6KV auxiliary power interruption
Auxiliary power is failure, electrical is failure or is conducted with wrong
operation.
Power grid system is failure, which causes plant busbar switches to trip and backup
power source fails to put into operation automatically.
Cause for 380V auxiliary power interruption
HV auxiliary power system or LV transformer is failure.
Electrical is failure or conducted with wrong operation, backup power source fails to
be put into operation automatically.

9.26.3 Solution
Immediately reset all trip power switches.
Open the air vent valve of superheater, inform steam turbine operator to put primary
bypass, open air vent valve of reheater. Try the best to avoid safety valve working.

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Open the recirculating vakve of economizer.
Manually open all dampers of air ducts at local. Decrease the temperature level
inside furnace by max velocity.
After power is recovered, immediately feed water to steam drum (when differential
temperature of economizer outlet water temperature and steam drum wall
temperature exceeds 112℃, it is require dot stop feeding water to economizer and
steam drum).
Boiler startup should be based on the conditions of bed temperature, use Startup in
Warm State or Startup in Hot State.

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10 Auxiliary System of Boiler

10.1 Checking Before Rotary Machine Startup


Each anchor screw of motor and rotary machine is fixed. Protective shell and
handrail of shaft disclosing part are in place and secure. Coupler is well
connected.
Motor insulation meets the requirement. Terminal boxes, cable end, grounding
wire of motor and emergency button are in good condition. No operator work on
motor and its attached machine.
Illumination around equipment is sufficient. The site is clean without foreign
matters, powder, and ash and water deposit. Check air duct, flue gas duct,
furnace, convection area, separator and ash cooler to ensure there is no operator
and foreign matters. Each access door and checking hole is closed.
Bearing, motor, cooler and other cooling water device are in good condition.
Cooling water valve is in correct state and pressure is normal.
Oil level of bearing pedestal is normal. Oil quality is desirable. Oil mirror and level
line is clear. There is no oil leakage.
Each instrument is in good condition with correct indication. Protective and
remote control device are in place. Governing valve damper and its driving
mechanism pass the tests.
Operators on duty should report to shift leader or chief operator after checking
those rotary machines to be started and wait for start-up by emergency button.

10.2 Rotary Machine Test-rum


For newly-installed rotary machine and those after overhaul, motor should be
tested independently before connecting motor and machinery part.Check rotating
direction. Test driving machine after ensuring emergency switch is correct and
reliable.
Rotate coupler by 1-2 turns. It should be normal and flexible.
During first time start-up, stop operation with emergency button after full rotating
speed is reached. Check locally the vibration and friction sound. Observe bearing
and rotary parts. Record coasting time. Pay attention to start-up current, time,
motor rotating direction and current returning value on panel. Start up if
everything is normal.
During machine test-run, raise load gradually to rated value. Current cannot
exceed limit. Pay attention to friction impact and abnormal sound inside
machines. Bearing has no oil or water leakage. Bearing temperature rising is
stable and within the range as well as vibration and displacement. Motor current
is normal without burnt odor and spark emission.

10.3 Standards for Rotary Machine Test


Correct rotating direction. Normal current. flexible and correct load adjustment.
Flexible actuator and correct damper position.

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No abnormal sound for bearing and rotating parts.
Bearing oil level is normal and visible. There is no water and oil leakage. Cooling
device is in good condition.
Bearing temperature and vibration meets manufacturer specification. Refer to the
following standards if there is no manufacturer specification:
A. For sliding bearing, the temperature cannot exceed 70℃ on machine side
and 80℃ on motor side.
B. For rolling bearing, the temperature cannot exceed 80℃ on machine side
and 95℃ on motor side.
Bearing vibration should be within the following value

Rated rotating speed R.P.M 3000 1500 1000 Below 750

Double vibration amplitude,


50 85 100 120
μm

Shaft displacement, mm ≯4

10.4 Precautions of Rotating Machine


Before driving machine for test-run, motor should be tested independently to
ensure correct rotating direction.
Air fan cannot be started under load. Rotary machines as pumps cannot be
started or operated without load.
Test-run time requirement of air fan: above 8 hours for newly-installed machines.
Above 2 hours after overhaul. Above 1 hour under special circumstance.
Rotary machines in standby should be periodically checked and switched.
Contact electric operator to measure insulation before start-up if it is in standby
for more than 7 days.
6KV motor can be started twice in cold state and once in hot state under normal
circumstance. Each time interval should be above 5 minutes. Motor can be
started one more time only during trouble-shooting and when start-up time
duration is within 2-3 minutes.
When remote operation and switch-on are performed to newly-installed motor or
motor after overhaul, responsible operators should stay at local. They can leave
only after rated rotating speed is reached and everything is normal.
Pat attention to inspection during rotating machine test-run. Stop operation when
problems are found.

10.5 Maintenance of Rotating Machine during Operation


Check bearing temperature, vibration and axial displacement of each rotating
machine. Report to shift leader or chief operator immediately and handle in time if
problems are found.

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Ensure normal oil level and quality during operation. Add lubrication when oil
level is close to minimum level.
Check to ensure anchor screws, coupler screws and grounding wire are in place
firmly. Protective cover is in good performance without block at air inlet.
Each driving mechanism, pressure gauge, thermometer and measuring point of
instrument is in good condition. Driving device performs well.
The sound of motor and rotating machine is normal.
There is no oil leakage on bearing. Cooling water is sufficient and unobstructed.
Water discharge hopper has no block.
Illumination around equipment is sufficient. The field is clean without sundries. It
is not allowed to have work which hinders the operation of equipment.
Stop cooling water 30 minutes after rotating machine is shut down.
Thoroughly check equipment in outage for once and take notes. Equipment
should be in good standby state.
10.6 Startup and Shutdown of ID fan
10.6.1 Startup condition
a) ID fan is normal without any failure.
b) Remote control.
c) Establish air channel or operate any ID fan.
d) The inlet adjustment baffle of ID fan outlet flue gas baffle is at close position.
e) Inlet flue gas baffle is at full open position.
f) Motor bearing temperature <85℃.
g) Motor bearing vibration <3mm/s.
h) Draught fan bearing vibration<6.3mm/s.
i) Draught fan bearing temperature <75℃.

j) Motor coil temperature <135℃.


k) The startup condition is satisfied on site.
l) There is no condition led to ID fan trip.
10.6.2 Startup procedure
a) Close inlet electrically-operated governing damper and outlet
electrically-operated damper of ID fan.
b) Start the motor of ID fan.
c) Open outlet motor operated damper.
d) According to wind pressure use inlet motor operated damper of ID fan to adjust.

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10.6.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Close the inlet electrically-operated governing damper.
b) Stop the motor.
c) Close the outlet electrically-operated damper.
10.7 Startup and Shutdown of Fluidizing Air Fan
10.7.1 Startup condition
a) Air channel has been established.
b) Start-up conditions on site have been met.
c) There is no tripping condition.
d) One ID fan is in operation.
e) Open air regulation damper of material returning device.
f) Remote control.

10.7.2 Startup procedure


a) Open outlet electrically-operated damper.
b) Start the motor.
10.7.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Stop the motor.
b) Close the outlet electrically-operated damper.
10.8 Startup and Shutdown of HP Secondary Air Fan
10.8.1 Startup condition
a) Second air fan has no failure.
b) Remote control.
c) Inlet adjusting damper of outlet flue gas damper for second air fan is at full
close position.
d) Motor bearing temperature <85℃.
e) Motor bearing vibration <3mm/s.
f) Fan bearing vibration<6.3mm/s.
g) Fan bearing temperature<75℃.

j) Motor coil temperature<135℃.


h) Start-up conditions on site have been met.
i) There is no tripping condition for second air fan.
j) One ID fan is in operation.

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k) Any two set of high pressure fluidization fans are in operation.
10.8.2 Startup procedure
a) Close inlet electrically-operated governing damper and outlet
electrically-operated damper of secondary air fan.
b) Start secondary air fan motor.
d) Open outlet MOV.
d) Adjust the inlet control valve of fan.
10.8.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Close the inlet electrically-operated governing damper.
b) Stop the motor.
c) Close the outlet electrically-operated damper.
10.9 Startup and Shutdown of PA Fan
10.9.1 Startup condition
a) Start-up conditions on site have been met
b) There is no tripping condition for PA fan
c) One ID fan is in operation.
d) Any two of HP fluidizing air fans are in operation.
e) Any one of second air fan is in operation.
f) Remote control.
g) PA fan is normal without any failure.
h) Inlet adjusting damper of outlet flue gas damper for fan is at close position.
i) Motor bearing temperature <85℃.
j) Motor bearing vibration<3mm/s.
k) Motor bearing vibration<6.3mm/s.
l) Motor bearing temperature <75℃.

m) Motor coil temperature<135℃

10.9.2 Startup procedure


a) Close inlet electrically-operated governing damper and outlet
electrically-operated damper of secondary air fan.
b) Start PA fan motor.
c) Open PA fan outlet electrically-operated damper.
d) Open PA fan inlet electrically-operated governing damper.

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e) Adjust the inlet control valve of fan.
10.9.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Close the inlet electrically-operated governing damper.
b) Stop the motor.
c) Close the outlet electrically-operated damper.
10.10 Startup and Shutdown of Coal Distribution Fan
10.10.1 Startup condition
a) No MFT protection activation.
b) At remote control mode.
c) One PA fan is in operation.
d) Air inlet door and outlet door has closed.
e) No protection activity and trip.
f) Motor bearing temperature <85℃.
g) Fan bearing vibration <6.3mm/s.
h) Fan bearing temperature<75℃.

i) Motor coil temperature<135℃.

10.10.2 Startup procedure


a) Close inlet motor control valve and outlet motor adjusting valve of coal
distribution fan.
b) Start the motor of coal distribution fan.
c) Start the outlet motor operated valve of coal distribution valve.
d) Start inlet motor adjusting valve of coal distribution fan.
e) Use inlet motor adjusting valve of coal distribution fan to adjust.
10.10.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Close inlet motor adjusting valve of primary air fan.
b) Stop the motor of primary air fan.
c) Close the outlet motor valve of primary air fan.
10.11 Startup and Shutdown of Coal Feeder
10.11.1 Startup condition
a) No MFT protection activation.
b) Coal feeder is at remote control mode and rotating speed command is zero.
c) No coal feeder trip command.

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d) Inlet gate valve has been closed.
e) Outlet gate valve has been opened.
f) Pneumatic gate valve at coal feeder outlet has been opened.
g) Temperature inside coal feeder is not high.
10.11.2 Startup procedure
a) Open sealing air of coal feeder and coal blowing air of coal chute
b) Open outlet gate valve and outlet pneumatic gate valve.
c) Start up coal feeder.
10.11.3 Shutdown procedure
a) Close inlet gate valve.
b) Operate for one more minute and stop coal feeder after coal amount
indicates zero.
c) Close outlet pneumatic gate valve.
d) Close sealing air of coal feeder and coal blowing air of coal chute.
10.12 Startup and Shutdown of Fuel Oil System
10.12.1 Inspection and preparation before startup
a) Fuel oil pump, oil filter pipes and valve are in place without leakage.
b) There is no foreign matter and inflammable in oil pump house and oil tank
area with adequate illumination.
c) Relative fire extinguishing, purging pipeline and valves are in place without
leakage.
d) Check to ensure the following valves are open: outlet valve of oil tank, oil
returning valve, outlet valve, and stop valve in front and at the back of flow
meter, pressure gauge valve, and inlet and outlet valve of oil pump.
e) Check to ensure the following valves are closed: oil discharge valve of oil
filter and oil pipeline, purge valve, oil inlet valve of oil gun.
10.12.2 Fuel oil pump startup procedure
a) The initial start-up after maintenance should be performed together with
maintenance personnel.
b) When fuel oil pump is in normal standby and boiler consumes oil, the chief
operator should contact oil pump house operators on duty to check fuel oil
system and start in control room by remote control.
c) After oil pump is started, check current and each rotary part. Valve of each
equipment and pipeline has no oil leakage and oil circulation is normal.
Adjust outlet oil pressure to 3.2MPa and put standby oil pump interlock into
operation.
10.12.3 Inspection and Maintenance of fuel oil system operation

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a) Check shaft displacement, vibration and temperature of oil pump during
running. Ensure they do not exceed the set value. Pump gland has no oil
leakage. Handle and remove the problem timely if oil leakage or
accumulated oil is found.
b) Check to ensure valve of fuel oil pipeline has no leakage. Replace timely
when pipe insulation is immersed with oil.
c) Check to ensure oil filter has no jamming.
d) Oil pump should be in standby state at any moment. Firefighting equipment
should be in standby and periodically checked.
e) Before starting firing work near oil tank, work permit must be issued. Enough
fire fighting facilities are available on site, such as foam extinguisher, carbon
dioxide extinguisher, sand box and shovel.
10.12.4 Solution for fire of fuel oil system
a) When oil system is on fire, operators on duty should report to shift leader
immediately. Take extinguishment measures or contact fire fighting team
accordingly.
b) If oil pump house or oil on ground is on fire, extinguish with foam
extinguisher or sand. If electric equipment, motor or fuel oil operation is
threatened, cut off power supply and extinguish with dry extinguisher, carbon
dioxide or 1211 extinguisher.
10.13 Operation and Shutdown of Startup Burner
10.13.1 Inspection and preparation before startup
a) Oil gun and igniter are in correct position. Quick closing valve in front of oil
gun is closed. Quick closing valve on header in front of boiler is open. There
is no oil leakage.

b) High-energy igniter, and flame detector power source is normal


c) Furnace purging has been finished. Air flow is proper.
d) Fuel oil pump is running normally. Oil circulation is normal. Pressure and
temperature of fuel oil meet the requirement.
e) Sealing air of oil gun, high-energy igniter, and flame detector and
observation hole is put into operation.

10.13.2 Startup procedure


a) Only after ignition conditions are met, can ignition burner be started.
b) Set hot air valve of main primary air to ignition position, and the primary hot
air damper at 5% under the principle that the oil gun won’t be off by blowing.
Adjust opening of ignition air valve and mixed air valve according to burning
conditions.
c) Set start burner and ignition valve to about 30%. Oil gun cannot be blown off.
Adjust opening of ignition air valve according to burning condition.
d) Send out ignition signal. High-energy igniter should stretch into designed

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position and ignite. Open quick closing valve in front of oil gun two seconds
after ignition. If flame is not detected within ten seconds, then ignition fails.
Close quick closing valve in front of oil gun. Open purging valve and purge
the oil gun for 1 minute, during which high-energy igniter should stretch into
fixed position and ignite.
e) Stop high-energy igniter after flame is detected. Slowly adjust opening of
ignition air valve to proper position according to burning conditions.
f) Adjust air valve opening and oil inlet according to air duct wall temperature.

10.13.3 Shutdown procedure


a) Send out stop signal. Close quick closing valve in front of oil gun. Open
purging valve and purge the oil gun for 1 minute, during which high-energy
igniter should stretch into fixed position and ignite.
b) After starting burner and bed gun are stopped. Set starting burner and
ignition air valve to about 5%.
c) After igniter of air duct is stopped, transfer air. Slowly open the main primary
hot air damper to 100%, slowly close ignition air valve. During transferring air,
slowly open and close air valve in turn in accordance with air flow indication,
parameters of air fan and furnace negative pressure.
d) Properly close sealing air valve of oil gun, high-energy igniter, flame detector
and observation hole to maintain small amount of air inlet.

10.14 Operation and Shutdown of Continuous Blowdown Flash Tank


10.14.1 Operation procedure
a) Check safety valve, pressure gauge, water level gauge, water level regulator,
pipeline and valves to ensure they are in good condition.
b) Close drainage governing valve and bypass valve. Open manual valve
before and after the drainage governing valve of continuous blowdown flash
tank.
c) Inform steam turbine and boiler personnel to put continuous blowdown of
steam drum into operation. Slightly open blowdown valve to warm up the
pipes. Pay attention to pressure change of continuous blowdown flash tank.
d) When the pressure of continuous blowdown flash tank is higher than that of
deaerator, communicate with the turbine operator to open the valve from
flash tank to deaerator.
e) Slowly open continuous blowdown valve. Adjust its opening according to
chemical department requirements and test results of boiler water.
f) Maintain water level of the flash tank. Check the water level regulator, which
should work normally.
g) Operate slowly and cautiously when putting continuous blowdown flash tank
into operation to avoid overpressure.

10.14.2 Procedure

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a) Inform steam turbine and boiler to shut down continuous blowdown of steam
drum. Close blowdown valve and valve from flash tank to deaerator at the
same time.
b) Open drainage bypass valve and governing valve of continuous blowdown
flash tank. When there is no water level indication, close drainage bypass
valve, manual valves before and after the drainage governing valve.

10.15 Operation And Shutdown of Boiler Bottom Heating


10.15.1 Operation procedure
a) Inform steam turbine and boiler to prepare bottom heating operation. Open
drainage valve on steam heating header. Header should be adequately
drained and warmed.
b) Open drainage valve of steam heating header, steam inlet manual valve and
electrically-operated valve. Close drainage valve on header and header
after adequate pipe warming and drainage.
c) Open each heating valve on lower header of water wall one by one.
d) After steam enters the bottom header for heating, reinforce monitoring of
steam pressure and temperature difference between upper and lower wall
of steam drum.
e) When steam drum pressure reaches 0.2Mpa, close air valve and drainage
valve.
f) When steam pressure reaches 0.3~0.5MPa, clean water level meter once.
Inform I&C personnel to clean instrument pipes. Inform maintenance
personnel to tighten screws under hot state. Close each drainage valve.
10.15.2 Shutdown procedures
a) Contact steam turbine to prepare for bottom heating stop.
b) Close each heating valve of water wall lower header one by one.
c) Close steam inlet manual and electrically-operated valve of steam heating
header.
d) Open drainage valves on heating steam header. Close those after draining is
finished.
e) Report to group and shift leader for boiler bottom heating stop and take
notes.
10.15.3 Precautions
a) After bottom heating is put into operation, if water level of boiler exceeds the
normal value, open the emergency drain valve.
b) Before and after putting bottom heating into operation, record expansion
indicator once to see whether the expansion of each part is even.
c) After stopping bottom heating, check bottom heating valve and heating valve
of proper header. Ignition can be started if everything is normal without
leakage.

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11 Trouble-shooting for Boiler Auxiliary System

11.1 Trouble-shooting for Rotating Machine


11.1.1 Conditions for emergency shutdown
a) When it threatens personnel safety.
b) Motor and its driven equipment are damaged seriously.
c) Motor smokes. Junction box spark. There is strong burnt smell.
d) Severe vibration occurs and the value is substantially over rated value.
e) Stator current is beyond rated value and cannot be back to normal after
regulation. Current fluctuation is too violent.
f) Bearing temperature increases unallowably and exceeds the limit value.
g) Bearing box loses its oil level, even result in bearing pad smoking.
11.1.2 Cause for sever vibration of rotating machine
a) Motor and its driven equipment are not aligned.
b) Mechanical rotating parts and motor rotor are imbalanced.
c) here is friction between rotating and static parts.
d) The bearing is damaged or journal is worn.
e) Coupler and connecting device are damaged.
f) Driven equipment is damaged.
g) Iron core of motor rotor is damaged or loose. Spindle is bent or ruptured.
h) Some parts are loose, such as bearing, end cover. The connection between
pedestal and foundation is not tight enough.
i) Air space for motor chamber and rotor is not uniform and exceeds rated
value.
11.1.3 Handling method for rotating equipment severe vibration
a) Enhance inspection for vibration. Check fastening condition of foundation
bolt for pedestal and foundation fixed location. If it is not tight or broken,
inform maintenance for repairing.
b) Listen to bearing sounds. Pay attention to whether there is knock sounds on
bearing (esp. rotating bearing). Report conditions to chief supervisor or shift
leader in time.
c) When vibration seriously exceeds rated value and equipment safety is
threatened, the motor should be shut down.
d) Work with maintenance personnel to find out vibration source. After coupler
is removed, operate the motor under no load. If vibration is normal, it
indicates it is caused by the driven equipment. If not, vibration is caused by

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motor itself.
11.1.4 Cause for rotating equipment bearing high temperature
a) Oil supply is insufficient. The grease is insufficient or too much. Lubrication
deteriorates.
b) Oil quantity does not meet requirements: oil type is wrong; oil contains water;
oil is not clean enough, oil is high in viscosity etc.
c) Driving belt is too tight. Bearing cap covers too tight. Bearing pad surface is
poorly scraped. Bearing clearance is too small.
d) It is not aligned.
e) Rotor is not in magnetic field so that axial displacement and bearing knock
are caused.
f) Ambient temperature is too high.
g) Bearing vibration is too heavy.
11.1.5 Handling method for rotating bearing high temperature
a) When bearing temperature rises abnormally, but within limit and temperature
rise≤40℃, temporary operation is allowed. However, related leader should
be reported in time. Relevant maintenance personnel should be informed.
Operators should increase inspection for bearing temperature.
b) When bearing temperature exceeds protection value, emergency shutdown
should be carried out.
c) After maintenance is finished, operation can be recovered.

11.2 ID Fan Faults


11.2.1 Description
a) When ID fan has mechanical damages, its current will be abnormal and
exceeds rated value.
b) There may be severe vibration, displacement and rotor or casing frication.
Bearing temperature rises abnormally.
c) If ID fan trips, motor indication is yellow and current turns back to zero. Fault
alarm will ring.
d) When two ID fans are in operation but one trips caused by faults and furnace
negative pressure decreases and even turns to positive, light and sound
signals will be sent and the inlet and outlet damper for tripped ID fan will
automatically closed. The operating fan current will increase and its inlet
damper will automatically open wide.
e) When the only ID fan operates or two ID fans trip at same time, furnace
negative pressure drops rapidly. Interlock protection will operate and MFT
will be actuated. According to interlock sequence, equipment after ID fan will
trip successively. Fan inlet damper keeps previous position.

11.2.2 Cause

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a) The blade is seriously damaged and rusted or deposited with ash so that it
loses balance and result in vibration.
b) Impeller and its bearing are loose. Anchor screw is loose.
c) Fan is balanced or motor is not aligned when maintenance is carried out.
d) Because of fault, motor trips or emergency button is pushed wrongly or
electrical fault happens.

11.2.3 Solution
When two ID fans are in operation, one of them trips by fault:
a) If there is no abnormal phenomenon, like over-current, and main interlock
does not act, but the ID fan tripped, forcedly close CB of ID fan to re-operate
it. If the reclosing is ineffective, faulty fan should be put into stop mode
immediately and operator close its outlet-inlet dampers. Open other fan
dampers widely and increase its output, but over current is not allowed.
b) If there is over-current or any abnormal symptom, forced closing of CB is not
allowed. Main operator should regulate burning in time and keep burning
stable and furnace negative pressure normal.
c) Monitor ID fan output and reduce boiler load to 50%~60% of MCR. Regulate
air-coal ratio and keep stable operation.
When only one fan operates or tow ID fans trips at same time:
d) When MFT is activated, shut down boiler in emergency shutdown procedure
in time. Report it to shift leader.
e) When restoring, standby fan should be started first. If standby fan cannot
start or there is no standby fan, fans should be tripped at the same time.
Before trip, there are no abnormal symptom, such as over current or
mechanical defects. Find out the reason and recover operation as soon as
possible.
f) If the any one of the following situations happens, the fan should be stopped
immediately: rated current value is too big or vibration is too severe; bearing
temperature exceeds limit value; there is potential danger for equipment
damage and operation.

11.3 HP Fluidizing Air Fan Faults


11.3.1 Description
a) Fan has abnormal current or exceeds rated value or is down to zero.
b) If fan trips, display of motor turns yellow. Current turns to zero and fault
alarm will ring.
c) Fan trips and pressure drops in air chamber of fuel returning device. HP
fluidizing air flow drops. When condition is serious, material returning dip leg
will be blocked.
d) The operating fan trips. If standby fan is failed to start, Header for HP
fluidizing air gets low pressure and MFT protection is activated.

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11.3.2 Cause
a) Bearing lubricant quality is poor. Bearing temperature rises and causes
damages
b) Protection malfunctions or activates because motor trips, or emergency
button is pressed mistakenly or electrical fault happens.

11.3.3 Solution
a) Fault fan trips and standby fan is started by interlock. If startup works
successfully, air pressure should be back to rated value immediately. At the
same time, fault fan should be put to OFF position immediately
b) If interlock startup of standby air fan is failed, manual startup should be
carried out immediately. If it still does not work and at the same time there
are no obvious electrical and mechanical faults, forced closing should be
taken. If the MFT protection is activated, emergency shutdown should be
carried out and shift leader should be reported.

11.4 Secondary Air Fan Faults


11.4.1 Description
a) Secondary air fan current is abnormal or exceeds the rated current because
of mechanical damages or other reason.
b) Maybe there are severe vibration, displacement and rotor or cover shell
frication by the way. Bearing temperature rises abnormally.
c) If fan trips, display of motor turns yellow. Current turns to zero and fault
alarms. Oxygen content will decrease and boiler bed temperature will rise.
d) When two ID fans are in operation, one trips by fault and furnace negative
pressure increases, acoustic-optical signal will be sent and secondary air fan
will trip. Outlet dampers and inlet dampers will automatically close. The
running fan current will increase and inlet damper automatically open wide.
e) When the only secondary air fan operates or two fan trip at same time,
furnace negative pressure rises rapidly. Interlock protection will operate and
MFT will be activated.

11.4.2 Cause
a) Blade is seriously damaged and rusted or deposited with ash so that it loses
balance and result in vibration.
b) Bearing lubricant quality is poor or cooling water is cut off. Bearing
temperature rises and causes damages.
c) Impeller and its bearing are loose. Anchor screw is loose.
d) Fan is balanced or motor is not aligned when maintenance is carried out.
e) Protection malfunctions or activates because motor trips, emergency button
is pressed mistakenly or electrical fault happens.

11.4.3 Solution

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When two ID fans are in operation, one of them trips by fault:
a) If there no over-current or mechanical defects and MFT does not actuate
before the air fan tripped, forced closing of CB of air fan can be done for
restoring the operation. If the reclosing is ineffective, faulty fan should be put
into stop mode immediately and close its outlet dampers and inlet dampers.
Open another fan damper widely and increase its output, but over current is
not allowed.
b) If there is over current or any abnormal symptom before trip, forced closing
is not allowed. ID fan output should be decreased in time and primary air fan
output should be increased. Maintain furnace negative pressure and drop
boiler load to 50~60%MCR.
When only one air fan operates or two running ID fans trips at same time:
c) When furnace comes to MFT, shut down boiler in emergency procedure.
Report it to shift leader.
d) When restoring, standby fan should be started first. If standby fan cannot
start or there is no standby fan, the fan should be tripped at the same time.
Before trip, there are no abnormal symptom, such as over current or
mechanical defects etc. Find out the reason and recover operation as soon
as possible.
e) If the any one of the following situations happens, the fan should be stopped
immediately: rated current value is too big; vibration is too severe; bearing
temperature exceeds limit value; there is potential danger for equipment
damage and operation.

11.5 Primary Air Fan Faults


11.5.1 Description
a) Due to faults like mechanical fault, PA fan current is abnormal, exceeding
rated value.
b) Maybe there are severe vibration, displacement and rotor or cover shell
frication. Bearing temperature rises abnormally.
c) If fan trips, display indicates yellow. Current turns to zero and fault alarm.
d) When two ID fans are in operation but one trip by fault and furnace negative
pressure increases, light and sound signal will be sent and primary fan will
trip. Outlet dampers and inlet dampers will automatically close. The
operating fan current will increase and inlet dampers automatically open
wide.
e) When the only secondary air fan operates or two running fan trip at same
time, furnace negative pressure rises rapidly. MFT interlock protection will be
activated and result in abnormally high negative pressure.
f) Furnace differential pressure decreases and air chamber pressure drops.
Primary air flow and oxygen content decrease and boiler bed temperature
rises.

11.5.2 Cause

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a) Blade is seriously damaged and rusted or deposited with ash so that it loses
balance and result in vibration.
b) Bearing lubricant quality is poor or cooling water is cut off. Bearing
temperature rises and causes damages.
c) Impeller and its bearing are loose. Anchor screw is loose.
d) Fan is balanced or motor is not aligned when maintenance is carried out.
e) Because of fault, motor trips or emergency button is pushed wrongly or
electrical fault happens.

11.5.3 Solution
When two ID fans are in operation, one of them trips by fault:
a) If there no over current or mechanical defects and MFT does not actuate
before the air fan tripped, forced closing of CB of air fan can be carried out
for restoring the operation. If the reclosing is ineffective, faulty fan should be
put into stop mode immediately and close its outlet dampers and inlet
dampers. Open another fan damper widely and increase its output, but over
current is not allowed. Monitor boiler bed temperature change closely.
b) If the tripped fan has over current or abnormal situations, forced closing is
not allowed. Chief supervisor should enhance another fan output and
guarantee good fluidization. Decrease ID fan output and increase secondary
air fan output. Decrease boiler load to 50~60% MCR and to the greatest
extent so as to maintain normal boiler bed temperature.
When only primary air fan operates or two running primary air fans trips at
same time:
c) When furnace comes to MFT, shut down the boiler in emergency shutdown
procedure. Report it to shift leader.
d) When restoring, standby fan should be started first. If standby fan failed to
start or there is no standby fan, the fan should be tripped at the same time.
Before trip, there are no abnormal symptom, such as over current or
mechanical defects etc. Find out the reason and restore operation as soon
as possible.
e) If the any one of the following situations happens, the fan should be stopped
immediately: rated current value is too big. Vibration is too severe. Bearing
temperature exceeds the limit value. There is potential danger for equipment,
stop the air fan urgently.

11.6 Coal Feeder Faults


11.6.1 Description
a) The failed coal feeder on CRT is yellow, and alarm is given.
b) Steam pressure, flow and temperature drops.
c) Boiler bed temperature is not uniform. Average bed temperature drops and
oxygen content rises.

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11.6.2 Cause
a) MFT protection is activated and coal feeder trips by interlock.
b) There is coal jam or coal-spreading air flow is less than the minimum.
c) Foreign matters are mixed in coal and make the coal feeder stuck.
d) There are electrical or mechanical faults for coal feeder.

11.6.3 Solution
a) Regulate the output of normal coal feeder. Restore every parameter and put
bottom oil gun into operation if necessary.
b) Find out reason and eliminate faults rapidly.
c) If coal spreading air is less than the minimum, it should be regulated in time.
d) If coal feeder is interlocked to start under MFT protection operation, it should
be handled based on relevant regulation.

11.7 Inlet Slag Chute of Ash cooler is Blocked


11.7.1 Description
a) The temperature of inlet slag chute for ash cooler is unchangeable.
b) Ash cooler slag discharge temperature drops.
c) There is no slag seen or heard at the outlet of the ash cooler.

11.7.2 Cause
a) After ash cooler outage, slag with high carbon content burns in slag feed
chute and is coked inside the chute.
b) Before ash cooler is shut down, the speed is fast and slag feed chute
temperature is high and is in burnt red state. After ash cooler is shut down,
slag chute is cooled to shrink, thus slag inside chute is compressed. So this
results in blockage.

11.7.3 Solution
a) Rap slag chute to let blocked slag lump loose and fall.
b) Open slag chute inspection holes to release. When releasing, operator
should stand at side and enough retreat area should be reserved to prevent
danger from HP slag spraying.
c) Pay attention to bed pressure changes closely and transfer load to other ash
coolers. If necessary, emergency slag exit can be used to maintain bed
temperature in normal range.
d) Try best to maintain ash cooler continuous operation and avoid intermittent
slag discharge
e) Before ash cooler is out at every time, maintains operation at low speed for
certain period to cool the slag chute.

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11.8 Cooling Water Pipe Leakage inside Ash cooler
11.8.1 Description
a) Ash cooler outlet has white gas.

b) Slag with water is seen in slag discharging port.

c) If leakage is serious, it will influence slag discharge. Besides, this will result
in ash cooler overload and trip.

11.8.2 Causes
a) Cooling water pressure for ash cooler is over limit.

b) Slag discharges too much. Returning water temperature of cooling water


exceeds pipe material design temperature.

11.8.3 Solutions
a) If water cooling tube bundle is leaking, stop ash cooler immediately and
close inlet-outlet valves for cooling water in time.

b) Increase slag discharge for other ash coolers and decrease boiler load
properly.

c) Observe leakage condition and report it to maintenance personnel.

11.9 Ash Hopper of Slag Conveyor is Deformed and Jammed


11.9.1 Description
a) Slag conveyor has friction noises in operation.

b) Slag conveyor trips frequently.

c) The current of slag conveyor increases and slag hopper falls.

11.9.2 Solution
a) Stop ash cooler. Check damage situations of slag conveyor and find out
cause.

b) Decrease boiler load according to bed pressure. Use emergency slag


discharge to decrease bed pressure and maintain low load operation.

c) Inform maintenance personnel to inspect and repair in time.

11.10 Slag Conveyor Bearing Damage


11.10.1 Description
a) Bearing of the slag conveyor has abnormal noises in operation.

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b) Slag conveyor is over current and trip. The bearing temperature is too high.

11.10.2 Solution
a) Check bearing damage carefully and add lubricant.

b) Decrease slag conveyor output.

c) Decrease boiler load according to bed pressure. If operation cannot be


maintained, emergency slag discharging should be carried out and
maintenance personnel should be informed. If operation cannot be restored
in short time and bed pressure cannot maintain, fire banking hot standby
should be adopted.

11.11 Limestone Pipeline Blockage


11.11.1 Description
a) Conveying pipeline pressure rises abnormally.

b) Due to blockage, limestone feeder trips for overload.

c) Limestone inlet temperature on furnace side rises abnormally.

11.11.2 Cause
a) Positive pressure forms between limestone and furnace interface; if
intermittent limestone feeding is adopted, limestone is blocked by bed
material under positive pressure during not feeding.

b) Air pressure of limestone is too low led to limestone pipeline blockage.

c) Limestone particle is too big, thus the particles cause pipeline blockage
during moving.

11.11.3 Handling method


a) During system shutdown, ensure sufficient air volume flows through
limestone and furnace interface.

d) Control limestone particle.

11.12 Oil Gun or Oil Pipeline Blockage


11.12.1 Description
a) Oil supply pressure and flow are abnormal.

b) Oil gun does not output or output is little.

c) Oil gun atomization is abnormal.

d) Oil gun ignition fails or the flame is too weak.

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11.12.2 Cause
a) Before ignition, purging is not carried out on oil gun or atomization test is not
conducted.

b) There are foreign matters in oil gun so that atomization nozzle is blocked.

11.12.3 Solution
a) Before ignition, oil gun should be purged completely.

b) If purging is ineffective, maintenance personnel should be informed to


dismantle oil gun for solving problems.

11.13 Oil Gun Ignition Failure or No Flame Signal


11.13.1 Description
a) After ignition, oil input is normal, but there is no flame signal for flame
detector.

b) Actually, oil gun ignition is failed.

c) When flame detection time exceeds the prescribed time, there is ignition
failure signal. Oil gun input and output valve closes automatically.

11.13.1 Causes
a) Flame detector is in fault. There is flame for oil gun but flame detector cannot
detect it.

b) Oil gun ignition air is regulated improperly. Oil gun cannot ignite successfully
or flame is blown out after successful ignition.

c) High-energy electronic igniter fails to be started.

d) Oil gun is blocked and fuel oil cannot be atomized well

e) Fuel oil contains excessive water or ignition or oil gun is in wrong position.

11.13.3 Solution
a) If ignition works well, but flame detector cannot detect flame. The flame
detector should be checked and repaired. If it cannot be repaired in short
term and ignition is demanded urgently, flame detector protection can be
defaulted under the condition that safety is guaranteed. On site, special
person should be there to monitor oil gun ignition

b) If oil gun ignition fails, ignition air proportion should be regulated again.

c) If high-energy electron igniter is abnormal, it should be checked and repaired.

11.14 Flame Disorder after Oil Gun In Operation

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11.14.1 Description
a) After oil gun ignition, flame is disordered or swinging.

b) The flame is abnormally golden or dark red.

11.14.2 Causes
a) Oil gun atomization is abnormal and oil output is disorder.

b) Ignition air distribution is unreasonable.

c) Ambient air flow is too small for oil gun and it cannot control the flame.

11.14.3 Solutions
a) If there is problem for oil gun atomization, atomization nozzles should be
checked to see whether there is foreign matter or it is installed inversely.

b) If ignition air distribution is unreasonable, flame observation as well as


ignition air regulation should be carried out on site till flame color and form
get normal.

11.15 Duct Ignition Burner Temperature Too High or Air Duct Catch Fire
11.15.1 Description
a) Temperature of air duct ignition burner is too high and sometimes it exceeds
1150℃.

b) Air duct metal casing is glow and when serious, there are sparks.

11.15.2 Causes
a) Flame is deflected or oil input is too much. The flame impacts refractory
directly.

b) Air flow is unreasonable. HT flame is turbulent and burns in certain area.

c) The refractory are below the required standard and cannot bear high
temperature. Construction technology is below required standard or furnace
drying is not carried out according to heating curve so that refractory cannot
be cured normally.

d) Because boiler operates for a long time and the refractory are damaged and
drop off one after another.

11.15.3 Solutions
a) Before ignition, refractory should be checked carefully. If there are cracks
and material falloff, they should be repaired in time.

b) When ignition, air distribution should be reasonable. Partial turbulence

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should not be caused for flame so that lots of heat can convey into furnace in
time.

c) When the temperature of air duct ignition burner is too high, input of oil gun
should be decreased or the gun should be stopped temporarily.

d) When air duct metal casing is glow, stop oil gun.

e) When air duct ignition burner is burnt up, oil gun should be stopped
immediately and report shift leader to stop boiler.

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