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QUESTION BANK
CLASS XII
POLITICAL SCIENCE
(CODE NO: 028)

SESSION : 2016-17
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OBJECTIVES & RATIONALE OF THE SUBJECT

Rationale
At the senior secondary level students who opt Political Science are given an opportunity to get
introduced to the diverse concerns of a Political Scientist. At this level there is a need to enable
students to engage with political processes that surround them and provide them with an
understanding of the historical context that has shaped the present. The different courses
introduce the students to the various streams of the discipline of Political Science: Political Theory,
Indian Politics and International Politics. Concerns of the other two streams - Comparative Politics
and Public Administration- are accommodated at different places
in these courses. In introducing these streams, special care has been taken not to burden the
students with the current jargon of the discipline. The basic idea here is to lay the foundations for
a serious engagement with the discipline at the under graduation stage.

Objectives:

Contemporary World Politics

Enable the students to expand their horizons beyond India and make sense of the political map
of contemporary world.
Familiarize the students with some of the key political events and processes in the post cold war
era.
Equip students to be conscious of the way in which global events and processes shape our
everyday lives.
Strengthen their capacity for political analysis by thinking of contemporary developments in a
historical perspective.

Politics in India after Independence

Enable students to become familiar with some of the key political events and figures in the post
independence period.
Develop skills of political analysis through an understanding of events and processes of recent
history.
Develop their capacity to link macro processes with micro situations and their own life.
Encourage the students to take a historical perspective of making sense of contemporary India.
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SYLLABUS/COURSE STRUCTURE

Units Periods Marks

Part A: Contemporary World Politics "


1 Cold War Era 14
14
2 The End of bipolarity 13
3 US Hegemony in World Politics 13

4 Alternative centres 'of Power 11 . 16

5 Contemporary South Asia 13


6 International Organizations '13
10
7 Security in Contemporary World 11
8 Environment and Natural Resources 11
10
9 Globalization 11
Total 110 50

Part B: Politics in India since Independence "'

10 Challenges of Nation-Building 13

11 Era of One-party Dominance 12 16

12 Politics of Planned Development 11

13 India's External relations 13 6


14 Challenges to the Congress System 13
12
15 Crisis of the Democratic Order 13
16 Rise of Popular Movements 11

17 Regional aspirations 11 16

18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics 13


r Total 110 50
~I
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COURSE CONTENT
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
Part B: Politics in India since Independence
Challenges of Nation- Building
10 Nehru's approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' 13
resettlement, the Kashmir problem, Organization and reorganization of states; Political Periods
Conflicts over language.
Era of One-Party Dominance
11 First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, 12
Uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition Periods
Parties.

Politics of Planned Development 11


12 Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Periods
Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
India's External Relations
13
13
Nehru's foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, lndo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India's Periods
Nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics.
Challenges to the Congress System 13
14 Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress Periods
Split and reconstitution, Congress' victory in 1971 elections, politics of 'garibi Hatao'.
Crisis of the Democratic Order
Search for 'committed' bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and 13
15 the Bihar Movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra -constitutional Periods
Dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party.
Rise of civil liberties organizations.

Popular Movements in India 11


16 Farmers' movements, Women's movement, Environment and Development -affected Periods
People’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
Regional Aspirations 11
17 Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir Periods
Situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
Recent Developments in Indian politics
Participatory upsurge in1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional
Parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments: 13
18 NDA (1998 - 2004) Periods
UPA (2004 - 2014)
NDA (2014 onwards)

Prescribed Books:
1. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT
2. Politics in India since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT

Note: The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu
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QUESTION PAPER DESIGN 201 5-16


POLITICAL SCIENCE Code No. 028 CLASS-XII
Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100
S. Typology of Questions Learning Very Very Short Long Map Long Marks %
No Outcomes & Short Short Answer Answer I Question Answer weight
Testing Answer Answer (4 (5 Picture II age
Skills (1 Marks) Marks) based (6
Mark) -(2 based on inter- Marks)
. Marks) Passages pretation
and (5 Marks)
Picutres
Remembering- • Reasoning
(Knowledge based • Analytical
Simple recall Skills
questions, to know • Critical
1 specific facts, terms, - 1 2 - - 2 22 22%
thinking
concepts, principles, or
theories; Identify,
define, or recite,
information)
Understanding-
(Comprehension -to be
familiar with meaning
and to understand
2 conceptually, 2 - 2 1 - 1 21 21%
interpret, compare,
contrast, explain,
paraphrase
information)
Application (Use
abstract information in
concrete situation, to
apply knowledge to
3 new situations; Use 1 1 - 1 1 2 25 25%
given content to
interpret a situation,
provide an example, or
solve a problem)
High Order Thinking
Skills (Analysis a
Synthesis- Classify,
compare, contrast, or
differentiate between
different pieces of
4 information; Organize 1 2 1 1 - 1 20 20%
and/or integrate
unique pieces of
information from a
variety of
sources) (includes Map
i interpretation n)
Evaluation- (Appraise,
judge, and/or justify
the value or worth of a
5 1 1 1 1 12 12%
decision or outcome,
or to predict outcomes
based on values)
total 1x5=5 2x5=10 4x6"'24 5x3=15 5x2=10 6x6=36 100 100%
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WEIGHTAGE OF CONTENT
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
The weightage or the distribution of marks over the different dimensions paper shall be as follows:-

1 Cold War Era 14

2 The End of Bipolarity

3 US Hegemony in World Politics 16

4 Alternative Centres of Power

5 Contemporary South Asia

6 International Organizations 10
7 Security in Contemporary World

8 Environment and Natural Resources 10


9 Globalization

Total 50

Part B:Politcs in India since Independence


10 Challenges of Nation-Building 16

11 Era of One-Party Dominance

12 Politics of Planned Development

13 India's External Relations 6

14 Challenges to the Congress System 12


15 Crisis of the Democratic Order

16 Rise of Popular Movements 16


17 Regional Aspirations

18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Total 50

2 Weightage of difficulty level:


Estimated difficulty level Percentage
Difficulty 20%
Average 50%
Easy 30%
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3. Internal Choice :
There is internal choice for long answer questions.
Map question has choice only with another map.
There are three passage- based or picture- based questions.
There is internal choice for long answer questions. They mainly concentrate on the
following chapters:
The Cold War Era
 NAM
 Alliance Systems
The End of Bipolarity
 Soviet System- Functioning
 Disintegration
 Consequences of Shock Therapy
International Organisations
 Restructuring of Security Council
 Functioning of Council
 Organs of UN

Globalisation
 Causes
 Consequences
Challenges of Nation Building
 Challenges
 Integration of Princely States
 Reorganisation of Linguistic States

Era of One Party Dominance


 Ideological Orientations of
 Political Parties
 First Three General Elections

India’s External Relations


 Indo- US
 Indo- China
 Indo- Russia
 Indo- Pakistan

Crisis of Democratic Order


 Circumstances to Emergency
 Emergency as a controversial period
 Post Emergency Politics
Rise of Popular Movements
 Chipko Movement
 Dalit Panthers
 Anti- Arrack Movement
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Regional Aspirations
 Assam Accord/ Punjab Accord
 Kashmir Issue
 Secessionism/ Regionalism

3.In order to assess different mental abilities of learners, question paper is likely to
include questions based on passages,visuals such as maps, cartoons etc.

 Map Question has choice only with another map or Illustration/cartoon.


 Maps Questions are frequently based on :
 Indian Politics (1952-1967)
 Identification of availability of resources in CIS
 Identification of Nations providing Secretary Generals
 Identification of Peace keeping Missions
 Identification of Princely States
 Identification of Seven Sisters
 There may be passage based or picture based questions.
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TIME MANAGEMENT FOR THE PRACTICE PAPERS


Note: 15 minutes will be allotted to each examinee for reading the question paper before
Commencement of the examination.

Expected Number of Total Average expecte


Marks Per
Time per Expected time for each
Question Question Questions Time category
1 1-2 min 5 5-10 min 9 min

2 3-1 min 5 15-20 min 18 min

4 5-8 min 6 30-48 rnin 46 min

5 4-6 min 3 12-18 min 16 min

5 (Cartoon) 2-4 min 1 2-4 min 3 min

5 (Map) 1-3 min 1 1-3 min 3 min


,
6 10-12 min 6 60-72 min 70min
Revision Time for the whole paper 15 min
I

"
. Total 180 min I
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Assess yourself on the Grading Chart


Sum of
Time Limit Grade Remarks
time limit
Lower time Iirnit 125 minutes Very well -prepare
Brilliant as he has finished
the paper before the expected but needs to revise
time. thoroughly so as to
score 100% marks.
upper time limit 175 minutes Needs more practice
Average as there is and increaseIncrease speed
no time left for revision se sas to keep time for
so
revision.
Expected time limit 165 minutes
Well-prepared
Excellent as he is left
but remove mistakes, if
with 15 minutes for
any, during revision so
revision.
as to get 100% marks.
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PREPRATION TIPS FOR BOARD EXAM

METHOD TO BE ADOPTED BY THE TEACHER

 During revision action plan has to be prepared on daily basis.


 During revisions, tests should be taken from small sections rather than the
whole chapter.
 Revision exams to be conducted even after Pre- board exam till the students
manage to secure satisfactory percentage of marks.
 Summarize the notes into bullet points, key words to be highlighted in answer.
 Students to be informed how to tackle questions related to maps, cartoons and
pictorial reading with complete precision
 Instruct students how to deal with HOTS questions.
 Question Banks prepared chapter wise to be provided to the students.
 Special Time Slot to be allotted for solving Sample Papers.
 In between exam dates students can be called for last moment tips.
 Teachers to give their personal Contact No. to the children to avail help at the
time of exam.

PREPARATION TIPS FOR CBSE CLASS XII


 Keep yourself updated with the current happenings.
 Before attending a class, try to skim the chapter so as to have an idea of
what are the concepts to be learnt in that chapter.
 Take note as soon as your teacher starts covering the first chapter.
 Take notes in every class & study these notes daily. All you have to do is
to read the notes if you do this every day. Go back & read the chapter
for the upcoming political science class.
 Have debate and discussions with friends over various topics and try to
understand someone else’s point of view.
 Try to relates the events with their consequences and even with the
circumstances that lead to those events.
 Think about what you read and ask question of yourself.
 Ensure that you understand all the terms in bold.
 Most of this term would be recurring concepts throughout the course.
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STUDY SCHEDULE

ONE MONTH BEFORE EXAMS

 Emphasis on time management.


 Morning hours are best for memorising the answers.
 Afternoon/ forenoon hours are best for
Written work
 Evening hour onwards are best for revision.
 Go through the Doubt Books/ Hand Outs

WE ARE NEAR TO THE DEADLINES

 Focus should be on short answers


 Quick revision of previous year paper
 Refer to doubt-book

Eat healthy, Sleep properly and Work efficiently

TIPS & TECHNIQUES FOR ATTEMPTING QUESTION PAPER

 Follow the general instructions as given in the question paper.


 Attempt the question serial wise and section wise.
 The answer should be written in the point form.
 Don’t ignore the relevant points & don’t get confuse with dates & names.
 Elaborates and precise answers are one of the steps to get good marks.
 Highlight important points in your answer script
 Answer to 6 marks question should have short introduction, correct elaboration and a
precise conclusion.
 Manage your time properly and attempt your question paper confidently.

MAKE DEXTEROUS ENDEAVOURS


 Refer to foot-notes for a quick recap
 Final Revision
 Relax
 Be Confident and Motivated
 Go through ONE & TWO marker
 Pray and Perform
 Luck and Success is all yours
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CONTEMPORARY WORLD POLITICS (PART-I)


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CHAPTER 1
THE WORLD WAR ERA
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Name the two international personalities who played an important role in the Cuban missile crisis?
Answer. Following are the two international personalities who played an important role in the
Cuban missile crisis: (a) Johan F. Kennedy (b) Nikita Khrushchev

2. What does the word ‘hegemony’ imply?


Ans. The word hegemony implies military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural
superiority.

3. What is meant by cold war?


Ans. Cold war is a state of extreme unfriendliness existing between two superpowers especially
with opposing political system which expresses itself not through fighting but through political
pressures and threats.

4. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the cold war?
Ans. India did not join either of the two camps during the cold war because India played an active
role in mediating between the two rival alliances for the sake of peace and stability. Their strength
was based on unity of NAM members and their resolve to remain non- aligned despite the
attempts made by two superpowers to bring them into their alliances.

5. Where and when the first NAM summit was held?


Ans. The first NAM summit was held in Belgrade in 1961 and it was attended by 25 member states.

6 What was “operation just cause”?


Ans:-The US invasion of panama on 31 Jan 1990 was code named as “Operation just cause”.
7. Who were the founding members of NAM?
The founding members of NAM were
 PT Jawaharlal Nehru of India
 Joseph Broz Tito of Yugoslavia
 Sukarno of Indonesia
 Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt
 Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARK QUESTIONS
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1. What was the difference in the ideology of western alliances and that of eastern alliances?
Ans. The western alliance headed by the US represented ideology of liberal democracy and
capitalism while the eastern alliance headed by Soviet Union committed to socialism and
communism.

2. How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the cold war?
Ans. Smaller nations got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local
and regional rivals. A state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpower to limit
influence of other superpower and its allies.

3. Mention any two military features of the cold war?


Ans. The two military features of the cold war:-
1. Military alliances such as NATO, SEATO, CENTO, Warsaw pact etc. were formed by superpower.
2. Mad arms race and taken to manufacture atom-bomb and nuclear weapons by superpowers of
the world.

4. What was Helsinki Agreement?


Ans:- This agreement codified east-west détente in the cold war. By this agreement Soviet Union
and Eastern Europe promised to respect human right within their boundaries.

5. What is preventive war?


Preventive war means if the challenger or emerging power does not start a war to displace the top
power, the later may provoke a war to stop the risk of challenger before it becomes a great danger

6. LTBT (Limited test ban treaty)


Ans;- This treaty was signed by USA, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963 but came into
force on 10 Oct 1963. It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space & under
water.

7. NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty)


Ans:- This treaty was signed in july 1968, but came into force on 5 march 1970. This treaty allows
only the nuclear weapons states to have nuclear weapons & stops others from acquiring them

8. What is Nuclear Deterrence?


Ans:- A situation in which both sides have the capacity to retaliate any nuclear attack & cause so
much damage that none of them could afford to initiate the war.

9. What was Yalta agreement?


Ans:- This agreement took place in Russia on 4 Nov 1945 between Winston Churchill, Roosevelt
and Stalin. In this agreement it was agreed that there should be free and fair election in the states that
were freed from the region of Hitler

10. What was Truman Doctrine?


Ans;- In 1947 president Truman announced that USA will provide military & economic aid to
Greece & economic aid to Turkey to prevent them from joining the Soviet Sphere
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11. Strategic Arms limitation Talk-I (SALT-I)


Ans:- The first round of the strategic arms limitation talks began in Nov 1969. The Soviet leader
Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Richard Nixon signed the following in Moscow on 26 Jan
1972

12 SALT – II
Ans:- The second round started in Nov 1972. The US President Jimmy carter and Soviet leaders
Brezhnev signed the treaty on the limitation of strategic offensive arms in Vienna on 18 June 1979

13:- START I (Strategic Arms reduction treaty – I)


Ans:- This treaty was signed by the USSR president Mikhail Garbachev and the US president
George Bush (Senior) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31
July 1991

14:- START II
Ans:-This treaty was signed by the Russian President Bari’s Yeltsin and he US president George
Bush(Senior) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31 Jan
1993.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARK QUESTIONS
1. Explain the Cuban missile crisis.
Ans. In 1962, Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as it provided USSR
diplomatic and financial aid both. Hence Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The US
became aware of it and ordered American warships to intercept to Soviet Union to remove missiles
to avoid full scale nuclear war. A clash seemed imminent what came to be known as Cuban missile
crisis.

2. Which core values keep non- alignment relevant after cold war has ended?
Ans. Non-aligned movement was based on recognition that decolonized states shared a historical
affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together. It meant that could pursue an
independent foreign policy also besides attempting to democratize the international system to
redress existing inequities also.

3. Why is the decade of sixties labeled as a dangerous decade?


Ans. The decade of sixties labeled as a dangerous decade.
1. The two super powers were posed for direct confrontations in Berlin, the Congo and in several
other places.
2. US sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961.
3. Construction of the Berlin wall was completed in 1961 and an atmosphere of great tension
prevailed in Europe.
4. In 1962 Cuban missile was placed by Soviet Union. A clash seemed immense what came to be
known as the Cuban missile crisis.
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LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. What led to the emergence of bipolar world? What were the arenas of cold war between the
two power blocs?
Ans. Emergence of bipolar world
1. Two superpowers expanded their own spheres of influence in different parts of the world.
2. It divided the world into two alliances namely western and eastern alliance headed by the
US and Soviet Union respectively.
3. The smaller states in alliances got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid
against their local rivals; hence they remained tied to its protective superpower to limit
influence of other superpower and its allies.
Arenas of cold war:
4. Crisis and war occurred between alliance systems but did not cross certain limits.
5. Many lives were lost in Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan, but world was spared nuclear war
and global hostilities.
6. The cold war led to several shooting wars but it did not lead to another world war despite
direct confrontations in Korea, Berlin and the Congo.

2. What is cold war? Why did the super powers depend on military alliances with smaller
countries?
Ans. It is meant by a situation among the nations of the world, when a tense atmosphere
prevails but there is no actual fighting. The cold war referred to the competition, the tension
and a series of confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union backed by their
respective allies. The cold war was a real ideological conflict. It was a difference over the best
and the most appropriate way of organizing political, economic and social life all over the
world.
Super power depends on military alliances with smaller countries due to following reasons;
1. To defend their own ideology:
2. To establish superiority or hegemony:
3. Could gain location for spying:

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The western alliance war formalized into an organization the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which
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declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them. The
eastern alliance known as Warsaw Pact was led by Soviet Union, created in 1955 and its principal
function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
Questions
1. What does NATO stand for?
2. What was NATO’s policy?
3. What was Warsaw Pact?
4. Mention function of Warsaw pact.

Answers
1. NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
2. NATO was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of
them would be regarded as an attack on all of them would be obliged to help each other
3. Warsaw Pact was eastern alliance, led by Soviet Union , created in 1955.
4. Main function of Warsaw pact was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
2. Five marks Map based questions
Study the given map showing how Europe was divided into rival alliances during the cold
war and answer the following question:

Questions
1. Write the name of eight countries who were the NATO members during the cold war.
2. Write the name of four countries who were the Warsaw Pact members during the
cold war.
3. Write the name of one other communist nation who was not the member of Warsaw
pact.
4. Write the name of two other nations (not related with the above three questions).

Answers.
1. NATO members were: USA, Britain, Portugal, Spain, France, West Germany, Italy,
Turkey.
2. Warsaw pact members: USSR, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania,
Bulgaria,
3. Other communist nation was Yugoslavia.
4. Other category nations were: Finland, Sweden.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. What is meant by the term ‘Responsibility ‘related to war.
Ans. Responsibility meant being restrained and avoiding the risk of another world war.

2. What was the declaration of the NATO states?


Ans. NATO states declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe or North
America would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these states would be
obliged to help the other.
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3. What do you mean by non- alignment?


Ans. The world was divided into two blocs after the Second World War. One bloc was
headed by the USA and the other by the USSR. Serious cold war took place between
these two blocs for various reasons. Most of the countries of Asia and Europe get
entangled in this groupism and joined either of the foreign policy, adopted non-
alignment as its base.
19

CHAPTER -2
THE END OF BIPOLARITY

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What was the largest garage sale in history?
Ans. Largest garage sale in history as resulted due to shock therapy to undervalue the valuable
industries of the USSR to sell them at throwaway prices.

2. What was the immediate cause of disintegration of USSR?


Ans. The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia
and the Baltic Repubic ( Estonia,Latvia and Lituania), Ukrain, Georgia, and others proved to be the
most immediate cause for disintegration of the USSR.

3. What does CIS stand for?


Ans. Commonwealth of Independent States.

4. Define ‘shock Therapy’.


Ans. It was the model of transition in economy of USSR from socialist to capitalist influenced by
World Bank and IMF.

5. What is the signification of Russian revolution of 1917?


Ans. It abolished the institution of private property and designed a society based on principles of
equality.

6 What was soviet system?


Ans- The ideology of soviet Russia where socialism dominated with communist party being the
centre of power. This system was implemented in several east European states also

7 What is Bipolarity, unipolarity and Multipolarity?


Bi-polarity – it is a system were the world is divided between two powers blocks as USA & USSR
after the second world war
Uni-polarity – it is a system where world is dominated by a single power as USA in the present era
Multi-polarity- it is a system where power is divided among several big powers

8 What was Berlin wall?


The Berlin wall symbolized the division between the capitalist and the communist world. It was built
in 1961 to separate East Berlin from West Berlin. This wall was finally broken in 1989. This marked
the unification of Germany and beginning of the end of communist bloc.
20

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet system.
Ans. The two characteristics of soviet system are-
1. Importance given to the communist party and no other party allowed existing.
2. Planned and controlled economy by the state.

2. What is meant by shock therapy?


Ans. The shock therapy was the state of affairs which signifies the collapse of communism followed
by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist
system-
1. Shock therapy administered in the year 1900 not to lead the people into the promised utopia
of mass consumption.
2. It brought ruin to economies and disaster upon the people of entire region.

3. Mention any two characteristics of soviet political system.


Ans. Characteristics of soviet political system.
1. The soviet political system central around the communist party and no other political party or
opposition was allowed.
2. The economy was planned and controlled by the state only.
3. People locked democracy and were snatched away their freedom of speech and expression.

4. To what extent was Gorbachev responsible for the disintegration the Soviet Union?
Ans. A) When Gorbachev carried out his reforms and opened the system, the whole political
scenario disturbed and went out of control.
B) However some sections of society maintained that Gorbachev should have moved much faster.
In this tug of war Gorbachev lost support on all sides.

5 What is collective security?


Ans – A system in which an attack on any country is regarded as a threat to all countries and requires
a collective response

6 Who was Mikhail Garbachev?


Ans- He was the last leader of the Soviet Union (1985-1991). He introduced Reformation
programme of perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness), withdraw troops from
Afghanistan. He is often blamed for disintegration of Soviet Union.

7 What was Vietnam Syndrome?


Ans-The US war in Vietnam in 1967 convinced the US leader not to involve in over seas conflicts
including Bosnia as huge money was spent in Vietnam with less outcome. This is called Vietnam
Syndrome.
21

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain any two reasons for disintegration of the USSR.
Ans. Reasons for disintegration of the USSR.
1. The internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions which failed to meet the
aspirations of the people.
2. Economic stagnation for many years led to severed consumer shortage and a large section of
Soviet society began to double the system because communist party was not accountable to
people.

2. What were the political reasons for disintegration of Soviet Union?


Ans. The political reasons for disintegration of Soviet Union.
1. The communist party of Soviet Union had been ruled for over 70 years but it was not
accountable to people.
2. Ordinary people had been alienated and were exempted from enjoying the privileges and to
participate actively in political affairs.
3. Due to slow and stifling administration, the inability of system to correct mistakes lost popular
support.
4. The centralization of authority in vast land.

3. Describe any four consequences of the disintegration of Soviet Union.


Ans. Consequences of the disintegration of Soviet Union.
1. The disintegration of Soviet Union meant the end of cold war confrontations which demanded
the end of armed race and restoration of possible peace.
2. This disintegration created the possibility to bring in a multipolar system where no power could
dominate or unipolar system.
3. The US became the sole superpower and the capitalist economy was now dominant economic
system at international level.
4. This disintegration emerged in many new countries dividing Soviet Union into 15 independent
countries along with their own aspirations and choices.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. What was soviet system? Assess any four features of soviet system.
Ans. Soviet system was introduced after socialist revolution in Russia in 1917. It was based on the
principle of egalitarian society and planned economy controlled by the state. Its four features can
be summed up as follows:
1. The soviet system ensured a minimum standard of living for its citizens.
2. The government subsidized basic necessities including health, education, childcare and other
welfare schemes.
3. There was no unemployment in the soviet system.
4. State ownership was the dominant owned and controlled by the soviet state.
22

2. Explain six factors which helped Soviet Union becoming superpower after Second World War.
Ans. The following factors helped Soviet Union becoming superpower after Second World War:
1. The East European countries the Soviet Army had liberated from the fascist forces came under
the control of the USSR.
2. The Warsaw pact a military alliance held them together and the USSR was the leader of the
bloc.
3. The political and economic systems of all these countries were modeled after the USSR and
collectively were called the second world.
4. The soviet economy was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US.
5. It has a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel
production and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
6. It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars to make
themselves self dependent.

3. Analyses India’s changing relationship with post communist Russia.


Ans. India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with US, but India is
required to maintain healthy relations with Russia because India has experienced a long band of
mutual trust, interests and popular perceptions with Russia in the following manner:
1. Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order i.e. co- existence of several world
powers internationally, collective security, greater regionalism, democratization with the
decision making through bodies like the UN.
2. More than 80 bilateral agreements have been experienced between India and Russia as a part
of the Indo- Russia strategic agreement of 2001.
3. India has been benefitted to form its relationship on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies,
sharing information on international terrorism, access to Central Asia and balancing its relation
with China.
4. Russia is also important for India’s nuclear energy plane and assisting India’s space industry by
giving cryogenic rocket to India whenever needed.
5. Co- operation with Russia and its republics like Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan in the form of
partnership and investment on oil fields has also been benefitted India.
6. Russia is also benefitted from India on ground of the second largest arms market for Russia.
Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia.
7. Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects also.
23

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
In Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia split peacefully into two, with the Czech and the Slovaks forming
independent countries. But the most secure conflict took place in the republics of Yugoslavian.
After 1991, it broke apart with several provinces like Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Harzegovin
declaring independence. Ethnic Serbs opposed this and a massacre of non-Serbs Bosnians followed.
The NATO intervention and the bombing of Yugoslavia followed inter ethnic civil war.

Question
1. In Eastern Europe which republic split into two?
2. Name the republic place where severe conflict took place.
3. Name various provinces with which Yugoslavia had been broken in 1991?
4. Which incidents resulted in inter-ethnic civil war?

Answers
1. Czechoslovakia split into two Czechs and Slovaks.
2. Balkan republics of Yugoslavia.
3. Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina.
4. A) Ethnic Serbs opposed the breaking up of several provinces independently following a massacre
of non- Serb Bosnians.
b) NATO intervention and bombing of Yugoslavia.

2. Map based questions:


On a political map of world locate and label the following by given symbols to them:

Questions
1. A republic of Eastern Europe split into two peacefully.
2. Most dominating republic of Soviet Union.
3. Identify two major oil and gas producers of Soviet Union.
4. Republic where severe conflict took place after 1991.
5. Two countries that were declared founder members of commonwealth of independent states.

Answers
1. Czechoslovakia Czech(1) and Slovakia(2)
2. Russia(3)
3. Turkmenistan (4) and Uzbekistan(5)
4. Yugoslavia(6)
5. Ukraine (7) and Belarus(8).
24

Value based / HOTs questions


1. What is the differe4nce between nationalism and secessionism?
Ans. The basic difference between nationalism and secessionism is that nationalism is for the
good cause and destructive in nature whereas, secessionism is for the wrong cause and
destructive in nature. It led to the division of country.

2. What do you mean by shock therapy?


Ans. The model of transition in Russia, central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the
World Bank and the IMF came to be known as shock therapy. Shock therapy varied in intensity
and speed amongst the former second world countries, but its direction and features were
quite similar.
25

CHAPTER -3
US HEGEMONY IN WORLD POLITICS

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. Gulf war was fought against………….. in which troops from ………………… countries fought.
Ans. Iraq, 34

2. What was first Gulf war?


Ans. A massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries against Iraq and defeated it in
what came to be known as the first Gulf war.

3. What was Operation Iraqi freedom?


Ans. On 19 March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraqi under the codename Operation Iraqi
freedom. More than 40 other countries joined in the US coalition of the willing after the UN
refused to give its mandate to the invasion.

4. What is meant by hegemony?


Ans. Hegemony is an international system to dominate world by only one superpower.

5. What does the term hegemony imply?


Ans. The word hegemony implies the dominance of one state means world power in the form of
military dominance, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.

6. What is meant by 9/11 in the context of USA?


Ans. 9/11 denotes a series of attacks on the US by hijackers from Arab countries on 11 Sep 2001. It
was the most disastrous attack on the US

7 What are public goods.


Ans- goods which are available to all for open use and consumption on an equitable basis

8 What is soft power?


Ans- The term soft power is used to describe ideological and cultural dominance of a hegemony

9 What is hard power?


Ans- It is the description of the super power in terms of technological and military superiority

10 What is Gulf region?


Ans- The word Gulf region is used to describe the middle east region

11 What was helms-Burton Act?


Ans- It was a policy of USA that provides for sanctions against countries that do business in Cuba
26

12 What is Esperanto?
Ans- Esperanto was a world language created in hope of encouraging world wide communication
and global identity

13 What is Orbital space?


Ans- orbital space is considered to be international territory like high areas. It starts from above 60
miles.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS
1. For how many years did the civil war continue in Tajikistan? When did it come to an end?
Ans. The civil war continued in Tajikistan for 10 years. It comes to an end in a 2001

2. What was the ‘Operation infinite reach’ ordered by President Clinton?


Ans. ‘Operation infinite reach’ was ordered by President Clinton. It was the series of cruise missile
attacks on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan in 1995 against bombing of US
embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania.

3. How was Kuwait liberated from Iraq in 1990?


Ans. In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait rapidly occupying and subsequently annexing it. All
diplomatic attempts were a failure in convincing Iraq to quit its aggression. The United Nations took
a dramatic decision to mandate the liberation of Kuwait by force. A massive coalition force of
66,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it known as the first Gulf war
also.

4. What was Operation Infinite Reach ordered by President Clinton?


Ans. Operation Infinite Reach was a series of cruises missile strikes on Al- Qaeda Terrorism targets
in Sudan and Afghanistan for this, the US did not bother of UN or any international law. This
operation was ordered by President Clinton in response to bombing of the US embassies in Narobi,
Kenya, Dar-es- salaam, Tanzania in 1998.

5. What was Operation Enduring Freedom?


Ans. Operation enduring freedom was the US response against 9/11 attack to arrest all those who
were suspected to be behind the attack, mainly Al- Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
The US arrested the persons all over the world often without the knowledge of government of the
person being arrested, transported them and detained in a secret prison.

6 What are cruise missiles?


Ans- A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the
atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path of approximately Constant speed. Cruise
missile are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distance with high accuracy.
27

7 Write a short note on Al-Qaeda?


Ans- Al-Qaeda is a militant sunni-islamist global organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin laden
Abdullah Azzam and several other Arab Volunteers who fought against the Soviet Invasion of
Afghanistan in the 1980’s

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARK QUESTIONS
1. Explain the hegemony of the United States of America as a structural power.
Ans. Hegemony as a structural power implies economic perspective of world economy. It can be
summed up as follows:
1. An open world economy requires a dominant power to support its creation and existence.
2. The hegemony must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms for order
and must sustain global structure i.e. Bretton Woods system set up by the US after Second
World War.
3. The US reflects this hegemony by providing the global public goods; those can be consumed by
one person without reducing the amount of goods available for someone else.
4. A classical example of structural power of the US is the academic degree Master’s in business
administration to sharpen business skills in a University.

2. How far is it correct to say that the 9/11 attack on the world trade centre was the attack on the US
hegemony? Explain.
Ans. The US had established its hegemony through the launch of two operations namely Operation
desert storm where 75 percent of the coalition force were from the US and operation infinite reach
a series of Cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda. These operations made the US more confident of the
establishment of the US hegemony that no one could dare to challenge the US. But, suddenly
hijackers from Arab countries attacked on world trade centre on 11 Sep 2001 along with the other
important building also as pentagon building and the capital building of US congress. It was the
most severe attack on the US soil since the founding of the country in 1776. Thus, it can be
concluded that the 9/11 attack was the attack on US hegemony which challenged the US in its own
way.

3. Describe any two constrain of American hegemony.


Ans. The US domination in military, economy, culture aspect over other nations to show her
supremacy is known as US hegemony.
Its constraints are as follows-
a) The institutional architecture of American state itself i.e. they follow the system of division of
power between three organs of government.
b) The open nature of American society and political culture i.e. the American mass media may
promote a particular issue on domestic public opinion but never opposed the purposes and
methods of government in American political culture.
28

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain the three types of US hegemony and give examples for each.
Ans. Hegemony as hard power:
1. This hegemony signifies military status of America to be both absolute and relative. In absolute
terms, it has military capabilities to reach any point on the planet accurately and no other
power today can remotely match them.
2. The US military dominance is based on both the higher military expenditure and on a
qualitative gap i.e. technological know-how.
Hegemony as structural power:
3. It signifies Economic prospects of hegemony power to possess both the ability and the desire
to establish certain norms for order and sustain global structure even including goods to be
consumed by one person without reducing the amount of goods available for someone else.
4. A classical example is academic degree MBA to presume business as a profession to be
dependent upon skills that can be taught in a university which is uniquely American.
Hegemony as soft power:
5. US hegemony has its cultural dimensions also which implies class ascendancy in social, political
and particularly ideological spheres to shape the behavior of competing and lesser powers.
6. For example, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe are dreams
churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth century America. All these are about the
capacity to manufacture consent.

2. Explain the strategies which may be performed by Indian to maintain Indo – US relations.
Ans. In today’s scenario India is supposed to decide what type of relations to have with the US.
Moreover, the three strategies have been debated by Indian analysts:
a) Indian analysts observed military nature of US hegemony and suggested that India should
maintain its aloofness from Washington and focus upon increasing its own comprehensive
national power.
b) The analysts secondly suggest that India should take advantage of US hegemony and the
mutual convergences to establish the best possible options for itself in future perspective.
c) The third strategy is suggested that India should lead in establishing a coalition from the
developing countries to become powerful and work out in weaning the hegemony away from
its dominating ways.
Moreover, it cannot be concluded that India may opt for one strategy to maintain Indo-US
relations, but it needs a mix of strategies to maintain its own identity.

3 How can US hegemony be overcome?


Ans- The USA hegemony can be overcome by the following strategy:-
a. Bandwagon Strategy- certain scholars argue that it would be strategically and rationally more
prudent for states to use the opportunity created by USA hegemony. A high economic growth
rate requires increased trade, technology transfer and investment. This can be best achieved by
working with the hegemony rather than going against it. This strategy is known as bandwagon
strategy
29

b. Hide Strategy- the other strategy open to states is to hide. This means to keep a safe distance
from hegemony
c. Media & NGO’s – certain scholars believes that the challenge to US hegemony would not come
from other powerless states. Rather, this challenge may come from non-state-actor, such as
Media & NGO’s

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Some people argue that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities that
hegemony creates. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade,
technology transfers and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against
the hegemony. Thus, it is suggested that instead of engaging in activities opposed to hegemonic
power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. This is
called the bandwagon strategy.

Question
1. What is prudent during a period of hegemony?
2. What benefits can be acquired within the hegemonic system?
3. What is the bandwagon strategy?

Answer
1. To take advantage of opportunities that a hegemony creates.
2. Increased trade, technology transfers and investment.
3. To extract benefits by operating within hegemonic system in place of being engaged in the
opposed activities.

2. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Questions
1. The mighty soldier with weapons represents which country?
2. Why do name of various countries appear on his uniform?
3. What important message does the cartoon convey to the world?

Answers
1. United States of America.
2. In the case of world politics what steps are taken by the US government to gain control on a
country and efforts are made to retain on it.
The cartoon convey to the world:
3. The bedrock of contemporary US power lies in the overwhelming superiority its military power.
American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms the US today
has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time,
30

thereby crippling the adversary while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible
from the dangers of war.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. Examine the logic hide in terms of US hegemony.
Ans. The logic of hide implies staying as far removed from the dominant power as possible. This is
the safeguard not to overrule or antagonize the US. For ex. China, Russia, and European Union, all
are trying to stay below the radar of US hegemony.

2. What is known as “9/11”


Ans. On 11 Sep 2001, nineteen hijackers took control of four American commercial aircrafts shortly
after takeoff and on flew them into important building in the US. South tower of the world trade
centre in New York. A third aircraft crashed into the Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia where
the US defense department is headquartered. The fourth aircraft, presumably bound for the capital
building of the US congress, came down in a field in Pennsylvania. The attacks have come to be
known as “9/11”.
31

CHAPTER -4
ALTERNATIVE CENTRE OF POWER

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is mean by ASEAN WAY?
Ans. ASEAN WAY is an interaction that is informal, confrontationist and cooperative to promote
supranational structures in the Association of South East Asian Nations.

2. What does ASEAN stand for?


Ans. ASEAN stands for Association of South East Asian Nations.

3. What does the circle with golden stars on the European Union flag stand for?
Ans. The circle with golden stars on the European Union flag stands for4 solidarity and harmony
between the people of Europe.

4. What is ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).


Ans. ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1994 to carry at coordination and foreign policy
among ASEAN members.

5 What is ASEAN +3?


Ans – ASEAN +3 means ASEAN members & Japan, China & South Korea.

6 What is Motto of ASEAN?


Ans – “One Vision” one identity, one community

7 What are SEZS?


Ans- Special economic zones created by countries to attract foreign investment by removing trade
barriers

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARK QUESTIONS
1. In the European Union flag, what does the symbol of twelve gold stars in a circle signify?
Ans. The symbol of twelve gold stars in a circle signifies-solidarity and harmony. Number twelve is
the symbol is the symbol of perfection, completeness and unity.

2. Which four common symbols make the European Union look like a nation state?
Ans. The European Union has its own flag, on them, founding date and currency.

3. What are the objectives of ASEAN economic community?


Ans. The objectives of ASEAN economic community are as follows:
32

1. To create common market and production based activities within ASEAN states.
2. To aid social and economic development.
3. To resolve economic disputes, the existing dispute settlement mechanism has been improved
4. Free trade areas for investment, labour and services have also been created.

4. What is ASEAN vision 2020?


Ans. The components of ASEAN vision 2020 can be summed up as follows:
1. An outward looking role in international community.
2. To encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.
3. To mediate to end the conflicts i.e. Cambodian conflict, East Timor crisis, annually discussion on
East Asian cooperation through meetings

5 What is likely to emerge as alternative centre’s of power in near future?


Ans- EU, ASEAN and China are likely to emerge as of alternative centres of power in the near
future.

6 What is EU?
Ans- European Union is an economic politer union of 28 members states that are located primarily in
Europe. It operates through a hybrid system of super national and inter-governmental decision
making the EU was formed in 1992.

7 What are the strength of EU?


Ans- EU’s share of world trade is 3 times bigger than that of USA.
EU has diplomatic & political influence as well as its members Britain, France are permanent
members of UNSC
Militarily the combined EU forces are second only to USA
Its defense budget is second to USA

8 What was OEEC?


Ans- organization of European economic co-operation was established in 1948 under Marshal plan.
It emerged as a forum for trade and economic co-operation for west European states.

9. Mention some differences which exist between European countries?


Ans- Many European states are at loggerheads in relation to foreign and defense policy. Here we can
cite the example of Iraqi invasion, where Britain and several ne wer members of European joined
to US led coalition of willing where as France and Germany opposed the US policy on Iraq.

10 What represents the ten states of paddy in ASEAN Flag?


Ans- The ten stalks of paddy represents the ten countries of ASEAN bound together in friendship, and
solidarity. The circle symbolizes that unity of ASEAN
33

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain the political diplomatic influence of European Union as a supranational organization.
Ans. Political and diplomatic influences:
1. Two members of the EU Britain and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council to
influence on the UN policies.
2. The EU also includes various non- permanent members of the UNSC.
3. The European Union plays an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except the military
force i.e. the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is
remarkable.

2. What are the objectives behind the formation of ASEAN?


Ans. The objective of ASEAN community is as follows:
1. Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontations.
2. To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
3. To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of United
Nations charter.
4. To establish dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
5. To create free trade areas for investment, labour and services.

3. China has emerged as third alternative to world power. Examine.


Ans. China emerged as the third alternative to world power since its economic reforms of 1978 as
China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms first began there-
1. China is projected to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040.
2. Its economic integration into the region makes it drive of East Asian growth.
3. Its strength of economy is population, landmass, resources, regional location, and political
influence, added to its power.

4 What are the three pillars of ASEAN community?


Ans –1. ASSEAN security community
2. ASEAN Economic community
3. ASEAN Socio cultural community

5 Mention the names of ten ASEAN states?


1. Indonesia
2. Malaysia
3. Singapore
4. Thailand
5. Philippines
6. Vietnam
7. Laos
8. Myanmar
9. Cambodia
10. Brunei
34

6 Write short note on ASEAN?


Ans- Association of south east Asian nations was established in “Bangkok declaration “ on 8 august
1967. Its head quarter is located in Jakarta (Indonesian). It has 10 members & 2 observer states. The
Present secretary general of ASEAN is Le Loung Minh of Malaysia.In 2006 ASEAN was given
observer states in UN General assembly. The first summit of ASEAN was held in Bali (Indonesia) on
24 Feb. 1976 & host leader was “Suharto

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. How did China rise to be an economic superpower? Assess.
Ans. China had adopted soviet model of economy. Despite development, china faced economic
crisis as industrial production was not growing fast, international trade was minimal. Under these
situations some major policy decision were taken-
1. China established relations with the US in 1972.
2. China proposed four areas of modernization as agriculture, industry, science and technology in
1973.
3. Open door policy was introduced to generate higher productivity by investment of capital and
technology from abroad.
4. Privatization of agriculture and industry in 1982 and 1998.
5. China set special economic zones to remove trade barriers.
6. The integration of Chinese economy and inter dependencies has enabled china to have
considerable influence with its trade partners.
7. The open door policy has stabilized the ASEAN economy.
8. China’s outward looking for investment and aid policies in Latin America and Africa are
projecting china as a global player.

2. Discuss Indo- China relations.


Ans. The relations with China experienced friendly gestures from India as India signed popular
panchsheel to develop Indo- China relations in 1954 an advocated China’s membership to the
united nation still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo- China relations-
1. In 1962 military conflict over a border dispute of Mac Mohan line resulted unwarranted claim
by China which lies now in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksaichin regions of Ladakh.
2. Differences arose from Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 which was protested India against
China.
3. After panchsheel, attack by china on India in 1962, to occupy larger territories of India, created
a humiliation.
4. China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear programme also created differences.
5. China’s military relations which Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian
interests.
All the above mentioned differences could be resolved for greater cooperation.
1. Both the countries should make some more efforts to revive harmonious attitude between
themselves.
35

2. Both the countries should move hand in hand to fight against terrorism nuclear race and
economic disparities.
3. Both the countries should develop mutual understanding and respect.
4. Hence, both of them have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science
and technology.

FIVE MARK QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions
The conflict of 1962, in which India suffered military reverses, had long-term implications for India-
china relations. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were downgraded until 1976.
Thereafter, relations between the two countries began to improve slowly. After the change in
china’s political leadership from the mid to late 1970s. China’s policy became more pragmatic and
less ideological. So it was prepared to put off the settlement of contentious issues while improving
relations with India. A series of talks to resolve the border issue were also initiated in 1981.
Questions
1. Why did India suffer military reverses as a result of conflict of 1962?
2. When did the relations between India and china begin to improve?
3. What was the change in the policy of china in the seventies?
4. Which efforts were made to resolve the border issues between India and china?

Answer.
1. Due to territorial claims principally in Arunchal Pradesh and Aksaichin region of Ladakh.
2. From the mid to late 1970s
3. China’s policy became more pragmatic and less ideological in the seventies.
4. A) It prepared to put off settlements of contentious issues.
b) A series of talks to resolve the border issues were initiated in 1981.

2. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Questions
1. The given cartoon is related to which country?
2. Which two symbols in this cartoon helped in identifying the country?
3. What message does this cartoon convey to the world?

Answers
1. China
2. A large wall and dragon.
3. China adopted communism according to communist ideology, capitalist exploit working
class. That is why for a very long period china was cut off from capitalist world. But after
1978, china ended its isolationism and developed its relation with America. This policy may
be good convey to the world.
36

Value based / HOTs questions


1. Write about the relations between India and ASEAN.
Ans. During the cold war year’s Indian foreign policy did not pay adequate attention to
ASEAN. But in recent years, India has tried to make amends. It signed FTAs with two ASEAN
members, Singapore and Thailand. It is trying to sign an FTA with ASEAN itself.

2. What is ASEAN vision 2020?


Ans. The components of ASEAN vision 2020 can be summed up as follows:
1. An outward looking role in international community.
2. To encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.
3. To mediate to end the conflicts i.e. Cambodian conflict, East Timor crisis, annually
discussion on East Asian cooperation through meetings.
37

CHAPTER -5
CONTEMPORARY SOUTH ASIA

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Fill in the blanks:
The South Asian Free Trade Agreement was signed by the members of ………… in the year………….
Ans. SAARC, 2004

2. Who mediation resolved the Indus River water dispute between India and Pakistan?
Ans. The World Bank.

3. What is the full form of SAARC?


Ans. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation…………………….

4. Mention any four names of the countries belonging to the SAARC.


Ans. India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh.

5. What is SAFTA stand for?


Ans. SAFTA stands for South Asian free Trade Agreement. SAARC members signed it, which
promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.

6 What is LTTE?
Ans- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam

7 What is IPKF?
Ans – Indian peace keeping force

8. Who was the first secretary general of SAARC?


Ans- Abul Hassan of Bangladesh

9 Who is the present secretary general of SAARC?


Ans ;-Arjun Bahadur Thapa

10 When was “SAARC visa exemption scheme launched?


Ans – 1992
38

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARK QUESTIONS
1. Mention any two objective of SAARC.
Ans. A) To provide an integrated programme for regional development.
B) To accelerate economic growth, social progress in the region.

2. When and why did India sign the twenty years Treaty of peace and friendship with the Soviet
Union?
Ans. India signed a 20 years Treaty of peace and friendship with the Soviet Union in August 1971.
The purpose of the treaty was to counter the US – Pakistan –China axis. Now, India was assured of
soviet support if the country faced any attack.

3. When and between whom was the Shimla agreement signed?


Ans. The Shimla agreement was signed on 3 July 1972 between Indira Gandhi and Zulifikar Ali
Bhutto.

4. Mention any two factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy.
Ans. Two factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy.
A) The social dominance of the military.
B) Stiff confrontation for coming to power among political parties.

5. In the European Union flag, what does the symbol of twelve gold stars in a circle signify?
Ans. In the European flag, the symbol of twelve gold stars in a circle signifies and stands for
solidarity and harmony between the people of Europe.

6 Mention some of the confidence building measures between India and Pakistan?
Ans- Some of the confidence building measures between India & Pakistan were; Delhi-Lahore bus
service, cross LOC trade.

7 Write short note on SAARC?


Ans :-“South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation was established on 8 Dec 1985 in Dhaka.
This was hosted by president of Bangladesh Hussian Ershad. The headquater of SAARC is in
Kathmandu (Nepal). It has 8 members states and 9 observer states
Afghanistan becomes the member in 2007. The idea of SAARC was give Bangladesh’s president
Zia-ul-Rehman on 2 may 1980.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


39

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS


1. ‘Despite the mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all the countries of south Asia
share the aspiration of democracy’. Explain.
Ans. the mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all the countries of south Asia share
the aspiration of democracy.
1. India and Shi Lanka have successful operated a democratic system since their independence
from the British.
2. Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both civilian and military rulers with Bangladesh
remaining a democracy in the post cold war period and Pakistan aspiring to have a democratic
system.
3. Nepal has transformed into democracy to monarchy.
4. Bhutan transformed from monarchy to democracy.
5. Maldives from sultanate to republic with a presidential form with a multi party system.
6. The whole of south Asia has a widespread support for democracy and for its institution.

2. Describe any two major issues of conflicts between India and Pakistan leading the war of 1971.
Ans. The e1947-48 war resulted in the division of the province into Pakistan occupied Kashmir (pok)
and the Indian province of Jammu and Kashmir divided by the line of control (Loc). Pakistan claims
Kashmir to be its part but India presumes it to be its integral part. Hence, these conflicts led to war
on 1971 and India won but the issues remain unsettled.

3. Explain any two points of conflict between India and Bangladesh.


Ans. Co-operation:
1. Economic relations have been improved considerably in last ten years.
2. Bangladesh is the part of India’s Look east policy to link up South East Asia via Myanmar.
3. Both the countries have cooperated regularly on the issues of disaster management and
environment.
Confrontation:
1. Bear differences over several issues including the sharing of Ganga and Brahmaputra river
water.
2. India is unhappy on the issues of denial of illegal immigration, refusal to allow Indian troops
and not to export natural gas to India.

4 How and when was Bangladesh created?


Ans-Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from 1947-1971. It consisted of the partitioned area of Bengal
Assam from British India. The people of this region resented the domination of western Pakistan and
the imposition of the Urdu language. Soon after partition they began to protest against the unfair
treatment melted out of the Bengali culture & language. The government of India supported the
demand of East Pakistan for their independence and helped then financially and militarily. This
resulted in war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 that ended in the surrender of Pakistani
forces and the formation of Bangladesh as an Independent country.

5 Describe the relation between India and Bhutan?


40

Ans- India shares a special relationship with Bhutan with whom we do not have any element of
hostility. In fact India is involved in many hydroelectric projects of Bhutan and is the principal
provider of development aids to Bhutan. Bhutan’s efforts to weed out terrorists and gueriellas
operating from North-East India have been quite helpful for India

6 Relation between India and Maldives?


Ans- India has cordial relations with Maldives in 1988, when some Tamil Militants from Srilanka
attacked Maldives, The Indian air force came along and protected Maldives from invasion. India has
contributed to the island prosperity, tourism, fishing and development

7 Discuss briefly Mumbai attack 2008 and Indian parliament attacks in 2001?
Ans- the 2001 Indian parliament attack was an attack at the parliament of India in New Delhi on 13
dec 2001., during which 14 people including the 5 men who attacked the building were killed
The 2008 Mumbai attack by 10 Pakistani terrorist killed over 173 & wound 308. The sole surviving
gunman Ajmal kasab who was arrested was found to be a Pakistani national.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. How is the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation a major regional initiative by South
Asian states to evolve co-operation through multilateral means? Assess.
Ans. Role of SAARC:
1. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is a regional initiative among South Asian
States to evolve cooperation since 1985 onwards.
2. It consists of seven members to encourage mutual harmony and understanding.
3. SAARC has initiated SAFTA to form free trade zones for whole South Asia for collective
economic security.
4. SAARC has projected economic development of its member states to reduce their dependency
on the non- regional powers.
South Asian free Trade Agreement was signed by SAARC members in 2004 with the following
features:
1. Formation of free trade zone for whole south Asia.
2. To lower trade tariffs by 20%
3. To sustain mutual trade and cooperation among SAARC members.

2. What are the major differences between SAARC and European Union as alternative centers of
poor?
Ans. The major differences between SAARC and European Union.
1. The European Union bears economic political diplomatic and military influence all over the
region and its closest neighbors whereas SAARC is limited towards its South Asian Region only.
2. The member states of European Union are maximum from among the developed countries
while SAARC members are from among least developed countries.
3. The EU behaves like a nation state by having its own anthem and currency but SARRC does not
enjoy these.
41

4. The EU performance as an important bloc in international economic organizations such as WTO


but SAARC has SAFTA only two cooperate economically among its member states.

3 What was Gujral Doctrine? What were the five principles of Gujarat doctrine?
Ans- The Gujral doctrine is a set of five principles to guide the conduct of foreign relations
with India’s immediate neighbours, notable Pakistan as spelt out by then Union Minister of
external affair Mr I.K Gujral in 1996-1997. The doctrine emphasized on the importance of
unilateral accommodation for friendly and warm relations with India’s neighbours.
The five principles of Gujral doctrine were
1. With neighbours like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Srilanka, India does
not ask for reciprocity but gives and accommodates what can be in good faith & trust
2. No south Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of
another country of the region.
3. No country should interfare in the internal affairs of another
4. All south Asian countries must respect each other’s territorial integrity and
sovereignty
5. They should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations. The
essence of Gujaral doctrine has been that being the largest country in south Asia, India can
extend unilateral concession to its neighbours.

4 SAARC REGIONAL CENTRES


1. SAARC Agricultural centre Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2. SAARC metrological research center Dhaka ( Bangladesh)
3. SAARC forestry centre Thimpu (Bhutan)
4. SAARC development fund Thimpu (Bhutan)
5. SAARC documentation centre new Delhi (India)
6. SAARC Disaster management New Delhi (India)
7. SAARC coastal zone centre Mali (Maldives)
8. SAARC Information centre Kathmandu (Nepal)
9. SAARC TB, Hiv/Aids Centre Kathmandu (Nepal)
10.SAARC Energy centre Islamabad (Pakistan)
11SAARC Cultural centre Colombo (Srilanka)

5 Designated SAARC Decades


1. 2001-2010 “Decade of the rights of the child
2. 2006-2015 Decade of poverty alleviation
3. 2010-2020 Decade of Intra-Regional connectivity.

FIVE MARK QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions.
No region exists in vacuum. It is influenced by outside powers and events, no matter how much it
may try to insulate itself from non- regional powers. China and the United States remain key
players in south Asian politics. Sino- Indian relations have improved significantly in the last ten
years, but China’s strategic partnership with Pakistan remains a major irritant. The demands of
42

development and globalization have brought the Asian giants closer and their economic ties have
multiplied rapidly since 1991.
Questions
1. Which two countries have been referred to as outside powers?
2. Which are the two Asian giants and why they have been called so?
3. China’s strategic partnership with Pakistan is a major irritant for which country and why?

Answers
1. The US and China.
2. India and China, because both of them have been considered as rising economic powers in the
world.
3. India, because china has been seen as contributor to Pakistan’s nuclear programme.

2. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. Which animals do represent Sinhala and LTTE?
3. What does Sri Lanka leadership speak in the cartoon?

Answers
1. Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict between LTTE and Sinhala.
2. Sinhala by lion, LTTE by tiger.
3. Sri Lankan leadership is supposed to balance both Sinhala hardliners and Tamil Micitomb while
negotiating peace.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. What is South Asia?
Ans. The expression South Asia usually includes the following countries: Bangladesh,
Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The mighty Himalayas in the
north and the vast Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the south,
west and east respectively provide a natural insularity to the region which is largely
responsible for the linguistic, social and cultural distinctiveness of the subcontinent.

2. Mention any two factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable
democracy.
Ans. Two factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable
democracy are:
1. The social dominance of the military clergy and landowning aristocracy has led to
the frequent overthrow of elected governments and the establishment of military
government.
2. Pakistan conflict with India has made the pro-military groups more powerful.
43

CHAPTER -6
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


1. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Eight temporary members of the U.N Security Council are elected by the general assembly for the
period of three years.
Ans. Ten temporary members of the U.N Security Council are elected by the general assembly for
the period of two years.

2. What is the highest functionary of the U.N called?


Ans. Secretary General is the highest functionary of the United Nations.

3. Who is present secretary general of the United Nations?


Ans. Ban- Ki- Moon from South Korea.

4. Name any two member states of the European Union who are permanent members of the UN
Security Council.
Ans. Britain and France.

5. What is the main objective of the UN?


Ans. To prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among states.

6. Mention any two agencies of the United Nations.


Ans. International Monetary fund, World Health Organization.

7. Name an international Non- Governmental Organization that campaigns for the protection of
Human Rights.
Ans. Amnesty International.

8. What is the full form of IAEA and when it was established?


Ans. The International Atomic and Energy Agency established in 1957.

9. How many permanent and non- permanent members does the UN Security Council have?
Ans. Five permanent and ten non-permanent members.

10. Why is International Organization like UN required?


Ans. To resolve the problems and conflicts peacefully.

11. Correct and rewrite the following statement- UN was founded on 25 October 1943.
Ans. 24 October 1945
44

12 Who coined the term United nation?


Ans Franklin-D-Roosevelt

13 When was UNO officially founded?


Ans 24 Oct 1945

14 When is UN day celebrated


Ans 24 oct

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS
1. List any four principal organs of the united nations
Ans.
1. The General assembly.
2. The Security Council.
3. International Court of Justice.
4. Economic and social council or Secretariat.

2. “The United Nations was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell.” Who
made this statement and what post was he/she holding?
Ans. This statement was made by Dag Hammarskjold, the UN’s second secretary General.

3. Mention any two function of World Bank.


Ans. World Bank.
1. It works for human development (education, health)
2. It provides loans and grants to member states.

4. State any two objective of Human Rights watch.


Ans. Objective of Human Rights watch.
1. To draw global media’s attention to human right abuses.
2. To help in building international coalition like the campaigns to ban land mines, to stop the use
of child soldier, and to establish international criminal court.

5 Which are the official language of UNO?


Ans There are six official languages of UNO
1. Arabic
2. Chinese
3. English
4. French
5. Russian
6. Spanish
45

6 Name five permanent members of UNO?


Ans – USA, Britain, France, China and Russia

7 Write a short note of League of Nations?


Ans-The League of Nation was an international organization founded on 10 jan 1920 as a result of the
Paris peace conference that ended the first world war. It was the first international organization whose
principles mission was to maintain peace.

8 What is Veto Power?


Ans- the power to cancel the postpone the decision or enactment. All the permanent members of SC
has the veto power

9. What is WTO?
Ans; the world trade organization is an international organization which sets the rules for global trade.
This organization was setup in 1995 as the successor to GATT (general agreement on trade & tariffs).
It has 150 members.

10 What is IMF?
Ans – The international monetary fund is an international organization that oversees the financial
institutions & regulations that act at the international level. The IMF has 184 members’ countries but
they do not enjoy on equal say

11 What is World Bank?


Ans- the World Bank was created immediately after the Second World War in 1945. Its activities are
focused on the developing countries. It works for human development (education & health)
agriculture and rural development (irrigation, rural service) environmental protection (pollution
control) etc. it provides loans & grants to the member countries.

12 what is Amnesty international?


Ans- Amnesty international is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the
world. It prepares and publishes reports on human rights

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARK QUESTIONS
1. What criteria have been proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the
Security Council?
Ans. After the resolution of 1992, following criteria have been proposed for a new member should
be:
1. A major economic power
2. A major military power
3. A substantial contributor to UN Budget.
4. A big nation in terms of its population.
5. A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
46

6. A country that would make council more representative of world’s diversity in terms of
geography, economic systems and culture.

2. As decide by the member states in 2005, highlight any four steps to make the United Nations more
relevant in the changing context?
Ans. In September 2005, the UN celebrated its 60th year anniversary and leaders decided to make
the UN more relevant in the changing context by following steps:
1. Creation of peace – building commission.
2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national
governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
3. Establishment of a Human Rights council.
4. Agreement to achieve the millennium development goals.
5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
6. Creation of a democracy fund.
7. An agreement to wind –up the trusteeship council.

3 Name 10 Non permanent members of UNO as in 2016?


1. Angola
2. Egypt
3. Japan
4. Malaysia
5. New zeland
6. Senegal
7. Spain
8. Ukraine
9. Venezuela
10. Uruguay

4 Why do we need international organization?


Ans: - International organization help with matter of war and peace. They also help countries to co-
operate to make better living conditions for us all. They solve the dispute peacefully taking action
against the aggressor states
Economic & Social Council:- the council has 54 members elected by GA. It co-ordinates the work of
specialized organics of UNO. The members are elected for a period of 3 years
Functions- Its main function is to promote social, economic cultural and educational co-operation
between members
Trustee Ship Council – It was a council of 14 members and its main function was to look after areas
liberated from Japan & Germany after the II world war.
Trustee ship council is inactive since 1994 upon the independence of Palau the last UN Trustee
ICJ – ICJ is also known as world countries .It replaced the permanent court of justice of league of
national. It consists of 15 judges elected for a term 9 years.

5 Discuss the suggested reform of UNO?


Ans- the following reforms were suggested to be taken to make the UNO more relevant in
the changing context
47

1. Creation of peace building commission


2. Establishment of human rights council (operational since 9 June 2006
3. Agreement to active millennium development goals
4. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms & manifestation
5. Creation of democracy fund

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. How far did the UN perform its role successor fully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain.
Ans. The UN performs its role successor fully in maintaining peace in the world.
1. Interdependence and globalization is not possible without the international organizations such
as the UN.
2. To enhance cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environment degradation,
crime rate etc. the UN is mandate.
3. To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilize economy all over the world,
the UN and its specialized agencies are always required.
4. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the
best possible.
5. Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing and related wars and miseries, despite the
nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international
peace and understanding.
2. Suggest any six steps since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Ans. In September 2005 the UN celebrated its 60th year anniversary and leaders decided to make it
more relevant in the changing context by following steps:
1. Creation of peace building commission.
2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national
governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
3. Establishment of a human right council.
4. Agreements to achieve the millennium development goals.
5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
6. Creation of democracy fund.
7. An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship council.

3 What are the principles organs of UNO. Discuss the function of each of them?
Ans- There are six principle organs of UNO
1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
3. Economic & social council
4. Trusteeship council
5. International court of justice
6. Secretariat
48

General assembly – General Assembly is composed of all the members states of UNO .It
meets once a year. Each member state can send 5 delegates to GA but has only one vote. GA
elects its own president & 13 vice presidents
Functions-
1. GA passes the budget of UN prepared by secretariat
2. It proposes amendment to the UN charter
3. It elect judge of ICJ

Security Council – the Sc consists of 15 members out of which five – China, France, Russia,
US & Britian are permanent the rest are non-permanent and are elected after every two years
by the general assembly. Its permanent members have the veto power which means the right
to reject a resolution.
Functions:-
1. Maintaining international peace and settle disputes peacefully
1. To settle disputes between member states
2. To advice the GA and security council on international law

Secretariat:-The secretariat is the permanent office of the UNO headed by a secretary general.
The secretary general is the chief executive officer of UNO. The first secretary general of
UNO was Trygue lie from Norway & the present one is Ban-Ki-Moon from south Korea
The main function of secretariat is to look into the working & functioning of UNO

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions.
By 2006, the UN had 192 member states. These included almost all independent states. In the UN
General Assembly, all members have one vote each. In the UN Security Council, there are five
permanent members. These are the US, UK, Russia, France, China. These states were selected as
permanent member as they were most powerful immediately after the Second World War and
because they constituted the victors in the war.
Questions
1. How many member states were there in the UN 2006?
2. Name five permanent members of UN Security Council.
3. Why these states were selected as permanent?

Answers
1. There were 192 member states in the UN by 2006.
2. The UK, US, China, Russia, France are the permanent members.
3. Because they were most powerful immediately after the second world war and constituted the
victors in the war.

Value based / HOTs questions


49

1. Mention the organs of the United Nations.


Ans. The United Nations has six organs. These are the General Assembly, the Security
Council, the Economic and Social Council, The Trusteeship Council, The International Court
of Justice and the Secretariat.

2. Point out the objective of the UN.


Ans. The UN’s objective is to prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation
among states.

3. When the United Nations day is celebrated?


Ans. United Nations day is celebrated on 24th October every year.

Use of veto power up to 2006 by permanent members


Russia – 122
USA - 32
France – 18
China – 04
Top 10 contributors to the UN regular budget
USA 22%
Japan 19.5
German 8.7
UK 6.1
France 6
Italy 4.9
Canada 2.8
China 2.1
Mexico 2.1
UN Secretaries
1. Trygue Lie (1946-1952) – belonged to Norway, lawyer and foreign minister worked on
ceasefire between India and Pakistan on Kashmir
2. Dag Hammarskjold (1953-1961) – Sweden, economist and lawyer. Tried to resolve the Suez
canal dispute and worked for the decolonization of Africa
3. U-Thant (1961-1971) Burma (Myanmar) teacher and diplomat, tried to resolve the Cuban
missile crisis
4. Kurt Waldheim (1972-1981) Austria. Diplomat and foreign minister. Initiated efforts to
resolve the problem of Namibia and Lebanon
5. Javier Perez De-Cuellar (1982-1991) Peru lawyer and diplomat- worked for peace in Cyprus
Afghanistan & EL Salvador
6. Boutros Boutros Ghali (1992-1996) Egypt – Diplomat and Jurist, foreign minister issued a
report “An agenda for peace” criticized for UN failure in Bosnia, Somalia & Rwanda
50

7. Kofi-A-Anna (1997-2006) Ghana; UN official, initiated creating a global fund to fight Aids,
Tuberculosis & Malaria. Dubbed Un led invasion of Iraq as an illegal act. Established the
peace building commission and human rights council in 2005.
8. Ban-Ki-Moon (2007 – till date South Korea : Assumed office on Jan 2007 present secretary
general
51

CHAPTER -7
SECURITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


1. Define security.
Ans. Security is an essence for existence of human life to protect from threats either external or
internal.

2. What is meant by disarmament?


Ans. Disarmament bounds states to give up certain kinds of weapons to avoid mass destruction
through signing various treaties.

3. Mention any two human rights in political field.


Ans.
1. Freedom of speech and expression.
2. Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner.

4. Define cooperative security.


Ans. Cooperative security is the involvement of international cooperation depending on the nature
of the threat and the willingness and ability of countries to respond.

5. Which is the greatest danger to a security as per traditional notion of security?


Ans. It is from military threats which lie in another country to endanger the core- values of
sovereignty, independence and territorial integration of a country.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain traditional concept of security.
Ans. The Traditional Notion of Security covers both the external and internal threats of country’s
security.
External threats consist of four components i.e. military threats, threat of war, balance of power,
alliance building.
Internal threats include maintenance of internal peace and order and recognize cooperative
security to limit violence.
2. What is military threat?
Ans. Military threat to military action from another country to endanger the core values of
country’s sovereignty, independence and integrity. Military action often targets the men women
i.e. ordinary citizens.
3. Explain non- traditional concept of security.
52

Ans. Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range
of threats affecting human existence:
A) It does not cover the states only but also the individual and communities.
B) It emphasizes on security on natural of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.

4 What are the options available to a country in responding to the threats of war?
Ans- In responding to the threat of war, a country has three basic choices
1. To surrender
2. To defend itself when war actually breaks act so as to deny the attacking country its
objectives and to turn back or defeat the attacking forces altogether

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain in brief any four components of India’s security strategy.
Ans. To strengthen its military capabilities:
1. India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbors - Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, 1999
and China 1962.
2. In south Asian region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries.
To strengthen international norms and institutions:
1. India’s first Prime Minister Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonization and
the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
2. It used non alignment to help to carry out an area of peace outside the blocs.
To meet security challenges within country:
1. Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, and Kashmir have
sought to break away from India.
2. India has made effort to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by
providing freedom of speech and expression along with the right to vote.
To develop its economy:
1. India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic
inequalities.
2. A democratically elected government is supposed to combing economic growth with human
development without any demarcation between rich and poor.

2. Identify and explain any four new sources of threats to security.


Ans. Four now sources of threats to security can be identified as follows:
1. Terrorism is war against democracy and a crime against humanity. It refers to political violence
that targets civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national
government. It has become a global phenomenon because even superpower is not free from
terrorist attacks.
2. Human rights are those basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human
being. These rights include political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights,
social and civil rights and rights of indigenous people to lead as honorable and dignified life.
53

3. Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income an low standard of living of
developing or least developed countries.
4. Health epidemics is a very serious threat to a country’s security because seven acute
respiratory syndrome, HIV, AIDS, bird flu etc. diseases spread across countries through
migration business, tourism and military operations.

3. How is Global poverty a source of insecurity? Explain.


Ans. Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living
of developing or least developed countries. It is a source of insecurity because:
1. Half the world’s populations’ growth occurs in just six countries India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria,
Indonesia, considered developing countries and even in poorest countries population is
expected to triple in next 50 years.
2. Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the northern and southern countries of
the world.
3. Poverty in south has also led a large migration to seek a better economic opportunities in the
north.
4. All these created international political friction as international law and norms make distinction
between migrants and refugees as they do not get ready to accept migrants.

4 Give the components of traditional security policy?


Ans- Traditional security policy is concerned with preventing war, which is called deterrence and
with limiting or ending war which is called defense.
Traditional Security- policy has third component also which is called balance of power
A fourth and related component of traditional security policy is alliance building .An alliance is a
coalition of states that co-ordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack

5 The security challenges facing the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa were different
from the challenge of Europe? Discuss?
Ans- The challenges facing the independence countries of Asia and Africa were different from the
challenges of Europe in two ways
For one thing, the new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries.
For another, they had to worry about internal military conflict. These countries faced threats not only
from outside their boarders but also from within
6 What is Anti-ballistic missile?
Ans- An anti-ballistic missile is a surface to air missile designed to counter ballistic missile. The term
“anti ballistic missile” is a generic term converging a system designed to intercept and destroy any
type of ballistic threat, however it is commonly used for system specifically designed to counter inter-
continental ballistic missile (ICB 19’8)

6 What are the objectives of military alliance?


Ans- The main objectives of military alliance is to safeguard the freedom & security to its
members through political & military means.
The second objective is to strengthen its military capabilities
54

The third is to meet security challenges.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Give a comparative analysis of Indian expenditure on tradition al and non-traditional security.
Ans. India spends more on traditional security than non-traditional because
1. India has been involved in conflict with its neighbors as Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and
1999 and China in 1962.
2. In south Asian Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s decision
to conduct nuclear test in 1990 was justified to safeguard national security.
3. India’s first tested nuclear device in 1974.
Though India has made efforts to develop its economy and an individual’s security from
poverty but still it is lagging behind even now and we are supposed to make more efforts.

2. Write a note on Arms control.


Ans. Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons by adopting following
measures:
1. The Anti Ballistic Missiles Treaty in 1992 stopped the US and Soviet Union from using ballistic
missiles to limit large scale production.
2. Other arms control treaties were also signed i.e. strategic arms reduction treaty, strategic arms
limitation treaty and Nuclear non- proliferation treaty to limit the weapons which many bring
large scale destruction.
3. NPT regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons in 1968.
4. NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited number of countries that could have
them.

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions.
The US and soviet Union signed a number of other arms control treaties including the strategic
arms limitations treaty II (SALT II) and the strategic arms reduction treaty (START). The nuclear non-
proliferation treaty(NPT) of 1968 was an arms control treaty in the sense that it regulated the
acquisition of nuclear weapons, those countries that had tested and manufactured nuclear
weapons before 1968 were allowed to keep their weapons and those that had not done so were to
give up the right to acquire them. The NPT did not abolish nuclear weapon rather it limited the
number of countries that could have them.
Questions:
1. What is arms control treaty?
2. Was NPT an arms control treaty? Why?
3. What was institution behind regulation of NPT?
Answers:
1. To regulate the acquisition or development of weapons among countries.
2. Yes, because it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons to protect world from large seat
destruction.
55

3. It did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited the number of countries that could have them

2. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Questions:
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What does the pigeon and man with good symbolize?
3. What message does cartoon convey?

Answers:
1. The movement of peace keeping force i.e. pigeon (white) a symbol of peace and an army
personnel is flying it.
2. Pigeon symbolize peace and a man with good to maintain peace at a place where a threat has
been occurred.
3. Peace keeping forces are also supposed to bear arms to initiate peace.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. What do you mean by the word alliance?
Ans. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend
against military attack.

2. What is security?
Ans. At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the
life of a country are full of threats. Security could so endanger core value that those
values would be damaged beyond repair if do not something to deal with the
situations.
3. Mention four components of traditional security policy.
Ans. Four components of traditional security policy are- deterrence, defence, balance
of power and alliance building.
56

CHAPTER -8
ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1. What is Agenda 21?
Ans. Agenda 21 is a list of developed practices which combine economic growth with ecological
responsibility to promote sustainable development.
2. What is UNFCCC?
Ans. The 1992 United Nations framework convention climate change provides that the parties
should act protect the climate system on the basic of equity and in accordance with the common
but differentiated responsibilities.
3. When the environment emerged as significant issues of global politics?
Ans. Since 1972 when the book “Limits to Growth “revealed the fact of depletion set in ozone
stock.
4. Name the chemical that causes atmospheric temperature rise.
Ans. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS
1. What is Kyoto Protocol?
Ans. The Kyoto protocol is an international agreement setting targats for industrialized countries to
cut their green house gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based
on principles set out in UNFCCC.

2. Mention any two outcomes of Rio-Summit.


Ans. 1) It provided a consensus to combine economic growth with ecological responsibility for
sustainable development.
2) Loss of fertility of agricultural land due to extreme use of fertilizers and overgrazed grasslands.

3. Give any two environmental concerns is an alarming concern for ecosystem.


Ans. Environmental concerns.
1. Ozone layer depletion is an alarming concern for ecosystem.
2. Loss of fertility of agricultural land due to extreme use of fertilizers and overgrazed grasslands

4. What is meant by global commons? Give any two examples.


Ans. Commons are those resources which are not owned by anyone but rather share by a
community. Eg. Common room and a community centre.
With global prefix, this term refers to regions or areas in the world are beyond jurisdiction and
territorial setting of any individual country but equally for mankind as whole. Eg. The Earth’s
atmosphere and Antarctica.
57

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by common property resources? Explain with examples.
Ans. Common property refers to the rights and duties of a group together over a natural resource
with the following norms:
1. The group members enjoy rights and duties both over nature levels of use and the
maintenance of a given resource.
2. In India, many village communities have defined members’ rights and responsibilities through
mutual understanding.
3. The institutional arrangement for the actual management of sacred groves on state owned
forest level appropriating fit the description of common property.

2. Explain the meaning of global commons. Give any four examples of global commons.
Ans. The area of regional located outside the jurisdiction of any state and require common
governance by international community are global commons i.e. Earth atmosphere. Antarctic
Ocean Floor and outer space. They are exploited and polluted due to:
1. Vague scientific evidence, these lacks of consensus on common environmental issues.
2. North south inequalities and their exploitative activates and competition lack proper
management over outer space.
3. Technological and industrial developments have also affected the earth’s atmosphere and
ocean floor.

3. Describe any four steps taken by India to improve the environment.


Ans. The Indian government is participating in global effort through a number of programmes:
1. India’s national auto fuel policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles.
2. The energy conservation act. 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
3. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies
show that India is making real efforts.
4. India is also keen to launch a national mission on biodiesel using about 11 million hectares of
land to produce biodiesel by 2011-12.

4. Define indigenous population. Highlight any two problems of such people.


Ans. The UN defines indigenous populations as comprising the descendants of people who
inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or
ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcame them.
The following two problems are faced by such people:
1. They lost their lands which belonged to them only for a long time.
2. The loss of land refers to a loss of an economic resource base.
3. Issues related to the right of the indigenous communities have also been neglected in domestic
and international politics for long.
58

5. Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics.


Ans. Some environmental issues have been considered as the global issues:
1. Natural resources are being depleted i.e. cultivable area has not been sustained any more.
Agricultural land lost fertility and grass lands have been overgrazed.
2. Water bodies have suffered depletion and pollution both.
3. A steady decline in ozone layer also poses a threat to ecosystem and human health.
4. Natural forests stabilize the climate, moderate water supply and habitat various species also
which are also being a lost creating destruction to biodiversity through industrial pollution etc.
5. Due to land based activities, coastal pollution is also increasing which affects fisheries.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain the importance and role of concept common but differentiated pertaining to environment.
Ans. Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies to save planet earth by the
states but the states from North and south have different notions towards environmental issues:
1. The Northern states are concerned with ozone depletion and global warming whereas
Southern states want to address the relationship between economic development and
environmental management.
2. The developed countries of the North want to discuss the environment issue which stands
equally responsible for ecological conservation.
3. The developed countries of the south feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world
is created by developed countries through their industrial projects.
4. And of developed countries cause more environmental degradation they are supposed to take
more responsibility onwards.
5. The developing countries are under process of industrialization and they should be exempted
from restrictions imposed on developed countries through various conventions like Kyoto
Protocol etc.
6. The special needs of developing countries must be taken into considerations in the process of
development, application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law.
All the above mentioned provisions were accepted in Earth Summit, 1992 while adopting
common but differentiated responsibilities.

2. Explain the concept of common but differentiated responsibilities. How and where was it
emphasized upon?
Ans. Common but differentiated responsibilities mean that the states shall cooperate in spirit of
global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the heath and integrity of the earth’s eco
system. As the states have common but differentiated responsibilities over various contribution of
globe environmental degradation. The developed countries acknowledge that the responsibilities
that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures
59

their societies place on the global environment and of the technological and financial resources
they command.

We could implement the idea with the help of conventions and declarations:
1. The Rio summit held in June 1992 produced conventions dealing with climate change,
biodiversity, forestry and recommended a list of developed practices called agenda 2.
2. The 1992 United Nation’s Framework convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) also
emphasized that the parties should act to protect the climate system on the basis of common
but differentiated responsibilities.
3. An international agreement known by its protocol set targets for industrialized countries to cut
their green house gas emissions which support for global warming.

3. Analyze India’s stand on any three environmental issues.


Ans. India plays a dominating role among the Asian countries on environmental issues:
1. India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol 2002 which emphasized to follow the
principle common but differentiated responsibility.
2. India feels this conventions the very spirit of UNFCCC. Neither does it seem fair to impose
restriction on India when the country’s rise in per capita carbon emissions by 2030 is likely to
still represent less than half the world average.
3. The Indian government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel which makes
India to have one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
4. The Indian government is also participating in global efforts through a number of programmes
i.e. National Auto Fuel Policy, Electricity Act 2003, Energy Conservation Act 2001,etc.

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The Indian government is already participation in global efforts through a number of programmes.
For example, India’s National Auto fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy
Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives t improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the
Electricity Act of 2003 encouraging the use of renewable energy, recent t rends in importing natural
gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real
efforts. The government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, using about 11
million hectares of land to produce biodiesel by 2011-2012. And India has one of the largest
renewable energy programmes in the world.

Questions
1. How India has participated in global efforts to protect environment?
2. What are Energy Conservation Act and Electricity Act?
3. Mention the efforts mode by Indian government for biodiesel.

Answers
1. It has launched a number of progrmmes i.e. Auto Fuel Policy, Energy Conservation Act 2001,
Electricity Act 2003 to protect environment.
60

2. The energy Conservation Act was passed in 2001 to outline initiatives to improve energy efficiency
and Electricity Act, passed in 2003 to encourage the use of renewable energy by the Indian
government as conservation programmes.
3. The Indian government is keen to launch a National mission on Biodiesel using about 11 million
hectares of land to produce biodiesel by 2011- 12.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. What is agenda 21?
Ans. Agenda 21 was a convention of Earth summit of 1992. It deals with the environmental
development programme.
a) It includes climatic change, biodiversity, forestry, development practices etc.
b) Under this list there was consensus on combining economic growth with ecological
responsibility.

2. What do you mean by commons?


Ans. Commons are those resources which are not owned by anyone but rather share by a
community. This could be a park or a river, a community centre, a common room.

3. What do you mean by marines and coastal degradation?


Ans. Disposal of wastes, particularly sewage, directly into oceans is a major source of
pollution on marine and coastal areas. Population growth and increasing urbanization,
industrialization and tourism etc. increasing the extant of the coastal degradation.
61

CHAPTER -9
GLOBALISATION

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS


1. What is cultural homogenization? Give an example to show that its consequence is not negative.
Ans. The process of globalization leads to the rise of a uniform culture which is known as cultural
homogenization. For example blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta.

2. State any two negative aspect of globalization.


Ans. A) The process of globalization represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes
the rich richer and the poor poorer.
b) The programme of globalization is creating a new form of imperialism where developing
countries would be at the receiving end.

3. What are the prime determinants of economic and social priorities?


Ans. Its market forces i.e. demand and supply. However, invisible hands of Adam’s Laissez –Faire
are sobbing in the shackle of USA’s hegemony.

4. What is an MNC?
Ans. Multinational Company.

5. Which are four different flows under globalization?


Ans. Flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARK QUESTIONS
1. Mention any two political consequence of globalization.
Ans. The two political consequence of globalization are-
1. Globalization results in results in reducing the state capacity or the ability of the government to
do what they want to do.
2. ‘Old welfare state ‘ is giving way to a more minimalist state.

2. Why has the globalization not led to a significant degree of increase in the movement of the people
across the globe?
Ans. It is due to the fact that the developed have carefully guarded their borders with visa policies
to ensure that citizens of other countries cannot take away the jobs of their own citizens.
3. Mention any problem created by protectionism.
Ans. It has made indigenous business and industrial houses lull and lethargic. Excessive
bureaucratic control in the name of subsidies tax-holidays and sickness removal schemes over
these houses is deemed resisting global competition.
62

4. What is W.S.F.? What is its globalization?


Ans. World Social Forum is an international organization comprising environmentalist’s laborers,
youth and women activists that opposes globalization.

5. How for is it correct to say that globalization results in the erosion of state sovereignty?
Ans. Excessive privatization and removal of trade barriers gradually weaken the state and its
sovereignty may meet to shock therapy like that of USSR that resulted her disintegration.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Mention any four political consequences of globalization.
Ans. Political consequences are positive and negative both as:
Negative aspects
1. Globalization results in an erosion of state capacity that is the ability of government to do what
they do.
2. The old welfare state is now giving way to more minimalist state that performs certain core
functions such as maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.
3. Sometimes state withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic
and social well being.
4. Market becomes prime determinant to settle down social and economic priorities in place of
welfare.
Positive aspects
1. The prime status remains unchallenged basis of political community.
2. To some extent developing countries have received a boost to become more powerful and
strong.

2. Explain any two economic consequences of globalization.


Ans. Positive consequences
1. It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
2. It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
3. The restrictions on the imports and movements of capital have also reduced.
Negative consequences
1. it has created diverse opinion all over the world as to benefit only a small section of society
2. it does not have equality at par the movement of people across the globe i.e. developed
countries have carefully guarded their border with visa policies to ensure job security to their
own citizens.

3. What is globalization? Highlight any three cause of globalization.


Ans. Globalization is integration of an economy with other economies along with the free flow of
trade and capital.
Process of globalization is the result of:
63

1. Historical factors.
2. Role of international organizations like IMF and WTO
3. Liberalization and privatization
4. Technological innovations.

4. Explain any two positive and two negative effects of globalization.


Ans. Positive effects
1. Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
2. It attracts private foreign capital investment.
Negative effects
1. It has widened income disparities by making rich richer and the poor poorer.
2. Gradually, globalization is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauns in country.

5. Explain any four consequences of globalization.


Ans. Economic consequences
1. It has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe
2. The restriction imposed by other countries on allowing imports has been reduced.
Cultural consequences
1. The rise of uniform culture called as cultural homogenization.
2. Global culture is the imposition of western culture on rest of the world.
Political consequences
1. In place of welfare state it is the market to become the prime determinant of economic and
social priorities.
2. The entry and increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to reduction in capacity of
governments to take decisions on their own.
Others
1. The left wing protests against economic liberalization.
2. Indian social forum also raised voices against globalization.

6. Globalization has shifted power from nation states to global consumer”. Justify the statement.
Ans. The impact of changing role of state in developing countries in the light of globalization can be
summed up as follows:
1. Globalization reduces states capacity i.e. the ability of governments to do what they do.
2. Market becomes the prime determinant to down economic and social priorities.
3. Multinational companies’ effect on decision taken by governments because their own interest
fulfillment depends on government policies.
4. The old welfare state is now giving way to more minimalist state to perform certain core
functions as maintenance of law and order and the security.
64

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


SIX MARKS QUESTIONS
1. Explain any three benefits of globalization with examples.
Ans. Globalization has certain benefits like:
Economic benefits
1. It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
2. It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
3. The restrictions on the imports and movement of capital have also been reduced.
4. This has spread internet and computer related services across national boundaries
Technological benefits:-
Technical equipment as telephone, internet, telephone and microchip have contributed to
globalization by exchanging ideas, capital and people to make convenient to move from one
place to another at a fast pace to stimulate the process of globalization.
Political benefits
1. The primary of status remain unchallenged a basis of political community.
2. To some extent developing countries have received a boost to become more powerful and
strong

2. Assess any three basics on which globalization are being resisted in India.
Ans. Resistance to globalization in India has come from different quarters:
1. Left using protests to economic liberalization was voiced through political parties as well as
through forum like the Indian social forum.
2. Trade unions and farmers interests have also been organized protests against MNCs.
3. The patenting of certain plants like need by American and European forms has also generated
protests.
4. Resistance has come from political parties also in the form of objecting to various cultural
influences like availability of foreign T. channels provided by cable networks, celebration of
Valentine’s Day westernization of dress code.
3. Write down the factors responsible for the emergence of globalization.
Ans. The period after the end of cold war and the dissolution of Soviet Union is known as an era of
globalization and the following factors were responsible for its emergence:
1. Advancement of science and technology.
2. End of cold war.
3. Collapse of communication for eastern Europe
4. For the solution of world problems.
5. Failure of socialist model.
6. Global effects of various events.
65

FIVE MARK QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Advocates of economic globalization argue that is generates greater economic growth and well
being for larger sections of the population when there is de-regulation. Greater trade among
countries allows each economy to do what it does best. This would benefit the whole world. They
also argue that economic globalization is inevitable and it is not wise to resist the march of history.
More moderate supporters of globalization say that globalization provides a challenge that can be
responded to intelligently without accepting it uncritically. What, however, cannot be denied is the
increased momentum towards inter- dependence and integration between governments,
businesses and ordinary people in different parts of the world as a result of globalization.

Questions
1. What is economic globalization?
2. How does economic globalization benefit the whole world?
3. How does the moderate supporter of globalization view it?

Answers
1. Economic globalization generates great or economic growth and well being for larger section of
population when there is deregulation.
2. Economic globalization gives opportunities t countries to do best in their economy.
3. Moderate supporters of globalization view it as a challenge to be responded intelligently without
accepting it uncritically.

Value based / HOTs questions


1. Give one example of negative impact of globalization.
Ans. Some farmers committed suicide because their crops failed. They had bought very
expensive seeds supplied by a multinational company.

2. What may be the effect of modern globalised culture?


Ans. Indigenous and national culture and languages can be eroded by the modern
globalised culture.

3. Give any one problem of globalization.


Ans. The major economic powers have major influence in the institutions of globalization,
like the WTO, and this can work against the interests of the developing world
66

POLITICS IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE (PART –II)


67

CHAPTER 1
CHALLENGES OF NATION BUILDING

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTION

1. Special status has been accorded to the state of Jammu & Kashmir under:
a) Article 370 of the constitution
b) A treaty signed between the union government and state government at the time
of accession
c) Schedule of the constitution
d) None of above
Ans: Article 370 of the constitution

2. The institutional arrangement created by Nehru to achieve certain values was:


a) constitution
b) an elected parliament
c) a planning commission
d) all of above
Ans: All of above

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. How many princely states were in India at the time of the independence?
Ans: - 565 princely states in all.

2. The partition of which two princess of India caused the deepest trauma in 1947?
Ans: - Punjab, Bengal

3. When and by whom was the ‘tryst with destiny’ speech delivered?
Ans: - By Jawaharlal Lal Nehru at the midnight of 14-15 Aug 1947.

4. Mention any two challenges that India faced just after independence
Ans: - a. To tie India in unity & accommodation of diverse groups in the society Establish
democracy in the country.

5. What was the biggest obstacle in national building at the time of India’s Independence?
Ans: - To retain unity & integrity of free India & to make a strong India

6. Which two princely states refused to join either Pakistan or India at the time of
Independence?
Ans :- Hyderabad & Travancore.
68

7. What is meant by ‘two-nation Theory’? Who insisted on the partition of India?


Ans: - The two nation theory maintained that India consisted of not one but two people,
Hindu & Muslim. Muslim league insisted on the partition of India.

8. Explain the role played by Sardar Patel in the Unification of principle states in India .
Ans:- As Home Minister of Independent India Sardar Patel got instrument of accession
drafted & synced by the rulers of almost all princely states.

9. Who was Potti Sriramula? What was the outcome of his indefinite fast?
Ans: - Potti Sriramula (1901-1952) was a Gandhi worker who left gast job to participate in
salt Satyagraha. He understands a fast demanding separate state of Andhra Pradesh. He
dies during the fast on 15-12-1952.

10. What was the task of the state reorganization commission.


Ans:- The central Govt had appointed a state reorganization commission in 1953 to look
into the question of redrawing of the boundaries of state.

11. What was meant by princely states?


Ans-Princely states were ruled by princes who employed some form of control over their
internal affairs under the supremacy of British.

12. Q Whose speech was known as ‘tryst with destiny’?


Ans – Tryst with destiny’ speech was delivered by the first prime minister of independent
India Pt Jawahar lal Nehru while addressing special session of constituent Assembly as the
midnight of 14-15 August 1947.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION


FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Mention any two challenges faced by India at the time of our independence.
Ans: - To tie India in Unity:-
Accession of Princely states (560 in number), merge their framework of stately laws with
union of India. Except Jammu & Kashmir, all states were merged with Indian Union.
To established democracy:-
India adopted representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of govt.
challenge was to evolve democratic norms, values, practices & principles in accordance with
the constitution.

2. How many princely states were there at the time of India’s independence? Which
document was to be signed by the rulers Indian Union? Which princely states refused to
join?
Ans: 565 States
The Instrument of Accession
Four princely states refused to join
a) Junagadh b) Hyderabad c) Kashmir d) Manipur
69

3. What is the concept of partition?


Ans: According to the two-nation theory advanced by the Muslim league, Hindustan is
consisted of not one but two people Hindu & Muslim. Muslim league demanded Pakistan.

4. Describe briefly any four problems faced in the process of partition of India.
Ans: Problems faced by new India during the process of partition
i) Communal riots.
ii) Second challenge was to shape a nation that was united & accommodate the diversity
in our society.
iii) Ensure the development & well being of the entire society & not only of some
sections.
iv) Effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty.

5. Describe how the princely states of Manipur & Junagarh acceded to India.
Ans: MANIPUR:-
Few days before independence, the maharaja of Manipur, Boddha Chandra Singh signed the
instrument of accession with the Indian Government Maharaja held election in Manipur in
June 1948 & state become a constitutional Monarchy. In the Legislative Assembly of
Manipur there were sharp differences over the question of merger of Manipur with
India.”The Govt of India succeeded in pressurizing the Maharaja into signing a merger
agreement in Sept. 1949 without consulting the elected legislative assembly of Manipur.
JUNAGARH:-
The ruler of Junagarh desired to merge with Pakistan or wanted to remain independent.
The ruler of most of the states signing a document called the “Instrument of accession
which meant that their state agreed to become a part of the Union of India. Accession of
the princely states of Junagarh proved more difficult than the rest. The issue of Junagarh
was resolved after a plebiscite confirmed people’s desire to join India.

6. Mention the role of Sardar Vallabh Bhai towards India’s integration .


Ans: The role of Sardar Vallabh Bhai towards India’s integration -
i. With his capacity as Home Minister of independent India Sardar Patel got –
Instrument of Accession drafted and signed by the rulers of almost all princely
states.
ii. He explained rulers of 565 princely states “the selfish interest hidden in Govt of
India Act, 1935 and that of Independence of India Act 1947 passed by the British in
due course of time. He stressed the need of unity and integrity among all people of
India.
iii. Some states rigid in their approach to maintain them free from Indian Union later
these were merged with Indian union by Patel using plebiscite, creating public
awareness.

7. How did the states of Hyderabad become a part of the India union?
Ans: Hyderabad, the largest of the princely states was surrounded entirely, by the Indian
territory. Its ruler carried the title Nizam. He wanted an Independence status for
Hyderabad. In the mean time Oppressive women also joined in large numbers. The Nizam’s
70

paramilitary force Razakars murdered, maimed raped and looted particularly the non-
Muslims.The Central Govt had to order the army to tackle the situation. In Sept 1948-
Indian army reached there and after a few day s the Nizam had surrendered. This led to
Hyderabad accession to India.

8. What was Vishalandhar Movement? Potti Sriramula went on an indefinite fast for how
many days?
Ans: Vishalandara movement demanded the Telugu speaking areas should be separated
from the Madras province of which they were a part & be made into a separate Andhra
Province. Potti Sriramula went on an indefinite fast for 56 days.

9. Why did the leaders of the national movement cherish the deal of a secular state?
Ans: It is because they knew very well that India is a country of multi-religions & people are
religious minded. The essence of democracy could be protected and preserved only in a
secular state. Secularism is must to maintain India’s unity & Integrity. Secularism will help in
maintaining internal peace and communal harmony.

10. What problems were involved at the integration of princely states during nation building?
Ans- Integration of princely states possessed many difficulties in front of nation builders:
1. British announced to lapse of British paramountcy over princely states with the end of
their rule over India.
2. British government took the view that all these states were free to join either India or
Pakistan or remain independent willfully. It became a hindrance for unity of nation.
3. Ruler of Travancore declared the state as independent one.
4. Nizam of Hydrabad and Bhopal also followed Travancore
5. These responses created a possibility of division of country in place of unity and
democracy

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What is reorganization of states? When did it take place?


Ans: In India princely states after independence won in 1947 were annexed to Indian union
through the instrument of Accession except Jammu & Kashmir. Soon after this, some
leaders in these states raised demand of new state with different demarcation & language
prevalent at that time. It had therefore becomes necessary for Govt of India to recognize
then. In brief, it was first the process of organization or assimilation & then that of
reorganization.
II) When did it take place –
Ans: In 1952 – when Potti Shrisamula of Madras province – raised demand of new state
namely Andhra Pradesh for which sat on hunger strike till his last breath. Govt of India
71

acceded to his demand & new state of A Pradesh was reorganized. Thus a commission
named states reorganized commission (SRE) was constituted. Subsequently 14 states & 6
union territories were constituted as per the provinces of the Act of 1956.

2. What were the major challenges of building democracy in India?


Ans: Multi party System & Stability of Govt at both levels i.e. centre and state. Due to this
system coalition Govt is working at centre but always is a very unstable position.
Communalism:-
In spite of the secular native of our polity, communalism is thriving in the country & now it
constitutes a serious threat to the unity & integrity of the nation. The major religious
communities in India are the Muslim, the Sikhs, The Christians, the Anglo-Indians parses &
Buddhists. Muslim constitution the largest minority community. Most Hindus deny they
are a religious community. Some Hindu political leaders even claim the instead of being a
religious community they are the real native, the real Bhai’s.
Casteism:-
As a result of universal Adult Franchise even those social groups who stand low in social
hierarchy have realized that they yield enormous power. They have become conscious
because various political parties compete to solicit their support. Even while distributing
the election tickets & formulation of ministers, caste considerations do come in. It has
been observed that generally people of the same caste group vote for candidate of their
own caste.
It is not caste alone which influences the polities. The politics also transfer the caste &
effects its solidarity & hierarchy. In other words, caste politicization has two ways & there
by opened new vistas for the study of politics in India.
In other words, caste politicization has two way traffic. The two have effected each other
& thereby opened new vistas for study of politics in India.

3. What were the main consideration for bringing princely states with Indian Union? Who
played the historic role in the task?
Ans: Background and problem of Integration of princely States: - Just before Independence,
the British rule had declared that with the end of their rule the British crown over Princely
states would also lapse. This meant that in all 565 princely states become legally
independent.
The British rule took the view that all these states were free to join either India or Pakistan
or remain independent.
The problem started when the ruler of Travancore declare that the state had declared
independence.
After few days Nizam of Hyderabad made a similar declaration. This response of the rulers
of princely states response meant that after independence there was a very real possibility
of that India would get further divided into a number of small countries.
Consideration for bringing princely state with Indian union:
The people of most of the princely states clearly wanted to become part of the Indian
union.
72

The government was prepared to be flexible in giving autonomy to some regions.


In the backdrop of partition which brought into focus the content over demarcation of
territory, the integration, consolidation of the territories boundaries of the nation had
assumed supreme significance.
Sardar Patel who was the deputy Prime Minister & Home Minister of India during the
crucial period played a historic role in negotiation with the rules of princely state firmly but
diplomatically & bringing most of them into the Indian Union.

4. What were the consequences of the partition of India in 1947?


Ans: 1947 – year of one of the largest unplanned tragic transfers of population in human
history. Killing & atrocities on both sides of the borders.
Immense sufferings- minorities on both sides of the border fled their home & secured
themselves in refugee camps women were killed to preserve the families’ honor. Children
separated from their parents.
Partition not merely a division of properties, liabilities & assets or a political division of the
covered & the administrative appetitive what also get divided were the financial assets,
books & musical instrument. The employees were also divided. So lakh people migrate
across the new border.
Partition poses another deeper issue. The leaders of the Indian national struggle did not
believe in the two –nation theory and yet partition on religion basis had taken place. The
partition had already created several conflicts between the two communities.

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

1. Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions given below it : Tomorrow we
shall be free from the slavery the British domination. But at midnight India will be partitioned.
Tomorrow will thus be a day rejoicing as well as of mourning.

QUESTIONS:
1. Who is called the father of our nation? Write his full name.
2. When and where he was born?
3. Explain the excerpt of Mahatma Gandhi, which he delivered in Kolkata on the same day.

ANSWERS:
1. Mahatma Gandhi is called 'The Father of Nation," in India. His full name is Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi.
2. Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October, 1869. He was born at Portbandar, Rajkot in
Gujarat.
3. On 14 August, 1947 in Kolkata, Mahatma Gandhi urged that the next day India would be
free from the slavery of the British domination. But at midnight of the same day India
would be divided into two independent countries i.e. India (Hindustan) and Pakistan.
According to him therefore 15th August, (1947) would be a day of mixed feeling.
73

Q2. Study the following picture and answer the questions given below it.

QUESTIONS:

1. With which occasion the above picture is concerned? Why that day is called a 'Red Letter's
Day in Indian History?
2. In the picture who is addressing to whom and from where?
3. In which circumstances India was born on that historical day?

ANSWERS

1. The above picture is concerned with the happy occasion of India’s first day of her
independence. At the hour of midnight on 14-15 August 1947, our country (India) attained
independence after the slavery of nearly 190 years of the British rule. This was the
moments; crores of Indians had been waiting for so many years. Our first Independence
Day is called a Red Letter's Day in Indian History.
2. In the picture our first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is addressing from the Red Fort
(Delhi) on 15 August, 1947. He is speaking to the people of India.
3. India was born in very difficult circumstances. Perhaps no other country by then was born
in a situation more difficult than that of India in 1947. Freedom of India came with the
partition of the country. The year 1947 was a year of unprecedented violence and trauma
of displacement .

Q:3 Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows
74

Questions
What does the picture represent?
Mention some consequences of partition.
Which year is being denoted in the picture ?
Answers:
This picture represents the painful scene of partition of country when people wee supposed to
leave their home
(i) Communal Riots
Administrative Concerns and Financial Strains
The year of 1947, most abrupt unplanned year in the history

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

We have a Muslim Minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want, go
anywhere else. That is a basic fact about which there can be no argument. Whatever the
provocation from Pakistan and whatever the indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims
there, we have got to deal with this minority in a civilized manner. We must give them security
and the rights of citizens in a democratic state. If we fail to do so, we shall have a festering sore
which will eventually poison the whole body politic and probably destroy it.

1. Which basic fact has been highlighted by the author in the above passage?
Ans: The author is of the opinion that the Muslim minority in India are so large in numbers
that they cannot go anywhere else even if they want. According to him, it is a basic fact
that and nobody can question it. This thought of the author is certainly worth emulating.
The author, Jawaharlal Nehru, himself is a champion of humanity.

2. In what manner does the author want to deal with the Muslim minority?
Ans: The author wants to deal with the Muslim community in a civilized manner. 0He
wants to give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic state.

3. What is the author worried about? Explain


Ans: The author is worried about the security of humanity. He thinks that if fails to give
them security and the right of citizens, it will become a festering sore which will eventually
poison the whole body politic and probably destroy it.
75

Q:2Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:

The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller
principalities of different sizes. The Muslim league opposed the Indian National Congress
and took the view that the states should be free to adopt any course they liked. Sardar
patel, India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period,
immediately sfter Independence, played a historic role in negotiation with the rulers of
princely states in bringing most of them into the Indian Union

Question
1. Which government has been referred to as the interim government?
2. Why did the Muslim League oppose the Indian national Congress?
3. What makes the role of Sardar Patel a historic one? Explain

Answers:
1. The Indian National Congress has been referred to as the interim government.
2. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress because it was of the view that
the states should be free to adopt any course they liked.
3. Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial
period immediately following Independence. He negotiated with the rulers of princely
states firmly but diplomatically and brought most of them into the Indian Union

HOTS

1. Whose speech was the “tryst with destiny”?


Ans: The speech of the first Prime Minister of free India, Pandit Jawaharlal Lal Nehru at the
hour of the midnight on 14-15 Aug 1947 was known as the famous “tryst with destiny
speech”. He delivered the speech while addressing a special session of the constituent
assembly.

2. “The Indian Political system is previously handicapped”. Why?


Ans:The Indian Political system is seriously handicapped because of its excessive reliance
on Political Leaders and Governmental Institutions.

MAP WORK

Q Read the following outline map of India and answer the questions that follow:

1. Name the original state from which the following states were carved out: Gujarat, Haryana,
Meghalaya, and Chhattisgarh.
76

Ans. Gujarat was carved out from Bombay and some princely states of western India and
Haryana III Punjab, Meghalaya from Assam and Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh.

2. Name two states that were affected by the partition of the country.
Ans. Two states that affected by the partition of the country Bengal and Punjab.

3. Identify the four princely states marked in the map given below as A, B, C and D Mention
the major problem faced in the integration of anyone of these states into India Union.

Ans. (A) Mysore, (B) Manipur, (C) Hyderabad, (D) Jammu and Kashmir.

Problems faced by Hyderabad :


i) It was a big princely state ruled by Nizam and the ruler had refused to sign on
Instrument Of Accession as he wanted to found an independent state.
ii) His Razakar leader Qasim Rizvi was subjecting the people including farmersin
Telangana to atrocities.
iii) Farmer Unions launched movement against Nizam's coercive and torturous
administration.
iv) Sardar Patel, the then Home Minister of Independent India had to direct Army
General Chaudhary to pursue police action for safety of the citizens.
v) Four day's continuous fighting had pressed the army of Nizam to surrender before
Indian police or para-military forces. Thus, on 17th September, 1948, Nizam of
Hyderabad accepted to accede his state to India.
77

MAP WORK
On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolize
them as indicated

Name the mark the original state from which the following states were carved out
Gujarat (c) Haryana
Meghalaya (d) Chhattisgarh
Name and mark the countries reorganized on religious grounds
Demarcated boundaries of these countries by geographical zones.
Answer
(a) Gujarat (from Bombay)
(b) Meghalaya (from Assam)
(c.) Haryana (from Punjab)
Chhattisgarh (form Madhya Pradesh)
(a) India (b) Pakistan
(a) Pakistan (b) Bangladesh
78

CHAPTER 2
ERA OF ONE – PARTY DOMINACE

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. Which one of the following is not a demerit of single party system?


a) too democratic
b) No individual liberty
c) hero worship
d) State is taken as an end in itself
Ans – too democratic

2. In first general elections of India which party/ parties engaged as main oposition party?
a) Bhartiya Jan Sangh
b) Swantantra party
c) Communist party
d) Socialist party
Ans – Communist party

3. Which political party laid emphasis on the idea of one party, one culture and one nation?
Ans – Bharatiya Jana Sangh

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS


TWO MARK QUESTION

1. Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner?


Ans. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner.

2. When was the Election Commission set up in India?


Ans. The Election Commission was set up in India in January 1950.

3. What party emerged as the second largest party in the 1952 general Election?
Ans – Communist Party of India (CPI)

4. When and why was the Communist party of India (CPI) divided into two factions?
Ans – The Communist Party of India divided into two factions in 1964- CPI and CPI (M).
The Sino – Indian conflict & the growing rift between China and USSR created
irreconcilable difference within the CPI.

5. When was the election commission of India set up? Who was the first Chief Election
Commissioner?
Ans – The Election Commissioner of India was setup in January 1950. Mr Sukuman Sen was
the first Election commissioner of India.
79

6. What is meant by ‘Grand Alliance’?


Ans - Before 1971 general election, an organization of non-congress opposition parties was
formed known as the Grand Alliance after result Indian Gandhi’s congress ( R) won 352
seats & Grand Alliances of the opposition proved a grand failure with combined fully seats
of less than 40.

7. Who raised the national and international issues in the beginning after India’s freedom?
Ans - Jawaharlal Nehru during his election meetings. His capacity to attract crow’s during
his election comparing however a necessary was, but not a sufficient condition to win the
election.

8. Distinguish between ‘one party system’ and ‘one party dominance’.


Ans – The ‘one party system’ is control around the ruling party, and no other political party
or opposition is allowed.
In ‘one party dominance’ generally democratic norms are not compromised For Example:
In India many political parties contested elections in conditions of free & fair elections yet
the Congress won election after election. After the end of apartheid, the Africans National
Congress has enjoyed the one party dominance in South Africa

9. What is meant by non-Congressism?


Ans- The ‘Non-Congressism’ term was coined by Ram Manohar Lohia. He argued that the
rule of congress was undemocratic. The coming together of the non-congress was
necessary for reclaiming democracy.

10. What is meant by Samyukt Vidhayati Dal?


Ans – 1967, several non-congress parties came together to form join legislative parties
which were called Samyukt Vidhayati Dal.

11. What were the election symbol of the congress party & Bhartiya Jansangh in the first
general election.
Ans – The election symbol of congress party was pair of oxen, while the symbol of Bhartiya
Jansangh was the lamp (Deepak).

SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS


4 MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What is significant feature of forty years of electoral politics?


Ans. A significant feature of forty years of electoral politics in India is its
growing comparativeness, which is reflected in inter-caste and intra-caste competitiveness,
as also in inter community and intra-community competitiveness Elections in India have
shaken the social structure.

2. Point out” Election have played a revolutionary role in India.


80

Ans. Election have played a revolutionary role in India. An apathetic and relatively a
politicised society has become highly politically conscious and assertive. The voter’s
participation in the Lok Sabha election has been increasing and elections have become
highly competitive.

3. What were the characteristics of the Indian Vote?


Ans. The Indian Vote may be analysed onthe basis of following Characteristics:-
1. The Secular Vote
2. The Communal Vote
3. The Caste Vote
4. The Regional Vote
5. The Rural/Urban/Town Vote
6. The Communist Vote
7. The Minority Vote
8. The Tribal Vote
9. The Vote for women and men
10. The Vote for erstoolic Privacy

4. Did the prevalence of a one party dominant system affect adversely the democracy nature
of Indian Politics.
Ans. Yes, one party dominant system adversely affects the Indian Politics. The explanation
for such a change is provided by the essential feature of the party i.e. its broad social
character and its basic coalitional strategy. If some group or individual leaders leave the
party many others walk into it. The Congress closes its doors and also keeps it open life
story of a Party cannot be fully understand by concentrating on its internal dynamics and
election winning compulsions.

5. Write the some significant facts about the princely order and electoral process.
Ans. Three significant Facts about the princely order and electoral process have
been observed during the nine Lok Sabha elections.
The Princes have participated in the democratic process and many of them have
joined democratic political parties.
The appeal of traditions has been significant in the case of princely rulers and voters have r
esponded enthusiastically to their traditional masters.
Some princes have lost the elections and suffered defeat in their vote Bank Constituencies.
Thus the process of continuity and change is at work during elections in India.

6. Mention any two ideologies of Bhartiya Jansangh.


Ans:- Rightist political party was founded in 1951 by Dr Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.
Its two ideologies were –
1. It believes in Akahand Bharat (Integrated, India) It demands a stiff attitude towards
Pakistan.
81

2. Abolition of article 370 of Indian constitution & same code of laws for whole India. It
had favoured more friendly attitude towards Hinduism, Hindi language, cow & ancient
Indian culture & tradition.

7. How did the congress party succeed in maintaining its dominance till 1967?
Ans:- The congress managed to elicit support from powerful & socially influential groups to
win election in 1952, 57 & 62. During the Nehru period, there was indeed a slow and
gradual process of politicization of the voters but the powerful narrow elite of the congress
continued to benefit from the low level of political consciousness of the electorate.
The critical phase for the congress began with the Lok Sabha election of 1967, border
dispute of 1962, India-Pakistan was 1965, and serious drought & economics situation
roused people discontent & anger against the congress.

8. Describe the organization of Congress party as a social and ideological coalitions


Ans-1. It accommodated the revolutionary conservative, extremist and moderates with all
other shades of the centre
2. Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties
to take part in national movement
3. In pre-independence days, many organizations and parties were allowed to co-exist
within the congress
4. Some of these like ‘Congress Socialist party’ later separated from the congress and
became an opposition party

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARK QUESTIONS

1. What were the methods of election system in past period in India and focus the light on
the changing method of voting in present period.
Ans. In the first general election, it was decided to place inside each polling booth a box for
each candidate with the election symbol of that candidate. Each Voter was given a blank
ballet paper which they had to drop in to the box of the candidate they wanted to vote for.
About 20 Lakhs steel bones were used for this purpose. In the present period we use an
EVM (Electronic Voting, Machine) to record Voter Preferences. After the first two elections
this method was changed. Now the ballet paper carried the names and symbols of all the
candidate and the voter was required to put a stamp on the name of the candidate they
wanted to vote for. This method worked for nearly forty years. Towards the end of 1990s.
The Election Commission started using the EVM. By 2004 the entire country has shifted to
the EVM.

2. Bring out three differences Between Socialists Parties and the Communist Party.
Ans. Difference between socialist party and the communist party:- Sino. Socialist Party
Communist Party
82

1. The leaders of socialist part wanted a more radical and


egatbitarian Congress. Communist worked mainly within the fold of the Indian
National Congress.
2. The socialist believed in the ideology of democratic Socialism. Communist worked
mainly within the fold of the Indian National Congress.
3. The Socialists criticized the Congress for favoring Capitalists and Land Lord and for
ignoring the workers and the peasants But the communist party abandoned the path of
Violent resolution and decided to participate in the approaching general election.

3. Explain the critical phase for the Congress began with the Lok Sabha election of 1967 and
the slogan of “Garibi Hatao”.
Ans. The Critical phase for the Congress began with the Lok Sabha election of 1967. The
Sino-Indian Border disputer of 1962 the India –Pakistan was of 1965 the serious drought of
1965-66 and 1966-67,and the extremely bad food and economic situation roused People’s
discontent and anger against the Congress Party during the Lok SabhaElection of 1967.
Many tall leaders of the congress party were punished by the voters. The Congress party
won a majority in the Lok Sabha election of 1967. But it emerged Shaken and Shattered.
The Voters could not be taken for granted by a non-performing government. The election
of 1967 form watershed in India because the voters for the first time showed concern
for government performance. They have never since looked back on this attitude. Many
Significant things preceded the fifth Lok Sabha election of 1971, first the Congress was
split. And Second Indira Gandhi brought economics Policy to the centre stage of Politics.
The Indian Voters come back to the Congress because the slogan of “Garibi Hatao”
eradicate poverty clicked with them. The twenty Point program of Indira Gandhi a later
extension of her “Garibi Hatao” Slogan was an attempt to reach the rural poor. It had
however obvious limitations. The Lok Sabha Elections of 1971 were therefore fought by
Indira Gandhi on the basis of Caste and CommunityFactors. As well as on the projection
ofher leadership qualities programmatic politics was the shetoric of mobilization and
cooption of the local influential’s Loyalties and linked it up with new hopes raised by Mrs.
Gandhi’s new Leadership.

4. Describe the first three Lok Sabha elections of 1952,57 & 62.
Ans:- A Panoramic View of elections :
1. The first three lok sabha elections of 1952,57 & 62 were dominated by the
Congress party under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. It was infact proclaimed that
even a lamp post would win with the support of Nehru & the congress.
2. Nehru raised national & international issues during his elections meetings which drew
large crowds. His election campaign to attract crowds was necessary but not sufficient
conditions to win the elections.
3. The congress party machine and the various factional leaders nominated Candidates on
the basis of caste, community & local influence. Infact the various castes & community
leaders played a crucial role in mobilizing the voters of their respective caste,
communities for the congress candidates.
4. The congress managed to elicit support from powerful and socially influential groups to
win election in 1952. 1957 and 1962.on the basis of minority of votes the congress
could win a majority of seats which enabled them to form the government.
83

5. During the Nehru period there was indeed a slower and gradual process of
politicization of the voters but the powerful narrow elite of the Congress continue to
benefit from the low level of political consciousness electorate.

5. How was the one party dominance in India different from the one party system in Mexico?
In your opinion which of the two political systems is better and why?
Ans- There was a difference between one party domination in India and Mexico. In Mexico,
this was a one party system only not dominance because
1. In India, the congress party dominated on behalf of popular consensus but Institutional
Revolutionary party(PRI) (In Spanish) ruled on behalf of perfect dictatorship.
2. In India, free and fair election took place, where the loosing of election was also fair but
in Mexico , election were based on malpractices, dominated by PRI
In our opinion one party dominance like India is better because this sort of dominance
1. Accommodates social diversities
2. Encourage large number of participation
3. Ensure democratic spirit as well as maintains the same
4. Bear respect even for opposition

6. How did opposition parties emerge in India? What was their importance?
Ans- Some of the diverse opposition parties had come into existence before the first general
elections in 1952 as non-congress parties which succeeded to gain only a token of
representation in Lok Sabha and state assemblies. These parties maintained a democratic
character of the system
1. These offered a criticism based on principles to keep ruling party under check
2. These parties groomed the leaders also to play a crucial role in shaping the country
3. In the early years, these was a lot of respect between leaders of congress and
opposition parties I,e interim government included even opposition leaders like Dr
Ambebker, jayaprakash narayan, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee into the cabnet

HOTS

1. Who founded the Indian National Congress and why?


Ans: A retired English officer A.O.Hume,along with others ,founded the Congress in 1885. It
was started as safety valve to express the increasing feeling of discontentment. Later, the
Congress changed from a platform to a movement & finally into a political party.

2. By whom party domination did first three elections held ?


Ans: The first three Lok Sabha elections of 1952,57 & 62 were dominated by the Congress
party under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
84

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

In the early years there was a lot of mutual respect between the leaders of the Congress and those
of the opposition. The interim government that ruled the country after the declaration of
Independence and the first general election included opposition leaders like Dr. Ambedkar and
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee in the cabinet. Jawaharlal Nehru often referred to his fondness for the
Socialistic Party and invited Socialist leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan to join his government. This
Kind of personal relationship with and respect for political adversaries declined after the party
competition grew more intense.

1. What kind of relationship was there between the congress and the Opposition party in the
beginning?
Ans: In the beginning there was a lot of mutual respect between the leaders of the
Congress and those of opposition. This quality of them is quite emulating. Because in our
time such feeling is lacking in the various political parties.

2. Write the names of those opposition leaders who were included to the congress.
Ans: The following leaders of opposition parties were included to the congress:
Dr. Ambedkar, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.

3. What sort of relationship did Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru had with the socialist leaders? What was
its effect?
Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru maintained a deep relationship with the socialist leaders. He had
invited the socialist leader like Jaya Prakash Narayan to join the cabinet.Hence, this kind of
personal relationship with and respect for political Adversaries declined offer the party
competition grew more intense.

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

Q1. Read with care the 'following passage and answer all the questions given below it: What is
Left and what is Right?
In the politics of most countries, you will always come across references to parties and groups
with a left or right ideology or leaning. These terms characterise the position of the concerned
groups - or parties regarding social change and role of the state in effecting economic
redistribution. Left often refers to those who are in favour of the poor, _ downtrodden sections
and support government policies for the benefit of these sections. The Right refers to those who
believe that free competition and market economy alone ensure progress and that the
government should not unnecessarily intervene in the economy.

Questions:
1. What is Left and what is Right?
2. Can you tell which of the parties in the 1960s were Rightist and which were the Left
parties ? Where would you place the Congress Party of that time?
85

ANSWERS:

1. Left and Right are two words reference to political parties and groups with a left
or right ideology or leaning. These terms characterise the position of the concerned
political parties or groups of the people regarding social change and the role of state in
affecting economic redistribution. Left generally refers to those who are in favour of the
poor, downtrodden section and those sections of the society which are considered weaker
secton. Right generally refers to those who believe that free competition and market
economy alone ensure progress. They also believe and favour that government should not
unncessarily intervene in the economy.
2. Yes, we can tell which of the political parties in India in the 1960's were Rightist
and which were the Left parties.
Right Parties :
1. Bhratiya Jan Sangh 2. Swatantra Party
3. The Congress Party 4. Swarajya Party
Left Parties :
1. Socialistic Party 2. Communist Party of India
3. Independence Labour Party 4. Scheduled Caste Federation
5. The Forward Bloc.
Congress party is neither fully a leftiest party nor it is a rightist party. It can be placed as a
centralist party.

Q Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow

Question
What does the cartoon represent?
What does the term ‘Tug of was’ refer to?
Who has been shown on the branches of tree?
86

Answers:
Cartoon represents dominance of congress which is being tug by opposition parties to throw
congress out of power
‘Tug of war’ refer to pulling out the congress by criticism and mentioning its weaknesses in an
honest and justified manner
PT Jawahar lal Nehru alongwith his colleagues in the cabinet.

Q On a political outline map of india locate and label the following and symbolize them as
indicated

Questions
Two states were congress was not in power at some point during 1952-67.
Two states where congress remained in power through this period

Answers:
Jammu & Kashmir & kerala
Utter Pradesh & Maharashtra
87

CHAPTER 3
POLITICS OF PLANNED DEVELOPMENT

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Development means
a) Increase in national income from one year to another.
b) Increase in real per capita income over an extended period of time.
c) Increase in real investment over a period of time.
d) The national income should keep pace with the increase in population.
Ans: Increase in real per capita income over an extended period of time.

2. An underdeveloped country is one which has good potential prospects for using:
a) More Capital
b) More available natural resources
c) More Labour
d) More Capital , Labour and available natural resources
Ans: More Capital , Labour and available natural resources

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Which political thinker emphasis the Planning in India and when?


Ans. It was as early as 1934 that the necessity of Planning in India was emphasized by M.
Visvesrayya in his pioneering work planned economy for India and a ten year program me
of planned development was drown up.

2. When was setup the national planning Committee and who was the chairman of this
committee?
Ans. In 1938, a National Planning Committee of the Indian National Congress was set up
with Jawaharlal Nehru as its chairman. The committee did valuable work in laying the
foundation of Planning in India.

3. Who had prepared the ten year plan and why?


Ans. It was a ten year plan prepared by Shri M.N.Roy. It mainly emphasized on
the development of agriculture and consumer’s good industries.

4. What do you know about the First and Second Plan?


Ans. The period of first and second five year plans can be called the first decade of planning
in India. It began with the beginning of first five years plan in 1951 and completing of the
second plan in 1961. During this decade there has been a rapid expansion of Indian
Economy.
88

5. How much national income increased during the first plan?


Ans. National Income over the five years increased by about 18 percent, food
grains production went up by 20 percent. Industrial production increased steadily with
an average annual rate of about 7 percent.

6. Give any two objectives of the second five year plan.


Ans. The two objectives of the Second five year plan were
1. Sizeable increase in national income so as to raise the level of living in the country.
2. Rapid industrialization with particular emphasis on the development on
basic and heavy industries.

7. When was the Planning Commission set up?


Ans. The Planning Commission was setup on March 1950 by a simple resolution of the
Government of India.

8. Who was the second person to criticize the second plan?


Ans. K.C.Neogy was the second person to criticize the second plan and he was a member of
the Planning Commission.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What are the two basic objectives of Fifth five year plan?
Ans. The main elements of the strategy evolved in the fifth plan for the achievement of its
two basic objectives of :
1 Removal of Poverty
2 attainment of economic self‐reliance are as follows:-
a) 5.5 percent overall rate of growth of gross domestic product.
b) An expansion of productive employment opportunities.

2. What is planning commission of India? In what terms commission was defined?


Ans. The Planning Commission was set up in March 1950 by a simple resolution of
the government of India. The Planning Commission has an advisory role and
its recommendations become effective only when the union cabinet approved these.
The resolution which set up the commission defined the scope of its work in the terms
given below:-
The Indian Constitution has guaranteed certain fundamental Rights to the Citizens of India
and associated certain Directive principal of state policy in particular that the state shall
strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting a social order in
which justice social economic and political shall direct its policy towards securing among
other things.
That the citizens men and women equally have of the community are so distributed as best
to sub serve the common good.
89

That the ownership and control of the material resources of


the community are so distributed as best to sub serve the common good.
That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentrate of
wealth and means of production to the common detriment.

3. What were the targets of plan in India?


Ans.
1. The five year plan envisaged a 25 percent increase in the national income of
the country over a period of five years.
2. The per capital income was to increase from Rs. 282 in 1955-56 to Rs. 331 in 1960-61.
3. The rate of investment was to increase from about 7 percent in 1955-56 to about11
percent in 1960-61.
4. The output of food grains was to increase by 15 percent that of cotton by 31 percent
of sugarcane by 22 percent and of Jute by 25 percent.
5. Industrial output as a whole was to increase by 64 percent and that of Capital goods
industries by 150 percent .
6. The plan proposed to bring 21 million acres of land under irrigation.
7. The plan was to provide 10 million new jobs so that employment situation may not
deteriorate.

4. What was the major thrust of the five year plan? In which ways did the second plan differs
form the first one?
Ans. The first five year plan (1951-1956) sought to get the country’s economy out of the
cycle of poverty.
K.H.Raj a young economist involved in drafting the plan, argued that India should hasten
slowly for the first two decades as a fast rate of development might put democracy at risk.
The first five year plan gave priority to agrarian sectory including investment in dams and
irrigation. Agriculture sector was hit hardest by partition and needed urgent attention.
Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like the Bhakhra Nangal Dam The plan
identified the pattern of land distribution in the country as the principle obstacle in the
way of agricultural growth. It focused on land reforms as the key to the country’s
development. The first plan gave priority to agrarian sectory including dams and irrigation,
the second wanted to bring about quick structural transformation by this plan was
finalized. The second five year plan has to carry forward the process initiated in the
first five year plan.

5. Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution
Ans- Two Merits of the Green Revolution
1. The green revolution ensure food sufficiency in the country. In many parts, the stark
contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions faovurable
for left wing organization to organize the poor peasants
2. The green revolution resulted in the rise of middle peasant sections. These were farmers
with medium size holding, who benefited from the influential in many parts of the
country
Two Demerits
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1. The green revolution delivered only moderate agricultural growth and raised the
availability of food in the country but also increased polarization between classes and
regions
2. Some regions like Punjab, Haryana and western UP became agriculturally prosperous
while others remained backward

6. What is meant by white revolution in Gujrat?


Ans – The white revolution in Gujarat was started by ‘Varghese Kurien’ known as milkman
of India to launch Gujrat Cooperative Milk and Marketting Federation Ltd, which further
launched ‘Amul’.
Amul is a dairy cooperative movement based in ‘Anand’ town of Gujrat to become a
unique appropriate model for rural development and poverty alleviation

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Write an essay on new Agriculture Strategy (Green Revolution).


Ans. The Indian agriculture which has been stagnant and asleep for centuries is
now awake and is on the march to the amazement of all concerned. Indian agriculture has
witnessed a veritable revolution. Known as the Green Revolution. Broadly this is the result
of the technological breakthrough in evolving seeds of high yielding varieties. New
strategy:- The new strategy was introduced in 1060-61 as a pilot project in some
districts have assured irrigation facilities. The strategy was designated as
Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP).Later this strategy was extended to other
areas and was re-named as Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP). There were
several factors responsible for ushering the Green Revolution in the Country. The Pride of
place however goes to agricultural research. Conducted by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (IACR) and the farm universities like the Punjab Agricultural
University at Ludhiana and Pant Nagar (Uttrakhand). It is the development of high yielding
varieties of crops especially the cereals and millets which have brought about this
revolution but there were other contributory factors like inputs and incentives which also
responsible for the Green Revolution . We may briefly enumerate the Factors which were
responsible for the agricultural revolution in India.
Wonder Seeds‐Agricultural revolution is primarily due to the miracle of new wonder seeds
which haveraised agricultural yields per acre to incredible heights. In 19966‐67 High Yield
ing Verities (HYV) of seeds were introduced. During 1999‐2000, 9.1 million quintals of
certified quality seeds were distributed.
Fertilizers‐ In the chemical fertilizers the three most important elements are Nitrogen, Pho
sphorus and Potassium (NPK). These should ideally present in a 4:2 ratio for Optimum Soil
Fertilizers. The increased use of chemical fertilizers has played a key role in the breakthrou
gh in Indian agriculture.
Multiple –Cropping:‐Thanks to new seeds maturing early, it
has become possible to obtain three and even four crops instead of two form thebeome p
lot in a year. This had made a radical change in farm technology in India.
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Modern Equipment and Machinery: ‐ Modern machinery implements take tractors, harves
ters, pumping sets; tube wells etc. are being used and are replacing the Buicks wherever p
ossible. Being time saving use of modern machinery in agriculture is conducive to multiple
cropping.
Price‐ Incentives: ‐ The Government has taken care to offer support Price to growers so
that a minimum reasonable return for their labour
and investment is assured to them. The market arrivals in the crop years 1978‐79,
1981‐82, 1983‐84 and 1985‐86 were
heavythat unless the Government offered to lift the crop at procurement prices announce
d well in advance, the prices would have crashed and spelt ruin to the grower. This would
have put a stop to all agricultural progress.
Improved Credit Facilities: ‐ Farm Finance is now being given more attention so that the
farmer is not handicapped in efficiently carrying on his operations. The share of
Institutional Credit in meeting the credit requirements of the agricultural sector has
not been rising rapidly. The establishment in 1963 and
later.the remarkable spurt in the lending operations of Agricultural Refinance and Develop
ment Corporation (merged in NABARD since in July 1982) and the
nationalization of 14 major commercial banks in 1969 and six more in April 1980 and the e
stablishment of regional rural banks in recent years have given further stimulus to the ext
ension of credit facility to the Farm Sector.

2 What was green revolution? Mention its any two positive and two negative consequences.
Ans- green revolution was introduced to bring about revolutionary changes in agriculture
especially in foodgrains like wheat and rice to increase food production through high
yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and scientific irrigation

Positive consequences

1. In many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords
produced conditions favourable for left wing organizations to organize the poor
peasents. It resulted in the rise of what is called the ‘Middle peasent sections’ who were
farmers with medium size holding who benefitted from the changes and soon emerged
politically influential in many parts of country

Negative consequences

1. This created a stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords
2. It delivered only a moderate agricultural growth i,e a rise in rice and wheat production
by rising availability of foodgrains in country. On the other hand it increased polarization
between the classes and regions like northern states I,e Punjab, Haryana, west up
became agriculturally rich but others remained backward.

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS FIVE MARKS


92

1. Read carefully the following paragraphs and study the picture also. Answer the questions
that follow:
Ans. This film tells the story of a poor family in a Bengal village and its struggle to survive.
Durga, the daughter of Harihar and Sarbajaya, with her younger brother, Apu, goes
on enjoying life oblivious of the struggles and the poverty. The film revolves around the
simple life and the efforts of the mother of Durga and Apu to maintain the family.
Pather Panchali (Song of the Little Road) narrates the desires and disappointments of the
poor family through the tale of the youngsters. Finally, during monsoon, Durga falls ill and
dies while her father is away. Harihar returns with gifts, including a sari for Durga .....
The film won numerous awards nationally and internationally, including the
President'sGold and Silver medals for the year 1955.

QUESTIONS:

1. Write the title of the film. In which year the movie was released and who directed it and
who has written the stories as well as the screenplay of it.
2. Write the names of main actor artists of the film?
3. Discuss the main points and features of the film.

ANSWERS:

1. Title of the movie is Panther Panchali. This movie was released in 1955. This movie was
directed as well as the screenplay was written by famous director Satyajeet Ray." The story
of the film was written by the "Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyay".
2. The main actors of Pather Panchali are Kanu Bannerjee, Karuna Bannerjee, Subir
Bennerjee, Uma Das Gupta, Durga Chonibala Devi.
3. The film Pather Panchali tells the story of a poor family in a Bengal village. The family
struggled for its survival. Durga, the daughter of Harihar and Sagbajaya, with her younger
brother, Apu, goes on enjoying life. Though they are struggling against their poverty. The
movie narrates the desire and disappointment of the poor family through the tale of the
youngsters.
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Q2 Look at the above clippings of the Hindustan Times. You will agree that the agricultural conditions of
India went from bad to worse in 1960s. In the light of this, answer the following questions:
(a) How did India solve her problem of food shortage?
(b) Is India now sufficient in food production? State the reason for your answers.

ANSWERS:
(a) Import of bulk quantity food grains was made during 1960s in order to meet the indigenous
demand. Higher priority to agriculture including irrigation and power projects was given in the
First Five Year Plan to grow more food in the country. About 44.6 percent of the total outlay of Rs.
2,069 crore in public sector was allocated for construction of river valley projects, digging canals,
installation of tube-wells, reservoirs etc. This was done in order to-achieve self-sufficiency in food
grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports.
(b) No, we can not state that India has now become self-sufficient in food production because:
India has still continued the trend of imports of pulses, cereals, edible oils etc. Data available for
imports made during 2005-06 reveal that cereals and preparations worth Rs. 154.47 crore, Edible
oil worth Rs. 8716.32 crore, sugar worth Rs. 651.8 crore, pulses worth Rs. 2346.9 crore and spices
worth Rs. 678.08 crore have been imported.
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Q Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows

Questions
What message does the cartoon convey?
Name the person who is making efforts to balance both the sectors
How was both these sectors balanced/

Answers:
Cartoon is trying to make balance between private and public sector to maintain the growth of an
economy adopted by India
Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, the then prime minister of India
Pt Nehru made a balance between both the sectors by adopting the model of mixed economy to
co-exist the private and public sector.

HOTS

1. What is Left and Right in politics?


Ans: In Politics terms ‘Left’ and ‘Right’ simply the position of the concerned group or
political parties and their role in society. The ‘Left’ signifies the parties or groups who are in
favour of the poor, downtrodden sections. These parties favour the government policies
for the benefit of these sections. On the other hand the ‘Right’ signifies those parties which
favour free competition and market economy, they advocate that the government should
not intervene unnecessarily in the economy of the country.

2. Give any one achievement of each of the first, second and third plan.
Ans: The achievements of the Third Plan were much below expectation and the plan was
in difficulty due to Chinese and Pakistani aggressions and unfavorable weather conditions.
The First Plan achieved considerable success, the performance of the School Plan was also
not unsatisfactory but the record of the Third Plan has not been good.

VALUE BASED QUESTION


95

Then there were critics who thought that the state did not do enough. They pointed out that the
state did not spend any significant amount for public education and healthcare. The state
intervened only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go. Thus the state
helped the private sector to make profit. Also, instead of helping the poor, the state intervention
ended up creating a new ‘ middle class’ that enjoyed the privileges of high salaries without much
accountability. Poverty did not decline substantially during this period, even when the proportion
of the poor reduced, their numbers kept going up.

1. What is the opinion of some critics in relation to development?


Ans: With regard to the development some critics think that the state did not do enough.
They pointed out that the state did not spend any significant amount for public education
and healthcare. The state intervened only in those areas where the private sector could
make profit. In Their opinion the poor people have not received sufficient
encouragement..

2. What is the characteristics feature of the middle class according to the above passage?
Ans: According to the above passage, the middle class has the following characteristics:
1. They are drawing high salaries without much accountability.
2. They enjoy better facilities and other privileges.

3. What is the opinion of author in terms of poverty?


Ans: The author thinks about the poverty in the following ways -
1. During the period poverty did not decline substantially.
2. When the proportion of the poor reduced their numbers kept going up.
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CHAPTER 4
INDIA’S EXTERNAL RELATIONS

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was as much unique personality as he was charismatic. His role in
the freedom movement of the country is as a:
1. Fighter
2. Social worker
3. Reformer
4. Politician
Ans: Fighter

2. One of the main principles of India’s Foreign was/is:


1. Formation of Military Block
2. Non-Alignment
3. Expansion of Territory
4. None of above
Ans: Non-Alignment

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. In which terms did Nehru see politics?


Ans. Nehru saw politics in terms of social change and was also keenly aware of the play of
economic interests in political developments.

2. With whom countries panchsheel agreement was related?


Ans. Nehru believed that though Panchsheel Agreement (1954) with china peace could be
established not only between these two countries.

3. What did Calcutta Congress direct the AICC?


Ans. The Calcutta Congress (1928) directed the AICC to open a foreign department
to development contacts with and to organize the anti-imperialist movements
of dependent peoples.

4. Why did India choose the Path of non alignment with either US or USSR?
Ans. India has chosen the Path of non-alignment with either US or USSR because of cold
war Power politics and military alliances. But she has to be dependent on the two
countries for economic help.

5. What is philosophical background of the Indian foreign policy?


97

Ans. The philosophical background of the Indian foreign policy was explained to
the members of the limited Nations organization on Oct. 13, 1949 by Nehru
for preservation of world piece and enlargement of human freedom.

6. What was the condition of Indo-Nepal relation during Nehru period?


Ans. During the Nehru period on July 30, 1950 Indo Nepalese peace and friendship. Treaty
had been concluded. According to it neither government shall tolerate any threat to the
security of the other by a foreign aggressor. It required both parties to consult each other
and devise effective counter measures in the wake of any such threat.

7. How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help
of examples from India’s foreign policy.
Ans. Political leadership of a nation deeply affects its foreign policy. The Political leadership
for 17 years after independence remained in the hands of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. Its
refulgence can be seen in the foreign policy of India since even today.

8. The conduce of the foreign affairs as an outcome of a two-way interaction between


domestic compulsion and prevailing international Climate. Take one example from India’s
external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Ans. It is true that the conduct of foreign affairs as an outcome of a two-way interaction
between domestic compulsion and prevailing Climate. In the beginning decade of 1960 the
policy was adopted by India with china is the best example in this reference.

9. What was Afra-Asian Unity?

Ans- Bandung conference was held I 1955 in Indonesia as an afro-asian conference to lead
an establishment of NAM to mark the engagement of India with African and Asian nations
know as Afro-Asian Unity

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Focus the light on the resolution on foreign policy adopted by AICC. Give any two points.
Ans The resolution on foreign policy adopted by the All India Congress Committee (AICC) in
Delhi in 1921 was a land mark in the history of India’s foreign relations. The resolution
informed the neighboring and other non- Indian states that:
1. The present (the British) Government of India is no way represent Indian opinion and t
hat their foreign policy has been traditionally guided by considerations more of holdin
g in subjection than of protecting her border
2. The India as self‐governing country can have nothing to fear form the neighboring stat
es or any states as per people have no designs upon any
98

of them and hence no intention of establishing any trade relations hostilet or not desir
ed by the people of such states.

2. Write in brief the policy of non-alignment.


Ans The policy of non-alignment enunciated by Nehru embodies the heritage of the long
struggle of India for freedom and was not something contrived in haste on the morrow of
independence because of India military weakness of its being new in the field of
diplomacy. Non-Alignment has a negative meaning but its positive connotation objects
to national living up for war purpose military bloc’s military alliances and the like. In effect
it means that in a crisis involving the possibility of war, we are unaligned and feel that
more than ever it is up tous to do whatever we can to preventive such a calamity coming
down upon us. Nehru saw in non-alignment a guarantee of India’s independence in the
field of foreign policy.

3. Does India’s foreign Policy reflect her desire to be an important regional Power? Argue
your case with Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.
Ans No, although activating the independence policy by India. Non-alignment is adopted
by itself as well as most countries of Asia invited to join the non-alignment. India had
welcomed the internal and external sovereignty of all the countries. The internal and
external sovereignty of all the countries. India did not make effort to compel for granting
its existence. The Bangladesh war of 1971 was started by Pakistan not by India. India has
cooperated to Bang (East Pakistan to make its own existence.

4. Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator


of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
Ans Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator
of independence since:-
1. He accepted the policy of non‐alignment. The main cause to accept the policy of non‐al
ignment was regional diversity of India and defense of sovereignty and economic devel
opment.
2. India did not want to make the friendship with one group and to make the adversary of
the other group. The events hold in Hungry and Vietnam have the more significance in
this context.

5. Mention the India’s Policy towards Afro-Asian countries after the Second World War.
Ans Some of the Speeches of Nehru at the international gathering of the Asian and African
countries highlighted the thoughts and aspirants of millions of people in the colored world.
The speeches provides a strong base to Nehru not only to champion the cause of the
countries in question but to attain a unique position in the international sphere , and
emerge as their spokesman, India was a viction of modern imperialism her freedom after
long struggle had marked the beginning of the process of decdonisation after the second
world war.

6. India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperations, but India
fought three wars within a period of ten years between 1962 and 1972. Would you say
99

that this was a Failure of the Foreign Policy? Or would you say that this was a result of
international situations? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans India’s Foreign Policy was built around the principles of peace and
cooperation. Although India fought three wars within a period of ten years between 1962
and 1972, yet India’s Foreign Policy is not responsible in this context. The international
circumstances and the role of pressure must be significant in this noble cause.

7. Point out the formative phase of Nehru era.


Ans. The formative phase of Nehru era: –
In the formative phase of the Nehru era, the capitalist class was important but not strong
enough to build capitalism without the support of the state. The Indian state under
Nehru’s leadership laid down the regulatory framework for the development of the state
capitalist sector and the private corporate sector. The Indian private corporate sector could
not development without the Indian state which was the main instrument of development
of infrastructure in the field of transport, communication, power and heavy industries
which required a lot of capital investment, the private corporate sector did not poses the
resources in the 50s and the 60s for the building of huge steel plants or machine tool
factories. The Indian stare intervened to create an infrastructure for capitalist development
and assisted and regulated the private corporate sector to develop infields reserved for
them.

8. How a political party should resolve its internal difference here is some suggestion. Think
of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings. a) Follow the footsteps of the party
president. b) Listen of the majority group c) Secret ballot voting on every issue. d) Consult
the senior and experienced leaders of the Party.
Ans. Advantages:
1. If we follow the footsteps of the party president the party becomes sound.
2. If we accept or follow majority view, we won’t get insulted.
3. Our vote or advice is secret. When secret ballot voting on every issue.
4. We should consult the senior and experienced leaders of him Party be
cause it gives us good path.
Shortcomings:
1. If we do not follow the footsteps of the party leader then he does
not appreciate us.
2. If we do not listen the majority group the majority do not share with us. If we do no
t consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party, we do not safeguard our
path of goodness.

9. What was Tibet issue? How did it cause tension between India and China?

Ans- 1. From the very beginning of independence time to time. China has claimed its
administrative control over Tibet
In 1950, China took over control of Tibet. Large sections of Tibetan population opposed
this takeover
100

In 1958, there was an armed uprising in Tibet against china’s occupation. India supported
the cause of Tibetan which was bitterly objected by China. Even India has granted asylum
to Dalai Lama and a large number of Tibetans.

10. Mention any four principles of India’s foreign policy

Ans- India’s foreign policy is based on principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two
words ‘panch’ means five and ‘Sheel’ means a ‘code of conduct’ for peaceful co-existence
1. Panchsheel
2. Non-alignment (NAM)
3. Mutual benefits and equality
4. Mutual non-aggression
5. Non-intervention in each others international affairs
6. To maintain international peace and understanding

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What do you understand by nuclear energy for peaceful purpose?


Ans Jawaharlal Nehru advocated cultivation of the temper of peace as well
as disarmament as the eventual foundations of World peace. In a broadcast from London
in January, 1951 he said that “I am not a spacifist unhappy the world of today finds that it
cannot do without force. We have to protect ourselves prepare ourselves for every
Contingency. We have to meet aggression and evil of other kinds. To surrender to evil is
always bad. But in resisting evil we must not allow ourselves to be swept away by our own
passions and fears and act in manner which itself is evil. Even in resisting evil and
aggression we would always maintain the temper of peace and hold out the head of
friendship to those who through fear or for other reasons may be opposed to us. That is
the lesson that one great leader Mahatma Gandhi taught us and imperfect as are we draw
inspiration from that great teaching.
Jawaharlal Nehru said in the Indian Parliament in May’1954 that the use of atomic
energy for peaceful purpose is for more important for a country like India whose power
resources are limited than for a country like France an industrially advanced country .we
are prepared to do that provided we are assured that it is for the common good of the
world and not exercised in a partial way and not dominated over by certain countries. India
was among the first to subscribe in 1936 to the nuclear Test Ban treaty . India went for
peaceful nuclear energy program me and test was conducted on 18 May 1974, and India
joined as the sixth country in nuclear energy power with a special commitment to atoma
for peace programmes. It issignificant that Bertrand Russell said in 1959 that “It would be
Nehru who would lead us out of the dark night of fear into a happier day.”
101

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

1. Carefully read the paragraphs and answer the questions given below: Ans: A small platoon
of Indian army is rescued by the gypsies in Ladakh region. The enemy has surrounded their
post. Capt. Bahadur Singh and his gypsy girlfriend Kammo help the jawans vacate their
posts. Both Bahadur Singh and Kammo die while holding the Chinese but the jawans too,
are out powered by the enemy and lay down their lives for the country. Set in the
backdrop of the China war of 1962,this film portrays the soldier and his travails as its
central theme. It pays tribute to the soldiers while depicting their plight, and the political
frustration over the betrayal by the Chinese. The film uses documentary footage of war
scenes and is considered as one of the early war films made in Hindi.

Questions:
1. What is the title of the movie ? In which year it was released?
2. Who directed the movie? Write the names of main acting artists of the movie.
3. Discuss the main point reflected in the first paragraph.
4. What is background of the movie and also discuss the central theme of the film.

Answers:

1. The name of the movie is "Haqeeqat". This movie was released in 1964. Movie was
directed by Chetan Anand. The main acting actors are : Dharmendra, Priya Rajvansh,
Balraj Sahni, Jayant, Sanjay Khan, Vijay Anand.
2. In first paragraph the following points have been shown in the movie :
1. A small group of Indian army in Ladakh region.
2. The Chinese-army surrounded some Indian posts.
3. Captain Bhadur Singh and his gypsy girl friend Kammo assist the Indian Jawans to
get vacate those posts.
4. Both Bahadur Singh and Kammo passed away while holding the Chinese. The
Indian Jawans faced bravely the Chinese troops and they laid down their lives for
the sake of their motherland.
5. The background of the film is the India China War of 1962. This portrays the
Soldier and his travails as its central theme.
102

Q2. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions:

INDO- PAK RELATIONS: PROGRESSES FROM A MAZE OF BUNKERS


TO A MAZE OF DIALOGUE TABLES…………..

QUESTION

1. Identify and name the two leaders shown in the cartoon.


2. Why are they standing apart?
3. In your opinion, what seems to be the outcome of the talks between the two leaders?
4. Explain the meaning of the statement: "Indo-Pak Relations: Progresses from a maze of
bunkers to a maze of dialogue tables."

ANSWER

1. Following are the two leaders who have been shown in the cartoon :
Dr. Manmohan Singh, (b) Pervez Musharrof.
2. They are standing apart since India and Pakistan have many complicated issues to resolve.
3. In my opinion the outcome of the talks between the two leaders would have been
inconclusive and inhomogeneous.
4. This ement clearly shows that the 'Indo- Pak Relations" usually suffer from mutual distrust
and flippancy.

Q Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow
103

Question
What message does this cartoon convey?
Which year is being shown here

Answers:
This cartoon conveys message on Indo-China tension to be resolved
1962, Chinese invasion

HOTS

1. What do you mean by Foreign Policy?


Ans: The Foreign policy of a nation reflects the interplay of domestic and external factors.
It is a systematic statement of deliberately selected national interest based on its global
concern and economic development etc.

2. With whom countries Panchsheel agreement was related?


Ans: Panchsheel Agreement (1954) was related with China and India.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet 1950 and thus removed a
historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the government of India did not oppose
this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the
Indian government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and
obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the government of India was
allowing anti China activities to take place from within India.

1. Why did India’s relation with China have bitter taste?


Ans: India’s relation with China suffered from a bitter taste for the following reasons:
1. In 1950 China annexed Tibet and removed a historical buffer between the two
countries.
2. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama sought and obtained political asylum in
India. In 1959 Indian admitted him.

2. Is it responsible for India to give political asylum to the Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai
Lama? Give reason.
Ans: The Political asylum given to the Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama by India is an
act of humanity. Therefore, India has discharged her moral responsibility because Tibet is a
buffer state between India and China.
104

3. Is China allegation reasonable?


Ans: China’s allegation is that India is allowing anti-China activities to take place from
within India. Therefore, it is wrong to interfere into the external matter of China. It could
be reasonable from China’s point of view.
105

CHAPTER 5
CHALLENGES TO AND RESTORATION OF THE CONGRESS SYSTEM

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. The era of coalition governments begin in:


1. 1971
2. 2004
3. 1967
4. 1989
Ans: 1967

2. The 1960s were labeled as the “dangerous decade” because of:


1. Nehru’s Death
2. Political rivalry among Congress and non congress
3. Poverty, inequality and communal and regional divisions
4. All of above
Ans: Poverty, inequality and communal and regional divisions

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARK QUESTIONS

1. Name the features through which the explanation for Congress rural Continuity and
change is provided.
Ans. The explanation for such a continuity and change is provided by the essential feature
of the Party, its broad social character and its basic coalitional strategy.

2. During the last 35 years what had congress party tried to show?
Ans. During the last 35 years the Congress Party had shown a led of continuity and change
in its basic public policies which it has followed as a ruling party of the country.

3. What is the responsibilities of a political leader in a democratic policy?


Ans. It is the responsibility of political leader in a democratic policy to diffuse the various
pressures and mediate in social issues with reasonable impartiality and neutrality.

4. In which period did Mrs. Indira Gandhi become the leader of new Congress?
Ans. When the Congress split of 1969 took place, and Mrs. Gandhi become the leader of
the New Congress, the wide spread impression in India and elsewhere was that she was
releasing the party form the pressures of the party bosses.
106

SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Clarify “Garibi Hatao” Programme?


Ans. This political reality namely that the State Congress Parties were pocket boroughs of
the rich rural gentry meant that if the “Garibi Hatao” programmed had to beimplemented
there should be structural changes in the rural sector.

2. The Union Home Ministry pointed out in 1969 that “the situation in the rural areas was
quite explosive.”Clarify this statement.
Ans. The Union Home Ministry pointed out in 1969 that “the situation in the rural areas
was quite explosive.” It found that it was agitation for distribution of land to the landless
which had elicited the maximum response and have also had a wide geographical spread.

3. Give a useful recommendation on the prevention of corruption among the politicians.


Ans. There should be a total been on all donations by incorporated bodies to
political parties and for political purposes.

4. What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the
early 1970’s?
Ans. There were some factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government
the early 1970s:-
1. Challenges to Indira Gandhi’s Government as party boss.
2. Slogan of Garibi Hatao.
3. India Pakistan war of 1971.

5. What does ‘defection’ stand for in Indian politics? Highlight any two demerits of the
practice?
Ans- Defection refers to an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol
he/she is elected and joins another party. This culture of development in Indian Politics
after 1967 elections.
It played an important role in making and unmaking of government frequently.
The constant realignments and shifting political loyalties in this period gave rise to the
expression ‘Aaya Ram. Gaya ram’.

6. What is meant by ‘Priyy Purses? Why did Indira Gandhi insist on abolishing them in 1970?

Ans- ‘Privy Purses’ was the form of grant in heredity given to the rulers and their families:
1.The grant or ‘Privy Purse’ was measured on the basis of extent revenue and potential of
the merging state in the assurance given at the time of integration of princely states.
2.Privy purse were criticize the privileges given to princely states at the time of accession,
integration and consolidation were protested
107

3.Hence, some leaders like Indira Gandhi privy Purses because hereditary privileges were
not constant with the principle of equality, social and economic justice laid down in the
constitution
4.Hence in the elections 1971, Indira Gandhi made this a major election issue and got a lot
of public support and alongwith massive victory in 1971 election, the constitution was
amended to remove legal obstacles for abolition of privy purses.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What factors were responsible for the revival of the Congress Party in India in 1971?
Ans:- Factors responsible for the revival of the Congress party in India in 1971:
1. First of all the Congress was split and Indira Gandhi brought economic policy to the
centre stage of politics. Indira Gandhi gave a very catchy and popular slogan ‘Garibi
Hatao’( remove poverty). She declared that my opponents have just one-print
programme Indira Hatao but I have having a series of programmes to remove poverty
and make India a strong world power.
2. Congress after the elections of 1971 was dependent exclusively on the popularity of its
toppest leader Indira Gandhi . Syndicate like groups had disappeared.
3. Congress party’s structural organization after 1971 was not inclusive type (inclusion of
several groups having different ideologies) but it was exclusive (monopolistic). Rooms
of its ideology were absolutely in the hands of Indira Gandhi.
4. Indira Congress was voted by poor people, women, oppressed, tribals and minority
people. It was no more puppet in the hands of so called syndicate or a group of rich
industrialists, merchants, politicians etc. It was actually an overall change system of
earlier Congress Party.

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


108

Q. 3. Study carefully the given picture and paragraphs and answer the questions that follow:

Vijay, a young police officer is framed in false charges and sent to jail while fighting gangsters.
Released from jail, Vijay is determined to take revenge. He fights all odds and vanquishes the
villains. Even while he is engaged in taking revenge, Vijay is fighting the anti-social element and
gets the tacit support of many others from within the system.
This film portrayed the erosion of moral values and the deep frustrations arising from that quite
forcefully. It represents the indifference of the system and the harsh and volcanic eruption of
protest through the anger of Vijay. The film set the trend of what was later to be known as the
'angry young man' of the seventies

Questions:
1. Can you identify all the actor / actress seen in the picture? Write the names of any two out
of them.
2. Who was the producer and director of the movie? In which year the film was released?
3. Write the names of any four actor-artists of the movie.
4. Discuss the story and main points related with the theme of the film.

Answers:

1. In the picture we are seeing photographs of, Amitabh Bachchan , Pran (Very clearly) , Jaya
Bhaduri (later Bachchan)
2. Producer and director of 'Zanjeer' 'Prakash Mehra'. The film was released in 1973.
3. The four main actors / characters of film are:
Amitabh Bachchan, Ajit , Jaya Bhaduri, Pran.

4. The main points of the story of the Zanjeer goes like : - Vijay, a young police officer is
framed in false charges and sent to jail while fighting gangsters. He is released from
prison. Hero decides to take revenge from anti- social elements. He fights and finishes the
villains.

Q4 Study carefully the given picture and paragraphs and answer the questions that follow:
109

1. To which year does the cartoon refer?


Ans - The cartoon refers to year 1967.

2. Name of the person for whom this comment Aya Ram Gaya Ram was made,
Ans - Gaya Lal, an MLA in Haryana, in 1967. (He changed his party thrice in a fortnight,
from Congress to United Front, back to Congress and then within nine hours to United
Front again). Later, the Indian Constitution was amended to prevent defections.

MAP QUESTIONS

Q. Study carefully the following map of India and answer the questions given below:

QUESTIONS-
110

1. Write the names of any six states in which Congress Party got majority in 1967 assembly
polls.
2. Write the names of any eight states where Congress did not get a majority in 1967
assembly polls but formed government with the help from other parties and candidates.
3. Write names of two islands of India.

ANSWERS

1. After assembly elections results of 1967 Congress Party got majority' in the following
states:
1. Jammu and Kashmir
2. Himachal Pradesh
3. Gujarat
4. Madhya Pradesh
5. Maharashtra
6. Mysore

2. After Assembly election results of 1967 Congress Party did not get a majority but formed
government with the help from other parties and independents : (i) Punjab, (ii) Rajasthan
(iii) Uttar Pradesh, (iv) Bihar, (v) West Bengal, (vi) Orissa, (vii) Kerala, (viii) Madras, (ix) Goa.
3. (i) Laccadive Islands and (ii) Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

HOTS

1. What does the word “Political Earthquake” signifies in Indian Politics?


Ans: The word “Political Earthquake signifies the electoral verdict of fourth general
election in 1967 which jolted the Congress at both the national and state levels.
1. The Congress did manage to get a majority in the Lok Sabha , but with its lowest tally of
seats.
2. Half the Ministers in Indira Gandhi’s Cabinet were defeated.
2. Clarify “Garibi Hatao” Programme.
Ans: This political reality, namely that the state congress parties were pocket boroughs
of the rich rural gentry meant that if the “Garibi Hatao” programme had to be
implemented, there should be structural changes in the rural sector.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Shastri was the countries Prime minister from 1964-1966. During Shastri’s brief Prime Minister
Ship, the country faced two major challenges. While India was still recovering from the economic
implications of the war with China, failed monsoons, draught and serious food crisis presented a
grave challenge. As discussed in the previous chapter, the country also faced a war with Pakistan
in 1965, Shastri’s famous slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kissan“ symbolized the countries resolve to face
both these challenges.
111

1. What lesson should we take from Shastri’s ji?


Ans: i) How we should face the challenges.
ii) We must have determination to face challenges.

2. Who gave the Slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kissan”? What did it symbolize?
Ans: The Slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kissan” was given by Lal Bahadur Shastri . It symbolize the
country’s resolve to face severe challenges.

3. During the regime of Lal Bahadur Shastri as the prime minister of India what were the
greatest challenges before the country?
Ans: The country was confronted with the following challenges:
1. India was recovering from the economic implications of the war with China.
2. Failed Monsoons, drought and serious food crisis presented a grave challenge.
112

CHAPTER 6
THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTION

1. During 1977-79 the Prime Minister of India was


1. Indira Gandhi
2. Charan Singh
3. Chandra Shekhar
4. Morarji Desai
Ans : Morarji Desai

2. The first opposition government was formed in centre in 1977 under a Coalition headed
by:
1. Lok Dal
2. Congress(C)
3. Janta Party
4. Bharat Janta Party
Ans: Janta Party

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What was the allegation of the Congress during Emergency?


Ans. The Congress Party alleged that the court was conservation in situations and it was
becoming an obstacle in the way of implementing pro-door welfare programmes.

2. What was the slogan of Congress in 1971election?


Ans. In the election of 1971, Congress had given the slogan of “Garibi hatao” (Remove
poverty).

3. Why and when did students protest in Bihar?


Ans. Student come together to protest against rising prices food scarcity, unemployment
and corruption in March 1974.

4. Who was Charu Majumdar?


Ans. Charu Majumdar was the leader of the Naralbari uprising.

5. For what purpose had human right activists criticized the government?
Ans. Human Right activists have criticizedthe government for constitutional norms
in dealing with naxalites.
113

6. Who and when had declared the invalidity of Indira Gandhi’s election?
Ans. Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High Court passed a judgment declaring
the election of Lok Sabha of Indira Gandhi was invalid on 12 th June 1975.

7. Give any two controversies regarding emergency?


Ans. 1. There are differing view points about the need to declare Emergency.
Using the powers given by the constitutions, the government
practically suspended the democratic functioning.

8. Explain any two lessons learnt from emergency imposed in 1975

Ans- the emergency brought out weaknesses and strengths both to India’s democracy:
First lesson was felt that it was extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India
Secondly, it amended that internal emergency could be proclaimed only on the grounds of
armed rebellion on the advice to the president to proclaim emergency must be given in
writing by council of ministers.
Thirdly, emergency made everyone more aware of civil liberties as well as courts also took
an active role in protecting civil liberties of individuals.

9. Why is emergency and period around it known as the period of constitutional crisis?
Explain

Ans- The parliament brought in many new changes in constitution which made an
amendment declaring that elections pf Prime Minister, President and Vice principal could
not be challenged in the court
The forty second amendment was also passed to bring a series of changes in constitution
like duration of legislatures, elections can be postponed by one year during emergency

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What did happen by imposition of the emergency?


Ans. Once an emergency is proclaimed the federal distribution of power
remains practically suspended and all the powers are concentrated in the hands of
the union government secondly the government also gests the power to curtail or restrict
all or any of the FundamentalRights during the emergency form the wording of the
provisions of the constitution ,it is clear that an emergency is seen as an extra ordinary
condition. In which normal democratric politics cannot function . therefore special powers
are granted to the government.

2. The Shah Commission was appointed in1977, the Janata Party Government. Why was it
appointed and what were its findings?
114

Ans. Shah Commission of Inquiry:- In May1977,the Janata Party Government appointed a


commission of inquiry headed by Justice J.C.Shah retired Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of India ,to inuire in to several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority excesses
andmalpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the Emergency proclaimed on
the 25 th June 1975. The commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores
of witnesses to give testimonies. These included Indira Gandhi who appeared before the
commission. Specially the commission was appointed for the purpose of presence of
Indira Gandhi to ask some questions but herefused to reply of any question. The
Government of India accepted the finding observations and recommendations contained
in the two interim reports and third and final reports of the ShahCommission. The reports
were also tabled in the two houses of Parliament.

3. In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate
your answer with examples.
Ans. The Janata Party made this election into a referendum on the Emergency. It Campaign
was focused on the non democratic character of the rule and on the various excesses that
took place during this period. In the backdrop of assests of thousands of persons and the
censorship of the press, the public opinion was against the Congress. Jaya Prakash Narayan
becomethe popular symbol of restoration of democracy. The formation ofthe Janata Party
also ensured that non-congress votes would not be divided. Itwas evident that the going
was tough for the Congress. The 1977 election turned into a referendumon the experience
of the emergency, at least in North India where the impact of the Emergency was felt most
strongly. The opposition parties fought the election on the slogan of ‘Save Democracy’. The
people’s verdict was decisively against the Emergency. The lesson was clear and has been
reiterated in many state level elections. These after governments that are perceived to be
anti-democratic are severely punished by the Voters. In this sense the experience of 1975-
77 ended up strengthening the foundations of democracy in India.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Why was an emergency declare in India on 25th June 1975? How far was the imposition of
this emergency justified? Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Ans:- Reasons to the declaration of an emergency in India on 25th June 1975:
1. The judgement passed by Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High Courton 12
June , 1975 invalidated Indira Gandhi’s election to the Lok Sabha. As per the judgement
of the High Court Indira Gandhi was legally no more an MP and therefore, could remain
the Prime Minister unless she was once again elected as an MP within a period of 6
months. This decision created political earthquake and now the stage was set for a big
political confrontation.
2. The wave of political convulsions changed the whole scenario. Jayaprakash Narayan
pressed for Indira Gandhi’s resignation and announced a nationwide satyagraha and
asked the army , the police and government employees not to obey” illegal and
immoral orders”.
115

3. The government declared that there was a grave threat of internal disturbances and
the declaration of a state of emergency is inevitable. Consequently, the government
declared a state of emergency on 25 June 1975.

4. Assess any three happening which were responsible for the downfall of Congress party in
the 1977 elections.

Ans- The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress party wes
defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power.
1. The opposition adopted the slogan ‘save democracy’ against imposition of emergency
earlier.
2. The opposition campaigned nondemocratic character of rule which provided various
excesses
3. The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press the censorship to
favour public opinion
4. Janta Party also ensured not to divide non-congress votes.
5. Middle section of North India was moving away from congress for whom Janta Party
became a platform
6. Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about emergency only.
116

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

Q. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions:

1. Identify and name the person holding in his hand, the placard 'Save Democracy'. In your
opinion, the group of five persons belongs to which political party? According to the group
of five, what are the intentions of the person sitting on 'Dhama'?

2. Which issues were responsible for the downfall of democracy as highlighted in the
cartoon?

ANSWER
.
1. Jayaprakash Narayan. , Congress. , To grab power, subvert democracy, create chaos.
2. Corruption, lawlessness and violence.

Q2 Read carefully the following extract and answer the questions below:
In the name of democracy it has been sought negate the very functioning of democracy. Duly d
governments have not been allowed to function .... Agitations have surcharged the atmosphere,
leading to violent incidents., Certain persons have gone to the length of 'ting our armed forces to
mutiny and our police rebel. The forces of disintegration are in full play and communal passions
are being aroused, threatening our unity. How can any Government worth the name stand by and
allow the country's stability to be imperilled? The actions of a few endangering the rights of the
vast majority.
117

QUESTIONS:
1. Who is the speaker of above lines? When and where she spoke?
2. Discuss the main contents and ideas of the above excerpt.

ANSWERS:

1. The first lady Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi spoke the above mentioned
lines. She was addressing the message in All India Radio on 26th June 1975.
2. Addressing to the nation, Mrs. Gandhi attacked the position that in the name of
democracy, the opposition leader all trying to create hindrances in the smooth
functioning of democracy. They are not permitting to do functions duly elected
Government of India. Though she was pointing to leader like Jaiprakash Narain, that
they are exciting the armed forces not to obey the order of the government. She tried to
justify the declaration of national Emergency putting the blames on opposition.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Once an emergency is proclaimed, the federal distribution of powers remains practically


suspended and all powers are concentrated in the hands of the union government. Secondly, the
government also gets the power to curtail or restrict all or any of the fundamental rights during
the emergency. From the wording of the provisions of the constitution, it is clear that an
emergency is seen as an extra ordinary condition in which normal democratic politics cannot
function. Therefore, special powers are granted to the government.

1. How is emergency viewed by the constitution?


Ans According the wording of the provisions of the constitution, it is clear that an
emergency is seen as an extra ordinary condition in which normal democratic politics
cannot function. Therefore, special powers are granted to the government.

2. What happens to our fundamental rights when emergency is imposed?


Ans: The government gets the power to curtail or restrict all or any of the fundamental
rights during the emergency.

3. Is emergency considered as dangerous for democracy? Give reasons.


Ans: In fact, emergency is considered as dangerous for democracy. The reason for this is
that:
1. The federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and all the powers are
concentrated in the hands of the union government.
2. ii. Our fundamental rights are either curtailed or restricted.
118

HOTS
1. Name the Indian President who proclaimed Emergency in 1975.
Ans: President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed proclaimed National Emergency in 1975 . It was
proclaimed at midnight on 25th June 1975.

2. Write any two issues on confliction between the parliament and the judiciary.
Ans:
1. the Parliament can curtail the right to property by making an amendment.
2. The Parliament amended the Constitution saying that it can abridge fundamental rights
for giving effect to directive principles.
119

CHAPTER 7
RISE OF POPULAR MOVEMENTS

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTION

1. The leader of Narmada Bachao Andolan is :


a) Sunderlal Bahuguna
b) Suresh Pachauri
c) Medha Patekar
d) Arundati Rai
Ans: Medha Patekar

2. Who is regarded as the Founder of women movement in India?


a) Kasturba Gandhi
b) Pandita Rama Bai
c) Sarojini Naidu
d) Rani Laxmi Bai
Ans: Pandita Rama Bai

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. When did farmers movement start in India?


Ans. The Farmers movement began in India with the Permanent Settlement of
Bengal (1783) which introduced a new system of Land revenue collection.

2. What is Chipko Movement?


Ans. The villagers of Garhwal in Uttrakhand used a novel tuctic for their protest that
of hugging the trees to prevent them being cut down. These protest marked the beginning
of a world famous environment movement in our country the Chipko Movement.

3. Who led the Narmada Bachao Andolan?


Ans. Medha Patkar led the Narmad Bachao Andolan.

4. What is Sardar Sarover Project?


Ans. Sardar Sarover project is a multipurpose mega scaledam on river Narmada .

5. How did BKU grow?


Ans. In Meerut of UP state around 20 thousand farmers had gathered in the month
of January 1988. They were protesting against the decision of Government to increase
120

electricity rates. These farmers Comped for about three weeks outside the district
collectors office until their requirements of demands were fulfilled.

6. How many percent of reservation for backward class did Mandal Commission Report
implement?
Ans. Reiterating the commitment of the Government to implement the
Mandal Commission recommendation of 27 percent reservation for backward Classed. The
P.M. said 52 percent of the population of this country could not be chained for ever.

7. Whar are popular movement?

Ans- popular movements are the movements organized by dalits and farmers under the
banner of various social organizations to voice their demands

8. What strategies were used by narmada Bachao Anndolan to put forward its demand.

Ans 1. Mobilisation of support at intenational


2. Appeals to judiciary
3. Public rallies
4. Forms of Satyagraha to convince people

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTION

1. Point out the Farmer’s Movement. India.


Ans. The Farmer’s movement began in India with the permanent settlement of
Bengal (1783) which introduced a new system of land revenue collection. Different clusters
of villages were designated as revenue units and revenue collection rights were auctioned
out to the highest biddy. These collection agents were know as the Zamidar and this
system was the Zamindari system. Now land revenue had to pay in cash. The new system
did not recognize crop failure as a problem, The Zamidar waited a certain amount of
money in cash at the time of his choice. The zamindars also introduced their own set of
officials to collect land revenue. This bureaucracy imposed additional claims on peasantry
to ensure its own benefit. This led to a highly exploitative land revenue collection regime
on structure in the Country. Which led to the rise of reserved pleasant agitations and
movements?

2. What is Women ‘s Movement ? Explain briefly.


Ans. Women’s has been strongly influenced by revolutions including the American
and French Revolutions of the Eighteenth Century. The first groups actively organized to
promote women’s right data from the period immediately following the two revolutions .
In the 1970 inspired by French Revolution several women’s clubs were formed in Paris and
major provincial cities . Marie Guoze a feminist drew up a statements entitled declaration
of the Rights of women based on the rights of man and citizen . the main constitutional
121

document of the revolution . she was executed charged with having forgotten the virtues
belong to her sex. In the 19 thcentury femalanism become more advanced in United
States. American Feminists were closely involved with groups devoted tothe abolition
of slavery. In 1848, women leaders met to approve a Declaration of sentiments. Moddled
on the Declaration of Independence how ever few real going woremade.

3. What issues did the Dalit panthers address?


Ans. The larger ideological agenda of the panthers was to destroy the caste system and to
build an organization of all oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban
industrial workers along with Dalits. Activities of Dalit panthers mostly centered around
fighting increasing atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the state. The government passed
a comprehensive law in 1989 that provided for rigorous punishment for such acts.
1. The movement provided a platform for Dalit educated youth to use
their creativity as protest activity.
2. Dalit writers protested against the brutalities of the caste system
in their numerous autobiographic and other literary works published during this perio
d. These works portraying the life experience of the most down trodden social section
s of Indian society sent shock waves in broad based and representative of different soc
ial sections and initiated contestations in the cultural realm.
3. In the Post‐ Emergency period Dalit Panthers got involved in
electoral compromises it also underwent many splits which led to its decline.
4. What is the right to information act? When was it passed in India?
Ans- the ‘Right t information Act’ is a law to empower the people to find out happenings in
government and act as a watchdof of democracy
1. It was passed in October 2005 by Government of India.
2. This Act ensures its citizens all information about functioning of government machinery
3. This right has been expanded to cover various services provided by government I,e if
any purchased product is defective it can be asked for replacement.
4. This right gives political actors incentives to good things to help to control corruption.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

SIX MARKS QUESTION

1. It is not enough to have representative form of democracy. It is necessary to participate in


popular movements to make democracy a success’. Do you agree with this view? Why?
Ans:- It is a correct statement that in modern democracy, it is not enough to hold election
to choose representatives just for the formation of democracy but it is also necessary to
participate in popular movements to make democracy a success. I can give the arguments
in favour of this saying in the following points:
1. Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their
demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these
122

groups from democracy. Popular movements suggested new forms of active


participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
2. The history of these popular movements helps us to understand better the nature of
democratic politics. We have seen that these non-party movements are neither
sporadic in nature nor or these problem. These movements came up to rectify some
problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our
democratic politics. They represented new social groups whose economic and social
grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics.
3. It should be noted that the group mobilized by these movements is poor,socially and
economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups. The
frequency and the methods used by the movements suggest that the routine
functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social
groups.
4. Some of these movements continued in the post independence period as well. Trade
Union movement had a strong presence among industrial workers in major cities like
Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur. All major political parties are associated with these
sections of workers.

2. Mention any three social movements of India. Explain their main objectives
1. The Chipko Movement
a. It raised the issue of ecological and economic exploitation
b. Active participation of women was a novel aspect of the movement
c. The villagers protested against the practices of logging to be permitted by the
government

2. Anti-Arrack Movement
a. This movement focused on issues of sexual violence against women either within
family or outside
b. Women joined the campaign against dowry and demanded personal and property
laws based on gender equality
c. These campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing social awareness as well as
shifted from legal reforms to open social confrontation

3. Narmada bachao Aamdolan


a. Narmada bachao Aandolan linked its opposition to Sardar sarovar Project with large
issues concerning the nature of ongoing development projects.
b. It demanded cost benefits analysis of major development projects to relocate the
people suffered from construction of dams
c. This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in
framing of mega scale development projects.

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS


123

Q. Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Liquor Mafia take to Heels as Women Hit Back The women of village Gundlur in Kalikari mandaI of
Chitto or district assembled and resolved to put an end to the sale of arrack in village. They
conveyed this resolution to village arrack vendor. They turned back the jeep that brought arrack
packets to the village. However, when the village arrack vendor informed the contractor about
this, the contractor sent him a gang of men to help him resume sales. Women of the village were
adamant and opposed this move. The contractor in the police but even they had to beat a retreat.
A week later, women who prevented the sale of arrack were assaulted by arrack contractor's
goondas with iron rods and other weapons. But when the women resisted the assault unitedly,
the hired mafia took to their The women later destroyed three jeeps arrack.

QUESTIONS:

1. From which source the above passage has been taken?


2. Who takes to heels? Who are compelling them to do so ?
3. Discuss the main ups and down expressed in the above passage in your own words.

ANSWERS:

1. The source of passage is a report published in Eanadu, October 29, 1992.


2. The liquor mafia takes to heels and they are being forced by the women of a illage of
Andhra Pradesh. They are against liquor sale in their village.
3. The main ups and downs expressed in the above passage are following:
1. There was a small village named Gundur in Kilakari Mandal of Chittor district of Andhra
Pradesh.
2. The women of the village assembled and resolved to put an end to the sale of arrack in
their village.
3. The women of the village passed a resolution to the attack vendor of their village. They
attacked the jeep that brought arrack packets in their village .

HOTS

1. Who were the Naxalites?


Ans: The Naxalites were the Marxist and Leninist agricultural workers of Andhra Pradesh,
West Bengal, Bihar and adjoining areas. They organized massive agitations against the
economic injustice and inequality and demanded redistribution of land to cultivators.

2. Which amendments granted reservations to woman in political affairs?


Ans: The 73rd and 74th Amendment have granted reservations to women in local level
political affairs.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


124

In 1996, MKSS formed National Council of People’s Right to information in Delhi to raise Right to
Information to the status of a national campaign. Prior to that, the Consumer Education and
Research Center, The Press Council and the Shourie Committee had proposed a draft RTI Law. In
2002, a weak “Freedom of Information Act” was legislated but never came into force. In 2004,
another RTI Bill was tabled and passed by the Parliament which received Presidential assent in
June 2005.

1. Write the full form of MKSS.


Ans: Full form of MKSS is Mazdoor Kissan Shakti Sangathan.

2. Why did the freedom of Information Act, 2002 never come into force?
Ans: The “Freedom of Information Act” 2002, never came into force as it was a weak
draft.

3. What do the words “the bill was tabled mean in the law making process?
Ans: In the law making process the words “the bill was tabled “ mean that the bill has been
tabled to be discussed by the House concerned.
125

CHAPTER 8
REGIONAL ASPIRATIONS

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. Master Tara Singh was a leader of :


1. SGPC
2. AIADMK
3. MDMK
4. PDP
Ans: SGPC

2. The Dravidian Movement led to the formation of D.K( later on DMK) under the leadership
of:
1. E. V Ramaswami
2. M. Karunanidhi
3. Annadurai
4. None of above
Ans: E. V Ramaswami

3. The first democratic elections to Sikkim assembly in 1974 were swept by:
1. Sikkim Congress
2. Indira Congress
3. Janata Party
4. SDF
Ans: Sikkim Congress

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What was the problem of Goa?


Ans. There was colonial rule in Goa since 16th century. The Portuguese suppressed
the people of Goa in the duration of their rule. They denied them civil rights and carried
out forced religious Conversions.

2. What was the desire of one section about Goa’s merger with Maharashtra?
Ans. Under the supervision of Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP) one
section demanded that Goa as a Marathi speaking area should with Maharashtra.

3. Write an elementary lesson of national integration.


Ans. The most elementary lesson is that regional aspirations are very much a part
of democratic politics.
126

4. In which countries the regional aspiration does prevail?


Ans. In smaller countries like the United Kingdom these are regional aspirations
in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

5. Who was the leader of the Naga National Council?


Ans. Angama Bapu Phizo was the leader of the Naga National Council.

6. Write about the Assam Movement?


Ans. The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such
movements against outsiders. The Assamese suspected trait. There were many illegal
Bengali Muslim settlers form Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationals
are detected and departed they would reduce indigenous Assamese in to a minority.

7. When did first Assembly Election held in Sikkim?


Ans. The First Democratic Election of Sikkim assembly was held in 1974 the swept
by Sikkim Congress which stood for greater integration with India.

8. What was AASU?


Ans. The AASU stands for All Assam students Union . It was not affiliated to any political
party and led an anti-foreigner movement in 1979.

9. What was MNF?


Ans. The MNF stands for Mizo National Front. In the duration of 1966 the MNF started an
arises a Campaign for independence .The Mizo National Front under the leadership of
lending reached a settlement and signed an agreement with the Prime Minister of India .

10. In which period Akali Government had been dismissed?


Ans. Akali Government had been dismissed in 1980.

11. How was DMK entered in Indian Politics?


Ans- DMk I,e Dravid Munetra kazhagam entered in Indian politics with three demands in
1953-54
(a)To restore original name of Kalkudi railway station
(b)The addition of Tamil cultural history in school curriculum
(c)To eliminate craft education scheme

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Write some words on regional aspirations.


Ans. In order to autonomy 1980s may be seen as period of rising regional aspirations often
outside the framework of the Indian Union. These movements frequently involved around
127

assertions by the people, their repressions by the government, and collapse of the political
and electoral processes. It is also not surprising that most of these struggles mere long
drawn and concluded in negotiated settlements of accords between the group and the
central government leading the movement for autonomy. The accords were reached after
a process of dialogue that aimed to settle contentions issues within the constitutional
framework. Yet the journey to the accord was always tumultuous and often violent.

2. What is the view of Kashmiri about autonomy of Jammu & Kashmir under Article 370?
Ans. Most of the Kashmiri’s believe that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is
not enough. A Section of Kashmiris have expressed at least three major grievances.
First the promise that Accession would be referred to the people of the state after the
situation created by tribal invasion was normalized has not been fulfilled. This has
generalized the demand for a Plebiscite.
Secondly there is a feeling that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370 has
been eroded in practice. This has led to the demand for restoration of autonomy or
“Greater state Autonomy”.
Thirdly – It is felt that democracy which is practiced in the rest of India has not been
similarly institutionalized in the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

3. Write a note on Goa’s Liberation?


Ans. Though the British rule had gone from Indian 1947, Portugal denied to withdraw the
territories of Daman, Diu and Goa which were under its colonial rule since 16th Century. In
their long empire the Portuguese. People suppressed the people of Goa. They refused
those Civil rights and carried out forced religious conversions. After the freedom of India
the government of India tried patiently to persuade the Portuguese Government to
withdraw. There was a strong and popular movement with in Goa for freedom. They were
strengthened by socialist Satyagrahis form Maharashtra. at the end the Indian Government
sent an army which liberated these territories in Dec.1961. After barely two days of action
Goa. Dice and Daman become Union Territory.

4. What was the states of Jammu and Kashmir before independence?


Ans. i. Before 1947, Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) was a princely state. Its Hindu Hari Singh
did not want to merge with India and tried to negotiate with India and Pakistan to have an i
ndependent status for his state.The Pakistan leaders thought the Kashmir region is related
to Pakistan, since majority population of the state was Muslim. But this is not how the peo
ple themselves saw it thethoughts of themselves as Kashmirs above all.
Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators from its side to capture Kashmir
on Oct.1947. This forced the Maharaja to ask for Indian military help. India extended the
military support and drove back the infiltrators form Kashmir Valley ,
but only after the Maharaja had signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Govern
ment.
128

The popular movement in the state led by Sheikh Abdullah of


the National Conference wanted to get ride of the Maharaja, but was against joining Pakist
an.

5. What are the two kinds of movements going on North East India?
Ans. The two kinds of Movements are going on in the North –East.
1. First –the armed groups are secessionists and they wait to break up the unity of
the country. Such secessionist groups are supported by the neighboring countries and
it is the responsibilities of the Union Government to confront the armed insurgents and
secessionist in North-East.
2. Second- Social discontent is quite widespread in North-East and if appropriate
solutions are not found aliented groups always take to armed insurgency . It has been a
failure of Politics in India where small and distant states have developed a feeling of
neglect because of economic under development

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Write an essay on accommodation and national integration.


1. Ans- Accommodation and National Integration-Introduction-After Six decades
of Independence some of the issues of National integration are not fully
resolved. Regional aspirations ranging from demands of statehood and economic
development to autonomy and separation keep coming up. After the period of 1980s
the Indian Politics remained in the circle of those tensions and tested the capacity of
democratic politics to accommodate the demands of diverse sections of the Society,
we can draw the lesson from these example:-
2. Regional aspirants are a part of democratic politics: ‐
The most elementary lesson is that regional first and aspirations are very much a part o
f democratic politics. Spain faces secessionist movement from the Basqus and son does
Sri Lanka form the Tamils. A large and diverse democracy such in India must deal with
regional aspirations on a regular basis. Nation building is an ongoing process.
Expression of regional issues is not an aberration or an abnormal Phenomenon.
Even in smaller countries like the United Kingdom. There
are regional aspirants in Scotland, wales, and Northern Ireland.
3. Sharing of Power: ‐
The Third lesson is about like significance of power sharing. It is not sufficient to have a
formal democratic structure. Besides that groups and parties form the region need to b
e give share in power at the state level. in the same way it is in sufficient to state that t
he states the regions have autonomy in their matters. The regions together form the na
tion.
4. Feeling or regional discrimination: ‐
The fourth lesson is that regional imbalance in economic development contributes to t
he feeling of regional discrimination. Regional imbalance is a fact of India’s developmen
t experience. Naturally the backward states or backward regions in some states feel tha
t their backwardness should be addressed on priority basis and that the policies
129

of the Indian Government have caused this imbalance. If some states remain poor and
other develop rapidly, it leads to regional imbalances and inter regional migrations.

5. The Federal System:‐


The federal system adopted by India is a flexible arrangement while most of the states
have powers there are special provisions for some states like J&K
and the states in the North –East. Finally these cases make us
appropriate the farsightedness of the makers of our constitutions in dealing with questi
on of diversity. The sixth schedule of the Constitution elbows different tribes complete
autonomy of pressuring their practice and customer levels. These provisions
proved crucial in resolving some very complex political problems in North East.

2. “Even after more than six decades of India’s independence, issues of national integration
have not yet been fully resolved.” Suggest any three measures to solve these issues.
Ans:- Even after more than six decades of India’s independence, issues of national
integration have not yet been fully resolved.” Following are three measures to solve these
issues:
1. As we know that India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. It is
the best merit of democracy that it permits the political expressions of regional
aspirations and does not consider them as anti-national. Hence, expression of regional
issues is not an unwelcome deviation or an abnormal phenomenon. Regional
aspirations are found even in smaller countries like the UK, Spain and Sri Lanka etc.
India, a large and diverse democracy, must deal with regional aspirations on a regular
basis. In this way, nation building is an ongoing and continuous process. Democratic
politics means that regional issues and problems will get proper attention and
accommodation in the policy making process.
2. The best and practical way to respond process is through democratic negotiations
rather than through suppression. In the 80’s – militancy erupted in Punjab, North East,
Kashmir Valley and Assam was on the boiling. In this sensitive period the government
of India adopted a practical approach and reached negotiated settlement with regional
movements. This reconciliatory approach and attitude reduced the tensions existing in
several regions. The example of Mizoram clearly shows that through political
settlement problem of separatism can also be resolved effectively.
3. The regional imbalance in economic development contributes to the feeling of regional
discrimination. The regional imbalances are caused when some states remain poor and
others develop fast. This phenomenon leads to regional imbalances and inter-regional
migrations. Albeit, the makers of our constitution expressed crystal clear farsightedness
in dealing with the questions of diversity. The unique federal system adopted by India
is a flexible and accommodative arrangement. In this way, politics in India has
succeeded in recognizing and accepting regionalism as part and parcel of democratic
politics. The 6th schedule of our constitution clearly allows different tribes total
autonomy of preserving their respective practices and mores. These provisions proved
significant in resolving some very complex and complicated problems in the North-East.
130

3: “Regional aspirations, regional inbalances and regionalism are a hindrance in the way of
national unity of india. Do you agree with the statement?

Ans : Because

1.Regional aspiration are part of democratic politics


2.Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon
3.Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland have regional aspiration in United Kingdom
4.Regional movements are responded through democratic negotiations rather than
suppression
5.Its examples are in eighties, militancy erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the
North-East students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil
6.The government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional
aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions
7.Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation
effectively.

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

1. Study the picture and read with care both of the passages. Answer all the questions given
below these passages:
Tamil film depicting the travails of Roja, a newlywed and doting wife when her husband,
Rishi, is abducted by militants. Rishi is a cryptologist who is assigned duty in Kashmir to
decode the enemy messages. As love blossoms between the husband and the wife, the
husband is kidnapped. The kidnappers demand that their jailed leader, be set free in
exchange of Rishi. Roja's world is shattered and she is knocking at the doors of officials and
po , , Since the film has the background of Indo- dispute, it made instant appeal. The film
dubbed in Hindi and many other Indian languages.
131

QUESTIONS:
1. Write 'the title of the movie. In which years it was released ?
2. Who has directed the film? Also the screenplay writer?
3. Write the names of actors of Hindi version of the movie.
4. Write the summary of the film's subject- matter.

ANSWERS:

1. (a). The title of the movie is Roja.


(b) The film 'Roja was released in the year 1992.
2. (a)Maniratnam has directed the film.
(b) Its screenplay is written by Maniratnam.
3. Roja's Hindi version's main actor-artists are
(i) Madhu, (ii) Arvind Swamy, (iii) Pankaj Kapoor, (iv) Jangaraj.

4.
1. The film depicting the travails ofRoja, a newly wed and doting wife when her
husband Rishi is abducted by terrorists.
2. Rishi is a cryptologist who is assigned duty in Kashmir to decode the enemy
messages.
3. As love blossoms between the husband and the wife, the husband is kidnapped.
The kidnappers demand that their jailed leader, be set-free in exchange of Rishi.
4. Roja's (the wife of Rishi) world is shattered and she is seen knocking at the doors of
politicians and 'concerning officials also. In brief it reveals the Pakistan's tactics of
terrorism against India.

HOTS

1. “Jammu & Kashmir is one of the living examples of plural society and politics.”Justify.
Ans: The above statement is very much justified because there are diversities of all kind
like religious, cultural, linguistics, ethnic and tribal.
Besides there are also divergent political aspirations.
Despite all this Diversities and divergions on the one hand and continued situation of
conflict on the other plural and secular culture of the state has remained largely intact.

2. In which countries the regional aspirations do prevail?


Ans: In smaller countries like United Kingdom, There are regional aspirations in Scotland
, Wale and Northern Ireland.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


132

These events were followed by mass agitations in many parts for the formation of
linguistics stage. Today’s Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat were
among the regions affected by these agitations. In some parts of Southern India,
particularly in Tamil Nadu there were protests against making Hindi the official National
Language of the country. In the north, there were strong pro Hindi agitations demanding
that Hindi be made the official language immediately. From the late 1950’s people
speaking the Punjabi language started agitating for a separate for themselves. This demand
was finally accepted and the states of Punjab and Haryana were created in 1966. Later the
states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal (now Uttrakhand) were created. Thus
the challenge of diversity was met by redrawing the internal boundaries of the country.

1. Write the names of those states where separatists’ movements were initiated.
Ans: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat

2. In which states were the protest raised against making Hindi the official language of the
country?
Ans: In Tamil Nadu, popular protests were raised against Hindi the official language of the
country. Infact, we should respect the national language.

3. Which two states were formed on the ground of language in 1966?


Ans: In 1966 Punjab and Haryana were the two states related on the ground of language .
It expresses the love of the people for their own language.
133

CHAPTER 9
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN POLITICS

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ONE MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Political Parties are:


1. Essential for democracy
2. not essential for democracy
3. Essential for totalitarian govt
4. not essential either for democracy or totalitarian govt
Ans: Essential for democracy

2. The recommendations of Mandal Commission were implemented by the Union Govt in the
year :
1. 1990
2. 1991
3. 1992
4. 1993
Ans: 1990

3. The recommendations by Mandal Commission provided


1. 22% job reservation to the OBC.
2. 27% job reservation to the OBC.
3. 22.5% job reservation to the SC’S and ST’S.
4. 28% job reservation to the OBC.
Ans : 27% job reservation to the OBC.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What is ‘Coalition’ in general way?


Ans. The term ‘Coalition’ as it generally used in political science is a direct descendent of
the exigencies of a multi-Party system in a democratic set-up.

2. What is the meaning of ‘Coalition’?


Ans. According to the dictionary meaning coalition means an act of coalescing, or uniting
into one body union, a union of Persons states or an alliance.

3. Who were syndicate?


Ans. The old guard (Known as the syndicate) associated themselves with the right forces to
defeat the non-official Congress Candidate.
134

4. Mention any two implications of Coalition.


Ans. The system of Coalition has contained important implication firstly coalition is formed
for the sake of some reward material or psychic. Secondly a coalition implies the existence
of at least two partners.

5. Mention an important dimension of the disturbed situation in North-East.


Ans. An important dimension of the disturbed situation in North-East is the existence of
armed group in every state who have guns and sanctuary and protection in Bangladesh
and Myanmar.

6. What did industrial Policy 1991 declare?


Ans. The Industrial policy1991 declared that FERA Companies with more than 40 percent
equity hence-forth be treated at party with fully Indian owned Companies.

7. When and where did the trial of strength take place?


Ans. The trial of strength took place during the elections of November 1993 in
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Mizoram and the
union Territory of Delhi.
8. What is the difference between a coalition party and coalition in Congress system?
Ans- Coalition party government refers government of more than two regional and political
parties whereas coalition in Congress system refers to encouragement of various factions
inside the party with different ideologies
9. What happened to the state government after demolition of Babri Masjid?
Ans 1.BJP state government was dismissed
2.Alongwith that, other states where the BJP was in power, were also put under
president’s rule
3.A case against CM of UP was register in Supreme Court

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION:-

FOUR MARKS QUESTIONS

1. What was the electoral performance of Janata Dal during ninth Lok Sabha elections?
Ans. Electoral performance :- At the era of Ninth Lok Sabha election ,the Janata Dal and the
National Front Sabha election the Janata Dal and the National Front were able to a great
extent to project themselves as a nation alterations. The Janata Dal won 141 seats out of
241 seats it contested. It won 17.4 percent of the popular Vote. The JD won 54 of the 69
seats in UP getting 43.83 percent of the popular vote. In Bihar it won 31 of the 37 seats for
41.38 percent of the popular vote. In Orissa out of the total 21 seats the JD won 16 seats.

2. What do you know about the CPI and CPI (M)?


Ans. The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the political party of the Indian working class
vanguard it’s highest from Class organisation. It is usually dated form december26, 1926. It
135

remained effectively an illegal organisation until 1942. When the British accepted its
support for the allied war afford. After 1947, there were number of changes in the party
tactics and the period was marked by the splits. The first Maoist communist party was
formed on April 22, 1969. Following the CPIs 20 th Congress of 1956 the CPI adopted a new
Constitution at Amritsar in 1956 more suited to peaceful transition and to working within a
system of representative democracy. The CPI (M) is considered as the left faction of the
communism in India. The CPI (M) was linked with China and viewedas pro-packing while
the CPI was considered as pro-Soviets. The CPI (M)’s main support base is concentrated in
West Bengal, Kerala, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar.

3. Write about Coalition Politics in India.


Ans. Since 1989, again the coalition Politics remerged when the congress parliamentary
Board decided not to stake its claim to form a government at the centre. Thus are result
the country witnessed the first minority Coalition government almost all the non-Congress
group big and small ,Rightist and leftist joined hands to back the National frontled by
V.P.Singh . This was the third coalition, detailed as under:
Coalition Government Period First Coalition Government March 1977 to March
28,1979 Second Coalition Government January 14,1980 Third Coalition Government Dec,2
1989-November 10,1990Fourth Coalition Government November 11,1990-July
21,1991 Fifth Coalition Government June 1,1996- April 20,1997 Sixth Coalition Government
April 20,1997- March 19,1998 Seventh Coalition Government March 19,1998-
October10,1999 Eight Coalition Government October10,1999-2004 Ninth Coalition
Government May 2004 for the 14 th Lok Sabha Election The Ninth Congress led Coalition
was formed in May 2004 for the 14 th Lok Sabha elections between Congress and left
front. DMK and other non-NDA parties.

4. Write about Scheduled Cases Vote bank.


Ans. The Schedule Castes were a very important social group supporting the
congress during the Nehru-Indira Gandhi Era. The schedule caste leaders were
active within the congress and the scheduled caste voter solidly supported the Party.
It now seems to be drifting away from the Congress. The Bahujan Samaj Party of Kanshi
Ram has spread its influence gradually during the 1980s. The BSP acted as a ‘Spoiler’ during
the elections. Thought it had won a few seats only in the state assemblies and the Lok
Sabha, it has taken away large chunk of the scheduled caste votes from the congress. In
Uttar Pradesh the BSP and the Samajvadi party of Mulayam Singh has formed an electoral
alliance for winning over the support of the votes of the scheduled Castes.

5. Write about the Ram Mandir and Rath Yatra.


Ans. In the mid 1990, the BJP and the VIshwa Hindu Parishad announced their decision to
go ahead with the construction of the Ram Mandir. In the meantime L.K.Advani embarked
on a Rath Yatra form Somnath (Gujrat) to Ayodhya(U.P.) but V.P.Singh does not buckle
under the pressure and he got arrested L.K.Advani in Bihar. Soon a delegation of BJP led by
A.B.Vajpayee met the president on October 23,1990 and presented a letter withdrawing
support to the V.P.Singh Government.
6. Write a note on Hindu-Muslim riots in Gujrat.
136

Ans- 1.The anti-muslim riots took place ar a station called Godharain 2002.
2.A fire took place on a bogey full of leorsevekos returning fron Ayodhya
3.The hand of Muslim was suspected behind this fire
4.Widespread violence took place against muslims in which nearly 1100, mostly muslims
were killed
5.Human right commission criticized Gujrat government role in failing to control violence
and provided relief to victims
6.Gujrat riots show that the government machinery also become susceptible to passion
and alert us the danger involved in using religious sentiments for political purposes.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

SIX MARKS QUESTIONS

1. Explain the salient features of Coalition Governments.


Ans. The Salient features of the Coalition governments formed after the fourth
general elections are as follows:-
The salient features of the Coalition governments formed after the fourth general elections
are as follows:
1. Unstable-Coalition:‐ Coalition governments were
unstable governments Once they had no inherent Compatibility amongst Constituent
parties. They had their own internal contradictions which led to the breakup not only
of various fronts but of government as well.
2. Anti‐Congressism:‐The main object of the Coalition was to dislodge the congress party
and to break its monopoly . The high priest of this strategy was the late Ram Manohar
Lohia. D.C pavate right by observes . “The Prime reason for such a coalition of oppositi
on group was not to provide an alternative government with a purposive programme
different from that of the Congress but to oust the congress from power some how or
other.
3. Lack of Polarization: ‐ The Coalitions were marriages of convenience. They were not fo
rmed on principles or on the basis of polarization of political forces. There were widely
heterogeneous elements like the CPI and Jan Sangh. It was just for
the sake of Capturing power that issues of ideological significance were either side
stepped or compromised and non congress Coalition of a
most heterogeneous variety came in to being . Indeed there was no sincere urge for p
olitical polarization even among the parties of the some ideology.
4. Political Opportunities: ‐ The most important factor in the formation of the coalition
was political opportunitinism. Coalition governments become a game of selfish
opportunist, Power
hungry and unscrupulous.politician. Who had to look after nothing but their personal
interests?
5. Based on political defections: ‐ these coalition state proved to be dependent upon a
few ‘Aya Ram’ and ‘Gaya Ram’ present in almost every Legislative Assembly.
Thus defectors really become responsible for the making
and unmaking of Coalition and for their failure. Coalition government continued to b
137

e unstable. Those which were based on a pre‐elected agreement among ideological


similar parties fared some
what better than those formed after the election. The Orissa Coalition which was form
ed between two compatible rightist parties lasted throughout the period and Kerala
had only two governments, both formed with
deologically compatible parties on the left. There were at least three governments in t
he other states. The Coalitions which were least viable were those in Bihar and Utter P
radesh both included such heterogeneous members
as the Jana Sangh and communist party offend. Anti Congress did not have a very cohe
sive effect. The common programmes which were agreed to by partners at the time of
the formation of these governments were hurriedly drafted and attempted to cover al
l differences which later proved difficult to resolve.

2. Point out any three Characteristics of globalisation?


Ans Three Characteristics of globlisation are as follow:‐
a) New Entrepreneurship –
Some times individualand smaller institutions in control of a front line technology can chall
enge the power of global Organisation by forming alliances. There grows up a new
entrepreneurship around such knowledge –based industry.
b)Economic Inequalities: ‐ The prevailing pattern of globalization has widened Economic
inequalities and has worsened the lot of
the impoverished. It has threatened the existence of local culture.
c)Globalisation also brings new opportunities:‐It widents tremendously the range of
charies available to people. It breaks down such geographical
barriers as town and countrywide and to metropolis and periphery to access resources an
d information.

3. Briefly explain any two points to understand the mass production and mass consumption.
Ans. Two points to understand the mass production and mass consumption are as under:-
Global Infrastructure: ‐ They are formal and informal institutional arrangements in
the economic political and cultural domains that facilitate
networking and flows. Their reach transcends the bounds of nation state. They facilitate th
e functioning of a global market. They embody codes and regulations holding transnational
interaction in place. They provide the machines of global governance.
Reformulation of social relations: ‐ Under globalization relations
between social classes are brought sharply to focus on a global scale. In the earlier
phase of capitalism class relations were primarily defined within the voter of the
nation .state globalization brings about a dense interaction between dominant
classes and regions outstripping national leavages. It throws up new social state
and faction both at the national and global levels. It reformulates inequalities and
existing unevenness in economic and power relations.

4. What was Mandal commission? Did it try to solve the problems of others backward
classes? State any two arguments in support of your answer.
138

Ans – Bindeshwari Prasad mandal was the chairperson of Mandal commission set up in
1978 to investigate the extent of educational and social backwardness among various
sections of society & recommended wayto identify these classes.
1. The mandal commission gave its recommendations in 1980
2. The commission advised that backward classes should be understood to mean backward
clastes since many castes other than the SCs were also treated as low in castes hierarchy
3. Reservation 27% seats in educational institutions and government jobs for these groups
4. It recommended land reforms to improve the condition of OBCs
5. Hence, Mandal commission made recommendations in economic and occupational
structure
6. The government on India accepted recommendations in 1990
7. 27% jobs reservation has been made in central and state governments
8. Many welfare schemes have also been launched as Swarnima National Backward classes
Finance and Development Corporation

QUESTIONS BASED ON PASSAGES AND CARTOONS

MAP QUESTIONS

Study carefully the map given below and answer all the questions.

QUESTIONS:

1. Write the names of four countries which have been referred or shown in the-above
map.
139

2. In which colour the Bay of Bengal is shown? Write the names of other two seas / oceans
encircled the western- southern and eastern southern portion of India.
3. Write the names of any six states along the names of their respective capitals of North-
East India.

ANSWERS:

1. The names of four countries are :


(i) Bhutan (ii) Bangladesh, (iii) China (iv) Myammar.
2. In/the map the Bay of Bengal is shown in blue colour. The names of two seas or oceans
are –
(i) The Arabian Sea and (ii) The Indian Ocean.

3. States - Names of their capital


(i) Sikkim Gangtok
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
(iii) Assam Dispur
(iv) Meghalaya Shillong
(v) Nagaland Kohima
(vi) Manipur Imphal
(vii) Tripura Agartala
(viii) Mizoram Aizawl

Q2. Study carefully the map given below and answer all the questions.

1. Identify and match the four states marked (A), (B), (C) and (D) with Arunachal Pradesh,
Mizoram, Nagaland and Meghalaya.
2. Write the capitals of these four states against the names of the respective states.

ANSWERS
140

1. (D) = Arunachal Pradesh


(C) = Meghalaya
(A) = Nagaland
(B) = Mizoram

2. States Capitals
(a) Arunachal Pradesh ltanagar
(b)Mizoram Aizawl
(c) Nagaland Kohima
(d) Meghalaya Shillong

Q. Study the cartoon and answer the following questions:

QUESTIONS:
1. What does this cartoon refer to ?
2. What is the difference between coalition in a party and coalition of parties?

ANSWERS:

1. This cartoon refers to two types of coalition-a coalition in a party and a coalition of political
parties. When the people of different interests and different social strata and groups come
together they form a single party. This gave rise to the term 'Congress system'. This is a
coalition within a political party.
2. There is a great difference between coalition in a party and coalition of different parties.
With the general elections of 1989, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. Since
then there have been nine governments at the centre, all of which have been coalition
governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the
government. In other words when the different parties of different interests and
ideologies join within a largest party for a common interest (generally gain the power) it is
known as coalition of parties. For example, NDA, UPA etc.
141

Question-

Look at the Cartoon given above carefully and answer the following questions:
1. Does the Cartoon refer to a puppet government?
2. Describe the role of such a government in the Indian democratic set up.
3. What is meant by "Support the Government from Outside"?

ANSWER

1. Yes, the cartoon refers to a puppet government.


2. Such government cannot take risk to implement all programmes and policies according to
their common manifesto. It has to feel the pulse of other political parties, especially who
are giving support from outside.
3. The meaning of the support from outside is that the government is having support of a
party or parties to get the approval or green signal of its life. These political parties share
the lower without any responsibility. They can bring the end of such government as and
when they desire.
142

Q. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows:

1. What does the picture indicate?


2. Which party is being referred to as one party dominance?
3. Identify female character in the cartoon?
Ans. 1. It depicts change from one party dominanace to a multy party alliance system.
2.. Congress
3. Mrs Indira Gandhi.
143

4. Q. Study carefully the below given map of India showing Lok Sabha Election
results of 2004. Answer all the questions given below it:

In the given political outline map of India, six states have been labelled as A, B, C, D, E and F.
Keeping in mind, the Lok Sabha Election results of 2004 and with the help of the information
provided below, identify these states. Write their correct names in your answer book in the
following tabular form: .

Name of Coalition Alphabet (A to F) Name of the State

1. Two states where the Left parties won the majority of Lok Sabha seats.
2. Two states where the NDA won the majorityof Lok Sabha seats.
3. Two states where the UPA won the majority of seats in Lok Sabha.
Ans. (i) A – Kerala F – West Bengal
(ii) E - Uttarakhand B Chhattisgarh
(iii) C - Himachal Pradesh D – Andhra Pradesh
Name of Coalition Alphabet (A to F) Name of the State
Left Front A Kerala
F West Bengal
NDA E Uttarakhand
B Chhattisgarh
UPA C Himachal Pradesh
D Andhra Pradesh
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HOTS

1. What is the difference between Coalition Party and Coalition in Congress system?
Ans: The Coalition Party govt signifies government of more than two regional and political
parties. Whereas, Coalition in Congress system signifies the encouragement of various
factions (groups) inside the party with different ideologies.

2. “Mention about the demolition of Babri Mosque.


Ans: The Demolition of Babri mosque at Ayodhya on Dec 6, 1992 took place in the presence
of the chief minister of Utter Pradesh ,Kalyan Singh & the national leadership of the
Bhartiya Janta Party.The powers & role of the central & the State governments is upholding
the fundamental values of the Constitution.

3. Unscrumble a bunch of disarrange press clipping file of Uni Muni “and arrange the file
chronologically
1. Mandal recommendations and anti reservation stir.
2. Formation of Janta Dal.
3. Demolition of Babri Masjid.
4. Assassination of Indira Gandhi.
5. Formation of NDA govt.
6. Godhra incident and its fall out.
7. Formation of UPA govt.
Ans
4. Assassination of Indira Gandhi.
2. Formation of Janta Dal.
1. Mandal recommendations and anti-reservation stir.
3 Demolition of Babri Masjid.
5 Formation of NDA govt.
6 Godhra incident and its fall out.
7 Formation of UPA govt.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Hindutva literally means Hinduness and was defined by its originator, V.D Savarkar as the basis of
Indian (in his language also Hindu) Nationhood. It basically meant that to be members of the
Indian nation, everyone must not only accept India as their father land (Pitrubu) but also as their
holy land (Punyabhu). Believers of Hindutva argue that a strong nation can be built only on the
basis of a strong and united national culture. They also believe that in the case of India the Hindu
culture alone can provide this base.

1. Who coined the word Hindutva? What does this word mean?
Ans: V.D Savarkar is the originator of the word, ’Hindutva’. It means Hinduness.
145

2. How can a strong nation be made as per the above passage?


Ans: As per the above passage a strong Nation can be built only on the basis of a strong
and united national culture. He believes that in the case of India the Hindu culture alone can
provide this base. Infact, he is greatly influenced by the deep essence of Indian culture.

3. Who can be the citizen of India as per the above passage?


Ans: On the above passage to be the member of the Indian Nation every one must not
accept India as their father land ‘Pitrubhu’ but also as their holy land ‘Punyabhu’ on this fact
it can be said that the author is the true Nationalist and we should take a lesson from him in
the sense of Nationalism.
146

POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code-028)


CLASS – XII
SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER (2014-15)
TIME: 3 hrs MM: 100

General Instructions:

1. All questions are compulsory.


2. Question numbers 1-5 are of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not
exceed 20 words each.
3. Question numbers 6-10 are of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should
not exceed 40 words each.
4. Question numbers 11-16 are of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should
not exceed 100 words each.
5. Question numbers 17-21 are of 5 marks each. The answers to this question should not
exceed 150 words.
6. Question numbers 22-27 are of 6 marks each. The answers to this question should
not exceed 150 words.

1. Is NAM neutral? 1
2. Mention any two core values of a country. 1
3. What was the immediate outcome of the two nation theory? 1
4. Which period of Indian politics has been referred to as ‘dangerous decade’? 1
5. Was the anti-arrack movement a women’s movement? Give one argument to support
your answer. 1
6. What is SAARC? 2
7. Give any two examples of the American hegemony as a soft power. 2
8. Why do we need international organizations? 2
9. Which two challenges are the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa facing? 2
10. Mention any two reasons due to which Janata Party won the elections of 1977. 2
11. When and why was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ launched? 4
12. Mention any four factors that led to the rise of the Chinese economy. 4
13. What are the reasons for growing concerns about the environment? 4
14. What kinds of difficulties were involved in the process of partition? 4
15. “Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the
voters.” Explain the statement with reference to the emergency period of 1975-77. 4
16. ‘Politics in India has succeeded in accepting regionalism as a part and parcel of
democratic politics.’ Justify the statement with suitable arguments. 4
17. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
147

We have a Muslim minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want,
go anywhere else. That is a basic fact about which there can be no argument. Whatever the
provocation from Pakistan and whatever the indignities and horrors inflicted on non-
Muslims there, we have got to deal with this minority in a civilized manner. We must give
them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic State. If we fail to do so, we shall
have a festering sore which will eventually poison the whole body politic and probably
destroy it.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Letter to Chief Ministers, 15 October 1947

Give an account of the background in which the letter was written and explain the
challenge that Jawaharlal Nehru is referring to in it? 5

18. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:

One of India’s major concerns has been the composition of the Security Council, which has
remained largely static while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded
considerably. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security
Council. It also argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater
support in the world community.

Critically examine India’s concerns and arguments about the composition of the Security
Council. 5

19. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:

While the cold war was an outcome of the emergence of the US and the USSR as two superpowers
rival to each other, it was also rooted in the understanding that the destruction caused by the use
of atom bombs is too costly for any country to bear. The logic is simple yet powerful. When two
rival powers are in possession of nuclear weapons capable of inflicting death and destruction
unacceptable to each other, a full-fledged war is unlikely.

Explain the cold war scenario and reasons behind it not turning out to be a full-
fledged war? 5
148

20. Study the picture given below carefully and answer the following questions:

i. Which event does the picture refer to? 2


ii. Who is the lady in the picture? Why does she look so pleased? 2
iii. Identify the man wearing the garland. 1

21. Study the map carefully and answer the questions given below.

i. Name the seven sisters of north-east. 2


ii. What is the problem against outsiders in this region? 2
iii. Name the two states where the secessionist movements started. 1
149

22. What were the key controversies regarding development in India? 6

OR

Why did the Indian National Congress dominate the first three General Elections after
independence? 6
150

23. ‘There is a difference in the approach towards environment between the countries of the
North and the South’. Explain the statement with reference to the Earth
Summit(1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997)? 6

OR

How has globalization affected India and what has been India’s response? 6

24.”India should not give up its policy of non-alignment and align with
the United States.” Givearguments in support or against this
statement. 6

OR

Mention the areas of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.

25. Evaluate the lessons that have been learnt from the popular movements in India along with
examples. 6

OR

“After the elections in 1989 an era of coalitions started in which political parties are not aligning
or realigning on the basis of ideologies.” Explain the statement. 6

26. Why was Gorbachev forced to initiate reforms and how did it lead to the
disintegration of the Soviet Union? 6

OR

Explain how did the Cuban Missile Crisis drive the world on the brink of a nuclear war? 6

27. What was the ‘new world order’ and how did it lead to the First Gulf War? 6

OR

What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organization? 6

_________________________________________________
151

REFERENCES

 I.N.S Claud –United Nations


 R.L Gupta –Indian Govt. & Politics
 D.D Basu –Indian Constitution
 M.P Jain –Political Theory
 J.C Johari –Indian Govt. & Politics
 V.N Khanna –Contemporary World Politics
 Use of Apps Store free of cost for better learning-PIL(Parteners in Learning
network) ,GEG- Google’s Educators Group
 JPH Sample Papers.
 U-Like Sample Papers.
 Together With Political Science.

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