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TM 5-811-6




5-1. General unit. Coal handling, ash handling and water treating

Input adjustments will be designed to be delegated panels will not be located in the central control room
to automatic control systems except during startup, unless the plant is small and the operating crew may
shutdown, and abnormal operating conditions when be reduced by such additional centralizing. If the
the operator. displaces or overrides automatic con- plant has a header system which is not conducive to

trol functions. boiler-turbine panels, group controls and instru-
ments into a boiler panel for all boilers and a turbine
5-2. Control panels generator panel for all turbines whenever practic-
✎ ✎ a. Types and selection. able. Usually, a separate electrical panel with mimic
(1) General types. Control panels used in power bus for the generators and switchgear and switch-
plants may be free standing or mounted on a wall or yard, if applicable, will be provided regardless of
column, as appropriate. whether the mechanical instruments are grouped on
(2) Central control panel selection. Control a unit basis or a header basis.
panels for use in central control rooms will be en- (2) Local panels. These will be mounted as close
closed and of the dual switchboard, duplex switch- to the equipment (or process) they are controlling as
board, dual benchboard, control benchboard, or con- is practical.
trol desk type depending upon the size of the plant c. Instrument selection and arrangement on
and complexity of the instruments and controls to panels. Selection and arrangement of the various
be mounted. When control panels have complex wir- controls, instruments and devices on the panels will
ing (piping and devices mounted in the interior) the be generally in accordance with the guidelines of
vertical panel section will be provided with rear or Tables 5-1,5 -2,5-3 and 5-4, and the following
walk-in access for ease in erection and maintenance. (1) Items. Mechanical items will be grouped by
Frequently the floor of the walk-in space is dropped basic function (i.e., turbine, boiler, condensate, feed-
.2 or 3 feet below the raised control room floor to sim- water, circulating water, service water and like sys-
plify cable and tubing entrance to the panel interior tems), Burner management controls will be obtained
and to increase space for terminals. A dropped floor as an “insert” or subpanel which can be incorporat-
will be provided for proper access to any benchboard ed into the boiler grouping of controls and instru-
section of a panel. The shape of the panel will be se- ments. Such an insert may include remote lightoff
. lected using the following criteria: and startup of burners if desired. Electrical items
(a) Space availability in the control room. will be grouped by generator, voltage regulator,
(b) Number of controls and instruments to be switchgear and like equipment items in a manner
mounted. which is easily incorporated into a mimic bus.
(c) Visibility of the controls and instruments (2) Readability. Instruments which require
by the plant operators. operator observation will be located not higher than
(d) Grouping and interrelationship of the con- 6 1/2 feet nor lower than 3 feet above the floor for
trols and instruments for ease of operation and easy readability.
avoidance of operating error. (3) Controls, switches and devices. Those con-
b. Location of panels. trols, switches and other devices which require
(1) Control room. The various panels located in manipulation by the operators will be easily access-
the central control room will be arranged to mini- ible and will be located on a bench or desk wherever
mize operator wasted motion. In a unitized power practicable.
plant (one without a header system), provide a (4) Indicators versus recorders. Indicators will
boiler-turbine mechanical panel (or section) for each be provided where an instantaneous reading of cycle
‘ unit with separate common panel(s) to accommodate thermodynamic or physical parameters suffices as a
compressed air, circulating water, service water and check of proper system operation. When a perma-
like system which may pertain to more than one nent record of plant parameters is desired for eco-

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-1. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Boiler Turbine Mechanical Panel

Measurement Primary Element Instrument or

or Device Fluid Location Device on Panel

Pressure Steam Boiler drum Indicator

Steam Boiler atomizing steam Indicator
Steam Turbine Throttle Indicator
Steam Deaerator steam space Indicator
Feedwater BFP discharge Indicator
Condensate Cond. pump discharge Indicator
Fuel gas Boiler burners Indicator
Fuel gas Igniter Indicator
Fuel gas Boiler burne s Indicator
Flue gas Indicator
Lube Oil Turbine generator Indicator
Vacuum Condenser Indicator

Temperature Steam Turbine throttle

Steam Boiler superheater outlet
Steam Turbine extraction steam
Air-flue gas Boiler draft system
Lube Oil Turbine generator

Flow Steam Boiler main steam Recorder &

Air Boiler FD f n discharge Recorder
C02 Recorder
Feedwater Boiler main supply Recorder
Feedwater Boiler Attemperator Recorder
Fuel gas Boiler burner supply Recorder &
Fuel oil Boiler burner supply Recorder &

Notes: (1) Including FD fan discharge, air inlet & outlet to air preheater,
windbox, furnace draft, inlet & outlet to economizer, gas inlet
and outlet to air preheater, overfire or primary air pressure,
and ID fan discharge.
(2) Multi-point electronic type to track air and gas temperatures
through the unit.
(3) May be used for combustion controls instead of steam flow-air
(4) Usually in condensate system, boiler feed system and process

TM 5-311-6

Table 5-1. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Boiler Turbine Mechanical Panel. (Continued)
Measurement Primary Element Instrument or
or Device Fluid Location Device on Panel

Level Feedwater Boiler drum Recorder

Condensate Deaerator, Condenser Hotwell Recorder
Coal Bunker Indicator or
pilot lights

Conductivity Condensate Cells as required ( 4 ) Recorder

Manual- -- Combustion control system, Each station

automatic condensate and feedwater
stations control systems, steam
attemperator, and as re-

Motor control -- Starters for draft fans, Each switch

switches BF pumps, condensate pumps,
vacuum pumps, fuel pumps,
lube oil pumps, turning
gear, turbine governor and
like items

Ammeters -- Major motors (high volt- Indicator

age) : draft fans, BF pumps

Alarms -- Points as selected for Annunciator

safe operation section for
boiler turbine

Burner -- Boiler burner system Insert on boiler-

Management turbine panel

Indicating - As required to start up Each light

and monitor boiler and

Notes: See first page of Table.

Courtesy of Pope,

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-2. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Common Services Mechanical Panel

Measurement Primary Element Instrument or

or Device Fluid Location Device on Panel

Pressure Steam Main steam header (l) Recorder

Steam Extraction steam header(l) Indicator
Fuel gas Supply to plant Indicator
Fuel oil supply Indicator
Fuel oil Burner pump discharge Indicator
Circ. water Discharge header Indicator
Water Service water Indicator
Water Closed cooling water Indicator
Water Fire system Indicator .
Air Instrument air Indicator
Air Service air Indicator
Air Atmosphere Barometer

Temperature Steam Extraction steam header(l)

Fuel Oil supply
Various As required

Viscosity Fuel oil Pump and heater sets

Flow Steam Recorder
Steam Extraction to process Recorder &
Fuel gas Supply to plant Recorder &

Level Fuel oil Tank(s) Indicator

Condensate Tank(s) Indicator

Manual- -- Pressure reducing station, Each station

automatic misc. air operated devices

Motor -- CW pumps, cooling tower Each switch

control fans, air compressors,
switches condensate transfer pumps,
service water pumps, fuel
transfer pumps, and like
i t ems

: For header systems only

(2) Multi-point electronic type

TM 5-811-6

Table 6-2, List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be provided for Common Services Mechanical Panel. (Continued)
Measurement Primary Element Instrument or
or Device Fluid Location Device on Panel

Ammeter - Major (high voltage) Indicator

motors; CW pumps, cooling
tower fans

Alarms -- Points as selected Annunciator

for safe operation section for
common panel
Indicating -- As required to start-up Each light
. and monitor principal
common systems

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

nomic or engineering accountability purposes, re- Mechanical-hydraulic and electro-hydraulic systems

corders will be provided. will be utilized in connection with turbine generator
d. Ventilation. All panels which house heat pro- speed governing control systems. Pneumatic con-
ducing instruments will be ventilated or air condi- trols will be used for power plant units of 30 MW or
tioned to prevent overheating of the instruments. less. Applications include: combustion control,
For .panel~in the central control room, this will be feedwater regulation, desuperheating and pressure
‘ accomplished by having a filtered air intake and me- reducing station control, heater drain control, and
chanical exhaust arrangement to circulate cool air boiler feed recirculation control. Pneumatic systems
from the air conditioned control room through each are economical, reliable, and provide smooth, modu-
enclosed panel wherever practicable. Local panels, lating type of operation. For plants where the ar-
as a rule, have only gages and other devices which rangement is dispersed and precision is required,
emit little heat and do not require special ventila- electronic controls and instruments will be provided
tion. in lieu of the pneumatic type because of the slug-
e. Illumination. In a central control room, the gishness of pneumatic response where long dis-
best illumination is a “light ceiling” with diffuser tances are involved. Electronic digital controls have
type suspended panels to give a shadowless, even recently become economically competitive with
level of lighting throughout the control room. Levels analog pneumatic and electronic controls and offer
of illumination at bench tops of 75-foot candles, the advantage of’ ‘soft-wired” control logic and pro-
plus or minus 10-foot candles, will be provided. grammable versatility. With electronic controls it is
However, caution must be used when designing required to use pneumatically operated valves with
lighting for control rooms utilizing electronic digital transducers to convert the electronic signals to
controls with cathode ray tube (CRT) display as ex- pneumatic at the pneumatic valve operator.
cessive illumination tends to wash out displays. In b. Combustion controls. Combustion controls for
areas with electronic digital controls with CRT dis- steam generators will be based on the conventional
plays, the level of general illumination will be main- indirect method of maintaining steam pressure.
tained at 15- to 25-foot candles. Local panel illumi- Systems will be of the fully metering type, designed
nation will be accomplished by means of a canopy to hold steam pressure within plus or minus 1 per-
built into the top of the panel. Local switch control cent of the controller setting with load changes of 5
will be provided at each canopy light. percent per minute; under the same rate of load
change, excess air will be maintained at plus or
5-3. Automatic control systems minus 2 percent of the control setting. (Note: With
a. Types. Control systems and instruments may stoker fired boilers having limited heat inputs from
be pneumatic, ac or dc electronic, electronic digital, suspension heat release, the tolerances on steam
combination pneumatic and electronic, or hydraulic. pressure will be greater than 1 percent.)

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-3. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Electrical (Generator and Switchgear) Panel
Measurement Instrument or
or Device Device on Panel Notes

For Each Generator

Generator gross output Wattmeter

Power Factor P.F. Meter
Generator ac current AC ammeter --
Generator ac volts AC voltmeter --
Generator dc current DC ammeter --
Generator dc volts DC voltmeter --
Generator ac current AC ammeter For phase measurement selection
(for individual phases) control switch --
Generator ac volts AC voltmeter For phase measurement selection
(for individual phases) control switch --
Generator Synchronizing
synchronizing control switch
Generator Separate panel I n c l . synch. lamps and meters
synchronizing section for incoming and running
Oil circuit breaker OCB control If step-up transformation
trip switch included
Generator field Field breaker --
breaker control switch
Voltage regulator Voltage reg.
transfer voltmeter
Voltage regulator Manual voltage
regulator --
Voltage regulator Auto. voltage
reg. adjuster --
Voltage regulator Voltage reg.
transfer switch --
Unit governor Governor control
switch, raise-lower --
Unit trip Trip pushbutton --
Unit reset Reset pushbutton --
Unit speed Speed indicator - -
Unit temperatures Electronic For turbine and generator
recorder temperatures
Generator alarms Annunciator With test and reset pushbuttons
Miscellaneous Indicating For switches and as required
Supervisory Recorders Vibration, e c c e n t r i c i t y

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-3. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Electrical (Generator and Switchgear) Panel. (Continued)

Measurement Instrument or
or Device Device on Panel Notes

For Switchgear

2.4 or 4.16 kV unit Breaker control If higher plant auxiliary

switchgear switch voltage required
2.4 or 4.16 kV Breaker control If required
common switchgear switch
2.4 or 4.16 kV Breaker control For plant auxiliaries
feeders switches and/or for outside distri-
bution circuits as re-
480 V unit switchgear Breaker control
480 V common Breaker control
switchgear switch
480 V feeders Breaker control For plant auxiliaries as
switches required
Swithgear ac current AC ammeters One for each switchgear
with switch
Switchgear ac volts AC voltmeters One for each switchgear
with switch
Switchgear alarms Annunciator With test and reset push-
Miscellaneous Indicating For switches and as re-
lights quired
Intraplant Telephone handset

Notes: (1) If a high voltage switchyard is required a separate panel may

be required.
(2) For relays see Chapter 4, Section V; generator and auxiliary
power relays may be mounted on the back of the generator
walk-in bench- board or on a separate panel.

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-4. List of Typical Instruments and Devices to be Provided for Diesel Mechanical Panel

Measurement Primary Element Instrument or

or Device Fluid Location Device on Panel

Pressure Fuel gas Supply to engine Indicator

Fuel oil Supply to engine Indicator
Lube oil Supply to engine Indicator
Lube oil supply to turbocharger Indicator
Comb. air Turbocharger discharge Indicator
Comb. air Filter downstream Indicator
Cooling water Pump discharge Indicator
Starting air Air receiver Indicator

Temperature Exhaust Each cylinder and Indicator(l)

combined exhaust
Cooling water Supply to engine Indicator
Cooling water Return from engine Indicator

Level Jacket water Surge tank Indicator

Lube Oil Sump tank Indicator
Fuel Bulk storage tank Indicator
Fuel Day Tank Indicator

Motor - Jacket water pumps, Each switch

control radiator (or cooling
switches tower) fans, fuel oil
(or pushbuttons) pumps, centrifuges,
and like auxiliaries

Alarms -- Low lube oil pressure, Annunciator

low jacket water pressure,
high lube oil temperature,
high jacket water
temperature, high and low
day tank levels

Notes: (1) With selector switch.

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

TM 5-811-6

c. Feedwater regulation. A three element feed- the deaerator at low loads for protection against
water regulator system will be provided for steam boiler feed pump overheating. A flow signal from
power plant service. Such a system balances feed- the suction of each pump will be used to sense the
water input to steam output subject to correction preset minimum safe pump flow. This low flow sig-
for drum level deviations caused by operating pres- nal will open an automatic recirculation valve lo-
sure variations (drum swell). cated in the piping run from the pump discharge to
d. Attemperator control system. Each power the deaerator. This recirculation line poses mini-
plant steam generator will have superheat (attem- mum flow through a breakdown orifice for pressure
perator) controls to maintain superheat within the reduction to the deaerator. The breakdown orifice
limits required for protection of the turbine metal will be located as closely as possible to the deaerator
parts against thermal stress and for preventing because flashing occurs downstream. When pump
excessive reduction in part load turbine efficiency. suction flow increases to a preselected amount in ex-
Injection of desuperheating water (which must be cess of pump minimum flow, the recirculation valve
high purity water, such as condensate) will be done closes. The operator will be able to open the recir-
between stages of the boiler superheater to reduce culation valve manually with a selector switch on
chances of water carryover to the turbine. An at- the control panel. Designs will be such as to pre-
temperator system having a controller with a fast clude accidental closing of the valve manually. Such
response, derivative feature will be provided. This an operator error could cause flow to drop below the
type of controller anticipates the magnitude of sys- safe level quickly, destroying high pressure pumps.
tem deviations from the control set point in accord- g. Other control systems. Desuperheating, pres-
ance with the rate of change of superheat temperat- sure reducing, fuel oil heating, and other miscellane-
ure. Automatic positive shutoff valve(s) will be pro- ous power plant control systems will be provided as
vided in the desuperheating water supply line up- appropriate. Direct acting valves will not be used.
stream of the desuperheater control valve to prevent Control valves will be equipped with a matching
dribbling of water to the desuperheater when the valve operator for positive opening and closing ac-
controls are not calling for spray water. tion. Deaerator and hotwell level control systems
e. Closed heater drain controls. Although it is are described in Chapter 3, Section VII.
thermodynamically preferable to pump the drains
from each feedwater heater forward into the conden- 5-4. Monitoring instruments
sate or feedwater stream exiting from the heater, a. Types.
the expense and general unreliability of the low (1) Control system components will include
NPSH pumps required for this type of drain service sensing devices for primary fluids plus transmitters,
will normally preclude such a design. Accordingly, transducers, relays, controllers, manual-automatic
the drains from each heater will normally be cas- stations, and various special devices. Table 5-5 lists
caded to the next lower pressure heater through a sensing elements for controls and instruments. In-
level control valve. The valve will be located as struments generally fall into two classifications—di-
closely as possible to the lower pressure heater due rect reading and remote reading.
to the flashing which occurs because of the pressure (2) Direct reading instruments (e.g., thermome-
reduction at the outlet of the level control valve. ters, pressure gages, and manometers) will be
Each heater will be provided with two level control mounted on local panels, or directly on the process
valves. The secondary valve only functions on piping or equipment if at an accessible location.
startup, on malfunction of the normal valve, or Locally mounted thermometers will be of the con-
sometimes during light loads when pressure differ- ventional mercury type or of the more easily read
ential between heaters being cascaded becomes very (but less accurate) dial type. Type selected will de-
small. The secondary valve frequently discharges pend on accuracy required. Pressure gages for steam
directly to the condenser. Such a complexity of con- or water service will be of the Bourdon tube type.
trols for heater drains is necessary to assist in pre- (3) Remote reading instruments (recorders, in-
venting problems and turbine damage caused by tegrators, indicators and electrical meters) will be
turbine water induction. Water induction occurs mounted on panels in the central control room.
when feedwater header tubes or level control valves These instruments will have pneumatic or electronic
fail, causing water to backup into the turbine transmission circuits. Sometimes the same trans-
through the extraction steam piping. Refer to mitters utilized for control system service can be
Chapter 3, Section VII. utilized for the pertinent remote reading instru-
f. Boiler feed recirculation controls. An automatic ment, although for vital services, such as drum
recirculation system will be installed for each pump level, an independent level transmitter will be used
to bypass a minimum amount of feedwater back to for the remote level indicator.

Table 5-5. Sensing Elements for Controls and Instruments. (Continued)
Common Applications
Element Type Control Instrument

Motion Centrifugal - . Speed governs Tachometer

Vibrating reed - - Speed governs Tachometer
Relative motion - - - - Stroboscope
Photo-electric cell - - Limit control Counter

Chemical Flue gas analysis -- Combustion Orsat

Water analysis -- Water --
Fuel analysis -- --

Physical Specific gravity -- -- Hydrometer for liquids

Weight -- -- Scales for solids
Humidity -- Hygrometer
Smoke density -- -- Ringelman chart
Gas density Combustion C 02 meter
Heat Combination of Combustion Btu meter
water flow and

Electric Photo-conductivity Flame safe- Photo-electric cell

and guard Smoke density
Electric Probes Alarm pH of water
conductivity Oil in condensate

Source: NAVFAC DM3

Table 5-5. Sensing Elements for Controls and Instruments. (Continued)
Common Applications
Element Type Control Instrument

Pressure Mechanical Bourdon tube Pressure, draft Pressure gage

Bellows or and vacuum Low pressure, draft and
diaphragm regulators vacuum gages
Manometers Barometer

Variable electric Pressure transducer Process pressure Potentiom. 100 to 50,000 psi
resistance due to regulator

Variable electric Thermocouple Vacuum High vacuum 1-7000

resistance due to regulator microns Hg

Variable Vacuum tube Vacuum High-vacuum down to

electronic regulator 0.1 micron Hg
resistance due to

Level Visual -- -- Gage stick

Transparent tube

Float Buoyant float Mechanical Tape connected to float

level regulator
Displacement Pneumatic float Torque

Differential Manometer Level regulator Remote level gage

Hydrostatic Diaphragm in tank Level regulator Tank levels with
bottom viscous fluids
Table 5-5. Sensing Elements for Controls and Instruments. (Continued)
Common Applications
Element Type Control Instrument

Temperature Solid expansion Bimetal On-off Dial therm. - 100 to 1000 F

Fluid expansion Mercury or alcohol -- Glass therm.- 38 to 750 F

Mercury in coil Temperature Dial therm. - 38 to 1000 F

Organic liquid regulators 125 to 500 F

Organic vapor - 40 to 600 F

Gas - 400 to 1000 F

Thermocouple Copper-constantan Temperature Low voltage - 300 to 600 F

Iron-constantan regulators O to 1400 F
Chromel-alumel 600 to 2100 F
Plat.-plat. rhodium 1300 to 3000 F

Elec. resistance Copper Temperature Potentiom. - 40 to 250 F

of metals Nickel regulators - 300 to 600 F
Platinum - 300 to 1800 F

Optical Comparative radiant -- Potentiom. - 800 to 5200 F

Pyrometer energy

Radiation Radiant energy on Flame safeguard Potentiom. - 200 to 7000 F

pyrometer thermocouples Surface

Fusion - - -- Pyrom.cones -1600 to 3600 F

Crayons - 100 to 800 F

TM 5-811-6

(4) Panel
mounted receiver gages for pressure, audibly and visually when trouble occurs so that
temperature, level and draft will be of the miniature, proper steps can be taken to correct the problem.
vertical indicating type which can be arranged in b. General. The alarm system will be both audible
convenient lineups lineups on the panel and are easy and visual. The sounding of the alarm will alert the
to read. operators that a problem exists and the visual light
(5) Recorders will be of the miniature type, ex- in the pertinent annunciator window will identify
cept for multi-point electronic dot printing recorders the problem. Annunciator systems shall provide for
which will be full size. the visual display to be distinguishable between
b. Selection. The monitoring instruments for any new alarms and previous alarms already acknowl-
control system will be selected to provide the neces- edged by the operator pushing a button provided for
sary information required for the control room this purpose. New alarms will be signified by a flash-
operator to be informed at all times on how the con- ing light, whereas acknowledged alarms will be sig-
trolled system is functioning, on vital process nified by a steady light. Alarm windows will be ar-
trends, and on other essential information so that ranged and grouped on vertical, upper panel sec-
corrective action can be taken as required. tions with corresponding control stations and
operating switches within easy reach of the operator
5-5. Alarm and annunciator systems at all times. Critical or potentially dangerous alarms
a. Purpose. The annunciator system supplements will be a different color from standard alarms for
the operator’s physical senses and notifies him both rapid operator identification and response.


5-6. introduction ducted exhaust systems to prevent heat from being

This section sets forth general criteria for design of carried into other areas. All exhaust and supply
space conditioning systems for a power plant. openings will be provided with power operated
dampers, bird screens, and means for preventing en-
5-7. Operations areas trance of rain, sleet and snow.
a. Enclosed general operating areas. (3) Heating. As much heating as practicable
(1) Ventilation supply. Provide mechanical ven- will be supplied via the central ventilation supply
tilation for fresh air supply to, as well as exhaust system, which will be designed so that maximum de-
from, the main operating areas, A filtered outside sign air flow can be reduced to a minimum required
air supply, with heating coils and recirculation op- for winter operation. Heat supplied by the ventila-
tion for winter use, will be provided. Supply fans tion system will be supplemented as required by
will be selected so that indoor temperature does not unit heaters and radiation. Heating system design
rise more than 15oF. above the ambient outdoor air for ventilation and other space heating equipment
design temperature, and to maintain a slight posi- will be selected to maintain a minimum plant indoor
tive inside pressure with all exhaust fans operating temperature of 55OF. and an office, control room
at maximum speed. Ventilation system design will and laboratory area temperature of 68OF.
take into account any indoor air intakes for boiler b. Control room.
forced draft fans, which can be designed to draw (1) The central control room is the operating
warm air from near the roof of the plant. Supply air center of a power plant and will be air conditioned
will be directed through a duct system to the lowest (i.e., temperature control, humidity control and air
levels of the plant with particular emphasis on fur- filtration) for the purpose of human comfort and to
nishing large air quantities to “hot spots. ” The protect equipment such as relays, meters and com-
turbine room will receive a substantial quantity of puters. Unattended control rooms may not require
fresh air, supplemented by air from lower levels ris- comfort conditions but have temperature limits as
ing through operating floor gratings. For hot, dry required by the equipment housed in the room. Con-
climates, evaporative cooling of ventilation air sup- trol system component manufacturers will be con-
ply will be provided. sulted to determine the operating environment re-
(2) Ventilation exhaust. Exhaust fans with at quired for equipment reliability.
least two speeds are switched so that individual fan (2) Intermediate season cooling using 100 per-
and fan speed can be selected according to air quan- cent outside air for an economizer cycle or enthalpy
tity desired will be provided. Battery rooms will control will be life cycle cost analyzed.
have separate exhaust systems designed in accord-
5-8. Service areas
ance with TM 5-811-21AFM 88-9/2. It may be
economical to remove heat from hot spots with local a. Toilets, locker rooms and lunch rooms.

TM 5-811-6

(1) Toilets will be exhausted to maintain a nega- of other systems to prevent recirculation of food
tive pressure relative to adjacent areas. All exhaust odors to other spaces.
outlets from a toilet will be a minimum of 15 feet b. Shops and maintenance rooms. All shops and
from any supply inlet to prevent short circuiting of maintenance rooms will be ventilated according to
air. Toilet exhaust will be combined with a locker applicable codes. Welding and painting areas will be
room exhaust but not with any other exhaust. exhausted. Heating will be provided by means of
unit heaters sized to maintain a maximum of 68 “F.
(2) Locker rooms will be exhausted according to on the coldest winter design day.
the applicable codes and supplied by a heated air c. Offices and laboratories. All offices and labora-
supply. tories will be air conditioned for human comfort in
(3) Lunch rooms will be furnished with recircu- accordance with TM 5-810-l/AFM 88-8/1. Ex-
lation heating systems to meet applicable codes; ex- haust will be provided where required for laboratory
haust will be installed. System will be independent hoods or other special purposes.


5-9. introduction d. Include provisions for drainage and venting of

a. General. Power plant piping systems, designed all pipe lines.
to transfer a variety of fluids (steam, water, com- e. Design pipe supports, restraints and anchors,
pressed air, fuel oil, lube oil, natural gas) at pres- using accepted procedures for thermal expansion
sures ranging from full vacuum to thousands of psi, stress analysis. The stress analysis will consider si-
will be engineered for structural integrity and econo- multaneous application of seismic loads, where ap-
my of fluid system construction and operation. plicable. Computer analysis will be used for major
b. Design considerations. Piping systems will be three plane piping systems with multiple anchors.
designed to conform to the standards listed in Table
5-6. ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code Section I 5-11. Specific system design considera-
governs the design of boiler piping, usually up to the tions
second isolation valve. ANSI B31.1, Code for Pres-
sure Power Piping governs the pressure boundary a. Steam piping. In all steam systems, provisions
requirements of most other plant piping (excluding will be made for draining of condensate before start-
plumbing and drainage piping). Each of these codes up, during operation and after shutdown. Steam
provides a detailed description of its scope and lim- traps will be connected to low points of the pipe-
itations. lines. Small bore bypass piping will be provided
around block valves on large, high pressure lines to
5-10. Piping design fundamentals permit warming before startup.
Design of piping system will conform to the follow- b. Circulating water piping. Reinforced plastic
ing procedure: piping will be used for salt or brackish water service
1 whenever practicable.
I a. Select pipe sizes, materials and wall thickness
(pipe schedule). Design for the maximum pressure c. Fuel oil piping. Fuel oil piping will be designed
and temperature the piping will experience during with relief valves between all block valves to protect
either operation or upset conditions. Follow appro- against pipe rupture due to thermal expansion of the
priate sections of ASME Section I and ANSI B31.1. oil. Fuel oil piping will be designed in accordance
Other requirements for welding qualification and with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
pressure vessel design are set forth in ASME Sec- standards and ANSI B31. Piping subject to vibra-
tions VIII and IX. Specify hydrostatic pressure tion (such as engine service) will be socket or butt
testing requirements in accordance with the codes. welded, although flared tubing may be used for
Select flow velocities for overall economy. small lines under 1/2 inch.
d. Insulation. Insulate all lines containing fluids
b. Select piping components and end connections
for equipment. above 120oF. so that insulation surface tempera-
c. Route piping. Make runs as simple and direct tures remain below 1200F. at 80oF. still air ambient.
Provide anti-sweat insulation for all lines which op-
as possible. Allow for maintenance space and access
to equipment. Do not allow piping to encroach on erate below ambient temperatures. Protect all insu-
aisles and walkways. Inspect for interferences with lation against weather (or wash down water if in-
structures, ductwork, equipment and electric serv- doors) and mechanical abuse.

TM 5-811-6

Table 5-6. Piping Codes and Standards for Power Plants. (Continued)

Sponsor Identification Title Coverage

ANSI B36 series Iron and steel Materials and dimensions.


B16 series Pipe, flanges Materials, dimensions,

and G37.1 and fittings stresses and temperature-
pressure ratings.

B18 series Bolts and nuts Bolted connections.

ASTM -- Testing materials Physical properties of

materials specified in
above ASME and ANSI

Major -- - - Allowable reactions and

equipment movements on nozzles from
manufacturers piping.
(turbines, pumps,
heat exhangers, etc.)

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)


5-12. Introduction 5-14. lnsulation materials

Applications. Thermal insulations are used for the a. Bulk material. Refer to Table 5-7 for nomencla-
following purposes: ture and characteristics of conventional thermal in-
a. Limit useful heat losses. sulations.
b. Personnel burn protection. b. Restrictions on asbestos. Asbestos insulation,
c. Limit heat gains where cold is desired. or insulations containing loose, fibrous, or free as-
d. Prevent icing and condensation. bestos are not to be used.
e. Freeze protection. c. Maximum temperatures. Each type of insula-
tion is suitable for use at a specified maximum tem-
5-13. Insulation design perature. Design will be such that those maximums
The principal elements of insulation system design will not be approached closely in ordinary applica-
and specification areas follows: tions. All high temperature insulations are more ex-
a. Selection of surfaces. Define and list the vari- pensive and more fragile than lower temperature
ous surfaces, piping, vessels, ductwork, and machin- products and, in general, the least expensive materi-
ery for which insulation is needed including lengths, al which is suitable for the temperature exposure
areas and temperatures. will be selected. Where substantial total insulation
b. Insulation systems. For each class or type of thicknesses of 6 inches or more are required, eco-
surface select an appropriate insulation system: nomics may be realized by using two layers of differ-
bulk insulation material and miscellaneous materi- ent materials using high temperature material close
als,coverings, and like items. to the hot surface with cheaper low temperature ma-
c. Economical thickness. Based on the above terial on the cold side.
data, select the economical or necessary thickness of d. Prefabricated insulation. A major part of total
insulation for each class or type of surface. insulation cost is field labor for cutting, fitting and

0.64 0.68
-- --
-- --

200 6-18 0.28 0.29 0.30 -- -- -- -- --

600 6-10 -- -- 0.28 0.35 0.43 -- -- --

1600 16-24 -- -- 0.34 0.39 0.44 0.54 0.64 --

175 1.6 0.26 0.28 0.30 -- -- -- -- --
150 5 0.23 0.24 0.25 -- -- -- -- --
Corrugated and laminated
asbestos paper:

4 ply per in. 300 11-13 -- 0.54 0.57 0.62 -- -- -

6 ply per in. 300 15-17 — 0.49 0.51 0.59 -- -- --
8 ply per in. 300 18-20 -- 0.47 0.49 0.57 -- -- --

Calcium silicate 1200 11 -- -- 0.36 0.40 0.55 -- --

Cellular glass 800 9 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.48 -- -- --

Cork (without added 200 7-10 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 -- -- --
Diatomaceous silica 1500 22 . - -- — -- -. 0.64 0.66 0.71
1900 25 -- -- -- -- -- 0.70 0.75 0.80

85% magnesia 600 11-14 -- -- 0.39 0.42 0.51 -- --

Mineral wool (rock,

slag or glass):

Low temp. (asphalt 200 15 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.39 -- -- -- --

or resin bonded) .
Low temp. (fine 450 3 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.31 — -- --
fiber resin bonded)
High temp. blanket- 1200
type (metal reinforced)
TM 5-811-6

installation. For large areas or long piping runs, sub- ing outside air into power plants and HVAC sys-
stantial savings may be realized by factory forming, tems.
cutting or covering. Valves and pipe fittings, espe- b. Criteria. In most cases, cold surface insulations
cially large ones, may be economically insulated will be selected to prevent icing or condensation. Ex-
with factory made prefabricated shapes. Equipment tra insulation thickness is not normally economical
requiring periodic servicing will be equipped with re- for heat absorption control.
movable, reusable insulation.
e. Miscellaneous materials. Complete insulation 5-18. Economic thickness
systems include accessory materials such as fasten- a. General. Economic thickness of an insulation
ers, adhesives, reinforcing wire meshes and screens, material (ETI) is a calculated parameter in which
bandings and binder wires, coverings or laggings, the owning costs of greater or lesser thicknesses are
.. and finishes. All insulations will be sealed or closed compared with the relative values of heat energy
at joints and should be arranged to accommodate which might be saved by such various thicknesses.
differential expansions between piping or metal The method is applicable only to systems which are
structures and insulations. installed to save useful heat (or refrigeration) and
f. Cold surface materials. Cold surface insulation does not apply to safety insulation or anti-sweat
materials will be selected primarily for high resis- (condensation) materials.
tance to moisture penetration and damage, and for b. Economic criteria. The general principle of ETI
avoidance of corrosion where wet insulation materi- calculations is that the most economical thickness
als may contact metal surfaces. Foamed plastics or of a group or set of thicknesses is that one for which
rubber and cellular (or foamed) glass materials will the annual sum of owning costs and heat loss costs
be used wherever practicable. is a minimum. Generally, thicker insulations will
represent higher owning costs and lower heat loss
5-15. Control of useful heat losses costs. The range of thicknesses selected for calcula-
a. General. Control of losses of useful heat is the tion will indicate at least one uneconomical thick-
most important function of insulations. Substantial ness on each side of the indicated ETI. Refer to Fig
investments for thermal insulation warrants careful ure 5-1 for a generalized plot of an ETI solution.
selection and design. c. Required data. The calculations of ETI for a
b. Durability and deterioration. Most convention- particular insulation application involves routine
al insulating materials are relatively soft and fragile calculations of costs for a group of different thick-
and are subject to progressive deterioration and loss nesses. While calculations are readily performed by
of effectiveness with the passage of time. Insulation computers, the required input data are relatively
assemblies which must be removed for maintenance complex and will include energy or fuel prices with
or which are subject to frequent contact with tools, allowance for future changes, relative values of par-
operating equipment and personnel, or are subject ticular heat sources or losses, depreciation and
to shock or vibration, will be designed for maximum money cost rates, costs of complete installed insula-
resistance to these forces. tion systems, conductivities, temperatures, air
velocities and operating hours. Standard programs
5-16. Safety insulation are available for routine calculations but must be

a. General Insulation for personnel protection or used with care. The most uncertain data will be the
safety purposes will be used to cover dangerously installed costs of alternative insulation systems and
hot surfaces to avoid accidental contact, where heat thicknesses. Assumptions and estimates of such
loss is not itself an important criteria. costs will be as accurate as possible. Refer to the
b. General safety criteria. Safety or burn protec- publications and program systems of the Thermal
tion insulations will be selected to insure that out- Insulation Manufacturers Association (TIMA) and
side insulation surfaces do not exceed a reasonably of leading insulation manufacturers.
safe maximum, such as 140 “F.
c. Other criteria Close fitting or sealing of safety 5-19. Freeze protection
insulation is not required. Metal jacketing will be a. Application. Freeze protection systems are
avoided due to its high conductivity in contact with combinations of insulation and heat source materi-
the human body. als arranged to supply heat to exposed piping or
equipment to prevent freezing in cold weather.
5-17. Cold surface insulation b. Insulaztion materials. Conventional insulation
a. Applications. Insulations for cold surfaces will materials will be used and selected for general heat
be applied to refrigeration equipment, piping and loss control purposes in addition to freeze protec-
ductwork, cold water piping, and to air ducts bring- tion. Insulation will be such as not to be damaged by

TM 5-811-6

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

Figure 5-1. Economical thickness for heat insulation (typical curves).

the heat source or by extended exposure to weather erally be used to supply the correct heat flow to the
and moisture. protected surface. Steam and ho water tracing may
c. Design criteria. In general, the insulation for a also be used with provisions to avoid loss of steam
freeze protection system will be selected for maxi- or water. In either case, the required heat supply
mum overall coldest ambient temperatures. Allow- will be sufficient to meet the heat loss of the insula-
ance for wind conditions will be made. tion under the combination of design ambient and
d. Heat sources. Electrical heating tape will gen- pipe line surface temperature.


5-20. General remarks cycle is generally accomplished by more convention-

The need for corrosion protection will be investigat- al methods such as:
ed. Cycle fluids will be analyzed to determine treat- U. Selection of corrosion resistant materials.
ment or if addition of corrosion inhibitors is re- b. Protective coatings.
quired. Corrosion protection of items external to the c. Cathodic protection.


5-21. Introduction lar type of fire which can occur in the station. This
Fire protection will be provided in order to safe- manual discusses various fire protection systems
guard the equipment and personnel. Various sys- and their general application in power plants. Refer-
tems will be installed as required to suit the particu- ence will be made to TM 5-812-1 for specific re-

TM 5-811-6

quirements for military installations. Further de- elements have been opened by the heat from a fire.
tails may be found in the National Fire Protection This system will be utilized for the turbine and gen-
Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards. erator bearings and for the above water spray de-
luge sprinkler system areas where more localized
5-22. Design considerations control is desired.
a. Areas and equipment to be protected. The fol- (3) Wet pipe sprinkler systems. This wet pipe
lowing are some of the major areas which will be in- system utilizes a water filled piping system connect-
vestigated to determine the need for installing fire ed to a water supply and is equipped with sprinklers
protection facilities. having fixed temperature elements which each open
(1) Main and auxiliary transformers. individually when exposed to a high temperature
(2) Turbine lubricating oil system including the due to a fire. The areas where wet pipe sprinkler sys-
oil reservoir, oil, cooler, storage tanks, pumps and tems will be used are heated shops, garages, ware-
the turbine and generator bearings. houses, laboratories, offices, record rooms, locker
(3) Generator hydrogen cooling system includ- rooms, lunch rooms and toilets.
ing control panels, seal oil unit, hydrogen bottles (4) Foam extinguishing systems. Foam fire ex-
and the purification unit. tinguishing systems utilize a foam producing solu-
(4) Coal storage bunkers, fuel oil storage tanks tion which is distributed by pipes equipped with
and the burner front of the steam generator. spray nozzles or a fuel tank foam entry chamber for
(5) Emergency diesel generator and its oil stor- discharging the foam and spreading it over the area
age tank. to be protected. It is principally used to form a co-
(6) Office and records rooms. herent floating blanket over flammable and com-
(7) Control room. bustible liquids which extinguish (or prevent) a fire
(8) Relay, computer, switchgear and battery by excluding air and cooling the fuel. The foam is
rooms. usually generated by mixing proportionate amounts
(9) Shops, warehouses, garages and laborato- of 3% double strength, low expansion standard
ries. foam concentrate using either a suitably arranged
(10) Personnel locker rooms, lunch rooms and induction device with (or without) a foam storage-
toilets. proportioning tank to mix the foam concentrate
b. Types of systems. The following is a brief de- with a water stream from a fire water header. A spe-
scription of the various types of systems and their cially designed hand play pipe, tank foam chamber
general application. or open sprinklers aspirate the air to form the foam
(1) Water spray and deluge system. This type of to blanket the area to be protected. The deluge wa-
system consists of open type sprinkler heads at- ter entry valve to the system may be manually or
tached to a network of dry (not water filled) piping automatically opened. Foam systems will be in-
which is automatically controlled by a fully super- stalled in power plants to protect fuel oil areas,
vised fire detection system which also serves as a lubricating oil systems, and hydrogen seal oil sys-
fire alarm system. When a fire is detected, an auto- tems.
matic deluge valve is tripped open, admitting water (5) Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. This
to the system to discharge through all of the sprink- type of system usually consists of a truck filled low
ler heads. The system may be subdivided into sepa- pressure refrigerated liquid carbon dioxide storage
rately controlled headers, depending on the area to tank with temperature sensing controls to permit
be covered and the number of sprinkler heads re- the automatic injection of permanently pipe carbon
quired. The usual pressure required at the sprinkler dioxide into areas to be protected. The system
heads is about 175 psi and the piping should be usually includes warning alarms to alert personnel
properly sized accordingly. A water spray deluge whenever carbon dioxide is being injected into an ac-
sprinkler system will be provided where required in tuated area. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems
open areas and areas requiring the protection of the of this total flooding type will be utilized to extin-
piping from freezing, such as the steam generator guish coal bunker fires and for electrical hazard
burner fronts; the generator hydrogen system; the areas such as in battery rooms, electrical relay
main and auxiliary transformers; and unheated rooms, switchgear rooms, computer rooms and with-
shops, garages, warehouses and laboratories. in electrical cabinets.
(2) Water spray pre-action and deluge system. (6) Halogenated fire extinguishing systems.
This type of system is similar to the above water This type of system utilizes specially designed re-
spray deluge system, except that it contains closed movable and rechargeable storage containers con-
type sprinkler heads which only discharges water taining liquid HaIon at ambient temperature which
through those sprinklers whose fixed temperature is superpressurized with dry nitrogen up to 600 psig

TM 5-811-6

pressure. These manifolded containers are located actuated; however, some special conditions may re-
as closely as possible to the hazards they protect quire manual actuation on an alarm indication. A
and include connecting piping and discharge noz- manual actuation will be included to provide for
zles. There are two types of systems. The total flood- emergencies arising from the malfunction of an au-
ing system is arranged to discharge into, and fill to tomatic system. The primary element of any fire
the proper concentration, an enclosed space or an en- protection system is the fire detection sensing de-
closure about the hazard. The local application sys- vice which is actuated by heat detectors which de-
tem is arranged to discharge directly onto the burn- tect abnormally high temperature or rate-of-tem-
ing material. Either system may be arranged to pro- perature rise, or smoke detectors which are sensitive
tect one or more hazards or groups of hazards by so to the visible or invisible particles of combustion.
arranging the piping and valves and may be manual- The ionization type of smoke detector belongs in
ly or automatically actuated. Halon is a colorless this category.
and odorless gas with a density of approximately
five times that of air, and these systems must in- 5-23. Support facilities
clude warning alarms to alert personnel whenever To support the fire protection water systems, an as-
the gas is being ejected. However, personnel maybe sured supply of water at an appropriate pressure is
exposed to Halon vapors in low concentrations for necessary. This water supply will be provided from
brief periods without serious risk. The principal ap- an underground fire water hydrant system main if
plication of Halon extinguishing systems is where one is available in the area and/or by means of an ele-
an electrically nonconductive medium is essential or vated head storage tank or by fire pumps which take
desired or where the cleanup of other media presents their suction from a low level storage tank. For
a problem, such as in control rooms, computer cases where the water supply pressure is inadequate
rooms, chemical laboratories and within electrical to fill the tank, fill pumps will be provided. Fire
panels. pumps will be electric motor driven, except that at
c. Automatic fire detectors. All fire protection least one should be of the engine driven or of the
systems will normally be automatically alarmed and dual drive type.