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1361 July 2010 Josep Llinàs / Hugh Broughton Architects / TEN Arquitectos / Terry Farrell and Partners

1361 July 2010 £9 / €17 / US$25 www.arplus.com


Zaha Hadid’s MAXXI museum opens in Rome
A new Colombian kindergarten has a radical edge
Two Amsterdam housing blocks by Tony Fretton
VIEW / Shanghai Expo / RA Summer Show/
Topography of Terror / Nouvel in NY / Toulouse
1361
Volume CCXXVIiI
WWW.ARPLUS.com

080 Grand plans are afoot in Earls


Court, as Terry Farrell reveals
043 Map his masterplan to add a major

139
residential district to London

044
Zaha Hadid Architects
MAXXI, Rome, Italy
022 All the world’s a stage: countries Cover Roland Halbe

140
show off at the Shanghai Expo,
keen to catch China’s eye 086 Hugh Broughton Architects cracks
054 a cladding conundrum with its
029 Berlin’s Topography of Terror Tony Fretton Architects Antarctic research station on skis
pristinely presents its Nazi history De Prinsendam & Andreas Ensemble,
Amsterdam, the Netherlands

141
031 David Chipperfield curates the
architecture room of the Royal
Academy’s Summer Exhibition 062
Josep Llinàs
034 Summer fling: Carmody Groarke’s Atlàntida Performing Arts Centre, 092 Unpacking Johannesburg’s
pop-up restaurant in east London Vic, Osona, Spain architectural heritage; De Chirico’s

142
art reaches for the unseen; Nikolaus
037 Jean Nouvel’s newest addition Pevsner and the picturesque
to the New York cityscape is a 070
kaleidoscopic apartment block TEN Arquitectos
Chopo Museum, Mexico City, Mexico

143
038 Europe isn’t about Brussels and
bureaucrats – it’s about shared
ideals, institutions and architecture 074
Giancarlo Mazzanti 106 W
 illiam Kentridge’s tiny model
041 Remembering Dennis Sharp, El Porvenir Kindergarten, theatre explores big themes:
architectural critic par excellence Bogotá, Colombia life, light, darkness and Mozart

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Contents 003


Musings from
At the AIA Convention in Miami earlier
this month, the contradictions of modern
life in the developed world became

Miami as the starkly apparent. Delegates spent their


waking hours freezing in a super-air-
conditioned conference centre, while the

AIA hits town, temperature outside hit 34 degrees. It set


you thinking about the huge quantities of

highlighting
energy required to sustain such absurdly
artificial conditions, day in, day out.
Miami shouldn’t really be there at all.

the need for


It’s a melting, ice-cream city built on a
swamp and is practically uninhabitable
without aircon. Climate and lifestyle

the US to
spawned the city’s famous art deco
movement, which in its heat-repelling
pastel colours and shading devices

take a lead
embodied some local authenticity, but
now gas-guzzling towers rule the day.
It will take more than LEED

in shaping a
certification or a new modelling tool to
predict energy use in buildings (launched
at the convention) to change such

carbon-free
entrenched attitudes. But one positive
consequence of the BP oil spill in the
Gulf of Mexico, now menacing Florida’s

future
beaches, is a renewed awareness of the
fragility of the natural world and what
this is worth when set against our
current reliance on fossil fuels.
Fundamental change must come and
the US can and should show a lead.
Its architects are getting there, slowly.
Finally a quick parp on the AR
vuvuzela for Violetta Boxill and Cecilia
Lindgren, who won Designer of the Year
at this year’s PPA Awards. Their redesign
of the AR was singled out for its elegant,
modern approach, while re-establishing
a connection with the magazine’s
distinguished graphic heritage.
We salute you both.
Catherine Slessor, Editor

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020 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Contributors


Shanghai, China

The branding
of nations: using
buildings to bid
for Chinese cash
Adrian Hornsby
en.expo2010.cn

Right_ The The 2008 Beijing Olympics


Swiss Pavilion was widely understood to be
by Buchner China’s ‘coming-out party’: an
Bründler
explosive self-announcement
Architects is a
startling mixture of a new presence on the global
of the heavy and superstage. With that position
the light. The now firmly cemented, the 2010
strong concrete Shanghai Expo is more like

halbe (facing page); christian richters (main image)


structure has a China’s ‘coming-in party’ – one
red-dotted veiled
in which the world scrambles
facade, which
for the attention of China.
becomes
increasingly Certainly the Shanghai
transparent as Expo displays the kind of brute
night falls and extravagance we have come to
the lights go on expect: a 5.3km2 Expo Park,
(all images by 18,000 families relocated,
VIEW Pictures)
US$58 billion spent. More
Above An aerial

rolandgilbert
view of the telling is the effort and money
5.3km2 Expo Park expended by other participating

dennis
in Shanghai nations. In the teeth of a

022 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View


global recession, and having Below_ The Beijing Below_ Working with
done comparatively little for Pavilion has a the idea of typical
strongly geometric, Dutch houses, John
the last few World Fairs, almost
repetitive facade. Koermeling’s Dutch
200 countries are now keen to Pavilion also has
The wishbone
show their faces, almost 100 of columns look something of the
which are springing (Iceland impossibly thin funfair about it
and Greece included) for their compared with Bottom_ Spain’s
own pavilion in what is in the massive, folded addition shows
roof structure wicker doesn’t
essence a Chinese show. The
have to be limited
secret of this Expo is that to the conservatory.
it’s important because it’s a Miralles Tagliabue
Chinese show. EMBT has made a
George Osborne, the UK’s beautiful swirling
structure from
new chancellor, who visited
the material
the Expo in June, has made
explicit what a lot of other
chancellors are well aware of:
that for rich nations with big
deficits, growth in China is the
most promising lifeline to hand.
Within this context, a presence
in Shanghai has the salient
purpose of national brand-
building. The Expo is best
understood as a grandiose
Olympics of commerce, with
competition going on for
Chinese business, investment,
tourism, students, and the

christian richters (main image; bottom left; bottom right); inigo bujedo aguirre (this page, top right); hufton + crow (facing page, top left)
favour of the all-new yet
curiously elusive Chinese
consumer. Around 100 million
Chinese people are expected to
visit the Expo, and if you can
convince each of them to buy
just one British export...
The architectural rhetoric Above and left_
is unequivocal in confirming Denmark’s spiral-
shaped building,
this politico-economic
designed by
structure. Towering over the Bjarke Ingels
Expo Park is the China Pavilion, Group, has a
explicitly designed to resemble pond at its centre
an ancient Chinese crown. displaying the
This posits China’s imperial Little Mermaid –
the first time this
heft looking out over an
famous statue
emperor’s court of mendicant has left
supplicants, each desperate Copenhagen
to display their cloth.
Yet while the staging is old,
the modern age of global media
has given these acts of display a
distinctly modern twist. In 2010
nobody is really interested in
using a World Fair to peddle
their latest inventions. After
all, it is a peculiarly

024 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View


Victorian-era conceit. Thanks
to the internet, the content of
the pavilions has been mostly
stripped of significance; instead
it is the pavilions themselves
that come to the fore. Country
by country, and pavilion by
pavilion, the Expo Park is the
purest form of architecture as
the branding of nations.
It is in this field that Brand
Britain, with its ‘seed cathedral’,
has scored a palpable hit. The
Thomas Heatherwick-designed
British Pavilion (AR May 2010)
is easily the most talked about
building in the Expo, and the Left_ The glowing
most beautiful too. Best of all, blue interior of the
Finnish Pavilion,
it is pointedly empty.
by JKMM Architects,
From the outside, the viewer reinterprets
sees a cube pierced by 60,000 national notions
optic filaments, in each of which of nature
a seed is cast. From the inside, Above_ Designed
the viewer sees pretty much by Schmidhuber +
Kaindl, the German

dennis gilbert (main image; bottom right); nic lehoux (top & centre right); hufton + crow (facing page, top left); inigo bujedo aguirre (facing page, bottom left)
the same, with light flowing in
Pavilion is
through the filaments. In an era externally wrapped
in which Expo pavilions are not in silver membrane
supposed to house anything Right and below_
meaningful, but are instead The distinctive
Korean building
houses of themselves, the seed
appears multi-
cathedral pushes its content coloured by day,
into its exterior and sits hollow. revealing glowing
Like any brilliant piece of perforations
branding, it’s alluring, it’s at night
clever, and it’s all skin.

Above_ The
Chinese Pavilion
has a traditional
dougong roof,
featuring
wooden brackets
fixed layer upon
layer between the
top of a column
and a crossbeam
Left_ Thomas
Heatherwick’s
British Pavilion
is one of the
highlights of
the Expo

026 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View


Berlin, Germany celebrations of 1987. It was given architect Heinz W Hallmann

Topography
the name Topography of Terror from Aachen. At the opening
and the excavated remains of on 5 May, the 65th anniversary
prison cells put on show. of the war’s end, the architect

of Terror has
Visitors scrambled over rubble was unwilling to talk about her
and gazed at the glazed brick concept, saying that the building
walls, originally designed for spoke for itself. When asked

washed away
the 1901 School of Applied Arts. why everything was grey, the
Wooden stands open to the landscape architect’s answer
weather provided information was equally enlightening:

too much dirt


on torturers and victims. ‘What else could it be?’
In early 1989, historians Ringed with a high mesh
were asked to design a long-term fence, the site is now a fortified

in presenting
plan for the memorial site. They enclave. At its centre sits the
were still deliberating as the low, square new building. Clad
Berlin Wall fell and when the in a double metal skin, it is a

its Nazi history


two German regimes merged, it grey, horizontal gash in the
was decided that the site should landscape, obscuring one side of
have a mainly educational the neo-classical Martin Gropius
Layla Dawson function and include post-1945 building. The previously open
www.topographie.de history. In 1992, 12 designers site of rough grass slopes
were invited to take part in a leading to the cells has been
limited competition and Swiss sealed with concrete paths,
architect Peter Zumthor was ramps and beds of anthracite
declared the winner. Site work and sharp-edged clinker.
started in 1997, but ground to Visitors are commandeered
a halt in 1999. Officially, between 15 ‘stations’. The cells
spiralling costs and Zumthor’s have been sanitised, as if for
experimental techniques were military inspection.
cited as reasons, though the The building interior is
failure of this scheme says more revealed as a light-filled, glazed
about the inability of the clients box on two levels, with high
to prepare their project, than ceilings. A reference library,
the quality of the architecture. conference and educational
A new phase began, rooms, and the administration
searching not only for a overseeing Germany’s WWII
building, but also for a brief. In memorials are all dug into the
2005, another competition was site. A courtyard at the centre
staged, this time with a €26 of the block has a symmetrically
million (£21.5 million) budget. placed, black-paved square of
Competitors had to work with shallow water. Anyone who has
landscape architects and design studied the architecture of
a documentation centre, with concentration camps might
Some buildings polarise opinion. Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich exhibition and conference be reminded of the ash swamps
Such is the case with Berlin’s and other Nazi officials. From rooms, library and offices. on the edge of Auschwitz.
newly opened Topography of 1933 to 1945 the Gestapo had Despite this extra loading of Should a ‘dirty’ history
Terror Documentation Centre, their in-house prison on the site. the brief, the historical remains be cleaned-up to this extent?
on the former Prinz Albrecht But by 1956, the West Berlin were still to be prominent. But The imprisoned, tortured
Strasse, next to the Martin- authorities had cleared away how could a few excavated and murdered, once held
Gropius-Bau exhibition centre. the bombed ruins in which all bricks and walls compete with in the cellars, have been
On this block, in 1932, Joseph the Nazi concentration camps a major new building? relegated to minor roles.
Goebbels opened his National were planned and organised. 309 architectural teams However well-meaning its
RAINER JENSEN/corbis

Socialist newspaper, Der Angriff. It took just over 40 years participated and from a shortlist intentions, this architecture
Today’s Topography of Terror for the site to be presented of 23, the winners were Ursula projects an obsession with
site once housed the Gestapo as an open-air museum, during Wilms, of Heinle, Wischer und order, control and, ultimately,
headquarters, offices of Heinrich Berlin’s 750th anniversary Partner, Berlin, and landscape a lack of humanity.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View 029


London, UK

Chipperfield
cleans up at the
Royal Academy
summer show
Will Hunter
www.royalacademy.org.uk

Over the last 242 years, the – mostly wall-based media, but
Royal Academy of Arts Summer with notable pieces of sculpture
Exhibition has become a and film – there is, as always,
unique landmark in the British a huge diversity in subject
calendar. In 1996, author John matter and quality. This year’s
Morgan observed that it used to curators, Royal Academicians
be the ‘unofficial opening of the (RAs) David Chipperfield and
summer season’ – a period when the painter Stephen Chambers,
upper-class families descended have notionally chosen the work
on London, essentially to launch on the theme of ‘raw’: although
their daughters onto the if even one visitor identified
marriage market.  this word after a thorough
While to this day there’s look-round, you’d suspect
a lingering impression of they’d cheated.
poshness, one of the show’s The architecture gallery is
defining contradictions is that for the first time in the Lecture
its founding principle is entirely Room, a much larger, grander
egalitarian. Anyone may make volume than its previous home.
a submission to the selection This move is hugely beneficial
committee. The result is that the to the work. The extra
creations of unknown amateurs breathing space combined with
sit alongside world-famous Chipperfield’s rigorous eye
superstars; and to ascertain the has brought a legibility to the
authorship you have to grapple curation that has sometimes
with a dense little catalogue.  been lacking in previous years. 
As such a wonderfully Other architects with RA
peculiar gallery experience, a status – such as Will Alsop and
code of behaviour has emerged Peter Cook – have a guaranteed
specifically for the occasion. slot. Cook unveiled his idea
Writing an etiquette guide for for a multi-purpose high-rise.
elitist publisher Debrett’s, The elevation drawing merges
Morgan maintains ‘gossiping structure/skin with vegetation,
gaggles’ as a solecism but for the two languages shifting
once encourages ‘aspersions between each other so at
on the works’. After all, he adds, moments it almost appears
‘that is part of the fun.’  as a landscape plan. Produced
With over 1,200 exhibits to in ink and watercolour, it has a
cast a critical eye over this year gorgeous quality. Alsop has

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View 031


contributed a concept model Previous page_
of his Edessa museum project. A Tower for
Made from paper, wire and clay, Swiss Cottage
by Peter Cook
its disarming primitiveness for
Right_ Mines
a moment eclipses the clarity Farm model by
of its tectonic vision. 6a Architects
Where Chipperfield had Below_ New Local
discretion to choose, he has New York section
done so with a commendably by Margaret Bursa
Bottom left_Will
broad mind. You can imagine
Alsop’s Edessa
him greatly admiring projects
museum model
such as 6a Architects’ Bottom right_
timber-framed Mines Farm Tobias Klein’s
in Cambridgeshire. Represented Inverted Syncretism
by a stunning model, the
relatively simple massing
belies a much more complex
sequence of interior spaces,
demonstrating the assuredness
of this young London practice. 
But elsewhere Chipperfield
has picked projects (which he
loosely categorised to me as
‘organic’) that, to put it mildly,
you wouldn’t say were
particularly to his taste. Two
examples are Tobias Klein’s
Inverted Syncretism and recent
Bartlett graduate Margaret
Bursa’s New Local New York.
These exuberant models are
especially deserving of attention.
The John Madejski Fine
Rooms, where the work of RAs
who’ve passed away in the last
year is displayed, are also of
great interest this year. HT ‘Jim’
Cadbury-Brown, who died in
July 2009, was the Academy’s
professor of architecture for
13 years. He made sensitive
adjustments to a number of
its public rooms in Burlington
House, among other accolades
too numerous to list here. 
Stretching from those
fresh out of college to recently
deceased old masters,
the Summer Exhibition’s
idiosyncratic curatorial policy
make this really the only place
david grandorge (TOP RIGHT)

you can find such a vivid


cross-section of the British
architectural profession’s
output. For that reason alone,
it is well worth a visit. 

032 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View


London, UK

Carmody Groarke observes


the Olympic site from its
‘pop-up’ London project
Rob Gregory
www.studioeastdining.com

Right_ In contrast This ‘pop-up’ restaurant these timber-lined bays create


to its smooth designed by London-based conjoined dining rooms, each
shrink-wrapped architect Carmody Groarke with its own vista.
exterior, the
makes the most of its audacious A number of sites were
restaurant’s
location – the 35m-high top considered for the restaurant,
interior has a
site-salvage deck of the incomplete Studio East Dining – the
aesthetic. Westfield Stratford City brainchild of London eatery
Chandeliers made development in east London, Bistrotheque. Eventually, in
from builders’ overlooking the site of the 2012 collaboration with developer
lamps are Olympic Games. Choosing not Westfield, this site was selected
particularly to respond to the panorama and Carmody Groarke was
successful
with a single big window, the commissioned to design and
Below_ The plan
fans out to give
structure gains distinction coordinate the construction of
each dining through the arrangement of a fully functioning 800m2 venue,
space its own projecting wings that rise up just eight weeks before it was
unique identity to capture key views. Internally, due to open.
With such a short
construction period, expediency
became a mantra for the
architectural language.
Carmody Groarke relaxed its
usual insistence on precision
to focus on reusable building
components; the structure is
made from standard scaffold
poles and planks, clad in an
industrial-white, shrink-
wrapped membrane and
illuminated with chandeliers
fashioned from builders’ lamps.
For the three weeks
straddling the summer solstice,
Studio East Dining will host 140
seated guests per night. It is, of
course, a sell-out, with practice
director Kevin Carmody
confirming, ‘even before a press
release was written, 1,700 of the
2,000 tickets had already been
taken up’. Blink and you’ve
already missed it.

034 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View


New York, USA

West Side storeys:


Jean Nouvel
establishes a new
benchmark on
the Hudson shore
Michael Webb

Right_A complex Lower Manhattan is awash with


cladding system new luxury condo blocks, and
gives depth to
most of them are precious or
Nouvel’s facade,
in contrast with
dull. They strive for a unique
the sleek surfaces allure to justify stratospheric
of Gehry’s IAC prices while struggling to fit
Building, opposite into the dense fabric of historic
districts such as the West
Village. That’s a contradiction
few architects have mastered,
but the challenge is easier on the
western edge of Chelsea, which
has a looser weave and is still
a work in progress. A few blocks
of the High Line have been
opened as an elevated park, with clad in a curtain wall in which mechanistic sculpture that
much more to come, and new panes of different dimensions supports trees in planters.
apartment towers are going up are tilted within their frames. The building is a marker,
alongside former warehouses. In contrast to the flush glazing responding to context while
But the broad West Side of the Cartier Foundation in establishing a sense of place.
Highway, formerly a bustling Paris and the Dentsu Building Its height and faceted surface
harbourfront, still feels like in Tokyo, this facade serves as a complement Gehry’s sleek sails,
a tabula rasa. Jean Nouvel has kaleidoscope to trap and refract which distort and dissolve
created a condo tower that light, giving the building depth. its geometry. The rear facade
breaks free of the constraints The same glass panels are is clad in black brick with
that muzzled him in Soho and incorporated into a screen wall, irregularly spaced openings and
have diminished his design for a seven stories high, which is set tilted planes that abstract the
slender shaft alongside MoMA 4.5m forward of the tower and industrial past and the 19th-
on West 53 Street. breaks open at the corner. As century apartment blocks along
The 23-storey tower, called with the Cartier and the Quai Tenth Avenue. From within,
100 11th, occupies a corner site Branly Museum, it maintains the small rear windows frame
directly across 19th Street from the original street line, besides vignettes of the Manhattan
Gehry Partners’ IAC Building, enclosing an area that doubles skyline. Perimeter concrete
a billowing cloud of fretted as a café terrace and as a winter beams support long spans, and
glass. The rounded corner is like garden for residents in the lower most apartments enjoy sweeping,
roland halbe

a prow pointing out to the river apartments. The steel column-free views of river and
and the two main facades are supporting structure is a sky to the south and west.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View 037


Toulouse, France picture: an avoidance of the

On reading a context:
flashy star system and a search
for architectural substance.
Of course, you do not get a

how institutions and their


building just by waving a magic
wand over an urban context.
Grafton architects resist the

buildings shape Europe


notion that they have a ‘style’,
but they do return again and
again to the theme of a firm
urban edge and a luminous
William JR Curtis
interior. They compare their
Bocconi University building
in Milan (for the leading
Some years back I was invited reputation, in a city with medieval monuments such as economics faculty in Italy)
to a fancy dinner at the Mexican a distinctive identity. The the Église des Jacobins (one of to an oyster shell, rough on the
Embassy in Brasilia (a superb university president, Bruno Sire, Louis Kahn’s inspirations in the outside, smooth on the inside
building from the early 1970s by who introduced the architects, region). When conceiving their (AR March 2009). In that case
Teodoro González de León) and has stated that the TSE project Grafton walked the their architectural inspirations
found myself sitting next to the (Toulouse School of Economics) length of the city gauging the included the roof of Milan
French ambassador. On learning will outdo the LSE in a matter of character of the brick facades, Cathedral, and the idea of rooms
that I live in his country he years through the international the polygonal towers, the suspended from trusses of
asked me whether the French quality of its faculty and transitions from streets to courts Alejandro de la Sota’s Maravillas
would vote ‘oui’ or ‘non’ in the research. The Grafton project and the underlying spatial Gymnasium in Madrid of 1961.
impending referendum on the embodies the client’s patterns. Their reading of The Toulouse project reiterates
European Constitution. Without progressive ambitions while the context went from the the theme of an urban enclave
hesitation I replied that they responding to the layers of geological base through with a luminous interior volume
would vote ‘non’. ‘Quel désastre’ history in the place. the strata of time up to the levels traversed by intersecting levels
continued Son Excellence. On the outside the building of light and air and touched and screens. It echoes the brick
‘Not really’, I replied, ‘the suggests a gateway allowing upon the spirit of the place. It frontispieces and turrets of
so-called Constitution is the public space to penetrate the also involved a trans-European Toulouse’s churches while also
invention of high functionaries core of the institution, while parallel: ‘We came to an recalling the spatial dynamism
who are really out of touch. from the inside the interlocking understanding of your beautiful Left_Grafton on long-term themes with of Le Corbusier’s Curutchet
Europe is coming about anyway. levels flooded with daylight city through our knowledge Architects’ home an engagement with current House in La Plata (1949) with
for the Toulouse
It is being created every day by allow panoramas and long views of our own city of Dublin.’ urban affairs. its urban screen, implosion of
School of
millions of people who speak across the river and the Toulouse is not just a Much of the best recent contextual geometries, and
Economics forms
several languages, work and surrounding skyline. Dense and historical city. It is also the hub a huge gateway, architecture in France is ascending promenade
trade across previous frontiers, responsive to the brick context of the European aerospace on a scale that emerging in the south and architecturale. Grafton keeps
study abroad and refuse on the exterior, the building industry and the second respects the south-west. Three years ago the a large scale model of the
narrow-minded nationalism.’ melts away on the inside, university centre in France. medieval prestigious Équerre D’Argent Curutchet in its Dublin studio as
I might have added that Europe suggesting the interchange of It has one of world’s best surroundings went to the small Bordeaux firm a permanent point of reference.
Above_
is also being constructed ideas, and the opening up of the orchestras, and architecture of Yves Ballot and Nathalie At a time when debates are
Meanwhile,
through institutions and horizons of knowledge. is supported by institutions Franck for a fine school again regressing into pointless
the light-filled
their architecture. In their presentation the including the profession’s interior hints extension; two years ago it went confrontations between the
This conversation came back architects showed how they Maison de l’Architecture at openness to Marc Barani for a transport ‘modern’ and the ‘traditional’,
to me when listening to Shelley fragmented the plan to break and the more public Centre and the sharing interchange in Nice. Last year, it is refreshing to come across an
McNamara and Yvonne Farrell down the programme into office Méridional de l’Architecture of knowledge the small commune of architecture that is very much
(Grafton Architects) presenting wings and a public core, while et de la Ville under the Nègrepelisse (50km north of about contemporary reality yet
their winning scheme for the also responding to an angled site leadership of Stéphane Gruet, Toulouse) selected the Catalan nourished by both the distant
new headquarters for the faculty between the Garonne river, the which maintains a healthy firm RCR Aranda Pigem Vilalta past and the modern movement.
of economics of the University remains of a medieval city wall distance from Parisian fashions Arquitectes who come from Olot In their Toulouse project,
of Toulouse 1 Capitole last and a mess of colliding streets. and turns south towards Spain – just the other side of the Grafton have demonstrated that

grafton architects
February. Here are Irish Known as La Ville Rose on and north Africa. The CMAV Pyrenees – to design a centre for it is possible to construct a new
architects designing a building account of its prevalent red produces a unique journal culture and cuisine. The recent vision for an institution while
for a French institution with brick, Toulouse combines a called Poiësis, which combines selection of Grafton architects also responding to the collective
a European and international dense urban fabric with timeless critical and historical reflection in Toulouse fits into a larger memory of the city.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View 039


London, UK

Dennis Sharp – architect,


historian, critic, curator and
bibliophile – dies aged 76
Richard England

The death of Dennis Sharp on the Architectural Association in A Visual History of Twentieth- Through his architectural
6 May has robbed architecture London, and later studied at the Century Architecture (third firm Dennis Sharp Architects,
of one its most eminent and University of Liverpool under edition, 2002), a translation he was also involved in practice.
prolific authors, critics and Quentin Hughes. He did his of Hermann Muthesius’ He was particularly proud of
commentators. Sharp’s writing National Service in Dortmund, The English House (2007) and the conservation work carried
was impressive, not only for its which whetted his appetite a comprehensive survey of out on Robert Adam’s Chandos
scholarly approach, but also for for German expressionism and the work of 1930s modernists House in London, and the
the clear, erudite language with modernism, and went on to Connell, Ward and Lucas (2008), restoration of houses by
which he expressed his ideas. teach at Manchester University. written with Sally Rendel. His Connell, Ward and Lucas.
But he was also a practising He succeeded John Summerson love of cinema architecture My first encounter with
architect and his knowledge as head of architectural history resulted in The Picture Place Dennis took place in Malta in
of construction informed his at the AA in 1969. (1976) and he authored 1968 through our mutual friend
critical thinking and writing. With nearly 50 books to monographs on Manfredi Quentin Hughes. At the time
Born in 1933 into a family his name, Sharp’s bibliography Nicoletti, Kisho Kurokawa Hughes was running the
of building contractors, he included Modern Architecture and Santiago Calatrava. architecture school at the
began his architectural career at and Expressionism (1966), He also curated several University of Malta, and Dennis
exhibitions and made had been invited as a visiting
innumerable contributions to lecturer. Soon he became an
architectural journals. AAQ, invaluable mentor as well as
the Architectural Association a close friend. One my fondest
Quarterly, which he edited memories is of the time we
between 1967 and 1983, remains spent together as visiting tutors
an outstanding reference series, for the International Academy
with contributions from of Architecture at the splendid
luminaries of the period. Santo Kiriko Monastery in
As executive editor of World Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 1991. During
Architecture between 1990 this period I discovered his
and 1992 he introduced an passion for jazz and the old 78
international audience to the recordings of that genre’s great
work of architects such as exponents. Often we spent
Clorindo Testa, Giancarlo de hours discussing our musical
Carlo, Gustav Peichl, Reima tastes, mine being a penchant
Pietilä and others. for the operatic tenor voice on
He was a founder member recordings of the same era.
of CICA (the International I last saw Dennis in hospital
Committee of Architectural only two days before his demise,
Critics) and UK chair of a touching and difficult
Docomomo, the international occasion, yet also immensely
body dedicated to the rewarding. Even then, he was
documentation and still enthusiastically talking
conservation of modern- about future publications,
movement buildings. typical of his unstinting fervour.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / View 041


142 143 140
Page 054
139
DE PRINSENDAM &
Page 070 Page 074 andreas ensemble Page 044
chopo museum el porvenir kindergarten LOCATION amsterdam, maxxi
LOCATION mexico city, mexico LOCATION bogotÁ, colombia the netherlands
LOCATION rome, italy
ARCHITECT ten arquitectos ARCHITECT
ARCHITECT ARCHITECT zaha hadid
giancarlo mazzanti tony fretton architects
A 100-year-old iron and glass architects

pavilion gets a new lease of Giancarlo Mazzanti’s Now filled with art, Zaha
life through TEN Arquitectos’ inventive, low-cost Hadid Architects’ bravura

141
bold yet simple building- kindergarten in edge- Maxxi finally opens its
within-a-building condition Bogotá has a doors in Rome
much wider social mission

Page 062
ATLÀNTIDA performing
arts centre
LOCATION vic, osona, spain
ARCHITECT josep llinÀs

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 043


139
MAXXI’s ‘lightning in a bottle’
moment is captured in a set of
MAXXI Hadid’s early models and drawings
Location that form part of the inaugural
exhibition. Delicate white card
rome, italy models show a series of swooshing
architect cuts incised on the grid of the
zaha hadid architects barracks site, rupturing and
reconfiguring the terrain. The
writer original inward-looking order
catherine slessor is subverted as site and building
meld together, seeking new and
photography
unexpected connections with
paul raftery the wider city.
Though the vaguely L-shaped plan
bears some resemblance to a circuit
board, this implies a sanitised,
technological precision. In the flesh
MAXXI is muscular and visceral, a
slab of agonised tissue flayed and
staked out in the Roman sun. In a city
full of suffering saints it’s an abstract,
concrete San Bartolomeo, or a Bacon
pope howling in infernal torment. It
‘Ah, finalmente,’ However, given the competing has no skin; its canted walls of fleshy
murmured the man beside me in mild attractions of La Città Eterna, such concrete, silky to the touch, are both
exasperation as the press conference enthusiasm indicates a public its structure and epidermis.
to inaugurate MAXXI got underway fascination with a project that has, Cast in situ using self-compacting
half an hour late. His sentiment is at last, emerged from the thicket concrete, with some pours up to 50m
echoed in the more general of Italian (and specifically Roman) long, the building is a tour de force of
exhalation of relief now rippling bureaucracy over a decade on from engineering and construction. Clearly
through art and architecture circles. its conceptual genesis in 1998. the experience hard-gained in
Teasingly unveiled to the Yet even now it is still not totally perfecting the concrete for
architectural press last November complete. Hadid’s newly opened Wolfsburg’s Phaeno Science Centre
(AR January 2010), Zaha Hadid’s building is the mothership in an (AR April 2006) and the BMW offices
MAXXI is now, finalmente, replete extended campus of suckling in Leipzig (AR June 2005) has served
with art and open to the public. With sub-structures, including a library, Hadid’s team well. Because of
an acronym punningly playing on the space for MAXXI’s architecture MAXXI’s protracted gestation, both
number 21 in Roman numerals, department, a restaurant and Wolfsburg and Leipzig were designed
MAXXI is Italy’s first national apartments for artists. When these after MAXXI but built before it.
museum dedicated to the art of this are finally in place, the former Belying its formal complexity, the
century, hosting ‘contemporary barracks site in Flaminio, to the north architecture is underscored by the
creativity’ across various disciplines, of the Piazza del Popolo, will be familiar concerns of light and
from painting and sculpture to dance transformed into the thriving, layering, routes and materiality. Five
and film. Costing £133 million and multidisciplinary, urban locus for enormous galleries whirl around a
with exhibition space equivalent exhibitions and research that was centrifugal vortex, an exhilarating
to Bilbao’s Guggenheim, it has originally envisaged by both its set-piece space traversed by
very big ambitions. architect and client. ‘The idea was serpentine ‘light box’ stairs. There
Over 50,000 people applied for to move away from the museum as are no prescribed promenades, rather
special free passes during its opening object and towards the idea of a field visitors meander at leisure through
weekend, and the museum expects of buildings,’ says Hadid. ‘It’s no the soaring, canyon-like spaces,
between 250,0000 and 500,000 longer just a museum, but an urban looping around, doubling back, but
paying visitors in its first year. That cultural centre where a dense texture always reconverging on the rim of the
might sound a lot, but London’s Tate of interior and exterior spaces have vortex. Rome’s lustrous light is
Modern attracted five million been intertwined and superimposed filtered through a layered roof
art-lovers in its maiden year. over one another.’ structure of louvres, glazing and

044 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


139 maxxi zaha hadid architects

maxxi has no skin: its canted


walls of fleshy concrete,
silky to the touch, are both
its structure and epidermis

concrete ribs that unspool overhead successful is the retrospective of


like oversized ribbons, emphasising Italian modernist Luigi Moretti,
the fluid sweep of the architecture. which features different sorts and
Uniquely for an art museum, scales of work and shows how a
MAXXI aims to foster a much single gallery can be quite densely
stronger than usual reciprocity and richly inhabited.
between building and content, MAXXI’s collection was
with the architecture shaping the assembled from scratch over the last
collection and how it is shown. five years, and has around 350 works,
‘The collection was the starting including pieces by international
point for the architectural project,’ luminaries such as Kiefer, Kentridge,
says Anna Mattirolo, director of Anish Kapoor, Gerhard Richter and
MAXXI’s art programme, ‘and the Francesco Clemente, along with
artwork remained the unifying lesser-known Italian artists. There
principle as it developed. The has been criticism that the collection
collection and worksite grew lacks depth, but until recently the location/site plan
together. The museum will be a place state took little interest in
for experimentation, a continuous contemporary art, and MAXXI has
workshop that will allow us to choose some ground to make up. Its opening
which works merit inclusion in our coincided with previews of a new Previous page_ Right, top_ The
permanent collection.’ wing of MACRO, Rome’s municipal Like a questing building is sinuous
But inevitably perhaps, the scale contemporary art museum designed concrete periscope, and muscular, like
of the galleries has encouraged by Odile Decq, suggesting a renewed the museum’s a flayed piece of
uppermost gallery organic tissue
a monumentalist tendency in the engagement. MAXXI will also host
cantilevers out Right, middle_
inaugural shows. One heroically architectural exhibitions and precipitously Artefact and
scaled art incident follows another, research; its architectural department over the former architecture in
making for slightly ponderous houses the archives of Carlo Scarpa, barracks site surreal conjunction
viewing – though there are individual Aldo Rossi and Pier Luigi Nervi. Above_ An existing Right_ The entrance
structure still parvis, currently
highlights, such as Anselm Kiefer’s Funded jointly by the Italian
defines the street colonised by
mammoth Sternenfall canvas and ministry of culture and private edge, with the new Gino de Dominicis’
William Kentridge’s exquisite model donations, the museum will continue building docking giant plaster
theatre (see page 106). More its policy of acquisition, but into it skeleton

046 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


139 maxxi zaha hadid architects

five enormous galleries


whirl around a centrifugal
vortex, a set-piece space
traversed by stairs

Right_ A centrifugal
vortex at the heart
of the museum
connects the various
gallery spaces
Below_ The vortex at
entrance level. The
dark ribbons of the
staircases float on
‘lightboxes’

048 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


139 maxxi zaha hadid architects
second-floor plan Below_ Galleries
collide with and
meld into each
there are no prescribed other; the spaces
lend themselves
promenades: visitors to large-scale
13 works, such as
meander at leisure through Anish Kapoor’s
Widow (the black
soaring, canyon-like spaces trumpet-shaped
object in the
bottom left). cross section through galleries
A number of
2 11 architects have
also been invited
to produce works
2
for the inaugural
show. Diller
Scofidio + Renfro,
for instance, is
creating a mural
using a robot-
first-floor plan guided drill –
this is the white
scrapings of
exposed plaster
10 on the black wall cross section through galleries and main lobby

Italy’s national cultural budget is due 1 new landscape


to be pared down, potentially limiting 2 entrance hall
curatorial ambitions. And it must be 3 reception
4 temporary
said that in the current climate of
exhibition
economic entrenchment, the entire 5 graphic 11
enterprise seems to belong to an collection 12
easier, more gilded age. One of the 6 exhibition
inaugural retrospectives, dedicated suite 1
7 auditorium
to minor Italian pop artist Gino de 2
8 shop
Dominicis features a giant plaster 9 coffee bar 7
skeleton impaled in the building’s 10 exhibition suite 2 7
forecourt, a rather too obvious 11 exhibition suite 3
metaphor for the passing of a certain 12 exhibition suite 4
13 exhibition suite 5
kind of era and a certain kind of
architecture. MAXXI was originally ground-floor plan
due to be completed in the mid-
noughties, and you sense that had it
been unveiled four or five years ago
6
it would have seemed more of its time
and been less harshly scrutinised as
a talisman for decadence and waste.
But that is not to underestimate 1
the considerable achievement of its 9
architecture. And in some ways it is
the perfect Roman building. In a city 7 3
marked by bouts of megalomania and
fits of braggadocio, in historic thrall to
mad popes and scheming politicians,
shaped by radical architects, the 8 2
forces of religion and the dark
ecstasies of the baroque, MAXXI 5 4
0 20m
somehow feels right at home.

050 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


139 maxxi zaha hadid architects
Architect
Zaha Hadid Architects,
London, UK
inevitably perhaps, the Project team
Zaha Hadid, Patrik

scale of the galleries has Schumacher, Gianluca


Racana, Anja Simons,

encouraged a monumental Paolo Matteuzzi, Fabio


Ceci, Mario Mattia,

tendency in the shows


Maurizio Meossi, Paolo
Zilli, Luca Peralta, Maria
Velceva, Matteo Grimaldi,
Ana M.Cajiao, Barbara
Pfenningstorff, Dillon
Lin,Kenneth Bostock,
Raza Zahid, Lars
Teichmann, Adriano De
Gioannis, Amin Taha,
Caroline Voet
Structural and
services engineers
Anthony Hunt Associates,
OK Design Group
Lighting
Equation Lighting
Acoustic consultant
Paul Gilleron Acoustic

Top_ The ground- Top, right_ The


level gallery, with topmost gallery with
the Luigi Moretti its periscope glazing
retrospective. This Right_ Cuts and
part of the inaugural shifts in the
exhibition included structure produce
works of all sizes, surprising views -
in contrast to the in this case looking
overwhelming scale down over the
of many other pieces entrance parvis.
Above_ There is no In the foreround
prescribed route is Mario Merz’s
through the building glass igloo
– instead, visitors Left_ First-floor
promenade through gallery with Jana
the cluster of Sterbak’s Faradayurt,
galleries. In the a copper-clad yurt.
background is Works are chosen
William Kentridge’s with the museum’s
North Polar Map architecture in mind
052 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings
140
DE PRINSENDAM &
ANDREAS ENSEMBLE
Location
AMSTERDAM, netherlands
architect
TONY FRETTON ARCHITECTS
writer
WILL HUNTER
photography
CHRISTIAN RICHTERS

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 055


140 DE PRINSENDAM & ANDREAS ENSEMBLE TONY FRETTON ARCHITECTS
Previous page_ Over the last decade, housing envisioned by Cor van supplied Peter Zumthor’s lauded
de Prinsendam, one Tony Fretton has divided his time Eesteren. The masterplan, also by Kolumba Art Museum in Cologne
What is striking about the of a pair of urban
housing blocks
between his London practice and his Geurst & Schulze, tries to reconcile (AR November 2007).
professorship at the Delft University the city planners’ desire for closed Fretton’s only previous housing
schemes is that – despite designed for
different clients in of Technology, which has given him blocks – like those in HP Berlage’s in the Netherlands was a two-
different districts a strong profile in the Netherlands. adjacent Old West district – and the apartment building in Groningen,
their numerous differences of Amsterdam And beyond academia, the country surrounding looser modernist grain. part of the city’s Blue Moon Festival
Below_ The de
– they are so alike Prinsendam site is
is providing Fretton with increasingly
prosperous opportunities to build.
The site’s edges are framed with
taller, linear apartment buildings to
of art and architecture in 2001,
curated by Toyo Ito. This connection
on the former Royal
Dutch Shell campus Since 1982, the projects of create a calmer interior of more to an art event mirrors Fretton’s
in Amsterdam’s Tony Fretton Architects have compact blocks. With Geurst & British work, where a number of
north docks. The attracted critical acclaim, but Schulze designing four on the his one-off London houses are for
Shell Tower is in through subtlety rather than scale. perimeter, Fretton was asked to look famous art-world clients, such as
6 4 4 6 background. Most
Only recently have these two aspects after the remaining five: four inside gallery owner Alex Sainsbury and
5 5 55 of the masterplan
for the site has yet begun to converge on larger the site (three of which are now sculptor Anish Kapoor. Another is
to be realised commissions. Last year, Fuglsang complete) and a C-shaped one on the the home and studio of artist Brad
1 lobby Kunstmuseum in Denmark (AR June south-eastern corner. Though more Lochore. When I interviewed the
2 bicycle parking
2008) made the RIBA’s Stirling Prize affordable than de Prinsendam, the pair together in 2009, they animated
4 44 3 storage
4 terrace shortlist and the British Embassy in average apartment in Andreas each other with shared insights into
5 lift Warsaw (AR March 2010) is Ensemble is a generous 114m2. how the place would be used, and its
seventh-floor plan 6 lift lobby de Prinsendam: site plan currently on this year’s longlist. Fretton’s project numbering context in gritty Shoreditch. In each
But from a purely quantitative system gave de Prinsendam 208 project Fretton filtered a particular
0 10m LEVEL 7

perspective, the office’s greatest and Andreas 222; two chronological personality into the architecture.
works by size are a couple of points that also mark a learning What is striking about the
6
speculative housing projects in curve. For example, only through Amsterdam housing schemes is that
55 55
Amsterdam. Arriving on the market designing 208 did the practice – despite their numerous differences
within months of each other earlier discover the Netherlands’ ‘equality – they are so alike. Both masterplans
this year, de Prinsendam and Andreas rule’, which stipulates no resident were very restrictive, and of course
Ensemble are, however, separate should have to pass another the architectural abstraction is partly
schemes for different clients in apartment’s door to reach the escape a result of having numerous, as-yet
different districts. stairs. This helped David Owen, unknown inhabitants. But I also
fifth-floor plan De Prinsendam is a smart project architect on both buildings, wonder if there’s something, not
development a short ferry ride across to design 222’s ‘super core’, where exactly lacking from the design
0 10m LEVEL 5

the River Ij from Amsterdam Central the canny placement of doors process, but not quite present.
Station. The prime riverside spot is resolves the plan more efficiently. In Fretton’s 2G monograph he
occupied by an H-shaped block by Although a fraction of its size, says of de Prinsendem: ‘The facade
55 55 Álvaro Siza, and Fretton’s C-shaped de Prinsendam’s £9.45 million budget statement was easy. Stone is
6 6
addition, which contains 74 is close behind Andreas’ £10 million. indisputable when seen from the
apartments of 90-180m2, is on But Fretton hasn’t let this disparity river, travertine particularly and
the plot directly behind. impact upon his formal expression, discreetly so.’ This sounds so
The masterplan, by urban with both sharing a language of reasonable; but then you ask, can
designer Ton Schaap and Geurst strongly articulated blocks, stepped- any material be ‘indisputable’? And
& Schulze Architecten, attempts in upper levels and fenestration can you even see Fretton’s block from
second-floor plan
0 10m LEVEL 2 to balance the closed and the meted to a regulated rhythm. the river, let alone the stone, with
open. Fretton’s and Siza’s blocks It’s only up-close that, through Siza’s in the way?
2 2 2 2 are placed to suggest a courtyard, the materiality, the relative costs Fretton’s work is greatly
but set apart to allow movement become perceptible. deserving of admiration. But
3 3 3 3 through. This also permits glimpses Looking at the facades, de I wonder if his architectural
55 1 55
6 6 of the river from many of Fretton’s Prinsendam is treated to Altenberger convictions might sometimes benefit
dwellings. The best views, however, travertine whereas Andreas is brick. from little diversions, such as those
4 are from the four penthouses And yet, as status indicators, these offered by an engaged client, to
that have been gifted a 360º send slightly mixed signals: the deflect him ever so slightly off the
metropolitan omniscience. slices of stone form an unjointed inevitability of his course. His richest
Andreas Ensemble is in the very rainscreen, which could seem flimsy work to date comes across more as a
0 20m different context of Amsterdam West, next to the exceptional bricks from form of intimate dialogue than an
de Prinsendam: ground-floor plan GROUND FLOOR a post-war neighbourhood of social Petersen Tegl, the Danish firm which instructive monologue.
1. Lobby
2. Bicycle parking
3. Storage
4. Terrace
5. Lift
The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 057
6. Lift Lobby
140 DE PRINSENDAM & ANDREAS ENSEMBLE TONY FRETTON ARCHITECTS

both share a language of


strongly articulated blocks,
stepped-in upper levels and
fenestration meted to a
regulated rhythm

de Prinsendam: short section

Left_ Courtyard
elevation of
de Prinsendam.
Generous glass
block balconies
animate the creamy
travertine facades
Right_ The Andreas
Ensemble explores
a similar language
of stepped-up
profiles and regular
fenestration, but
with facades of
sober grey
Danish brick

058 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings The Architectural Review / January 2009 / Buildings 0059
140 DE PRINSENDAM & ANDREAS ENSEMBLE TONY FRETTON ARCHITECTS

de Prinsendam is treated
to Altenberger travertine,
whereas Andreas
ensemble is brick

fifth-floor plan

Andreas Ensemble: site plan Andreas Ensemble: cross section

Far left_ The


Andreas Ensemble
lies in a post-war second to fourth-floor plan
neighbourhood of
social housing
Left_ Typical lobby
in one of the blocks

Architect
Tony Fretton Architects,
London, UK
Executive architect
De Prinsendam: Geurst
& Schulze Architecten
Andreas Ensemble:
INBO Architecten
Structural engineer
De Prinsendam:
Ingenieursbureau
first-floor plan
Zonneveld
Andreas Ensemble:
Grontmij van Ruitenburg
services engineer
De Prinsendam: Halmos
Adviseurs Installaties
Andreas Ensemble:
Royal Haskoning

Andreas Ensemble: ground-floor plan


0 5m

060 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


0 10m
0 10m
0 10m
141
ATLÀNTIDA PERFORMING
ARTS CENTRE
Location
vic, osona, spain
architect
JOSEP LLINÀS
writer
rob gregory
photography
toni anguera/
filippo poli

‘Vic is full of nuns Llinàs that the AR has published.


and priests’ says architect Jorge Both the Jaume Fuster Library
Martin. It also has its share of fog (AR June 2006) and Institute of
and pigs. The plateau in which the Ocular Microsurgery (IMO; AR
city – which is the capital of the November 2009), introduced the
county of Osona – sits has a unique architect’s skilful resolution of
microclimate, typically 5ºC below spatially complex, multisided,
or above the temperatures unified, architectural forms. This
experienced in Barcelona, situated project extends these preoccupations
just 60km south. Surrounded by further in an architectural figure that
a ring of mountains, fog hangs in combines each of the earlier projects’
the air most mornings, and as an best bits: the urban tension of the
important centre of pig farming library – that clung to the edge of
‘it also has its own special smell’. an existing townscape to create a new
On this visit, however, all that public space – and the exuberance
persisted was rain. Priests and nuns of IMO’s buckled roof forms.
stayed indoors and damp air masked Once again Llinàs defigures
both fog and smell. The atmosphere the prism, undoes formalities and
was melancholic as Vic appeared makes the mass of the building
decidedly underpopulated. Yet disappear, by chopping, stepping
approaching from the west, passing and subtracting form. This is
the Cathedral and disused tanneries another big building, shaped and
that line the old town’s historic enveloped to sit comfortably within
southern boundary, this new building its context. Providing in excess of
brought a silver lining to a cloudy 10,500m2, it combines an 800-seat
scene. Albeit rendered in gold. theatre and 400-seat auditorium,
Atlàntida is the third project with a music school and 100-seat
by Catalan architect Josep (Pepe) performance space.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 063


141 ATLÀNTIDA PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE JOSEP LLINÀS

again llinÀs defigures the


prism, undoes formalities
and makes the mass of the
building disappear

Previous page_ perimeter; internal


Anchored to the walls are gold
edge of Vic’s historic Below_The western
‘consolidated’ city, entrance leads to
Atlàntida resonates the first of two
with both land- and courtyards. The
townscape restaurant is to
Left_Most visitors the right, while
will arrive from the to the left a window
south. Basalt marks looks on to the
the school’s principal foyer below

In Gràcia, Llinàs’ library formed moves. The first is the most obvious,
a new street, La Riera de Vallcarca. where copper-aluminium cladding
Here too, the architect’s commitment combines with bright red paintwork
to linking new and old urban to frame the main entrance, which
morphologies is manifest through ultimately leads the audience down
his competition-winning strategy into the sunken foyers beyond. The
for the Atlàntida, which creates second incident is comparatively
an open route, providing free discreet, appealing more profoundly
access for all across the site to Llinàs’ sensibilities, where roof
during daylight hours. forms reach their maximum gradient
From the south, where the and proximity to passers-by. As
majority of visitors will arrive, a described by Martin, ‘this is a critical
path bifurcates around a restaurant point for Pepe, where the building
site plan that will eventually animate the is above, below and beside you’,
proposed but as yet incomplete mimicking a condition that exists in
park. Once past the restaurant – many densely planned historic cities.
passing through the first of two Here, deep at the centre of the
courtyards that offer a glimpse plan, the theatre’s zinc roof rises
down into the main foyer – the path steeply towards the fly-tower’s
turns sharply twice as it rises 6m golden crown, in resonance with
across the site. At the top it emerges Vic’s mountainous horizon. In the
onto Carrer del Bisbe Torras i Bages same instance you also experience
where the existing music school space that recalls the scale of Vic’s
building, Can Serratosa, will soon medieval townscape, as you turn
be converted to accommodate the corner to pass through a low
Atlàntida’s offices. cut notch set within the lower
En route, changes in direction of the two golden crowns. Finally,
isometric view from north-east coincide with key architectural before reaching the street at the

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 065


141 ATLÀNTIDA PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE JOSEP LLINÀS
lower-ground-floor plan

at the centre of the plan


you experience space that
17
recalls the scale of vic’s
6 8
8 medieval townscape
5 4 8
9

17 3 8

1 7
1 8

1 8
1 2 Left_ At the heart cuts under the
of the plan, the school’s upper floor
principal entrance Bottom left_
courtyard is an Emerging from under
intimate assembly the low-cut notch at
place for audiences. the top of the path, a
From here the path landing leads to the
leads to the top school’s entrance
of the site Below_A quadruple-
Below left_From this height void unites
courtyard, the path school with foyer

basement-floor plan 1 open path 8 music teaching 13 school top, a small landing leads back
2 restaurant rooms performance towards the music school’s main
3 entrance 9 dressing rooms hall (100 seat)
entrance, signalled by the use of
courtyard 10 lower foyer 14 school
4 tickets 11 external performance
basalt cladding and flanked by a
5 lobby courtyard/ hall (100 seat) dramatic quadruple-height patio
6 upper foyer performance 15 theatrical stage that plunges down to the building’s
7 school space 16 technical/ lowest level, well below grade. It is
entrance 12 auditorium backstage the depth of this building that is most
(secondary) (400 seat) 17 void
surprising of all, amplified here by
this tight north-facing void that
unifies the building’s complementary
but nonetheless independent user
12
groups, with a timber-lined courtyard
10
16 and tiered external performance
11 space accessible to all.
Both the theatre and auditorium
are already operational. Accessed
13
through generous conjoined
basement foyers, they were
inaugurated on 23 April, marking
10 St George’s Day (the saint is also
15 14 patron of Catalonia). The school
opens this autumn, providing
state-subsidised music lessons for
children and adults in a generous
suite of 50 classrooms that spiral
0 10m around the entrance patio on the two
uppermost floors. Ranging from

066 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


141 ATLÀNTIDA PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE JOSEP LLINÀS
north-south long section looking east Left_ As a
symmetrical
figure within an
asymmetrical
building, the theatre
seats 800 people
and is entered from
the right. The walls
are grey exposed
concrete clad,
where necessary,
in bolondo hardwood
Below_ On the soffit,
a gold leaf mural of
contours traces the
region’s distinctive
topography

east-west cross-section looking north Architect


Llinàs-Llobet-
Ayesta-Vives
project team
Josep Llinàs, Josep
Llobet, Pedro Ayesta,
Laia Vives, Jorge Martín,
Iván Andrés, Andrea
Tissino, Philipp Gasteiger,
Fermín Garrote, Iñaki
Arbelaiz, Petra
Pferdmenges, Natzarena
Manenti, Aina Solé
technical architect
Miquel Autet

upper-ground-floor plan individual practice rooms to choral


4 rehearsal rooms, each has box-in-box
1 open path 1 construction, with sound isolation of
2 entrance 45/50dB; rooms have at least one wall
courtyard
set at 12º to the orthogonal, to avoid
3 music teaching
rooms sound interference.
4 Can Serratosa Josep Llinàs continues to present
(staff/admin) his architecture in the most
5 void straightforward of terms, avoiding
the sort of theoretical associations
1 1
other architects would not be able
to resist. He could easily have spoken
about the influence of Catalan artist
3
Josep Maria Sert’s exquisite black
and gold murals, like those in Vic
5 1 3
Cathedral. He could also have
discussed the performance centre’s
2 3 relationship with Hans Scharoun’s
fine Berlin Philharmonie, and how he
has added another plan to the canon
3 3 of asymmetrical theatre buildings.
Instead, he and his collaborators
continue with more modest means
and methods, using cardboard
models (40 in this case) to shape
space, form and light, in pursuit
0 10m of exceptionally distinguished
buildings, like this.

068 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


142
CHOPO MUSEUM
Location
MEXICO CITY, MEXICO
architect
TEN ARQUITECTOS
writer
MICHAEL WEBB
photography
luis goroda

Nineteenth-century restrictions and the difficulty of the traceries of walls and windows.
architects spent much of their time excavating in a city where the water New construction avoids stepping
concealing triumphs of engineering table is close to the surface. TEN on the concrete pads that support
behind bombastic masonry; you developed an autonomous hybrid the cast-iron frame. The proximity
might think of the Paris Opera as the structure of concrete and steel that of old and new is especially
Eiffel Tower in drag. Mexico City reaches down two levels with 200- rewarding in the open-sided library,
boasts several circa-1900 wedding and 300-seat theatres opening onto where the roof trusses and folded-
cakes, but one of its most appealing a sunken lobby, and rises through wood ceiling hover protectively over
structures of that era is a cathedral of two levels of galleries linked by the tables and book stacks.
industry, prefabricated in Germany ramps to a library tucked beneath ‘Every curator asks for a big box,’
and a direct heir of the Crystal Palace. the 25m-high roof. The simple, bold says TEN principal Enrique Norten,
The soaring cast-iron frame and lacy concept triples the building’s usable ‘but that can be interpreted in many
turrets originally served as a pavilion space and takes users on a scenic tour different ways. At Chopo, we
exhibiting art and machines in of the pavilion, from floor to ceiling. discovered that less than 20 per cent
Düsseldorf. In 1903, a Mexican firm Though massive and muscular, of the exhibits were likely to require
imported and reassembled the the linear block seems to float in the extensive climate control. By
sections in the upscale residential void; an upper level is cantilevered enclosing only a few galleries,
neighbourhood of Santa Maria la through the short south side, like a we greatly reduced the cost of
Ribera. Used in turn as a machinery butterfly emerging from its chrysalis. mechanical equipment and energy
showroom, a museum of natural The projecting wing shelters the new consumption.’ The lack of barriers
history, and an all-purpose space for loading dock, but it gives little hint allows curators to blur the divide
concerts, events, and film shoots, the of the drama within. There, the 19th between circulation and display,
pavilion later became an adventurous and 21st centuries are linked in a demystifying the works they show. A
public arts centre administered by loose embrace; each flatters the other. cantilevered mezzanine holds a café
the National Autonomous University The pavilion was a daring display of that should become the social hub of
of Mexico. Misleadingly, it is called contemporary technology in its day: a museum with few walls and a
the Chopo Museum. rational, lightweight, portable and succession of spaces that welcome
In 2004, TEN Arquitectos won a resilient. It has been assembled twice every kind of performance.
competition to transform the interior and has survived a century of seismic
and enhance the historic structure; shocks with no need of a retrofit to
the practice’s masterly fusion of old meet current codes.
and new was inaugurated a month TEN matched this functionalist
ago. The challenge was to aesthetic with exposed steel beams
accommodate an ambitious and trusses, poured concrete,
programme of climate-controlled laminated glass, and industrial stairs
galleries, performance and service cascading from each deck. Elevator
spaces, without overwhelming the shafts are clad in ply to add warmth
shell. Other contestants proposed and tactility. Glass balustrades and
a detached building to the rear, but reflective white resin floors amplify
they were constrained by height the abundant natural light and mirror

070 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


142 TEN ARQUITECTOS CHOPO MUSEUM
Architect 1 1,200-seat
TEN Arquitectos, theatre
Mexico City, Mexico 2 300-seat theatre
inside, the 19th and 21st Project team
Enrique Norten, Salvador
3 theatre foyer
8

4 entrance
centuries are linked in Arroyo, Jorge Pérez,
Natalia Lomelí, Victoria
5 loading dock
6 gallery space second floor
a loose embrace; each Grossi, Carlos Marín,
Marina Muñoz, Verónica
7 void above
theatre foyer
flatters the other
Chávez, Fausto Alvarado, 1 5 10
Jonathan Barraza,
8 library
Mateo Riestra, Ernesto
Orrante, Ricardo Orozco, 6
Christian Joffroy, Mariana
Narváez, Miguel Ríos

first floor

6 5
7

ground floor

2 3
1

lower ground floor


0 10m

Previous page_ tripled by


Cross section expanding
Above_ The downwards
muscularity of and into the
the original iron roof spaces
and glass structure Right_ The linear
is tempered by insertion seems
delicate turrets to float in the
Top right_ great industrial
Perspective space. Materials
section showing have a softness
the relationship and translucence
between old and Far right_ Skilful
new parts. The choreography of
usable area is new and old

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 073


143
EL PORVENIR KINDERGARTEN
Location
BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA
architect
GIANCARLO MAZZANTI
writer
CATHERINE SLESSOR
photography
IWAN BAAN
143 EL PORVENIR KINDERGARTEN GIANCARLO MAZZANTI
On the outskirts of Previous page_
the Colombian capital of Bogotá, Wrapped in a
Mazzanti has developed where unplanned settlements lightweight metal
lattice, the new
accumulate like flotsam, Giancarlo
a modular classroom unit Mazzanti has designed a new
school encapsulates
a spirit of optimism
kindergarten for local children.
capable of being applied Embedded in a drab and gimcrack
and resilience
in a fractured

to most school projects landscape of breeze-block houses, neighbourhood


Right_ The curved
the crisply articulated contours of
lattice wall encloses
Mazzanti’s building strike a resilient a set of five linked
note in a neighbourhood assailed classroom models
by the corrosive effects of poverty Below_ The lattice
and violence. is protective yet
Based in Bogotá, Mazzanti is part permeable. Parts
of the school are
of a younger generation of idealistic
publicly accessible,
yet intensely pragmatic Colombian enhancing the
architects who have been galvanised building’s wider
by the political and social initiatives social mission
of Sergio Fajardo. Now the Green
first-floor plan 1 entrance
2 kitchen
Party vice-presidential candidate
3 laundry in this year’s Colombian elections,
4 canteen Fajardo is a mathematics professor
5 WCs and former mayor of Medellín,
8 6 nursery
8
the famously lawless epicentre of
7 nappy changing
Colombia’s drug trade. In tandem
8 classrooms
9 patio courtyard with the Grupo Compromiso
8
8 8 10  multi-purpose Ciudadano (Citizens’ Commitment
8 room Movement) founded by Fajardo over
13
11 staff room 10 years ago, the problems of
12
12 headteacher
11 Colombia’s fractured society are
13 offices
being addressed through physical
5
means, by improvements to the built
10 environment. Over the years a series
of new schools, museums, libraries
and public spaces have been
constructed in the major cities of
ground-floor plan
Medellín, Bogotá and Cartagena.
The initiative is ongoing and
increasing in momentum.
Attracting a younger generation
of architects keen to engage in a more
1 socially responsive discourse, the
programme’s high-quality, low-cost
architecture catalyses a sense of
public spiritedness and dignity in
6 7
communities once regarded as
8 beyond the reach of civil society.
8
8 The outcome is truly transformatory.
8
‘What we’ve done is build new
3 symbols, new spaces where social
9
mobilisation can take place around
2 4
architecture,’ says Fajardo. ‘People
are always saying “That’s just
5 cement”. That’s just not true.’
0 10m Mazzanti’s largest and most
significant building to date is the

076 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings


143 EL PORVENIR KINDERGARTEN GIANCARLO MAZZANTI
España Library in Medellín, an
assemblage of three stone-clad
‘hives’ on a steep hillside. In
edge-condition Bogotá the brief
is more modest, but no less
challenging in how to create
welcoming, secure spaces for
learning in a harsh and unregulated
long section urban environment. To speed
construction and keep costs down,
Mazzanti has developed a modular
classroom unit capable of being
applied to most school projects.
Monotony is avoided by varying
how the units are arranged on site,
as well as the form and character
of interstitial patios, play areas
long section and gardens.
At El Porvenir Kindergarten,
five classroom units are sprinkled
across the site apparently at random,
like giant dice, yet they are also
interconnected through a kinked
circulation spine. Classrooms are
simple two-storey concrete
boxes, glazed at the ends. An oval
enclosure wraps around the edge of
the cluster of classrooms, creating a
landscaped enclave where children
can play safely. Fabricated from a
lattice of angled steel poles, the
enclosure is visually permeable
yet physically secure. Schools in
Colombia tend to be fenced off from
the public realm, but this reinterprets
the conventional notion of a barrier.
On its inner edge it becomes a curved
colonnade, with long benches for
Left_ A landscaped sitting and socialising. The white-
internal courtyard painted poles have a sculptural
provides a secure
quality, like filaments, and the
enclave for play
and learning.
structure’s gentle but protective
Classrooms are embrace gives the project a distinct
simple, modular civic presence.
structures The school also contains a
Top_ Child-height number of public spaces, such as
handrails show an
a multi-purpose room, a children’s
attention to detail
Above_ Inside the club, and a kitchen and dining area.
lattice wall becomes These are contained in two blocks
a curved colonnade, set outside the curved enclosure to
offering shelter preserve the intimacy and security
from the sun
of the inner classrooms. In this way
the school becomes a more ingrained
part of the community, giving
impetus to its wider mission of
social renewal.

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Buildings 079


masterplanning is not big architecture,
as Terry Farrell’s winning proposal
for the competition to redevelop
london’s Earls Court ILLUSTRATES
writer
Sutherland Lyall

The entire area around join up with the two other major Practices had seven weeks to Opposite, top left_
London’s Earls Court Exhibition Centre landowners, Transport for London and develop submissions (see page 84) Diagram by Farrells
showing an outline
is to be redeveloped by Capital & the London Borough of Hammersmith and Powell was enthusiastic about
of development
Counties Properties, with Farrells as & Fulham. Capital & Counties believes the response: ‘We were extremely principles and
masterplanner. The site is bounded the 28-hectare site could potentially impressed. They were all great and processes for the
by and connects with different accommodate as many as 8,000 really different, and one presentation Earls Court site
aspects of London’s urban and social dwellings, and three or so million at least was magical.’ Opposite, top right_
texture. High-value South Kensington square feet of commercial, cultural Terry Farrell is, among other Earls Court forms
part of the ‘Valley
is immediately to the east, gentrified and retail space. This is an immense things, adviser to the Mayor of
of the Giants’ along
Barons Court and West Kensington to project which over the next 10 to 15 London and author of Shaping Counters Creek,
the west. The north boundary is the years will create a major London London: The Patterns and Forms one of London’s
elevated section of Cromwell Road, residential district and, it is hoped, that Make the Metropolis (2009). lost rivers. This has
London’s primary artery in from the will absorb the high social, In this, he makes the point that historically attracted
west. To the south is a pair of open environmental and property values London is a series of villages that large-scale uses,
including Lot’s Road
tracts: Brompton Cemetery and an of adjacent South Kensington, gradually joined up during the 19th
Power Station,
exhibition visitors’ car park. effectively shifting the notional edge and 20th centuries: it has been Stamford Bridge
This is a backland, effectively of central London a whole district’s created without a ‘grand overarching, Football Stadium,
a hinterland of the exhibition building width to the west. superimposed design hand or Olympia, Westfield
on its triangular plot to the east. The The design is under the direction ordering geometry.’ Barcelona Shopping Centre, the
site behind this and to the north is of project development director planning guru David Mackay also BBC and a hospital
and prison complex
owned by Transport for London with Richard Powell – formerly advisor on points out that no grand masterplan
on Old Oak Common
its complex configuration of Tube the Treasury Taskforce and more in history has ever been completely Opposite_ Diagram
lines and overland rail line, and recently First Base. Six planning implemented. But because they showing west
attendant rail depots above and practices were invited to submit look positive, are capable of being London as a network
below ground. Beyond, on the west proposals: Benoy, Allies and Morrison, visualised and seem to offer of self-contained
side of the site are two housing Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates (KPF), comprehensive solutions, the village or town
centres, each with
estates mostly owned by the London Studio Egret West, Make and Farrells. temptations of finite masterplans
their own particular
Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham. The brief was to give an idea of are irresistible for both developers character. The
There are no through routes, little how issues such as routes through and architects. Farrells scheme fills
connection to the surrounding urban the site and connections with the Farrell doesn’t disagree with the gap and adds
fabric, no social focus and no surrounding area might be resolved, Mackay, but argues that masterplans to this rich urban
physical focus except, perhaps, for and provide some sense of the rarely fail totally. However, he says, matrix, providing a
flexible and highly
the 31-storey Empress State Building grouping and form of urban blocks, ‘I don’t think this masterplan is about
serviced place to
at the bottom of the site. as well as massing and height – the buildings. That’s starting at the support new forms
Several years ago Capital & but this was not to be worked up wrong end of the process. Issues of business and new
Counties decided to buy the site and as an architectural proposal. of height and density aren’t starting patterns of living

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Urbanism 081


earls court terry farrell & partners

‘issues of height and density


aren’t starting points. you
have instead to talk about
what makes a good city’

points. You have instead to talk option would be to create a new recently established a joint working Above_ Drawing
about things like the street and its double-sided north-south high street group to create a Supplementary by KPF showing
the area to be
width and what makes a good city. serving as an urban and cultural Planning Document. The working
redeveloped –
Towns and places are not the result magnet that would link a new group involves the three planning the Earls Court
of design. Design ends up with commercial development to the north authorities – the Greater London Exhibition Centre
products. Masterplanning ends up alongside the elevated Cromwell Authority, the London Borough of is the arrow-shaped
with processes. Masterplanning is Road, with Lillie Road on the south Hammersmith & Fulham, and the building, while
not big architecture.’ boundary. The new street layout is Royal Borough of Kensington and housing estates,
railway lines and
The shorthand for the proposal a loose grid with perimeter blocks Chelsea. It’s anticipated that a
transport depots
that won Farrell the post of surrounding green spaces which formal planning submission will be take up the rest
masterplanner is four villages and a echo, at a tighter scale, the layout made in the summer of 2011. Work of the site
high street. And it adopts a somewhat of adjacent Kensington. won’t start before the end of the Opposite, top left
Mackay-esque incremental approach. With a timeframe of up to 15 Olympic Games in 2012, because the The Farrells proposal
It starts at the edges and focuses years there is a need for the exhibition hall is to be the official features extensive
green spaces and a
on four new London villages at proposals to cope organically with volleyball venue.
loose city grid. Two
important corners of the site named changing developments in finance, The process between now and main north-south
after their locations: West Kensington planning constraints, social change next summer’s formal planning routes provide
and North End Villages to the west, and sustainable technology. Unlike submission is one of extensive much-needed
Warwick Green to the east and West masterplan-as-design, this is workshop-based consultation with connectivity and
Brompton to the south. Happily masterplan-as-process in which local authorities and communities movement through
the site
there are Tube stations (providing Farrells ‘acknowledge that [the] whose input will help decide on a final
Opposite, top right_
centres for three of the four villages) masterplan form will change over masterplan. ‘We will set out a series Model showing
ranged around the edge of the site, time... within a robust strategic of planning and organising Farrells’ proposal
so the transport infrastructure framework following a set of agreed principles,’ says Farrell. ‘The Capital Opposite_ Farrells’
already exists. That makes it possible and consistent principles.’ No doubt & Counties team have already had presentation
to phase development from the Farrells architects will design some early meetings with other highlighting the
locations of each
outside in, eliminating the massive, of the urban blocks and some of landowners, tenants, local societies,
of the four ‘villages’
long-term disruption occasioned by the buildings. But this is intended everybody involved – lots of and the routes
installing central services. to be an architecturally diverse conversations. This sort of project will crossing the area.
A big problem with the site is quarter of London, with many only succeed if you can find a way Mindful of the
connectivity and the absence of different architects designing where there is something for constrictions of
through roads. So internal traffic schemes over time. everybody. It may seem like an building in London
and the sheer scale
and pedestrian routes pick up on The site has been formally exercise in compromise. But it’s a
of the project, the
streets from outside the site to designated an Opportunity Area process one would recognise in scheme will evolve
enable passage across the site from in the Mayor’s London Plan and the politics or the development of, say, organically over a
east to west and north to south. One development collaborators have a new car. It’s extremely real.’ number of years

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Urbanism 083


earls court terry farrell & partners

this is an immense project


which over the next 10 to 15
years will create a major
london residential district

Studio Egret West Benoy KPF

Masterplan State Building. The


proposals from the scheme features
other invited firms: clusters of blocks
Top left _ Studio with vertical
Egret West emphasis to the
concluded that in north. A plaza at
London there is a the site’s centre
correlation between surrounds a civic
high-value real and cultural building
estate and the Bottom left_ Make’s
intense distribution scheme features a
of public and necklace of gardens
semi-private and squares. These
gardens. This run across the site
proposal’s crescents incorporating a hub
and squares echo of open public
West Kensington’s, space. Make showed
with taller buildings how the same
grouped around an square footage
open amphitheatre could be created in
adjacent to the relatively closely
existing Empress spaced low blocks
State Building and tall buildings
Top centre_ Benoy’s spaced further apart
scheme zips – though there are
together the two tall buildings at the
London boroughs, scheme’s centre
Kensington and Bottom right_ Allies
Chelsea and and Morrison placed
Hammersmith and hollow square
Fulham, at their blocks either side of
junction. The a park in the middle
scheme envisaged of the site, one side
three residential of which was the
areas set around a high street. Tall
square bordered by buildings are
cultural centres grouped around
Top right_ KPF has the Empress State
a sinuous road Building and three
running north- blocks freestanding
south, with low to the park’s north.
blocks grouped This resonates with
around the Empress other London parks Make Allies and Morrison

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Urbanism 085


In designing the (then Faber Maunsell). Their design
new Halley Research Station for consists of a series of linked modules
environmental science organisation on stilts that can be raised with far
the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), less effort than Halley V, allowing
getting the cladding right might seem more of the team brought to the
like the least of a daunting set of Antarctic to carry out scientific rather
Halley VI Antarctic problems. Conditions at the BAS than maintenance work. The modules
base on the Brunt Ice Shelf in east are on skis and can easily be pulled
Research Station Antarctica are extreme. Temperatures to a new location. Broughton’s
Location regularly plummet to below -50˚C, design also improves living conditions
Brunt Ice Shelf, winds can reach over 100mph and – especially important for the
nearly a third of the year is spent overwintering crew, who are there for
Antarctica in total darkness. Each year the ice eight months, including 105 days of
key words shelf moves 700m and over a metre total darkness. Modules are brightly
ice, GRP, cladding of snowfall accumulates on its
surface, gradually entombing and
coloured – strong blue for the science
and sleeping quarters, and a vivid
architect crushing built structures. red for the largest, central module,
Hugh Broughton In fact, the cladding has proved which forms the base’s social hub.

Architects to be one of the greatest challenges.


Architect Hugh Broughton has
When he won the competition,
Broughton originally intended to clad
writer pioneered the use of glass-reinforced the modules with structural insulated
ruth slavid plastic (GRP) on the building, which panels (SIPs) similar to those used on
will open formally in January 2013. the new US station at the South Pole.
Although the design of the panels But a manufacturer suggested the
was carefully trialled, when the first possibility of using GRP so, once
ones went to Antarctica they failed, Broughton had appointed Billings
with small cracks opening up in Design Associates (BDA) as cladding
the surfaces. The designers and consultant, the design team
manufacturers have now solved considered the pros and cons of
those problems and all the units are SIPs, GRP and cold-store panels.
clad. Fortunately the BAS proved SIPs are relatively small (limited
understanding. ‘If we had had these by the size of plywood sheets) and
kinds of problems on a building in require a lot of handling on site. With
Cambridge [the BAS headquarters] a short summer season of only three
they might have asked questions,’ months and each construction worker
says Broughton. ‘But this is the first costly to maintain, this was a real
time that this kind of cladding system concern. Jointing could also be
has been put together, in response difficult, and there was a further
to very challenging conditions.’ worry that high winds could suck
This is the sixth Halley Research the timber face off the insulation
Station. The first four were buried and layer below. On Halley V this problem
crushed by snow buildup. Halley V, was overcome by using a timber
which is still in use, overcomes this batten to join the front and back
problem by being jacked up on stilts. faces. But in the extreme cold,
This allows it to be raised every year, even timber will act as a cold bridge.
though it requires the collective Cold store panels are simple to
effort of 40 people over several days. construct and are obviously adapted
And it does not solve the problem of to low temperatures. But they
the relentless movement of the Brunt degrade rapidly, especially when
Ice Shelf towards the Weddell Sea, exposed to ultraviolet light. Design
so that the area on which the station life would only have been five to 10

british antarctic survey


sits will eventually break off. years. The advantages of GRP were
To overcome these problems, in obvious. It forms large panels and
2004 BAS launched a competition (the is light, making it easy to handle
first of its kind for a Halley base) won and install. It is used in cryogenic
by Broughton and engineer AECOM applications, so can evidently

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Skill 087


halley VI antarctic research station Hugh Broughton Architects
Previous page_ to give views of
the advantages of grp were Cladding nearing the Southern Lights
completion on Below_ Sections
obvious. it forms large the largest, through one of
social module the sleeping
panels, is light, and is used Right_ Section modules. Individual
through the social rooms are shared
in cryogenic applications module, designed in the summer

andy cheatle
Above_ The large that prefabricated
cladding panels can modules are placed
be installed rapidly within the structure
– a huge benefit in prior to cladding
view of the short Bottom_ Long
summer season section through
and high labour Halley VI. It is divided
costs for this into two parts,
extreme location separated by
Below_ Construction a bridge as a
sequence, showing fire precaution

088 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Skill


halley VI antarctic research station Hugh Broughton Architects
12 10 11 1 fibre reinforced Opposite, top_ Trial
this approach allowed withstand low temperatures. But with the erection, but also appointed exterior 1 polymer erection of a module
this project pushed GRP technology David Kendall, a structural engineer outer skin in the dock at Cape
the design team to develop – more commonly used in aircraft specialising in composite materials, 2 190mm PIR Town, prior to
or train construction – to its limits. to investigate the problem and help 2 closed cell foam shipping it to the
large panels and create a The contract was awarded devise a solution. insulation Antarctic. These
3 resin infused are the panels that
semi-monocoque structure to South African company MMS
Technologies, partly because it
Kendall’s investigation showed
that none of the cracks were
9 3
cross fibres subsequently failed
4 silicone cladding after they cracked
was one of the few manufacturers structural and that in fact, the mounting in extreme
capable of creating both steel frame structural performance of even the 5 steel cladding temperatures, the
13 8 brackets result of uneven
and GRP cladding as a complete worst affected panels was very good. 4
6 steel distribution of resin
package, and partly because of The source of the problem was
superstructure in the composite mix
the technology it used to make the ‘resin-rich’ areas where the resin 7 steel structure Opposite, bottom_
GRP. There are two components had pooled, without adequate fibre, to prefabricated An early Halley VI
5
in GRP: a mat of fine glass fibres and because of the difficulty that the room pods cladding panel
the resin that infuses them. The mat filled resin had in passing through the 6 8 panels bolted Left, top_ The initial
together through jointing detail, with
is threaded through the insulation, moulding. Working with the architects
FRP flanges its sharp cornered
in this case in the form of trapezoidal and structural engineer, he came up 9 compressible joint that failed
7
blocks. Unusually, MMS used a with a solution that allowed many neoprene in the Antarctic
vacuum method of infusing the resin. of the panels, which had already been insulation Left, middle_ The
interior 10 panels with FRP new detail, used on
‘They had massive truck bodies that fabricated, to be remediated rather
19 18 17 16 14 jointing strip panels that were still
they were making in one piece,’ says than having to be entirely remade.
11 lip in panel to in the factory. Note
Sean Billings of BDA. ‘They put them The joints between the panels exterior 15 receive gasket how much less sharp
in a big plastic bag and poured the were redesigned to be much less 12 silicone rubber the corners are.
resin in through little tubes and sharp, and the original gaskets sealing gasket These panels were
just sucked it through.’ replaced with aluminium cover 13 fibre reinforced also ‘re-skinned’
polymer to prevent failures
This approach allowed the plates. The joints were ground down
inner skin in their centres:
design team to develop large panels to create the new shape, and a 14 gasket lips surfaces were
and create a semi-monocoque similar joint was designed for the machined off to planed and
structure, with panels fixed to red panels, which were yet to be create smooth additional layers
rubber mountings. Early test castings fabricated. The outer faces were also corner detail of fibre and resin
were encouraging, but there were ‘re-skinned’ using resin without filler, 15 re-skinned applied before
surfaces spray painting
problems caused by the demanding since only the interior face of the
16 aluminium Below_ Visualisation
requirements for fire resistance. panels are vulnerable to fire. internal cover of Halley VI Research
To meet these, the design team The new panels underwent mounting strip Centre. The modules
added a ‘filler’, aluminium trihydrate, extensive fire and thermal testing 17 aluminium are mounted on skis,
to the resin. This has the effect of and all were ready for shipping for the mounting strip so they can easily
18 aluminium be towed to a new
giving off water vapour in a fire, and 2009/2010 season. Erection of the
david southwood

external location when


so improves performance. But it also panels went without a hitch – indeed cover strip the ice shelf on
makes the resin more viscous and so it took less time than anticipated, 19 junction cover which they sit
more difficult to infuse under vacuum which was fortunate, as the ship interior gasket becomes unstable
suction. With the largest panels carrying the construction crew was
measuring 10.4 x 3.3m, this was a delayed by 10 days, eating into the
problem. It slowed down production, nine-week building timetable.
and meant that instead of having Broughton is delighted with the
all the panels for the blue modules result. The new joints are crisper
ready for shipping for the summer than the original gaskets, which had
season of 2007/2008, the panels proved to run into difficulties where
for only one module were ready. they had to turn corners. Valuable
This proved a blessing in disguise knowledge has been accumulated
because once the panels reached on using materials in extreme
the Antarctic, small surface cracks conditions. Broughton is now so
rapidly started to appear. Many of confident of GRP’s properties that
these were around the complex a new station he has designed for
moulding in the joint between panels, the Spanish in the Antarctic will be
but some were also in the panel entirely of GRP construction, with
centres. The contractor continued no supporting steel frame.

090 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Skill


A startling urban landscape Below_ As part of the London Festival
of Architecture, now in full fête d’été

of township, mine dump swing, Oslo-based PUSHAK presents


Moss Your City, a spectacular moss

and high-rise landscape intended to unify nature


and architecture. As well as its green
credentials, the project is a response
to the surprising history of moss in
the built environment, from Japanese
gardens and Victorian mosseries to
modern ‘moss grafitti’. Until 6 August.

Book / relationships as well as the


Johannesburg impact professionals dedicated
Transition: to change could make.
Architecture & Curiously the photographs
Society from 1950 are often at odds with the lucid
Clive M Chipkin, STE text. In many places, vibrant
Publishers, 2009, £92.50 passages are not illustrated
– images of the architecture
The shimmering misty of Kliptown settlements and
photograph on the cover of this stills from William Kentridge’s
book shows the startling urban beautiful animated film
landscape of township, mine Johannesburg, 2nd Greatest City
dump and high-rise that define After Paris are left out and there
Johannesburg, built neither on is little of the curious energy of
coast nor hillside, but upon a the Johannesburg I have grown
river of gold. Chipkin mines the to love. Visually, it perhaps
city’s origins in a virtuoso tour misses the transition into the
through politics, theory, art, life new context of a truly African
and language itself, introducing city selling ‘African’ blankets
words from the French lexicon made in China from Victorian
which became irreplaceable shop fronts; noisy, dusty taxis,
in describing this city: hawkers and muti (medicine)
speculator, careerist, rentier, men all reflected and distorted
profiteer, entrepreneur. in the blue glass chill of the CBD.
Weighing in at around 500 That said, the text is so rich
pages, Johannesburg Transition and informative I would
is nearly 200 pages longer than recommend it to every student
its predecessor, Johannesburg of architecture and urbanism,
Style (reviewed AR, March 1995), not just those interested in
and well worth the wait. One Johannesburg vernacular.
reader describes it as ‘protean, Chipkin gives a fascinating
like the city, and incredibly rich insight into how ideas prosper
and abundant’, as it unpacks and connect intellectually,
both scholarly architectural materially and politically from
influences and the vibrant their roots, via the gold, to the
culture of the city from people who made it all possible.
modernity through the dark days Catherine du Toit
of apartheid into a new urbanism
for a new millennium where A hugely invigorating work
South Africa hosts the World Cup. The photography lacks the
This is not just a book about passion of the prose
architectural style, influences,
tectonic or form, this is about
the people and the forces who
made these architectures: their

pushak
backgrounds, passions and

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Marginalia 093


De Chirico’s name is
synonymous with the disquiet
that cities can provoke

Below_ The Enigma of the Arrival and the Afternoon by Giorgio de Chirico Below, from left_Wig Stand Mannequin with Pear-Shaped Money-Box, by Niklaus Stoecklin; The Nostalgia of the Infinite, by De Chirico

Exhibition /
De Chirico, Max
Ernst, Magritte,
Balthus:
A Look into
the Invisible
Until 18 July, Palazzo
Strozzi, Florence, Italy
www.palazzostrozzi.org

Giorgio de Chirico was born in


Greece but sometimes called
himself Florentine, for it was
in Florence that he had the
experience that shaped his
seminal paintings. One day in
1909 he was sitting in the Piazza
Santa Croce and, as the sun fell
on a marble statue of Dante and
the facade of the nearby church,
he ‘had the strange impression
that I was looking at all these
things for the first time, and the
composition of my picture came
to my mind’s eye.’
The painting was called The rooms and spaces of the empty squares, these paintings
Enigma of an Autumn Afternoon, Strozzi’s piano nobile, and all make the world seem a place
and many more in the same vein 101 of them are reproduced in where we will never feel at
followed during the next decade. the accompanying catalogue. home. Andrew Mead
With bare arcades, deep This includes an intriguing essay
shadows and brooding statues, on the sources of De Chirico’s A thought-provoking
the empty squares they feature imagery, in which the writer attempt to explore the
are mysterious and eerie. Often argues that De Chirico’s squares strangeness that can exist
cited by writers on architecture, (Max Ernst, René Magritte), surrounded him: ‘To live in the last or a wig stand with are not as specifically Italian as even in mundane places
De Chirico’s name is now but also on such lesser-known world as in an immense museum hyperrealist precision. Alongside is usually assumed, but instead The melancholic, wistful
synonymous with the sense of figures as the Swiss artist of strange things.’ Whether loans from museums are some are composites from his travels. tone of many of the images
disquiet that cities can provoke. Niklaus Stoecklin. There are emanating from a still life or a fine pieces from private Towards its end, the exhibition doesn’t make for carefree
Just a few minutes’ walk from some real discoveries here. landscape, that strangeness is collections – notably Balthus’ returns to De Chirico, with summer viewing
Santa Croce itself, some of The curators suggest that, palpable in many of the exhibits. superb large Parisian tableau paintings from the mid-1920s
these early works by de Chirico in their different ways, all the As the show unfolds, we see Le passage du Commerce Saint – among them, a bizarre interior
are currently displayed in the artists try to capture something how the surrealists took their André. Shops are shuttered, in which trees climb towards
magnificent Palazzo Strozzi. that’s inherent in reality but cue from De Chirico, and also blinds drawn and the people all the ceiling and waves lap across
But the show’s significance lies not immediately visible – hence discover his impact on Neue preoccupied, in a familiar but the floor. De Chirico’s later

PALAZZO STROZZI
in its attempt to track their later the exhibition’s subtitle. Just Sachlichkeit (new objectivity) inscrutable scene. output is often disregarded,
influence on many other artists as pertinent, though, is De artists like Stoecklin, who paints The works are thoughtfully but these works are distinctly
– not just on household names Chirico’s attitude to all that such mundane objects as a shoe installed in the high-ceilinged unsettling. Just like those early

The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Marginalia 095


Fitting planning principles
for the page – Pevsner
and the picturesque

Below_ The cover for a 1951 issue of the AR, on which Nikolaus Pevsner was one of the editors

were both acting editors of the based on case studies. The AR


AR while JM Richards was on war was to promote such case
service. This book was mostly studies over the next quarter
completed but mysteriously century, culminating in Hastings’
never published. The book under controversial Manplan issues
review, then, has been compiled of 1969-70 (which championed
from the Pevsner archives at the a new style of black-and-white
Getty Research Institute in Los architectural photography)
Angeles, AR articles published and ultimately Civilia, a collage
independently, and elsewhere. of modernist masterpieces in
Largely thanks to Gordon Arcadian settings that focus
Cullen’s book The Concise entirely on the visual aspect
Townscape, the issue of of planning and ignore the
townscape is now more aligned reality of the invisible aspect.
with the re-evaluation of the It’s this naivety that exposes
modern movement that occurred Pevsner the planner as the art
in the 1970s. However, the ideas historian, magazine editor and
behind Sharawaggi or Exterior tourist guide writer that he was
Furnishing or Townscape (the – in that everything must result
principle appeared under various in a picture for the page.
neologisms) were originally Towards the end of his life,
supposed to accommodate Pevsner was criticised by
modern and historical buildings historians such as Manfredo
alike in a picturesque setting. It Tafuri, as an example of an
was Hastings who initiated this operative historian, who wrote
movement. As early as 1944 he history to meet his own goals.
wrote in the AR that ‘a national Visual Planning… smacks of such
Book / Visual remarkably, are still offered up picture-making aptitude has operativity. As such, it should
Planning and as modern architectural history, existed among us, and has done probably have been left in the
the Picturesque rather than historiography. for centuries,’ and it was he who Getty archives. However, what
Nikolaus Pevsner. Edited However, a much lesser suggested that Christopher saves this publication is the
by Mathew Aitchison. known but no less influential Hussey’s seminal 1927 book The excellent introduction by John
Getty Research Institute, role that Pevsner played was Picturesque: Studies in a Point Macarthur and Mathew
2010, £21.95 on the editorial board of The of View and the editors’ day-to- Aitchison, which contextualises
Architectural Review from 1946 day work for the AR were really the manuscript with as much
Nikolaus Pevsner is probably to 1971. It was during this time ‘the one and same thing.’ erudition as insight.
best known outside the world that a policy of visual re- In Visual Planning…, Pevsner Steve Parnell
of architecture for his tireless education was pursued by would have argued that this
tourist perambulations of the Hubert de Cronin Hastings, sense of medieval planning is Illuminating
Buildings of England series. owner of the Architectural Press, the great English contribution introductory essay
Generations of architects have which at that time published the to urban design. Just as English Pevsner’s original book
been educated by his Pioneers AR and its sister magazine, The law is based on cases rather now looks a historical curiosity,
of Modern Design (1936) and Architects’ Journal. Hastings than a written constitution, the best parts of which were
Outline of European Architecture commissioned Pevsner to write Pevsner wished to argue that already published in the AR
(1943), which remarkably remain Visual Planning and the English urban design similarly
in print today and, even more Picturesque in 1942, when they has no body of theory, but is

096 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Marginalia


advertisement feature
AECOM Urban sos

Dixi Carrillo

dixi carrillo
david lloyd

2 3

AECOM, Urban SOS and the which brings together economics, To achieve this requires a system 1_ Dragon Lake
intertwined nature of place environment, landscape, cultural of holistic thinking that looks Bridge Park,
Bengbu, China
and social concerns, with engineering beyond the traditional way of
2_ Loyola
Creating places that are good for and architecture. practising, building, designing Maramount
people, good for cities and good From high-rise buildings that and planning. University, Los
for the wider environment, AECOM’s describe city skylines, to In response to this belief, Angeles, USA
multidisciplinary teams produce educational, cultural, research AECOM has organised the Urban 3_ King’s Waterfront,
Liverpool, UK
clarity out of complexity, to improve and transportation facilities, AECOM SOS open ideas competition. In
quality of life. designers are shaping the world partnership with the World
Its world view and collaborative around us, through collaborative Architecture Festival, Urban SOS is a
approach unites creative excellence and multidisciplinary working. programme that seeks to foster and
with technical expertise for viable, As part of its philosophy to encourage the adoption of a cross-
long-term solutions that respond enhance the quality of life, AECOM’s disciplinary approach among the
to the layers and intertwined buildings are responsive to ecology emerging architectural generation.
nature of place. and reflective of local ambitions. In 2009, AECOM solicited creative
In a world of scarce resources, They fit into the bigger picture of responses to distressed urban
rapid urbanisation, water crises city life and minimise resource use. sites worldwide, irrespective of
and climate change, the built They are good buildings. locale. This year, the theme of
environment plays a more important Good buildings also need transformation is being explored in
role than ever, and is about much the support of good public realm, seven cities around the world. The
more than just buildings. AECOM good transit, sanitation and 2010 programme, together with last
encourages a new approach to energy systems. Taken together, year’s winners, are described in more
creating and sustaining places, these make up good cities. detail in the following pages.

1
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AECOM Urban sos

4_ Three of our multidisciplinary


Urban SOS: Transformations for its transformation. Submissions ‘transforming’ cities approach by looking
An open ideas competition for must be multidisciplinary. The five – Beijing, São Paulo at socioeconomic
students worldwide semi-finalists will receive a trip and Johannesburg and political
to the World Architecture Festival – are the focus of phenomena such
major international as migration and
AECOM’s Urban SOS: Transformations in Barcelona from 3 to 5 November,
events and land valuation
competition invites integrated design where they will present their ideas to investments in 7_ How do
responses to sites in select major a jury of industry, academic and infrastructure transforming,
cities. The competition is open to AECOM professionals. 5_ Civic Space Park, contemporary cities
students of architecture, urban and The submission period is open Phoenix, USA, balance the needs
regional planning, urban design, until 31 July 2010. Semi-finalists will designed by AECOM of globalisation with
Design + Planning the unique qualities
landscape architecture, economics, be announced on 15 September,
6_ The competition and heritage that
environmental science, engineering, and the winner (or winners) will be encourages make them
and related disciplines. Prize money revealed on 5 November. students to take a distinctive?
totals US $20,000 (£13,700). Visit www.aecom.com/urbansos
For 30 years, our student programme for complete entrance requirements.
has instilled real experience in a
generation of landscape architecture, 2009 Urban SOS: Distressed Cities,
urban design and planning students. Creative Responses
Now in its second year as Urban SOS
– a virtual, open ideas competition Last year’s student programme,

alex de dios
– we are giving students all over the Urban SOS: Distressed Cities, Creative
4
world the opportunity for real Responses solicited multidisciplinary
engagement with issues facing built, ideas to urban sites in disrepair.
natural and social environments. This Recognising that many urban issues
year, the theme is Transformations, are concerned with the informal
focusing on a group of globally, economy, the poor, the dispossessed
physically and culturally diverse and challenged communities, the brief
cities. Each is undergoing profound called for dramatic but viable solutions
changes representing both challenges to sites facing ecological degradation,
and opportunities for its future. social disintegration, economic
The competition seeks ideas for collapse, climate change, the impact
site redevelopment in the following of natural disaster or civil unrest.
seven cities: The sites proposed by the students
speak for themselves. Among them
• Phoenix, United States were a former rubbish and waste dump
• Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in Lahore, Pakistan; a string of nine
• Beijing, China separate derelict, vacant lots in the
• Port-au-Prince, Haiti Mitte and Kreuzberg neighbourhoods
• Istanbul, Turkey in Berlin; a crime-ridden, poverty-
• São Paulo, Brazil stricken group of apartment blocks
• Johannesburg, South Africa in Bloemfontein, South Africa; a town
on the Israeli-Gaza border besieged

tom smalara
david lloyd

lei zhang
Students must choose one city and by rocket fire; a polluted river bank
5 6 7
offer a creative and viable proposal in the heart of the Colombian capital
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AECOM Urban sos

Bogotá; a back bay slum in Mumbai; Winner recreation and productive agriculture,
an industrial wasteland on the fringes Sabrina Kleinenhammans (Germany), employing local materials and
of Seoul; a heavily trafficked Master of Science in Architecture modest construction.
neighbourhood in Tehran; a derelict Studies (SMArchS), Massachusetts As grand prize winner,
suburb in Iowa; a crowded informal Institute of Technology (MIT) Kleinenhammans received $15,000
settlement in Ghana; and an empty (£10,200). ‘Although I have travelled
waterfront in the Dutch port Submission title: In-between Green – and worked abroad a lot, I had never
of Rotterdam. A recreational network for Mumbai encountered such an environment,’
In all, 1,050 student teams Location: Mumbai, India she says of Mumbai, which she first
registered, representing 64 countries visited in 2008. ‘It seemed that my
and 240 universities and colleges. Sabrina Kleinenhammans’ proposal understanding of cities and space
396 teams completed full submissions. captivated the jury for its directness, was turned upside-down.’
It was a remarkable outpouring of humility and authenticity. At the In Mumbai, Kleinenhammans
communication about design ideas presentations, Peter Cook was was fascinated with how people
and the nature of urbanism in very especially animated in his delight with appropriated space in the most
different locales. Following three her work, noting that it stood out from astonishing ways. For example,
rounds of judging, involving AECOM’s the other submissions because of its 60 per cent of the city’s residents
Design + Planning studios from around deep and sensitive understanding walk because it is their only form
the world, five teams were invited to both of place and the people who lived of transport.
present their refined schemes before a there. ‘It felt genuine and full of life,’ However pavements are
master jury at the World Architecture Cook remarked. not pedestrian-friendly, occupied by
Festival in Barcelona. The jury included The proposal is based on a series the stalls of street vendors during the
architect, critic and academic Peter of recreational green corridors day, and the sleeping poor by night.
Cook, Beirut-based architect Nabil developed in unused stretches of Kleinenhammans saw children playing
Gholam, and Russian architect Vladimir land bordering rail and major road next to highways or highly polluted
Plotkin. From AECOM they were joined corridors. Typically these corridors shipyards. There was nowhere for the
by landscape architect and urban aggressively bisect poverty-stricken typical Mumbaikar to experience the
designer Jason Prior, architect/ neighbourhoods, but Kleinenhammans tranquillity and sociability of a park.
urban designer Bill Hanway and urban proposes quietly converting them It was this simple idea that inspired
designer Christopher Choa. into a network of simple parks for her winning proposal. 8

9
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AECOM Urban sos

Runner-up Runner-up
Sahar Moin (USA), Master of Miriam Fernández-Ruiz (Spain),
Landscape Architecture, University Bachelor of Architecture, Universidad
of Pennsylvania; and Stephanie Politécnica de Madrid; and Olivier
Ulrich (USA), Master of Landscape Woeffray (Switzerland), Bachelor
Architecture, University of of Arts, Political Science, Université
Pennsylvania de Lausanne

Submission title: interSEED – Submission title: Problem or


cultivating a trans-border coalition Opportunity? Generating urban
Location: Ciudad Juárez-El Paso, fabric from illegal settlements
Mexico-USA border Location: Siem Reap, Cambodia

Moin and Ulrich’s vision for community Fernández-Ruiz and Woeffray


agriculture on the Mexican-American presented an organic regeneration
border won plaudits for its fusion of of a waterside shantytown.
productive, community agriculture Throughout the judging process
and social mission. The pair was it captured the jury’s attention
awarded $2,500 (£1,700). for its gentle hand on the landscape.
The pair was awarded $2,500.

11 13

8 (previous page)_ Arequipa’


Sabrina 11_Finalist, Sloan
Kleinenhammans’ Dawson, Ekachi
winning entry Pattamasatt-
9 (previous page)_ aysonthi, Pamela
10
Kleinenhammans’ Ritchot and Cristina
proposal was for Unguereanu, MIT,
green and ‘Baltimore:
recreational pocket Restringing
spaces along charm city’
Mumbai rail tracks 12_ Runner-up,
10_ Finalist, Carlos ‘inter-SEED:
Bartesaghi Koc, cultivating a
Universidad Nacional trans-border
de San Agustín, coalition’
Peru, ‘Systemic 13_ Runner-up,
Tourism: Self- ‘Problem or
sufficient eco- opportunity?
shelters for Generating urban
degraded urban fabric from illegal
contexts in settlements.’

12
Man’s place in the cosmos and the
mysteries of creation are lyrically
explored in this installation by South
African artist and filmmaker William
Kentridge. Preparing the Flute (2005)
is now in the collection of Rome’s
new MAXXI (page 44). Kentridge’s
fascination with the theatre inspired
him to construct a model of an
Italian-style proscenium, which
frames a projection of animations
based on Mozart’s mystical opera
The Magic Flute. Kentridge describes
it ‘a metaphor for the transformation
from dark into light’, both through
the experience of Mozart’s
protagonists and the way in which
film captures light and brings
imaginary scenes to life. During the
Queen of the Night’s famous aria, the
miniature theatre becomes a camera
obscura, as fireworks and stars erupt
across the sky.
courtesy of maxxi museum

106 The Architectural Review / July 2010 / Delight

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