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Under the guidance of

Prof. N. N. DIGHE




I, the under signed hereby declare that the project report which is entitled
“Marketing Strategies Of ABB Ltd.” written & submitted by me is genuine & bonafide
work prepared by me under the guidance of Prof. N. N. Dighe

The information given in this report is based on the data collected by me during the
course of project work. I have not copied from any project report submitted earlier or
being submitted this year for a similar purpose.

I understand that any such coping is liable to be punished in a way the institute authorities
deem fit.
The work has not been submitted for the award for any degree or diploma either to
University of Pune or any other university.

A project report is a synthesis of student’s hard work & the guidance received from
virtue of their senior’s experience. An act of gratitude is that the acknowledgement is,
blessing of well wishes to supporting guidance of their rich experience, which enlightens,
inspires & motivates to do something valuable.
I would like to thanks to Mr. Nilesh Pagare (Marketing Manager) without whose
guidance and support, it could not have been possible to do the assignment on topic like
Last but not the least I express sense of gratitude to Director,
Dr. Mr. R. R. Berad, And my internal project guide Prof. N. N. Dighe. And whole staff
of Institute for their kind help and encouragement in all the phrases from time to time.

Date: Signature

Place: Sangamner SAMEER S. PARDESHI



Declaration i.

Company/Organization Certificate ii.

Institute Certificate iii.

Acknowledgement iv.

I. Introduction 1-37

1.1 Industry profile

1.2 company profile

1.3 product profile

1.4 Theoretical Background

1.5 Problem identification & Statement

II. Research Methodology 38-44

III. Data Analysis & Interpretation 45-50

IV. Finding And Conclusions 51-53

V. Bibliography 54

VI. Annexure 55


The marketing concept of building an organization around the profitable satisfaction of

customer needs has helped firms to achieve success of high growth, moderately
competitive markets.

However to be successful in market in which economic growth has leveled &

in which there exist many competitors who follows the marketing concept , a well
developed marketing strategy is required. Such a strategy considers a portfolio of
products & takes into account the anticipated moves of competitors in market.

Strategy — not operational effectiveness — distinguishes winners from losers.

In fact, strategy is more important than ever, particularly for organizations that want to
differentiate themselves from others. 'When you fail to plan, you're planning to fail,'
holds a mountain of truth which explains that without planning you can not decide what
you are trying to accomplish. It also explains difference between a marketing strategy and
a marketing plan. The minute you begin taking action -- any action -- to generate sales,
you have a marketing strategy and the action you take is your strategy.

The marketing strategy covers all the concept of marketing management such as
Market research, Market survey, advertising, sales, promotion etc.


1) Explain companywide strategic planning and its four steps. (defining the company
mission, setting company objectives and goals, designing the business portfolio,
planning marketing and other functional strategies these are four steps.)

2) Discuss how to design business portfolios and develop growth strategies

3) Explain marketing′s role in strategic planning and how marketing works with its
partners to create and deliver customer value

4) Describe the elements of a customer-driven marketing strategy and mix , and the
forces that influence it.

5) list the marketing management function , including the elements of a marketing

plans , and discuss the importance of measuring and managing return on
marketing investment.

6) Define the four steps in designing a customer –driven market strategy: market
segmentation, market targeting, differentiation, and positioning.

7) List and discuss the major bases for segmenting consumer and business markets
Explain how companies identify attractive market segments and choose a market
targeting strategy.

8)Discuss how companies position their products for maximum competitive

advantage in the marketplace

ABB in General Way

ABB is a global leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility
and industry customer to improve performance while lowering environmental impact.
The world wide demand for economic growth necessitates innovative and dependable
solution for efficient electric power. ABB’s mission is to meet this demand for
dependable electric energy reliable and sustainable growth, fully respecting
environmental demand.
With over 110 locations and approximately 2,17,000 employees spread across 90
countries in Europe, the America and the asia pacific region. ABB translates its global
strength to benefit customers in local market across different countries through its multi
domestic approach. This approach enables ABB to draw on its global resources, yet adopt
and swiftly respond to individual and specific local demands.
ABB’s organizational structure is divided into two measure groups:

Power Technologies
High Voltage Products
Medium Voltage Products
Utility Automation Systems
Power Systems

Automation Technologies
Process Automation
Automation Product

Power Products

Power Products are the key components to transmit and

distribute electricity. The division incorporates ABB's manufacturing network for
transformers, switchgear, circuit breakers, cables and associated equipment. It also offers
all the services needed to ensure products' performance and extend their lifespan. The
division is subdivided into three business units.

Power Systems

Power Systems offers turnkey systems and services for power transmission and
distribution grids, and for power plants. Substations and substation automation systems
are key areas. Additional highlights include flexible alternating current transmission
systems (FACTS), high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems and network
management systems. In power generation, Power Systems offers the instrumentation,
control and electrification of power plants. The division is subdivided into four business

Automation Products

This ABB business serves customers with energy efficient and reliable products to
improve customers' productivity, including drives, motors and generators, low voltage
products, instrumentation and analytical, and power electronics. More than one million
products are shipped daily to end customers and channel partners, spanning a wide range
of industry and utility operations, plus commercial and residential buildings.

Process Automation
The main focus of this ABB business is to provide customers with integrated solutions
for control, plant optimization, and industry-specific application knowledge. The
industries served include oil and gas, power, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, pulp and
paper, metals and minerals, marine and turbocharging. Key customer benefits include
improved asset productivity and energy savings.


ABB is a leading supplier of industrial robots - also providing robot software, peripheral
equipment, modular manufacturing cells and service for tasks such as welding, handling,
assembly, painting and finishing, picking, packing, palletizing and machine tending. Key
markets include automotive, plastics, metal fabrication, foundry, electronics, machine
tools, pharmaceutical and food and beverage industries. A strong solutions focus helps
manufacturers improve productivity, product quality and worker safety. ABB has
installed more than 160,000 robots worldwide.

Company profile
ABB India History

The Company was incorporated on 24th December 1949 as Hindustan Electric

Company Limited. In 1965, the Company’s name was changed to Hindustan Brown
Boveri Limited (HBB). Pursuant to the Scheme of Amalgamation of Asea Limited with
HBB with effect from 1st January 1989, the name was further changed to Asea Brown
Boveri Limited (ABB) with effect from 13th October 1989.
ABB’s power generation business was globally transferred into the new 50-50 JV
with Alstom in 1999. In India the power generation business has been demerged and
transferred to ABB Alstom Power India Ltd. with effect from 1st April 1999. In
consideration of the transfer of the power business, each shareholder of ABB has been
allotted one share in ABB Alstom Power India Ltd. for every share held in the company.

The Authorised Share Capital of the Company is Rs.500,000,000 and the paid-up
share capital of the Company as at the end of the financial year ended 31st December
1999 is Rs.414,183,560, consisting of 41,418,356 Equity Shares of the face value of Rs

Asea Brown Boveri Limited, India, is a partly owned subsidiary of ABB Asea
Brown Boveri Limited, Zurich, Switzerland (ABBZH). ABBZH and Fläkt AB, Sweden, a
100 percent subsidiary of ABBZH, hold 50.99% of Equity Shares in the Company. The
balance stake is held by: FIs 22.14%, FIIs 3.63%, MFs 2.32, Non-resident Individual
0.08%, Nationalised Banks 0.15%, Bodies Corporate 0.93%,Directors and their relatives
0.01%, NSDL (Transit) 1.95% and General Public 17.8%.


ABB Operations in India include 14 MANUFATURING facilities and over 6500
employees . Customers are served through extensive countrywide presence with around
and a network of over 750 channel partners . The ABB Group is increasingly leveraging
the India operations for projects , products, services, engineering, and R& D . Also as
part of ABB new regional approach, India has been designated as the hub of the south
Asia region .
ABB continues to bring value to customers in India through leading edge
technologies, domain expertise and project execution abilities . The company product
focus continues in the form of portfolio expansion and market penetration.
To meet growing demand , capacity of existing plants many new manufacturing
unites have been set up across the country.
Some recent ones includes a new motors plant and control products unit in
Bangalore as well as the recently commissioned low voltage distribution eletricals factory
at Haridwar .
The revenue of ABB – India was about 8000 crores INR in the year 2007 with
Mr.Biplab Majumdar as its CEO .

Manufacturing locations of ABB India

Bangalore:- Industrial Automation, Capacitor, Industrial drives, Network control and
protection system, Metallurgy (Rolling Mills, Electric press power metallurgy), Low
voltage switch gear and MCCB.
Vadodara:- Metallurgy (Furnaces), EHV switch gear (CB’s, CT’s, CVT’s, Isolators and
Bus Ducts), Project engineering substation, HV on load tap chargers, LV apparatus, CB’s
for Turbine Generators, Industrial Steam Power Plants.
Nashik:- Medium Voltage Switchgear, Panel and Breakers.
Faridabad:- Electric motors, Alternators and Arno convertors for Railways.
Haridwar:- LV Distribution Electric Factory
Mumbai:- Power Line Communication. (It is not manufacturing plant only service
provide activities are completed here.)

ABB's mission
• Improve performance: ABB helps customers improve their operating
performance, grid reliability and productivity whilst saving energy and lowering
environmental impact.
• Drive innovation: Innovation and quality are key characteristics of our product,
systems and service offering.
• Attract talent: ABB is committed to attracting and retaining dedicated and
skilled people and offering employees an attractive, global work environment.
• Act responsibly: Sustainability, lowering environmental impact and business
ethics are at the core of our market offering and our own operations.

ABB's vision
As one of the world’s leading engineering companies, we help our customers to
use electrical power efficiently, to increase industrial productivity and to lower
environmental impact in a sustainable way. Power and productivity for a better work

Quality Policy of ABB Nashik

The hallmark of Medium Voltage Switchgear Division is Quality. All commitments,
action and products are recognized as an expression of quality.
The most important quality criterion is the satisfaction of the customers. They
aim at maintaining customer’s full confidence in them as a prominent supplier. Their
undertakings and products fulfill agreed terms. Every delivery creates a recommendation
for further business.
Their reputation is determined by their resources, their ability to co-operate their
dedication and above all attitude to quality.

Environmental Policy of ABB Nashik

The present and further operation of ABB Ltd. Will comply with current
environmental standards and legislation’s. They will strive to prevent pollution and
develop manufacturing processes, production and services with reduced harmful
environment impact, which are safe to use and can be re-cycled or disposed off in an
environmentally acceptable manner. They will focus on energy conservation, waste
reduction and motivates employees to carry out their tasks in an environmentally
responsible manner.

MILESTONES – MV Switchgear





SINCE 1997


Product Profile


The ABB-NASIK division deals with the production of medium voltage power
product ranging between 1 to 50 KV.

Business Units of ABB Nashik:-

Following Business Units are their in ABB Ltd., Nashik

 Indoor Breaker
 Indoor Panels
 Outdoor Breaker
 Ring Main Unit (RMU)
 CSS (compact secondary substation)
 Retrofit
1) INDOOR Breaker –

Circuit breaker is a mechanical device capable of making,carrying & breaking

currents under normal conditions as well as specified abnormal conditions such as those
of short circuit. Indoor circuit breakers having operating voltage range 11kv to 40kv
manufactured in Nashik division.

.Fields of Application
 Power distribution
 Cable control and protection
 Overhead control and protection
 Transformation and distribution substations
 Motor and transformer control and protection
 Generator control and protection
 Capacitor bank control and protection
indoor panels are used in power transmission & distribution system . In Nashik unit 6.6kv
, 11kv , 33kv voltage range panels are manufactured. Indoor panel consist following
• Breaker compartment
• Metering compartment
• Cable & CT compartment
• PT compartment
• Busbar compartment

Fields of Application
• Power plants
• Distribution utilities
• Steel plants
• Cement plants
• Refineries.

Medium voltage outdoor circuit breaker type OVB-SDB uses vacuum as arc
quenching medium. The EL type operating mechanism consists of a charging device
which can be charged manually or by motor. The charging device has helical
compression spring for closing and helical tension spring for opening.

The circuit breaker is made up of three separate poles. These consist of three main
• Poles assembly.
• Cabinet with operating mechanism.
• Steel structure.
Ring main unit can be supplied in various configuration and safePlus,a
compact switchgear with unique flexibility. SafeRing/safePlus are delivered as a
completely sealed with a stainless steel tank containing all the live parts and the
switching equipment. constant atmospheric conditions in the sealed tank ensures a high
level of reliability, safety and a a virtually maintenance free system.

Indoor RMU Outdoor RMU

 Compact and robust design.
 Minimal moving parts.
 Virtually maintenance free.
 High flexibility.
 Multiple configuration options.
 Enhanced safety.
 Complete solutions including applications for remote control and monitoring.

With increasing demand for power, aging equipment are subject to stringent loads
beyond their rated values at many existing installations. The equipment are also required
to perform reliably, meet the necessary standards ,compact increasing fault levels and be
compatible with the latest data communication systems. Retrofit constitutes replacement
of vital equipment having similar or advanced features, for life extension, reduced
maintenance and improved functionality. The retrofitted switchgear offers far grater
system reliability, personnel safety and long term availability of spares with minimal
investment and down time.

Scope of retrofit-
• Replacement of circuit breakers/other components as required.
• Up gradation of panels with respect to current and voltage rating and fault
• Up gradation of protection relays.

Compact secondary substation(CSS) is a prefabricated substation with type-tested

equipment and includes a distribution transformer, medium voltage swithgear,low
voltage swithboard,connection and associated unit in a compact unit. the CSS is designed
keeping in mind high levels of personal safety and aesthetics as they are often located in
high density, urban centers. All components are housed in an enclosure, which protects
the equipment against the environmental hazards and unauthorized access.

• Big Complex – Commercial & Residential
• Hospitals
• Colonies
• Distribution network of state utility.
• Small industries
• Shopping malls
Marketing strategy
Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited
resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable
competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered around the key concept
that customer satisfaction is the main goal.

Marketing Strategies: A marketing strategy serves as the foundation of a marketing

plan. A marketing plan contains a list of specific actions required to successfully
implement a specific marketing strategy. An example of marketing strategy is as follows:
"Use a low cost product to attract consumers. Once our organization, via our low cost
product, has established a relationship with consumers, our organization will sell
additional, higher-margin products and services that enhance the consumer's interaction
with the low-cost product or service."

A strategy is different than a tactic. While it is possible to write a tactical marketing plan
without a sound, well-considered strategy, it is not recommended. Without a sound
marketing strategy, a marketing plan has no foundation. Marketing strategies serve as
the fundamental underpinning of marketing plans designed to reach marketing objectives.
It is important that these objectives have measurable results.

A good marketing strategy should integrate an organization's marketing goals, policies,

and action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole. The objective of a marketing
strategy is to provide a foundation from which a tactical plan is developed. This allows
the organization to carry out its mission effectively and efficiently.

One used the following techniques to device the Marketing Strategy for the

Market segmentation is the process in marketing of grouping a market (i.e. customers)

into smaller subgroups. This is not something that is arbitrarily imposed on society: it is
derived from the recognition that the total market is often made up of submarkets (called
'segments'). These segments are homogeneous within (i.e. people in the segment are
similar to each other in their attitudes about certain variables). Because of this intra-group
similarity, they are likely to respond somewhat similarly to a given marketing strategy.
That is, they are likely to have similar feeling and ideas about a marketing mix comprised
of a given product or service, sold at a given price, distributed in a certain way, and
promoted in a certain way.

OVER 28,000
(since 1979)



Market segmentation is widely defined as being a complex process consisting in two

main phases:
- identification of broad, large markets
- segmentation of these markets in order to select the most appropriate target markets and
develop Marketing mixes accordingly.

Everyone within the Marketing world knows and speaks of segmentation yet not many
truly understand its underlying mechanics, thus failure is just around the corner. What
causes this? It has been documented that most marketers fail the segmentation exam and
start with a narrow mind and a bunch of misconceptions such as "all teenagers are
rebels", "all elderly women buy the same cosmetics brands" and so on. There are many
dimensions to be considered, and uncovering them is certainly an exercise of creativity.
Identify and name the broad market
you have to have figured out by this moment what broad market your business aims at. If
your company is already on a market, this can be a starting point; more options are
available for a new business but resources would normally be a little limited.

The biggest challenge is to find the right balance for your business: use your experience,
knowledge and common sense to estimate if the market you have just identified earlier is
not too narrow or too broad for you.

Identify and make an inventory of potential customers' needs

this step pushes the creativity challenge even farther, since it can be compared to a
brainstorming session.

What you have to figure out is what needs the consumers from the broad market
identified earlier might have. The more possible needs you can come up with, the better.

Got yourself stuck in this stage of segmentation? Try to put yourself into the shoes of
your potential customers: why would they buy your product, what could possibly trigger
a buying decision? Answering these questions can help you list most needs of potential
customers on a given product market.

Formulate narrower markets

Try to form sub-markets around what you would call your "typical customer", then
aggregate similar people into this segment, on the condition to be able to satisfy their
needs using the same Marketing mix. Start building a column with dimensions of the
major need you try to cover: this will make it easier for you to decide if a given person
should be included in the first segment or you should form a new segment. Also create a
list of people-related features, demographics included, for each narrow market you form
– a further step will ask you to name them.

There is no exact formula on how to form narrow markets: use your best judgement and
experience. Do not avoid asking opinions even from non-Marketing professionals, as
different people can have different opinions and you can usually count on at least those
items most people agree on.

Identify the determining dimensions Carefully review the list resulted form the
previous step. You should have by now a list of need dimensions for each market
segment: try to identify those that carry a determining power.

Reviewing the needs and attitudes of those you included within each market segment can
help you figure out the determining dimensions.
Name possible segment markets You have identified the determining dimensions of
your market segments, now review them one by one and give them an appropriate name.

A good way of naming these markets is to rely on the most important determining

Evaluate the behavior of market segments

Once you are done naming each market segment, allow time to consider what other
aspects you know about them. It is important for a marketer to understand market
behavior and what triggers it. You might notice that, while most segments have similar
needs, they're still different needs: understanding the difference and acting upon it is the
key to achieve success using competitive offerings.

Estimate the size of each market segment

Each segment identified, named and studied during the previous stages should finally be
given an estimate size, even if, for lack of data, it is only a rough estimate.
Simply, positioning is how your target market defines you in relation to your

A good position is:

1. What makes you unique
2. This is considered a benefit by your target market

Both of these conditions are necessary for a good positioning. So what if you are the
only red-haired singer who only knows how to play a G minor chord? Does your target
market consider this a good thing?

Positioning is important because you are competing with all the noise out there
competing for your potential fans attention. If you can stand out with a unique benefit,
you have a chance at getting their attention.

It is important to understand your product from the customers point of view relative to
the competition.


In order to begin positioning a product, two questions need to be answered:

1. What is our marketing environment?

2. What is our competitive advantage?

The marketing environment is the external environment. Some things to consider:

• How is the market now satisfying the need your software satisfies?
• What are the switching costs for potential users for your market?
• What are the positions of the competition?

The competitive advantage is an internal question. What do you have that gives you
advantage over your competitors. Some things to consider:

• Is your company small and flexibility?

• Do you offer low cost and high quality?
• Does your product offer unique benefits?
• Are you the first on the market with this product (First mover advantage)?
Positioning Strategies

There are seven positioning strategies that can be pursued:

Product Attributes: What is the specific product attributes?

Benefits: What are the benefits to the customers?

Usage Occasions: When / how can the product be used?

Users: Identify a class of users.

Against a Competitor: Positioned directly against a competitor.

Away from a Competitor: Positioned away from competitor.

Product Classes: Compared to different classes of products.


Target Marketing involves breaking a market into segments and then concentrating
your marketing efforts on one or a few key segments.

Target marketing can be the key to a small business’s success.

The beauty of target marketing is that it makes the promotion, pricing and distribution of
your products and/or services easier and more cost-effective. Target marketing provides a
focus to all of your marketing activities.

So if, for instance, I open a catering business offering catering services in the client’s
home, instead of advertising with a newspaper insert that goes out to everyone, I could
target my market with a direct mail campaign that went only to particular residents.

While market segmentation can be done in many ways, depending on how you want to
slice up the pie, three of the most common types are:

• Geographic segmentation – based on location such as home addresses;

• Demographic segmentation – based on measurable statistics, such as age or


• Psychographic segmentation – based on lifestyle preferences, such as being urban

dwellers or pet lovers.
Key part of the general corporate strategy

A marketing strategy is a written plan which combines product development, promotion,

distribution, and pricing approach, identifies the firm's marketing goals, and explains how
they will be achieved within a stated timeframe. Marketing strategy determines the
choice of target market segment, positioning, marketing mix, and allocation of resources.
It is most effective when it is an integral component of firm strategy, defining how the
organization will successfully engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the
market arena. Corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate goals. As the
customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing strategy is closely
linked with sales. A key component of marketing strategy is often to keep marketing in
line with a company's overarching mission statement.

Tactics and actions

A marketing strategy can serve as the foundation of a marketing plan. A marketing plan
contains a set of specific actions required to successfully implement a marketing strategy.
For example: "Use a low cost product to attract consumers. Once our organization, via
our low cost product, has established a relationship with consumers, our organization will
sell additional, higher-margin products and services that enhance the consumer's
interaction with the low-cost product or service."

A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a marketing plan more
effective. Marketing strategies serve as the fundamental underpinning of marketing plans
designed to fill market needs and reach marketing objectives. Plans and objectives are
generally tested for measurable results.

A marketing strategy often integrates an organization's marketing goals, policies, and

action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole. Similarly, the various strands of the
strategy , which might include advertising, channel marketing, internet marketing,
promotion and public relations can be orchestrated. Many companies cascade a strategy
throughout an organization, by creating strategy tactics that then become strategy goals
for the next level or group. Each one group is expected to take that strategy goal and
develop a set of tactics to achieve that goal. This is why it is important to make each
strategy goal measurable.

Marketing strategies are dynamic and interactive. They are partially planned and partially

Types of strategies
Marketing strategies may differ depending on the unique situation of the individual
business. However there are a number of ways of categorizing some generic strategies. A
brief description of the most common categorizing schemes is presented below:

• Strategies based on market dominance - In this scheme, firms are

classified based on their market share or dominance of an industry. Typically
there are three types of market dominance strategies:
o Leader
o Challenger
o Follower

Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm,

relative to competitive offerings. There is often a geographic element to the competitive
landscape. In defining market dominance, you must see to what extent a product, brand,
or firm controls a product category in a given geographic area.


Total Qty: 5190 Nos Total Qty: 2969 Nos. Total Qty: 136 Nos.
ABB share: 2303 Nos ABB share: 1565 Nos. ABB share: 114 Nos

1296 950
2303 156 22
313 20 5
180 119
284 174

ABB (44%)
AREVA(4%) 114
CGL(25%) CGL (31%) ABB (84%)
CGL (16%)

Overall Share: 48

There are several ways of calculating market dominance. The most direct is
market shareThis is the percentage of the total market serviced by a firm or brand. A
declining scale of market shares is common in most industries: that is, if the industry
leader has say 50% share, the next largest might have 25% share, the next 12% share, the
next 6% share, and all remaining firms combined might have 7% share.
Market share is not a perfect proxy of market dominance. The influences of customers,
suppliers, competitors in related industries, and government regulations must be taken
into account. Although there are no hard and fast rules governing the relationship
between market share and market dominance, the following are general criteria:

• A company, brand, product, or service that has a combined market share

exceeding 60% most probably has market power and market dominance.
• A market share of over 35% but less than 60%, held by one brand, product or
service, is an indicator of market strength but not necessarily dominance.
• A market share of less than 35%, held by one brand, product or service, is not an
indicator of strength or dominance and will not raise anti-combines concerns of
government regulators.

Market shares within an industry might not exhibit a declining scale. There could be only
two firms in a duopolistic market, each with 50% share; or there could be three firms in
the industry each with 33% share; or 100 firms each with 1% share. The concentration
ratio of an industry is used as an indicator of the relative size of leading firms in relation
to the industry as a whole. One commonly used concentration ratio is the four-firm
concentration ratio, which consists of the combined market share of the four largest
firms, as a percentage, in the total industry. The higher the concentration ratio, the greater
the market power of the leading firms.

• Porter generic strategies - strategy on the dimensions of strategic scope and

strategic strength. Strategic scope refers to the market penetration while strategic
strength refers to the firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. The generic
strategy framework (porter 1984) comprises two alternatives each with two
alternative scopes. These are Differentiation and low-cost leadership each with a
dimension of Focus-broad or narrow.
o Product differentiation
o Market segmentation
• Innovation strategies - This deals with the firm's rate of the new product
development and business model innovation. It asks whether the company is on
the cutting edge of technology and business innovation. There are three types:
o Pioneers
o Close followers
o Late followers
• Growth strategies - In this scheme we ask the question, “How should the firm
grow?”. There are a number of different ways of answering that question, but the
most common gives four answers:
o Horizontal integration
o Vertical integration
o Diversification
o Intensification

A more detailed scheme uses the categories:

• Prospector
• Analyzer
• Defender
• Reactor
• Marketing warfare strategies - This scheme draws parallels between marketing
strategies and military strategies.

Strategic models

Marketing participants often employ strategic models and tools to analyze marketing
decisions. When beginning a strategic analysis, the 3Cs can be employed to get a broad
understanding of the strategic environment. An Ansoff Matrix is also often used to
convey an organization's strategic positioning of their marketing mix. The 4Ps can then
be utilized to form a marketing plan to pursue a defined strategy.

Marketing in Practice

The Consumer-Centric Business

There are a many companies especially those in the Consumer Package Goods (CPG)
market that adopt the theory of running their business centered around Consumer,
Shopper & Retailer needs. Their Marketing departments spend quality time looking for
"Growth Opportunities" in their categories by identifying relevant insights (both mindsets
and behaviors) on their target Consumers, Shoppers and retail partners. These Growth
Opportunities emerge from changes in market trends, segment dynamics changing and
also internal brand or operational business challenges.The Marketing team can then
prioritize these Growth Opportunities and begin to develop strategies to exploit the
opportunities that could include new or adapted products, services as well as changes to
the 7Ps.

Real-life marketing primarily revolves around the application of a great deal of common-
sense; dealing with a limited number of factors, in an environment of imperfect
information and limited resources complicated by uncertainty and tight timescales. Use of
classical marketing techniques, in these circumstances, is inevitably partial and uneven.

Thus, for example, many new products will emerge from irrational processes and the
rational development process may be used (if at all) to screen out the worst non-runners.
The design of the advertising, and the packaging, will be the output of the creative minds
employed; which management will then screen, often by 'gut-reaction', to ensure that it is

For most of their time, marketing managers use intuition and experience to analyze and
handle the complex, and unique, situations being faced; without easy reference to theory.
This will often be 'flying by the seat of the pants', or 'gut-reaction'; where the overall
strategy, coupled with the knowledge of the customer which has been absorbed almost by
a process of osmosis, will determine the quality of the marketing employed. This, almost
instinctive management, is what is sometimes called 'coarse marketing'; to distinguish it
from the refined, aesthetically pleasing, form favored by the theorists.

1) 3C's Model

The 3C's Model is a strategical look at the factors needed for success. It was developed
by Kenichi Ohmae, a business and corporate strategist. The 3C’s model points out that a
strategist should focus on three key factors for success. In the construction of a business
strategy, three main players must be taken into account:

A. The Corporation

B. The Customer
C. The Competitors

Only by integrating these three C’s (Corporation, Customer, Competitors) in a strategic

triangle, a sustained competitive advantage can exist. Ohmae refers to these key factors
as the three C’s or strategic triangle.

The Corporation

The Corporation needs strategies aiming to maximize the corporation’s strengths relative
to the competition in the functional areas that are critical to achieve success in the

Selectivity and sequencing

The corporation does not have to lead in every function to win. If it can gain decisive
edge in one key function, it will eventually be able to improve its other functions which
are now average.

Make or buy

In case of rapidly rising wage costs, it becomes a critical decision for a company to
subcontract a major share of its assembly operations. If its competitors are unable to shift
production so rapidly to subcontractors and vendors, the resulting difference in cost
structure and/ or in the companies ability to cope with demand fluctuations may have
significant strategic implications.


Improving the cost-effectiveness can be done in three ways. First by reducing basic costs,
second by exercising greater selectivity (orders accepted, products offered, functions
performed) and third by sharing certain key functions with a corporation’s other
businesses or even other companies.

The Customer

Clients are the base of any strategy according to Ohmae. Therefore, the primary goal
supposed to be the interest of the customer and not those of the shareholders for example.
In the long run, a company that is genuinely interested in its customers will be interesting
for its investors and take care of their interests automatically. Segmentation is helping to
understand the customer.


For MV switchgear market ABB takes care of above factors for customer satisfaction.

Segmenting by objectives
The differentiation is done in terms of the different ways that various customers use a
Segmenting by customer coverage

This segmentation normally emerges from a trade-off study of marketing costs versus
market coverage. There appears always to be a point of diminishing returns in the cost
versus coverage relationship. The corporation’s task is to optimize its range of market
coverage, geographically and/ or channel wise.

Segmenting the market once more

In fierce competition, competitors are likely to be dissecting the market in similar ways.
Over an extended period of time, the effectiveness of a given initial strategic
segmentation will tend to decline. In such situations it is useful to pick a small group of
customers and reexamine what it is that they are really looking for.
A market segment change occurs where the market forces are altering the distribution of
the user-mix over time by influencing demography, distribution channels, customer size,
etc. This kind of change means that the allocation of corporate resources must be shifted
and/ or the absolute level of resources committed in the business must be changed.

The Competitor

Competitor based strategies can be constructed by looking at possible sources of

differentiation in functions such as: purchasing, design, engineering, sales and servicing.
The following aspects show ways in order to achieve this differentiation:
Power of image

When product performance and mode of distribution are very difficult to distinguish,
image may be the only source of positive differentiation.

Capitalizing on profit- and cost structure differences

Firstly, the difference in source of profit might be exploited, from new products sales etc.
Secondly, a difference in the ratio of fixed costs and variable costs might also be
exploited strategically. A company with lower fixed cost ratio can lower prices in a
sluggish market and hence gain market share.


A favorite phrase of Japanese business planners is hito-kane-mono, standing for people,

money and things. They believe that streamlined corporate management is achieved when
these three critical resources are in balance without surplus or waste. For example: Cash
over and beyond what competent people can intelligently expend is wasted. Of the three
critical resources, funds should be allocated last. The corporation should firstly allocate
management talent, based on the available mono (things): plant, machinery, technology,
process know-how and functional strength. Once these hito (people) have developed
creative and imaginative ideas to capture the business’s upward potential, the kane
(money) should be given to the specific ideas and programs generated by the individual

Product-Market growth matrix

The Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix is a marketing tool created by Igor Ansoff
and first published in his article "Strategies for Diversification" in the Harvard Business
Review (1957). The matrix allows marketers to consider ways to grow the business via
existing and/or new products, in existing and/or new markets – there are four possible
product/market combinations. This matrix helps companies decide what course of action
should be taken given current performance.

the matrix consists of four strategies

• Market penetration (existing markets, existing products): Market penetration

occurs when a company enters/penetrates a market with current products. The
best way to achieve this is by gaining competitors' customers (part of their market
share). Other ways include attracting non-users of your product or convincing
current clients to use more of your product/service, with advertising or other
promotions. Market penetration is the least risky way for a company to grow.

• Product development (existing markets, new products): A firm with a market for
its current products might embark on a strategy of developing other products
catering to the same market (although these new products need not be new to the
market; the point is that the product is new to the company). For example,
McDonald's is always within the fast-food industry, but frequently markets new
burgers. Frequently, when a firm creates new products, it can gain new customers
for these products. Hence, new product development can be a crucial business
development strategy for firms to stay competitive.

• Market development (new markets, existing products): An established product

in the marketplace can be tweaked or targeted to a different customer segment, as
a strategy to earn more revenue for the firm. The market need not be new in itself,
the point is that the market is new to the company.
• Diversification (new markets, new products): This resulted in the company
entering new markets where it had no presence before.

The matrix illustrates, in particular, that the element of risk increases the further the
strategy moves away from known quantities - the existing product and the existing
market. Thus, product development (requiring, in effect, a new product) and market
extension (a new market) typically involve a greater risk than `penetration' (existing
product and existing market); and diversification (new product and new market)
generally carries the greatest risk of all. In his original work, which did not use the matrix
form, Igor Ansoff stressed that the diversification strategy stood apart from the other

While the latter are usually followed with the same technical, financial, and
merchandising resources which are used for the original product line, diversification
usually requires new skills, new techniques, and new facilities. As a result it almost
invariably leads to physical and organizational changes in the structure of the business
which represent a distinct break with past business experience.

For this reason, most marketing activity revolves around penetration.

3) Marketing mix

The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the 'four Ps'
describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. A prominent marketer,
E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a 4 P classification in 1960, which has seen wide use.

The 'marketing mix' is a set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that work together to
achieve company's objectives

Four Ps

Elements of the marketing mix are often referred to as 'the four Ps':

• Product - A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or

manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products
are often service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-
based products like cellphone load and credits. Typical examples of a mass
produced tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor. A less
obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system.
• Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined
by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs,
product identity and the customer's perceived value of the product. The business
may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same
• Place – Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often
referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as
virtual stores on the Internet.
• Promotion – Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may
use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements - advertising, public
relations, word of mouth and point of sale. A certain amount of crossover occurs
when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in
film promotion. One of the most notable means of promotion today is the
Promotional Product, as in useful items distributed to targeted audiences with no
obligation attached. This category has grown each year for the past decade while
most other forms have suffered. It is the only form of advertising that targets all
five senses and has the recipient thanking the giver. Public relations are where the
communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship
deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth
is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary
individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of
mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and
Public Relations (see Product above).

Broadly defined, optimizing the marketing mix is the primary responsibility of

marketing. By offering the product with the right combination of the four Ps marketers
can improve their results and marketing effectiveness. Making small changes in the
marketing mix is typically considered to be a tactical change. Making large changes in
any of the four Ps can be considered strategic. For example, a large change in the price,
say from $19.00 to $39.00 would be considered a strategic change in the position of the
product. However a change of $130 to $129.99 would be considered a tactical change,
potentially related to a promotional offer.The term 'marketing mix' however, does not
imply that the 4P elements represent options. They are not trade-offs but are fundamental
marketing issues that always need to be addressed. They are the fundamental actions that
marketing requires whether determined explicitly or by default.

Extended marketing mix

There have been attempts to develop an 'extended marketing mix' to better accommodate
specific aspects of marketing.
• People – all people who directly or indirectly influence the perceived value of the
product or service, including knowledge workers, employees, management and
• Process – procedures, mechanisms and flow of activities which lead to an
exchange of value.
• Physical evidence – the direct sensory experience of a product or service that
allows a customer to measure whether he or she has received value. Examples
might include the way a customer is treated by a staff member, or the length of
time a customer has to wait, or a cover letter from an insurance company, or the
environment in which a product or service is delivered.

Four Cs

The Four Ps is also being replaced by the Four Cs model, consisting of consumer, cost,
convenience, and communication. The Four Cs model is more consumer-oriented and fits
better in the movement from mass marketing to niche marketing. The product part of the
Four Ps model is replaced by consumer or consumer models, shifting the focus to
satisfying the consumer. Another C replacement for Product is Capability. By defining
offerings as individual capabilities that when combined and focused to a specific
industry, creates a custom solution rather than pigeon-holing a customer into a product.
Pricing is replaced by cost, reflecting the reality of the total cost of ownership. Many
factors affect cost, including but not limited to the customers cost to change or implement
the new product or service and the customers cost for not selecting a competitors
capability. Placement is replaced by the convenience function. With the rise of internet
and hybrid models of purchasing, place is no longer relevant. Convenience takes into
account the ease to buy a product, find a product, find information about a product, and
several other considerations. Finally, the promotions feature is replaced by
communication. Communications represents a broader focus than simply promotions.
Communications can include advertising, public relations, personal selling, viral
advertising, and any form of communication between the firm and the consumer.


A formal approach to this customer-focused marketing mix is known as 4C(Commodity,

Cost, Channel, Communication) in 7Cs COMPASS MODEL. This system is basically the
four Ps renamed and reworded to provide a customer focus. The 4Cs Model provides a
demand/customer centric version alternative to the well-known 4Ps supply side model
(product, price, place, promotion) of marketing management.

• Product→ Commodity
• Price → Cost
• Place → Channel
• Promotion→ Communication

The four elements of the “7Cs COMPASS MODEL” model are: This model was
proposed by Koichi Shimizu in Japan.

• 1. Commodity: the product for the consumers or citizens.

• 2. Cost: total marketing cost.
• 3. Channel: marketing channels.
• 4. Communication: not promotion, marketing communication.

Research Approach:-

Research instrument:-

Contact method:-

How it was method:-

Research problem for the present study:-

The research plan:-

Data source:-

Primary data

Secondary data

Steps in research design process:-

Research plan


Sample size


Method of collection
The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research
as a “careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any
branch of knowledge.”

Readman and Mory defines research as ‘A systematized effort to gain new knowledge.’

The project was to involve a detail study of the market based on the consumers.
The markets available for the industrial customer using power technologies, automation
technologies. For estimating the market potential and our own brand’s market share
different methods of primary data collection were employed in the form of questionnaire,
structured and unstructured interviews and methods for establishing facts about building
marketing insights for packaging margins etc, were used. Further to accommodate the
additional factors such as competitor presence in the market, and promotional costs etc
while calculating market potential were taken care of. An inter – brand comparison as
well as a brand awareness study to limited extends was also carried away. When sorted
and used properly, the data collected in the field can form the backbone of later
marketing campaigns.


There are different research approaches and the research instruments that were employed
during the research work. The common research approach for collecting the primary data
are observations, focus group, surveys and experiments.

In this case, a general survey to gain knowledge about the market, commonly known as
the pilot survey was and undertaken where particularly information was gathered

With respect to the brands, people’s / consumers’ perception so that it serves as a

foundation to prepare the questionnaire for collecting primary data and that it helps in
deciding other methods to be adopted which may be useful in gathering the necessary

Marketing researchers have a choice of two main research instruments in collecting

primary data – questionnaire and mechanical devices. Mechanical devices are used
frequently in marketing research. Mechanical devices hold no relevance for this study
and thus only questionnaire was used.

A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to respondent for their answers.

Because of its flexibility, the questionnaire by far the most common instrument used to
collect the primary data. Questionnaire had to be carefully developed, tasted and
debugged before they are administered on large scale. In preparing a questionnaire, the
professional marketing researcher carefully chooses the question and their form, wording
and sequence. In addition, the form of the question asked can influence the response.
Marketing researchers distinguish between open – end and closed – end questions.
Closed end questions pre – specify all the possible answers, and respondents make a
choice among them. Open – end questions allow respondents to answer in their own
words. Open – end questions often reveal more because they do not constrain
respondent’s answers. Open – end questions are especially useful in the exploratory stage
of research, where the research is looking for insight into how people think a certain way.
The questionnaire should use simple, direct, unbiased wording and should be pre – tested
before it is actually used.

In this case too, questionnaire method was followed to collect primary date with respect
to the project which was finally implemented after pre testing closed end, multiple choice
questions were followed after pre testing and two different type of questionnaires were
used closed end multiple choice questions were used so that minimum time of
consumers / respondents is consumed.

Once the sampling plan has been determined, the marketing researcher must decide how
the subject should be contacted. The choices are mail, telephone, or personal interviews.
Telephone could not be an effective medium for getting the first hand responses
pertaining to the study.

For the purpose of the market survey, I design the research based on primary data. For the
collection of primary data, I designed the structured questionnaire for two levels first, for
hotel industry/ restaurants and secondly, for retail shops package drinking water, for
filling the questionnaire. I will use method of direct interview.

Secondary data will be used to supplement the primary research and in terms of capacity
and profile of package drinking water industry. Method was adopted to collect the data
related to the study.

1. Research Problem for the present study

Analyzing the marketing strategies of ABB ltd.

2. The research plan

The research plan is designed for gathering the needed information. Designing
research plan calls for definitions on the information (data) sources, research
approach, research instruments, sampling plan and contact method.

3. Data Source

The plan calls for gathering both the secondary and primary data. Secondary data
already exists, having been collected for some other purpose, while primary data
consists of original information collected for the specific purpose.

Primary data: In order to have first hand information to know the perception,
preference and liking of the customers / consumers visiting. All these persons are also
interviewed to know their feelings and attitudes about the facilities (margins,
discount) and the services (promotional and other benefits) that the company people
provide them.

Secondary data: for the project were collected from:

1. Various publications on related subject.

2. Various publications on the area of work.

3. Newspapers, journals & Business Magazines.

1. Define the research problem

Research problem definition involves specifying the information needed by


2. Estimate the value of the information to be provided by the research

Descriptive research is characterized by a high degree of flexibility tends to rely

on convenience sample.

3. Select the data collection method (s)

Survey research, information directly from respondent’s shops.

4. Select the measurement technique

Questionnaires, instrument for asking information directly from a respondent’s on

the basis of question asked by interviewer.

5. Select the sample (primary considerations)

Population, sample frame, sampling unit, sampling method (non-probability),

Sample size, sample plan, and execution.

6. Select the analytical approach

Data analysis involves converting a series of recorded observations into

descriptive statement and/ or inferences about relationships.

7. Evaluate the ethics of research

Ethically sound research considers the interests of the general public, the
respondents, the clients, and the research profession as well as those of the

8. Estimate time and financial cost.

Time refers to the time needed to complete the project. The financial requirement
is the monetary representation of personal time, computer time, and material
Research plan:-

1. Area: since my research was pertaining to packaging of power technologies (high

voltage& medium voltage products) & automation technologies ( automation
products ) in markets.

2. Sample size: My sample size was about 50 customers.

3. Respondents: I visited at least once every industrial custmors of the respective


Method of collection:-

For the collection of the data I adopted questionnaire method. For the purpose I had
prepared a questionnaire and went to the respondents with that. My research was
related to “high voltage & medium”, so that a some places a lot of problems in
collection of data, therefore instead of questionnaire I adopted interview method so
that I could make my respondents feel easy.

Limitation of the study:

• Project was undertaken under the limited area of Nashik region.

• Samples used for analysis purpose were less in number and hence accuracy
• Some of the customers which were used as samples were unsupportive.
• Project was scheduled to complete with very lesser time span.

Table No.-1
Customer Product Preference

No. Of Customer Percentage

ABB 22 44
BHEL 15 30
AREVA 03 06
OTHER 03 06

Interpretation: From the above graph it is clear,44% of the total customer uses
ABB’s product,30% uses BHEL Product,10% uses AREVA product,10% uses Megawin
product,6% uses other.
Table No.-2
Image Sort By Customer about ABB’s Product
Remark No. of Customer Percentage
Excellent 25 50
Good 13 26
Average 08 16
Poor 04 08

50% of the total customer says image of ABB is excellent,26% says good,16% says
average,8% says poor.

Table No.-3
Attribute Prefered by Customer
Attributes No.of Customer Percentage
Packaging 08 16
Price 18 36
Quality 20 40
Others 04 08

40% of the total customer preferred quality, 36% preferred price, 16%preferred
packaging and 08% preferred other attributes.

Table No.-4
Customer satisfaction about product

Remark No. Of customer Percentage

Strongly Satisfied 25 50
Satisfied 20 40
Not Satisfied 02 04
Can’t Say 03 06

50% of the total customer are strongly satisfied,40% are satisfied 4%are not satisfied,6%
of the total customer can’t say about their satisfaction.

Table No.-5
Customer Satisfaction about Supply facility

Remark No. Of customer Percentage

Strongly Satisfied 20 40
Satisfied 18 36
Not Satisfied 08 16
Can’t Say 04 08

40% of the total customer are strongly satisfied about supply facility of ABB, 36% are
satisfied,16% are not satisfied,8% of the total customer can’t say about their satiafaction.

Table No.-6

Customer satiafaction about promotinal activity

Remark No. Of customer Percentage

Strongly Satisfied 28 56
Satisfied 12 24
Not Satisfied 03 06
Can’t Say 07 14

56% of the total customer are strongly satisfied with the promotional activity of ABB,
24% are satisfied, 6% are not satisfied,14% the total customer can’t say about the
promotional activity.

ABB's strategy comprises of five inter-related components:

ABB enjoys a strong position in its markets, and an interwoven portfolio which offers
synergies for organic growth. In the coming years, ABB will capture growth by
remaining true to our power and automation core. However, we need to expand our
portfolio within the core, so that we can stay ahead of the competition. This includes
broadening our customer offering where needed, strengthening our presence in regions
with additional potential, expanding our horizons through Group Account Management
system and industry segment initiatives. ABB will use an appropriate mix of organic and
inorganic means to pursue these portfolio enhancements.

As markets change, technology needs to change. ABB is focused on developing future
technology and technology competences in all divisions, so that we are in a position to
address these needs. The result is a balanced R&D strategy covering both incremental
improvements to existing technologies, as well as focusing more on developing
tomorrow’s ‘blockbuster’ technologies.

Global footprint
Markets change constantly, and companies like ABB need to keep up with those changes
to stay in business and grow. We foresee a significant share of growth in emerging
economies, and as a result, improving our global footprint is essential to the long-term
success of ABB. Our global footprint will enable ABB to take advantage of lower cost
opportunities, and mitigate risk from individual regions. We will accelerate our efforts to
align our sourcing, manufacturing, engineering and people structures with market and
competitive challenges to ensure we can grasp opportunities as they arise.

Business ethics and compliance

ABB's growth and future success hinges on proper business behavior. Each employee is
an ABB ambassador, so every employee obliged to behave ethically. ABB’s Code of
Conduct contains simple rules and principles outlining our ethical standards, and forms
part of ABB’s Group Charter, which describes processes and procedures and how
decisions are to be made.

The key to realizing our goals is to have the right people, in the right places, with the
right skills. To make this happen, ABB’s people strategy is addressing how we attract the
best talent. We have strategies in place to ensure that we also develop and reward our
talent pool, ensuring that our employees enjoy a successful and fulfilling career with

I. More emphasis should be given to the advertisements and more seminars

should be organized.

II. They should organize various types of promotional activities.

III. They should survey what products their competitors offer today and will offer

IV. They should study what product their customer need today and will need

V. They should analyze what their competitors are doing to win their high value

Marketing effectiveness can be achieved by employing a superior

marketing strategy. By positioning the product or brand correctly, the product/brand will
be more successful in the market than competitors’ products/brands. Even with the best
strategy, marketers must execute their programs properly to achieve extraordinary results.

Making and using a marketing strategy has a strong positive impact on

profitability. This is because firms that employ a marketing strategy tend to focus on their
customers and markets, integrate their marketing responses and work out in advance
where their profits will come from.
A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a marketing plan more

Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is
the noise before defeat.



• www.insideabb.com

• www.google.com

• www.quickmba.com

• ABB Switchgear Manual




Phone No.:

Fax No.:

 Which product do you use?


 What sort of image do you have regarding our products?

1) Excellent 2) Good 3) Average 4) Poor

 Which attribute do you like most in our product?

1) Packaging 2) Quality 3) Price 4) Others

 Are you satisfied with the quality of the product?

1) Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Not satisfied 4) Can’t say

 Are you satisfied with the supply facility of ABB

1) Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3)Not Satisfied 4) Can’t Say

 Are you satisfied with promotional activity of ABB

1) Strongly Satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Not Satisfied 4) Can’t say

 What changes you want us to work on?

1) Packaging 2) Price 3) Quality 4) Advertising