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CHAPTER 12. �� (Mood).

�? ������ ���뿡 � ������ϴ� ����� ���� �µ��� ��Ÿ���� ������ ���¸� ����
���� � �ϸ�,
��� ���, ��ɹ�, ��d���� ������ ���°� �ִ� . ��d�� /���� �ʿ 䰡 �ִ� .
A. ���: � ���� � ���; ��Ƿμ� ���ϴ� ������ ���8�� ���� �Ϲ����� �.
It is the best way to do the work. � ‫�װ‬: �� ��; �ϱ� '�� ���� ��: ����� �.(����)
I left my heart in San Francisco. �� ���� ��=; San Francisco�� ���� ��ҽ4ϴ�. (���)
He had left here before you came.‫�� � � �� װ‬ 1 �‫������ ;�� � װ‬. (��ſϷ�)
B. ��ɹ�: ���, �䱸, ����, �Ƿ� ��; ��Ÿ���� � ��� �8 � ����� � �� �����Ѵ�.
1. ��d ��ɹ�: 2��Ī �‫ �־‬You�� ���ϰ� �������8�� �����Ѵ�
Put out the light when you go out. ���� �� ��; ��Ŷ�.
Please make yourself at home. ���ϰ� ��ʽÿ�
cf) You go ahead of me. � ‫� ���� �װ‬ .���
--> Ư���� ������ ���Ǹ� ��� ���� ���� �‫ �־‬You�� �տ� ���µ�, ��쿡 ���� � ������
ǥ���� �� �� ��8�Ƿ� �����‫� �ؾ‬ Ѵ�.
cf) Boys, be ambitious! �ҳ���� �, �߸�; ��n��.
--> ����ϴ� ����� �������� ��Ȯ�� ���� �ʿ 䰡 �ִ� ���
2. ��d ��ɹ�:'--���� ���ƶ�'��� ���� ��Ÿ���� �ǹǹ � 'Don't + ����', 'Never + ����'��
���·� ���δ�.
Don't make excuse. �������� ���ƶ�.
Never be cruel. �����ϰ� ���� ���ƶ�.
3, ��b ��ɹ�: 1��Ī�� � 3��Ī�� ����� ��ɹ�8�� 'Let + ����� + �������'�� ������ �.
Let me introduce myself to you. �����в� f �Ұ��� �ϰ 4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�.
Let him go.‫��װ � � � � � � � � �־‬.
Let's(= Let us) have a break. �Ľð�; ����ô�.
4. ��ɹ��� ��v: ��ɹ��� �ǹǹ � ��v�� ������ v���� Do�� ������ �տ� ���δ�.
Do study hard. ��� ������ �Ͽ���.
5. ��ɹ��� v��
a) ��ɹ� + and-: --�Ͽ���, ���� ...
Work hard, and you will succeed. ������ ���϶�, ���� ������ ���� �.
b) ��ɹ� + or-: --�Ͽ���, �8 �� ����� ...
Be hurry, or you will be late. ���ѷ���, �8 �� ����� ��; ���� �.
C. ��d��
1. ��d�� ����
a) ��d�� ����: ���� �Ǵ� �ǹ ��� ���� ��Ȯ���� ��d; ��Ÿ����.
=> If + �‫ �־‬+ ������ ����(�Ǵ� ������)-, �‫ '�־‬+ will, shall, can, may + ������
����
If he be honest, 1 will employ him. ���� � ‫ �װ‬d���ϴ���� �� , �‫ �ٸ‬ä���ϰ ‫�ڴ‬.
= If he is honest, 1 will employ him.
--> �4ó����� v������ ������� ��ſ� ������; ��� � Ѵ�.
If that be so, we shall take an action at once.
���� � � ��� ‫� װ‬, �츮� ���� vġ�� ���‫� �߸ؾ‬Ѵ�.
b) ������� ���
The doctor insisted that I (should) give up smoking.
�ǻ 缱��Բ����� ���� �‫��ݿ�; �ؾ‬Ѵ� ٰ ����� ϼ� �
--> ���, f��, �䱸, ���� ���� �ǹǹ � ��: ����� (���� ��� order, suggest, propose,
demand insist ���� �����) �4��� �‫� ������ �ڿ‬տ� should�� �Ϲ���8�� ���� ��
������ ���� � �� δ�.
He demanded that the money (should) be paid at once.
�‫� �� ��� ���� �� �״‬Ǿ� �Ѵٰ� �����ߴ�.
It Is necessary that he (should) realize what his duty is.
�‫� ���װ� �ڽڽ‬ǹ��� �����ΰ��� ��‫� ���� �ݴ‬ʿ��ϴ�.
--> �����, �Ǵ� ������ �Ǵ�; ��Ÿ���� �����(���� ��� necessary, essential, natural.
important, imperative, urgent��) ��=�� ���4� ������ �տ� should�� �Ϲ���8�� ����
�� ������ ���� � �� δ�.
C) ���
God save her! ����� ÿ , �‫׳‬ฦ ���� �ּҼ�!
2. ��d�� ���
a) ��d�� ���: ����(�Ǵ� �ǹ �)�� �‫�ݴ‬Ǵ � � � d ; � � Ÿ � � � �
=> If + �‫ �־‬+ ����� ����(were) -, �‫ '�־‬+ would, should, could, might + ������
����
If I had the book,1 could lend it to you. ���� �� å�� �ִ�, �ʿ��� ������‫�ٵ‬.
= As I don't have the book, 1 can not lend it to you.
If I were a bird, I could f1y to you. ���� ����, �� ���� ���ư��‫�ٵ‬,
= Were I a bird, I could fly to you.
b) It is (high) time that �‫ �־‬+ ��ŵ���
It is (high) time (that) you went to bed. � ‫� �� ���װ � ���ڸ‬ð��� �.
= It is (high) time (that) you should go to bed.
It is (high) time (that) I was in bed. �� �‫� ���ھ‬ð��� �.
= It is (high) time (that) I should be in bed.
3. ��d�� ��ſϷ�
a) ��d�� ��ſϷ�: ��� ��ǿ� �‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� ��d ; ��Ÿ ����.
=) If + �‫ �־‬+ had + p.p -, �‫ �־‬+ would, could, should, might + have + p.p
If you had tried, you could have done it.
�‫� �װ‬õ��‫��غ‬Ҵ���, �‫�װ�; �� �� �־�; �ٵ‬.
= Had you tried, you could have done it.
= As you did not try, you could not have done it.
If she had bshaved more reasonably, I would have treated her better.
���� � ‫׳‬డ { �� ��q�� �ൿ� ‫ �� �׳‬,���ߴฦ �� �� �����‫����� ;�־‬.
= Had she behaved more reasonab1y, I would have treated her better.
= As she did not behave more reasonably, I didn't treat her better.
b) ȥ �հ �d: ����� ����� ����( �Ͱ ���) �� ����; ��ġ �� ��; ���Ѵ �.
=> If + �‫ �־‬+ had + p.p. ��, �‫ �־‬+ would, could, should, might + ������ ����
If he had worked hard, he would be rich now.
���� �‫ �״� ����� �������ٵ‬,�‫�װ� �������� � ߴٸ‬.
= He did not work hard, so he is not rich now.
If it had not rained last night, the road would not be so muddy this morning.
��� � ��� �Դ���, ���� �4 � ��ħ ó �� ��â �� �ƴҵ���.
= It rained last night so the road is so muddy this morning,
4. ��d�� �ǹ

a) ��d�� �ǹ�: �ǹ
��� ���� ���� �ǽ�; ��Ÿ����.
=> If + �‫ �־‬+ should + ������ ���� -, �‫ �־‬+ will, shall, can, may, would, should,
could,
might + ������ ����
‫ڰ‬
If it should be true, I shou1d/shall be glad. �‫ ��ڰڴ‬,��� � ��� �‫�װ‬.
What should/shall I do if I should fail? ����� � ����  ‫?�����ؾ‬
b) were to �ǹ� ��d: ����ɼ��� ���� ��� ����� ��d8�� �ǹ
����� �� ȸ������
ǥ� ����
.
=> If + �‫ �־‬+ were to + ������ ���� -, �‫ �־‬+ would, should, could, might + ������
����
If the sun were to rise in the west,I would not change my mind.
���� �¾��� ���ʿ��� ���8��‫ �� �� ��=; �ٰٲڴ‬,�‫�ٸ‬.
If it were to be fine tomorrow, I would go out. ������ ���� �t ‫ �� �����ڴ‬,�‫�ٸ‬.
cf) If it should be fine tomorrow, I would go out.
--> �� ������ ���� ����ϰ� �‫� ���ؼ‬Ǵµ �, �� ���ӽ ��� �ִ���� . '�
�� ����: ������
������ ��;�� ��‫ �ٴ‬ȸ������ ��' �Ⱑ ������� ǥ ���� �Ǵµ � ����, �Ʒ ��� ����: �����
���� �ʰ ‫ ����ܼ� ;�� �ڴٴ‬ǥ� ��ϴ����� �. �� �� �� ����: ��� ���� ���ɼ��� ��� �����
�Ϳ����� ȸ������ ��d�ε� �� ����� �� ����� � �ִٰ� �� �� �ִ �.
5. I wish ��d�� ����: ���ϱ� ��� ���; ��Ÿ����.
a) ���� ��ǿ� �‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� �ҿ�
I wish it were true. �‫��� ���װ‬ǹ�� �p ‫�ڴ‬.
= I am sorry that it is not true.
Ƿ ���8�� ����; ���, '�� ���� ���� �ȴ�
--> I wish ��=�� ��d�� ����� �������
I wished it were true. � ‫�� �ٷ‬ � ��� ���‫���װ‬
= I was sorry that it was not true.
Ƿ ���8�� ����; ���, �����f�� ����, ��
--> I wished ��=�� ��d�� ����� �������
������ ����ü�� ��Ž�f�� ���� ��f�� ��� '� ����� ���‫� �ؾ‬�.
b) ����� ��ǿ� �‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� �ҿ�
I wish I had been rich. ���� ������
� ��‫� � ڿ‬p ‫�ڴ‬.
= I am sorry that I was not rich.
--> I wish ��=�� ��d�� ��ſϷ� �������
Ƿ ���8�� ����; ���, '�� ���� ��Ž�f��
�ȴ�.
I wished I had been rich. ���� ���‫���ڿ���⸧ �ٷ‬.
= I was sorry that I had not been rich.
--> �� ��쵵 a)�� �� ��° ���� ���� ��f�� �‫��پ� �־‬
‫� �� ٲ‬�. I wish ��=�� ��d��
������� ���� ��f�� ������
Ƿ �ǹ� ���8�� ����; ��쿡� ����� ��f���� ��
��f �ռ� ��ſϷḦ ��� �Ѵ�.
6. as if �� ��d�� ����
a) as if + ��d�� ���: '��ġ --�� ��ó��'8�� �‫��ؼ‬�.
He talks as if he knew everything. �‫�� �״‬ġ �‫ڱ‬ � ����; �ƴ� ��ó�� �� �
߱ ��.
b) as if + ��d�� ��ſϷ�: '��ġ --���� ��ó��'8�� �‫��ؼ‬�.
He talks as if he had seen it. �‫�� �״‬ġ �‫ڱ‬ �‫��� ;�װ‬Ҵ� ��ó�� �� �
߱ ��.
7. v������ ���
a) But for(=Without): --�� ��(��)��
= If it were not for
= It'it had not been for
But for your help,1 could not succeed.
���� ������ ����, �� ������ �� ���; �����.
= Without your help, I could not succeed.
= If it were not for your heIp, I could not succeed.
But for your advice, I would have failed. ����� ��� �ƴϾ��, �� ������; ���Դϴ�.
= Without your advice, I would have failed.
= If it had not been for your advice, 1 would have failed.
b) �‫)���(�־‬
A true friend would not say so. ��d�� ģ����� ���� ������� ��; ���� �.
= If he were a true friend, he would not say so.
C) ��d��
‫ڰ‬
I should be glad to accompany you. ���; ����� 4 ‫ٸ� ��ڰڽڽ‬ϴ�.
= I should be glad if I could accompany you.
d) �л�
Born in better times, he would have been more famous.
{ �� ��: �ô 뿡 �¾����, �‫����;�ٵ‬/ �� �‫�״‬.
= If he had been born in better times, he would have been more famous,
e) �λ�(��)
I went at once; otherwise I should have missed the train,
�� ��� ������; ���� �ʾҴ � ���� ����; �����.
= I went at once; if I had not gone at once, 1 should have missed the train.
f) ������
A man who had common sense would not do that.
����� �ִ� ������� �� �; ���� ��; ����
�.
= A man, if he had common sense, would not do that.

���� ���� ����


1. The love of truth is the beginning and the end of wisdom. It is with the
astronomer as
he searches the skies from his watch tower and it animates the naturalist as he
investigates
muds gathered from the ocean bed; it is the heart of scientific life, a stimulus to
high
endeavour and a standard of righteouness. In this spirit must Nature be approached,
and by it
is admission gained to the temples of her learning.
-- R. Gregory, "Truth and Testimony"
astronomer n. õ������ animate v. ���; �Ҿ�ִ�, ���ϴ�, naturalist n. �‫�����ڹ‬
investigate v. v���ϴ�, �����ϴ� stimulus n. �‫(�ڱ‬f) righteousness n. d��
2. Without machines, without the wonderful output of things they were able to
produce, the
settlement of over three million square miles of the new lands of the American
continent
would have taken many hundreds of years. Surely, in that time, the new nation would
have
broken up into many nations, with separate customs and enmity among them. That is
what
happened in the slow growth of European civilization,
-- Burlingame, "Men and Machines" --
output n. ���, ���� settlement n. d��, �Ĺ� enmity n. ��밨 custom n. ���
3. I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either
side, and I
barely saw my father before I was eight. For this and other reasons I was somewhat
lonely,
and I soon develeped disagreeable mannerisms which made me unpopular throughout my
schooldays. I had the lonely child's habit of making up stories and holding
conversations with
imaginary persons and I think from the very start my literary ambitions were mixed
up with
the feeling of being isolated and undervalued.
--G. Orwell, "England Your England" --
middle child 3��f�� ��° barely ad, ���� -- �ʴ� disagreeable a. ��‫ٷ‬ο�mannerism n.
������� �� imaginary�� a. �����
4. They met at the party. He was struck with her great beauty and vivacity. "I
suppose
you have more invitations than you can possibly aceept" he said. I can't go out
very often,"
she answered, "because I work. But when I don't want go out with a man. I simply
tell him
I live in suburbs," "What a good idea!" he said, laughing. "And where do you live?"
"In the suburbs," she answered sweetly.
5. Recently I had a chance to watch a surgeon perform a difficult brain
operation. A slight
slip of his hand would have meant paralysis or death for the patient What impressed
me
about him was not his skill but his amazing calmness. I knew that only a few
moments
before the operation he was nervous.
-- William M. Marston, "Put Your Mind on the Spirit."
surgeon n, �ܰ��� ǻ� paralysis n, ���� nervous a. ��v��, ��v�� �ϴ�
6. The most important and difficult steps were taken before the dawn of history.
At what
stage language begun is not known, but we may be pretty certain that it began very
gradually. Without it it would have been very difficult tohand on from generation
to
generation the inventions and discoveries that were gradually made.
-- Bertrand Russel, "Unpopular Essay" --
step n. v�� dawn n. ��, ����� pretty ad. �� hand on: ���ϴ�
7. Why do women live longer than men? Anyone who considers this theme would give
a
snap answer: men take greater risks than women. They work in mines, in factories,
in
dangerous occupations such as flying ... and they have to go to war, This is all
perfectly
true, but it is by no means the sole deciding factor, for at all stages of life the
male sex is
in greater danger than the female. A preference in favor of the latter already
appears in
childbirth, where mortality -- including stillborn babies -- is far greater in
males than in
females.
-- H. Woltereck, "Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men? --
theme n. ��f, f�� mine n. ���� occupation n. ���, �� mortality n. ��w� sole a.
/����
stillborn a. ����
� ���� preference n. ���� �~���, Ư��
8. "Twenty years ago tonight," said the man, "I dined here at Big Joe Brady's
with Jimmy
Wells, my best chum, and the finest chap in the world. He and I were raised here in
New
York, just like two brothers, together. I was to start for the West to make my
fortune. You
couldn't have dragged Jimmy out of New York: he thought it was the only place on
earth.
Well, we agreed that night that we would meet here again exactly twenty years from
that
date and time, no matter what our condition might be or from what distance we might
have
to come. We figured that in twenty years each of us ought to have our destiny
worked out
and our fortune made, whatever they were going to be."
--O. Henry "After two years"--
dine v, �Ļ��ϴ� raise v. ��� ��0�ϴ� drag v. ��� destiny n. ���
9. Man survived the fierce test of the Ice Age because he had the ability to
recognize new
ways and to turn them to his own use. The Ice Ages forced him to depend less on
plants
and more on animals. The rigors of hunting on the edge of the ice also changed the
strategy
of hunting. It became less attractive to stalk single animals. Te better
alternative was to
follow herds and not to lose them -- to learn to anticipate and to adopt their
habits,
including their wandering migrations. The adaptation has some of the earlier
qualities of
hunting, because it is a pursuit; the place and the pace are set by the animal. It
also has
some of the later qualities of herding, because the animal is tended and stored as
a mobile
reservoir of food.
rigor n. (���� ����) Ȥ���� strategy n. ��, å�� stalk v. ��Ӵ� b���ϴ� adaptation n.
���� mobile a. ������
� reservoir n. �����, �����
10. The fact is that we can not have too much Temptation in the world. Without
contact
with Temptation Virtue is worthless, and even a meaningless term. Temptation is an
essential form of that Conflict which is of the essence of Life. Without the fire
of perpetual
Temptation no human spirit can ever be tempered and fortified. The zeal of the
Moral
Reformers who would sweep away all Temptation and place every young creature from
the
outset in a Temptation-free vaccum, even if it could be achieved (and the
achievement would
not only annihilate the whole environment but eviscerate the human heart of its
vital
passions), would merely result in the creation of a race of useless weaklings. For
Temptation
is even more than a stimulus to conflict. It is itself, in so far as it is related
to passion, the
ferment of Life. To face and reject Temptation may be to fortify life. To face and
accept
Temptation may be enrich Life. He who can do neither is not fit to live.
-- Havelock Ellis, "Imporession and Comments" --
temptation n. /Ȥterm n. ��� conflict n. ����, ���� perpetual a, ������ temper v,
�ε 巴���ϴ� fortify v. ��ȭ�ϴ�Vacuum n. ������ weakling n. ��� zeal n. ���� outset n,
����annihilate v. ����Ű��, ��ȿȭ�ϴ� eviscerate v. �� ��� stimulus n. �‫ �ڱ‬ferment
n.
ȿ��

���� d�� ��f


1--4 �� ĭ�� �˸�: ��; ���ÿ�.
1. She looked as if she ---- ill for a long time.
a) were b) fell c) had been d) had fallen
2. If the sun ---- rise in the west, I would not change my plan.
a)wereto b) would c) were d) will
3. Years later, she confessed, "Had Dad told me the truth, I ---- a far better
daughter and
a better wife, too."
a) could have been
b) can have been
c) will have been
d) have been
4. If ---- me then, I should no longer be alive now.
a) you did not helped
b) you had not helped
c) you were not with
d) you have not been with
5 -- 6. ��= �� ������8�� Ʋ�� ��; ���ÿ�.
5. a) Should he come tomorro, I could tell it to him,
b) If you didn't help me, I must have failed,
c) A goo book is, as it were, the light of life.
d) Be a man ever so rich, he ought not to be idle.
6. a) It was proposed that he took care of the matter,
b) If only the rain would stop pouring?
c) A true Korean would have acted differently.
d) But for your help, 1 should have failed.
7-8. ��= �� ������8�� �´� ��; ���ÿ�
7. a) I don't know nothing about it.
b) Had I been you, 1'd not have done it
c) It's very kind for you to do so.
d) Many a star were to be seen.
8. a) If it were not his help, I could not finish it.
b) If he be rich, he would heIp you.
c) What if I should fail again?
d) Would I know it, I could tell it to you.