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1. ���� ����
���� ��� ����-������
�����‫?�ض‬
������;  츮 � � � � � � � � � � ; �е��� �д´8���� �‫��� �� ٴ‬ ����ó�� �д� ����� �.
� ѱ� ; �е��� �������
� տ������� ���� �о���� ���8��, �Ϲ���8�� It--that--
��v����, ��� ‫� �� ־‬-�‫־‬� ,���������; �‫��ؼ‬ϴ� ���(��, �Ϲ���8�� �л����
�‫� �������ڿ‬о� ���4� ���)��� ���� �‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� ����� �. �� ۰ :��� �� ,������ ���
��
dȮ�ϰ� �ľ��� �� �ְ� ������ ��: �ð�; ������ �� �ִ� ��a�� �ִ�.
����1.
I was sitting by the window with a cup of coffee enjoying a truly beautiful
sunrise.
��:�� ���� Ŀ�Ǹ� ����� d���� �Ƹ��‫��� ;���� �ٿ‬鿡 � � � � â���� �ɾ� �‫��־‬.
������
1) / I was sitting / �� �ɾ� �‫��־‬.
2) / by the window / ���
3) / with a cup of coffee / Ŀ�� �� �ܰ��(����; ���ø�)
4) / enjoying a truly beautiful sunrise. /
-> 4)�� / enjoying / a truly beautiful sunrise. / "���鼭/ d���� �Ƹ��";���� �‫ٿ‬
8��
�‫� �ؼ��ص‬t�.
cf) �‫��� �����ص‬,  �л���� ���� ;�     ��
                 �����
        ‫ؼ‬
   ����
�
      ���       ��찡 � � :��, �� ������ �‫��� �׳‬
     �
�ó�� ��
��; �‫����� �ص‬ϴ�.
->"d���� �Ƹ��‫"��� �ؼ‬.���� ;���� �‫� ���ٿ‬Ǿ � �����ü�� ��(I)��� ���; �˱
������ �ǹ� � �ľ��ϴµ� ������ ���� ���.
d��:I was sitting / by the window / with a cup of coffee / enjoying a truly
beautiful
sunrise.
����2.
Various animals have shells that keep them from growing beyond a certain size.
��: ��: ������: �‫�� ���� ����ڱ‬d�� ũ�� �� �8�� �‫��� ���ڶ‬ϵ��� ����(����);
��/��
��.
������
1) / Various animals have shells / ��: ������: ����; ��/�Ѵ�.
2) / that keep them / �‫ �׵‬:�͵‫�� ;�װ‬Ų��.(���´�)
-> ��� �4� �‫ � ڿ‬that�� � which�� ������� �4��� �‫��� � ڿ‬縦 � ľ��ϸ� �‫���ؼ‬
�������.
3) / from growing / Ŀ��� ��8�κ���
-> 2), 3): / that keep them from growing / ��8��'keep -- from -- (--��--�ϴ� ��;
����.)'��� �� �Ἥ'�‫� ׵��� �ڶ‬:�͵‫װ‬� ��; ����.'��� �‫� �ؼ��ص‬t�.
4) / beyond a certain size / � ũ�� �� �8��
d��:Various animals have shells / that keep them / from growing / beyond a certain
size.
���9�f) It is surprising that a good swimmer like him has neglected to learn
about
artificial respiration.
-artificial respiration:�ΰ�ȣ��
�����‫ ��' �ظ‬v��
1,'�‫ ��'����'��'�־‬ã�Ƴ���.
�� �� ������ � ‫־� � � � �־‬ �ɸ��� ���鿡 � � � � �ΰ��� ��Ȯ��
�ƹ��� ������ ������
�˾Ƴ��� �� ������ �4 븦 � ˾Ƴ��� �Ǵ�
� ����
�.
�‫�־‬: ���忡 � � � 鿡 � � '�� ��ü(����)�� �Ǵ� ���� ��κ��� ������ �տ� ���´�.(���,
����, ����� ��)
����: ��ü�� �ϴ� ��'��鿡 � �ü�� x�縦 � � Ÿ���ִ� �����.

There is _a flower_. ���� �� ���� �ִ�.


->'There is --'��'--�� �ִ�'�� �‫��ؼ‬Ѵ�.
_His interest_(s) in the fine arts _had been aroused_(v)at the same time that he
discovered
poetry.
-arouse:�߱�� ϴ�, ���Ű��
���� ���� ���� ���: �‫� �װ‬ø� �߰��� � Ͱ� ���ÿ � ��ԵǾ ��.
������:His interest / in the fine arts / had been aroused / at the same time /
that he
discovered poetry.
_A boy_(s) whom you meet right away _is_(v) Freddy Thompson.
�‫� �� ������ ���� �װ‬ҳ�: Freddy Thompson�� �
->���鿡 � �� � �� ��� ���, �� �տ� ��簡 �ְ� �‫��� �ٷ� �ڿ‬鿡 � �; ���� �� ����
���翡 /���‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�.
������:A boy / whom you meet / right away / is Freddy Thompson.
2. ������� �‫��� �ؼ‬ 8 ������� � ��Ѵ�.
f���� ���� ����� ���
f���� ���--He has two sons who have become doctors.
�‫� �״‬ǻ 鿡 � �� Ƶ��� �� �ִ�.(�Ƶ��� �� �� � x����)
����� ���--He has two sons, who have become doctors.
�‫� �״‬Ƶ��� ���ε� �� �� �ǻ 鿡 � Ǿ��.(�Ƶ��� �� ��)
->���� ��8�� ����� ���ӽ��� ����� ���� f���� ����� ��쵵 � � � � �� � � 8��
�‫� ;�ؼ‬ϴ� �� �t�. �ֳ��ϸ�, �ð�; ��ŭ ���� �� �ְ� '�� ����; ���‫� �ؼ‬츮 � � ��
����� ��
� �˰� �
� � �������.
3. ���������� ��� �������� �˾Ƴ���.
���� �9��� �°��� �� (--���� + ���� )�� ������ �
� ��‫ ڿ‬� �‫� ;�ؼ‬ϰ� ����; ����
���Ƽ�
�������� ������ �κп� ��� ǥ��(/)�� ���ָ� �����‫������� �ذ‬.
The lady who is sitting there is our teacher.
��� �ɾ��ִ� ��� ��: �츮 � � ���
� ô��.
������-The lady / who is sitting / there / is / our teacher
The detectives were finally able to arrest the man whose fingerprints had been
found on
table. ����: � Ź�� '���� ���� �߰ߵ� ���; ü���� �� �‫��־‬.
������-The detectives / were finally able to / arrest the man / whose fingerprints
had
been found on/ on table.
�  ‫�� �ڿ‬鿡 � 4� �� �鿡� ϴ�. ���� ��������� whose
->whose�� ��/�����
fingerprints�� �‫־‬ �ǰ� had been found �� ���鿡 � ȴ�.
Notebooks which Tom had lost on the bus were returned to his college department
office.
Tom ����� � Ҿ��ȴ� ��Ʈ���� ���� ���� ��鿡� � �ǵ��ƿԴ�.
-> ������ which�‫ �ڿ‬Tom�� �� �����
��� �� ��8�� ���� which�� �ְ��� �ƴ� �����
ũ��. ����, lost��� �ܾ � �� ���� � ʿ��� �����ε� �� ������ ���� ������ lost��
�ɶ��
���� ��8�� which� ����� ��������; �� �� �ִ�. ���� ���� on the bus ����
�‫�� ����� �װ‬Ʈ�� �Ҿ��ȴ ‫� ;�� �ٴ‬ľ��� �� �� �Ʒ��� ���� �����‫�ظ� ���ش‬.
������:Notebooks / which Tom had lost / on the bus / were returned / to his
college
department office.
4. ����л�(--ing)�� ��źл�(pp)�� �‫ ���ؼ‬/���Ѵ�.
->����л��'--�ϸ 鼭'��� �����‫� ;�ؼ‬ϴµ� � ‫װ�� � � ־‬ �ɸ����� ���� �ɸ�����
�� ���� ���ƾ�� Ѵ�.
She stood _waiting_ for her husband. �‫��ٸ��(���׳�� �׳��� ����; ��ٸ‬鼭) ��
�‫��־‬.
->����л 簡 � ‫־‬ �ɸ��� ����� �.
He kept me _waiting_ so long. � ��� ‫� ����ٸ ��� ) ���� ����ٸ‬ ����� 7� ���� �‫״‬
(���ֵ� �Ͽ���.
->���� �л 簡 � � � � 鿡 � ɸ��� ����� �.
���� ����� �‫ ��=�� �ٷ‬Ÿ������ ��źл 簡 � � ; ��쿡 � � � � � � � � ‫ ������' �ڿ‬+
be����'�� ���‫־‬ � ������� ; �е��� �‫��ؼ‬Ѵ�.
_The man killed in the accident_ was my friend.
����� ��=; ���� �� ���‫ �� �ڴ‬ģ������.
->The man killed in the accident=The man who was killed in the accident.
������:The man / who was killed / in the accident / was my friend.
The boy _interested in the class_ is Bob �� �.
->The boy interested in the class=The boy who is interested in the class.
������:The boy / who is interested / in the class / is Bob.
_The car broken in the accident_ was mine. ����� ��� �� ��� �� ���� ��.
->The car broken in the accident=The car which was broken in the accident
������:The car / which was broken / in the accident / was mine.
_The solution adopted_ will help us relieve our trouble.
ä�õ� �‫�ذ‬å�� �츮 � � � � � � ; ����� �����.
->The solution adopted=The solution which was adopted(by us)
������:The solution / which was adopted(by us) / will help / us / relieve our
trouble.
� �λ 鿡� � �‫��� ��ٴ� ������ �־‬翡 � � a; �д�.
5. �����
->�λ���:If, when, As ���� b�ӻ� ��=�� �‫���� ���� �� ��'����� ������ ����� ��־‬
�‫���� �� �ڿ‬ 8 ��� � ������ �´�.
_When I was growing up,_(���) I spent every summer helping out on my
grandparents'
farm.
-help out:�ϼ�; �ŵ��.
���� �‫(�� �ڶ‬ũ�鼭), v�θ���� ���忡 � � � � ; �ŵ�� �ָ鿡 � ų� ����; ���´�.
->xx, I xx helping out xx
_By the time we got to the airport,_(���) our plane had already left.
�츮 � � � � � � ������; �� ������ �� � ������. got to = arrive at
->xx we got to xxx plane xxx left.
�λ 籸: �������� �ܾ��� ���n�� � �ǹ� � ���� �����
� ���� ������ ��ó�� '��
��
+ ����'�� ���´� �ƴϴ�. ���强� п� Ŀ�‫�� ;���� �ٶ‬ġ�� �ʴ´�. ���� ��ġ�簡 � � � տ� ��
��.
She stands _on the hill.(�λ 籸)_ ->She stands xx xxx xxxx.
6. �����(content word)�� ��ɾ�(function word)�� �����Ѵ�.
-�� ���忡 � � � � �ܾ������ �ϴ�� ���� �ϴ� ����: �и��� �‫���ٸ‬. � �ܾ���� ‫���ڽڽ‬
��; �и��� ����� �ִµ� �츮 � � � ‫(����� ;�װ‬content word)��� �ϰ� ���, �λ�, ����, ���
�� ��'�� ��� ���ϸ�, �� � �‫����ܼ� ;������ ��ݴ‬ ���� �ִ� ����; �ϴ� �ܾ�����

� '�‫�� ���ؼ‬ɾ��
�ִµ� ��� ������8�� ��ɾ�(function word)��� �Ѵ�. �ð�; ����
���� �ѱ�� ����� ��8� ��; �о���� ��; �鿡 � �� Ѵ�.
Choose a newspaper column on a subject that interests you.
�� ���
� ��� ��f�� ���� �Ź��� Į��; ����.
->Choose x newspaper column xx x subject xxxx interests xxx.
Some readers move their lips or whisper while they read silently.
->xxxx readers move xxxxx lips xx whisper xxxxx xxxx read silently.
� ���‫ �׵‬: �
‫ ���ڵ‬å; v���� �д� ����, �Լ�; ������  ��Ÿ�� �Ѵ�.
->xxxx readers move xxxxx lips xx whisper xxxxx xxxx read silently.
As you improve your comprehension skills, you will gain a broader understanding
of what
you read.
�‫���� ;��� ���� ���� �װ‬Ŵ�� ��� �ʴ� �‫� �װ‬д� �Ϳ����� �� �а� ������ �� ��;

�����.
->xx xxx improve xxxx comprehension skills, xxx xxxx gain x broader understanding
xx
xxxx xxx xxxx.
���� ���� ����
1. Man seeks truth. He attempts / to arrive / at reality. He is the only animal /
that feels
this curiosity / and acts / on it; just as / he is also the only animal / that
laughs, / that
speaks and thinks rationally.
-curiosity n.ȣ��� -rationally ad. �����8 ��, �ո ���8 ��
2. If a glass of water / recently drawn / from a cold spring / is brought / into
a warm
room, / the outer space / of the glass / gradually loses its brightness / and,
before long, /
drops of water / may be seen / moving down the sides / of the vessel.
-spring n. �� -vessel n.���, ��
3. Needless to say, / any estimate / of a modern novel / is valueless / unless it
is
based / on knowledge / of the great work / of the past; but / at the same time /
our
estimates / of the great work / of the past / are always being altered, / however
slightly, /
in the light / of the novels, / of the present. For, / in fact, / all literature, /
both / of the
past and / of today, exists / in an eternal present. We speak / of the tradition /
of the
novel, / but tradition is not a dead thing, / the classics are not so many books /
behind the
glass / of the Victorian book-case. Tradition is a living force, / which grows and
changes.
-estimate n. �� v. ���ϴ� alter v. ���ϴ� classics n. ���� in the light of --:--
��
����Ƽ� tradition n. ����

2. ����(Verb)
�����?
->����: �Ϲ���8�� �‫ �� ���װ‬ü�� ����ִ� �‫�־‬ο� �� �‫�־‬ο� ���Ͽ� ����; �ϴ�
���η� �������. �� ���ο��� ����
� Ǵ� ��; ����� �ϸ�, ����� ���¸� ��Ÿ����
����� ����; ��Ÿ���� ����� ���������. ���� , ����: ������ ~�� ��� �ֿ����
������
��d�Ǵµ�, ���簡 �‫� ����� � ټټ‬з�ʿ� ��� ���嵵 �Ʒ��� ���� 5���8�� �з�ȴ�.
A. 1��� ����(�‫ �����ڵ‬+ �‫)���־‬
�����‫���ڵ‬: ��� ���� �ʿ�� ���� �ʴ� ����
Everything change. ����: ���Ѵ�.
The bird sings sweetly. �� ����Ӱ� �뷡뷡뷡�Ѵ�.
There is a beautiful flower in my garden. �� d�� �Ƹ��‫�ִ� ���� �� �� �ٿ‬.
->'There is ---'�� ����: '--�� �ִ�.'�� �‫��ؼ‬ϸ� �� �� There�� ��Ļ��� �‫�־‬μ� ����;
�ε��ϴ� /���λ���� ��¥�‫ ��־‬be���� ��=�� �4� ��� �� ��� ��籸���� �.
B. 2 ��� ���� (�‫ �־‬+ �ҿ��� �‫ �ְݺ‬+ ���‫)���ڵ‬
->�ҿ��� �‫���ڵ‬: ���縸 8�� �‫־‬ � ��� ������ �� w�Ϲ�  ‫־‬ � ������ִ �
����(�ְ ‫� ��)���ݺ‬ʿ��� ����
ְ � ����: �³��� ���‫����� ;���� �־‬ϴ� �(��� �� �� �ִ� ��: ���(�), ����,
->�

����)
1. be������ ��� (--�� --��
�)
He is an engineer. �‫������ �״‬.
She is beautiful. �‫� ��׳‬Ƹ����.
This car is of no use to him. �� ��� ���� ���� ���.
ְ ‫��ݺ‬ ���籸�� �����
->� �. He runs with rapidity. ��� ����: He runs rapidly.���
����8�� �‫�����ٲ‬. '�� �������� ���� ���� '��ġ�� + ���'�� ���´� �λ 簡 ���� ��ġ��
of�� ������8�� ���簡 �ȴ�. ����, '�� of no use�� useless�� ���簡 �ȴ�.
The best thing is to send her some money.
���� ��: ���: �‫׳‬� �� ��
� � ; ������ �����.
->�ְ � ��� to ��d��ġ ����� ����� ������.
2. become ������ ��� (--�� �Ǵ�)
He become a doctor. �‫� �״‬ǻ 簡 �Ǿ��.
->�ҿ��� �‫��ڵ‬簡 �ƴ� grow, turn, get, go, come, run ���� ������� ��쿡쿡쿡 ���
�‫�� ����� ����ڵ‬찡 �ִµ�, �� ������ �� ���� ��8�� ���δ�. �ҿ��� �‫�� ;���� ����ڵ‬,

����(��ȭ)�� ���� become�� ����� ����(���)�� ���� remain�� ��8�� ���δ�. '�� ����
��: ��ȭ�� ���� �ְ‫��ݺ‬ ����� �ҿ��� �‫��ڵ‬簡 �ȴ�. �Ʒ��� ����; �ָ�����.
1) become �� ��8�� ���� ���
She has grown old. �‫� ��׳‬ľ��.
My aunt turned pale at the news. �츮 ���� �� �ҽĿ� ���� â������� �.
He got angry with me. �‫ ������ �״‬ȭ�� �´�.
It is getting dark ���� ��ο���� �ִ�.
Her cheeks went red as a rose with shame. �‫�� �� ���׳‬: �β�� ��� ��8��
�Ӿ�s��.
Your dream will come true some day. ��� ���ΰ� �� ���� ������ �����.
The well has run dry. �칰칰칰���� �����ȴ�.
2) remain�� ��8�� ���� ���
This contract still holds good. �� ���: ���� /ȿ�ϴ�.
Inflation still runs high in this country. �� ��� � �� ÷��� ������ ���.
 
3. ������� ���
The cloth feels smooth. �� õ: �ε 巴�� �2����.
->�� ����: '�� õ: �ε 巴�� �2����.'(=I feel this cloth smoothly.)�� ���� �ȴ�. �
���,
�� �������� '�ε 巴��'��� �λ�ó�� ���� �ȴٰ� �‫ �ؼ‬smooth�� 'ġ��smoothly��� �λ 縦
����‫� �� ���ؼ‬ȴ�. �‫���� ���� ��� �ٷ‬翡 ���� �‫־‬ � ������� �� �����=��

�ְ‫���ݺ‬μ� ���簡 �;��ϸ�, ��� �� ����: 2��� ������ �ȴ�.


This medicine tastes bitter. �� ��: ����.(���� ���� ����)
His story sound true. ���� ��߱ �� ��¥ó�� �鸰��.
The rose smell sweet. ���� ���Ӵ�.(���ο� ���� ����)
4. /�纸�� Ȥ: �‫( ���غ‬Quasi-Complement)
->live, die, go, ���� ����� ��=�� ��8�� ����� ;���� ���1 ���� :����‫ڵ‬
‫���ְݺ‬ �8�
��� 2��� ������ �Ǵµ�, �� ���� ��� /�纸�� Ȥ: �‫� ����غ‬Ѵ�. �� 2��� ����:
��� f���ϸ� ������ ������ �� ���� �� ������ ����� � Ѵ
.
�‫ �־‬+ live, die, go, marry, stand, fall�� + ��纸��, ���� ����, ����л 纸��(�‫���־‬
�ɵ���
����), ��źл� ����(�‫<)���� ���� ���־‬-/�纸��
He died a millionaire �‫� �״‬鸸 ��� � ��� �‫��ڷ‬.
The snow fell deep. ���� ��� ����.
She died young. �‫�� ��׳‬ ���.
He stood learning against the wall. �‫ ��� ���� �״‬ä �� �‫��־‬.
Tom went home satisfied with the result. Tom: ��� ��w�8�� �‫���� ��ؼ‬.
C. 3��� ����(�‫ �־‬+ ���� Ÿ���� + �����)
���� Ÿ����: ���� �ʿ��ϸ� ��� �ʿ� ��� ����
�����: ��� ��'�� ���� ����� �Ǵ� �� (���� �� �� �ִ� ��:���, ������ �����,
��d���� ����� ���, ����� �� ���� �����),� 츮��� 鿡鿡� 鿡 ‫����� �� ;�� �ؼ‬v��

'-;/��'�� �‫�� �ٴ‬


The early bird catches the worm. ���� �Ͼ��
� � �� ��´�.
I have finished writing my composition. ���� �۹� ���� ��; �����ƴ�. -> �����
�����
I want to meet her. �� �‫׳‬ฦ ������ �ʹ�.-> ��d�� ����� (��d���� ����� ���)
He absented himself from school. � ‫� �״‬б��� �Ἦ�ߴ�.-> ��ʹ��� �����
1. ��w �����
->laugh, live, sleep, dream ���� ����� �����‫�� ����� �������ڵ‬: ��簡 �� � ����
��
������ �4� ��찡 �ִµ�, ��� ��w ������ �ϸ� �� ���� ����: 3����� ������ �ȴ�.
�3�� ,�������� ����: �Ʒ��� ������ó�� 1���8�� �‫�ִ� �� �� �ٲپ‬.
�� ϰ� ��Ҵ�.
He lived a happy life.=He lived happily. � ‫ູ� �״‬
I slept a sound sleep=I slept soundly. �� ��: ��; ���.
I dreamed a strange dream.=I dreamed strangely. �� ����� ��; �‫��پ‬.
2. Ÿ���籸
-> '�‫ ���ڵ‬+ ��ġ��, ���� + ��� + ��ġ��, ���� + �λ� + ��ġ��' ���� ���·� 2�� ��
���
������ �� �� Ÿ���� ����; �ϴ� ��; Ÿ���籸��� �Ѵ�. �Ʒ�������:�ʼ���� 8 �
�ϱ��‫�س‬ƾ� �ϴ� �͵����.
He laughed at her. �‫״� �׳‬ฦ ����� (�‫ ���ڵ‬+ ��ġ��)
Teacher will spend for the doctor. �����: �ǻ 縦 �θ��� ���; ���� �����.
You must take care of your sister.�� �� ������; ������߸� �Ѵ�.(����+ ���+ ��ġ��)

They looked up to him. � �: �‫׵‬ � x���ߴ�. (���� + �λ� + ��ġ��)


3. Ÿ���籸(�‫ ���ڵ‬+ ��ġ��)�� ���ϱ� ���� Ÿ����
->��= �����: Ÿ�������
� ( )��� ��ġ���; ��8�� �ȵȴ�.
We are now approaching (to) the island. �츮�� ��� ���� b���ϰ� �ִ�.
Are you going to attend (at) the meeting? ȸ�ǿ� ���Ͻ� ��d�� ʴϱ�?
The doctor entered (into) the room quietly. �ǻ�� v���� ���8�� ����.
cf)enter into=begin
He married (with) a rich girl. � ‫�� ���� ������ �״‬ȥ�ߴ�.
->'�� ������ ���°� �� ���:A rich girl was married to him.
We discussed (about, on) political problems late into the night. �츮�� ��ʵ���
dġ��f��
����ߴ�.
D. 5��� ���� (� ‫ �־‬+ �ҿ��� Ÿ���� + ����� + ����� ����)
�ҿ��� Ÿ����: ����� ����8�δ� ����; �����ϰ� �� �� ��� ����� ���� ������
��
ִ ������������ �´�.
����� ����: ������� ���³� ����; �����ϴ� � (����� ��� �� �� �ִ� ��: ���,
����, ����)
I(s) thought(v) him(o) a thief(o.c) �� �‫��� �������� �װ‬Ѵ�.
You(s)'ll find(v) somebody(o) waiting(o.c) for you at the door. ������ ���� ��
‫��ٸ‬ϴ�.
I(s) think(v) it(�������) natural(o.c) _that she didn't consent to it_.(������)
�� �‫׳‬ �ű � �����
v �ʴ� ���� �翬�ϴٰ� ���Ѵ�.
->����� ����� �������� ���������� x���Ѵ�.
They called him a little giant. ����: �� ��: ������ �� �ҷ���.
->'�� 5��� ����; ���·� �2 �‫��ٲٸ‬Ĺ����� �ȴ�.
He was called him a little giant (by them). by them: �Ϲ� � ‫�� ��־‬
1.'to��d��'�� ����� ����� ���� ����
She got Stuart to help her. �‫ ��׳‬Stuart�� �‫׳‬ฦ ���칰쵵쵵�� �ߴ�.
He allowed me to do so. � ��
��� �‫� ��� ״‬ϴ� ��; ����ߴ�.
They forced him to sign a paper. �‫ �װ‬:�‫����� ��� �׵‬ϵ��� �����ߴ�.
2. ������ �翪������ ���
-> ����� feel, taste, hear, see, smell��� �翪���� have, let, make ����
�����=����
����� ����μ� to�� ��� ��d�� ��, �����d�簡 �´�.
I saw him cross the bridge. �� �‫� ���װ� �ٸ‬dzʴ� ��; ���Ҵ�.
cf)I saw him cross the bridge.
I heard Tom laugh. �� Tom�� ��� �Ҹ��� ����.
->'�� ������ ���·� �‫ ������ �ٲ‬to�� ��Ƴ���.
Tom was heard _to_ laugh by me.
They let me have my own way.‫ ��� � �� ڴ‬: � ‫� ��׵‬ϰ� �ߴ�.
have one's own way: �‫� ��ڱ� �ڴ‬ϴ�
3. Agent
I(s) got(v) my servant(o) to clean the room(o.c). �� ������ ��; û���ϰ� �ߴ�.
=I had my servant clean the room.
=I got the room cleaned (by my servant).
=I had the room cleaned (by my servant).
-> �� � ��: 5����� ����鿡� ������� �4��� ��=�� �‫���� �ٷ‬ agent��� � �. Ѵ
���
� agent�� ��'�� �ɷ��� ��; ������ ����� ����� to ��d�糪 �����d��(�翪���糪
��
������� ���)�� �0� ��'�� �ɷ��� ��; ��쿡쿡쿡�� ��źл 簡 ����� ����� �´�.
They didn't understand what I mean. �‫�׵‬: ���� ���ϴ� �ߴ��� ������������ ���� ‫�ٸ‬.
= I could not make myself understood (by them).
She felt someone touch her face. �2� ;�� ���� ;�� �‫���׳�� ���� �ڱ‬.
= She felt her face touched (by someone).
E. 4��� ���� (� ‫ �־‬+ ����� + ��b����� + ��b�����)
I(s) gave(v) her(i.o) a book(d.o). �� �‫׳‬� �å �� ��; � ‫��־‬.
->'-����'�� ��; ��Ÿ���� her�� ��b�����(i.o)��� �ϸ� '--��, ;'�� ���� the book; ��b
�����(i.o)��� �Ѵ�. �� � ���� ��b������ ��b���� ���ϴ� ���縦 ������� �ϸ� ��
�����(d.o)��� �Ѵ�. �� � ���� ��b������ ��b���� ���ϴ� ���縦 ������� �ϸ�
�� ���簡 �ִ� ������ ���¸� 4��� �������� �Ѵ�.
I(s) owe(v) him(i.o) some money(d.o). (4���) �� ���� v�� ���� �ִ�.
=I(s) owe(v) some money(o) _to_ him. (3���)
->��κ��� ������ ��b���� ��8�� ���� �� ��b�����տ� to��� ��ġ�縦 �‫���ٿ‬
‫ټ‬
������ �� �‫������ �ڰ‬.
1. ������� ����; ���·� ���� ��
He sent the pain flowers. � ‫ �״‬ȯ�‫� ���ڿ‬ɴ ‫�´��� ;�ٹ‬.
->I.O�� � ‫��� ���� ��־‬:The Patient was sent flowers by him. (3���)
->D.O�� �‫�� �ٲپ‬8���3 ;���� ������ ��:��� ���� ��‫���� �־‬
He(s) sent(v) flowers(o) to the patient.
Flowers were sent to the patient by him. (1���)
2. ��b���� �‫ �� ���� �ڷ‬for�� ���� ����:make, buy, get ��
-> � � � '����, � � �'�� �ǹ�
� ���� ������
�.
Father bought me a watch. �ƹ��� ������ �ð 踦 �� ��̴ � .
= Father bought a watch _for_ me.
Mother made me a new suit. ��Ӵϰ� ���� �� ��; �� �� �����̴ � .
= Mother made a new suit _for_ me.
3. ��b���� �‫ �� ���� �ڷ‬of�� ���� ����: ask, demand ��
->�� � '�ǹ�, �䱸'�� ��; ������ ������ �.
The teacher asked me a question. ����Բ��� ���� ��; �ϳ� �ϼ� �.
= The teacher asked a question _of_ me.
4. ��b���� �‫���� ��� �� ���� �ڷ‬:envy, take, forgive, save ��
5. ������ ���ϱ� ���� ����:explain, suggest, confess ��
I explained them the theory. (x)
I explained _to_ them the theory. (o) �� �‫׵‬鿡� ��� �� �; ������� ‫��־‬.
-> Explain, suggest, confess ���� ����� ������ ���‫ ��' �ؼ‬Ʋ�� ��ó�� �� �� �ִ�
�� �����‫��ؾ‬ϸ� �ǹ� � ��b���� �‫��ش‬ϴ� �ܾ��� տ� �‫�� ��ݵ‬ġ�縦 ����‫��ؾ‬Ѵ�.
�����‫���ؿ‬
1. Wealth, in the strict sense of the world, can do little for our happiness; and
many rich
people feel unhappy just because they are without any true mental culture or
knowledge.
2. I am myself a lover freedom, but in a scientific word freedom needs certain
limitations
that were formerly unnecessary. It needs limitations especially in the economic
sphere. I find
myself on this point out of sympathy with many men who consider themselves lovers
of
freedom.
- Belltrand Russel, "The Eighty Years"-
limitation n. �Ѱ� sphere n. �‫�ݱ‬, ���� sympathy n. ��, ��d
3. It made the boy sad to see the old man come in each day with his skiff empty
and he
always went down to help him carry either the coiled lines or the gaff and harpoon
and the
sail that was furled around the mast. The sail was patched with flour sacks and,
furled, it
looked like the flag of permanent defeat.
- Ernest Hemingway, "The Old Man & the sea"-
skiff n. �9�, ��: � gaff n. ����(��) harpoon n. �‫�ۻ‬
patch v. ���� permanent a. ������ furl v. ����
4. I want to make the future better than the past. I don't want it contaminated
by the
mistakes and errors with which history is filled. We should all be concerned about
the future
because that is where we will spend the remainder of our lives.
- contaminate v. ��ġ�� remainder n. ������
5. I would teach a child to be happy. Happiness is by no means life's greatest
goal, and it
is not necessary to be happy all the time. But happy experiences help to make
generous and
outgoing personalities. They give us memories to warm the history of our lives.
- generous a. ����� outgoing a. �米���� dz����, ��������
6. After a very Hectic Day, my husband came up behind me, put his arms around me
and
said, "Happiness is being married to you." Not really paying attention, I muttered,
"Okay,
honey," Later he asked me if I remembered what he had said, and was disappointed
when I
didn't. "All right, then," I retorted, trying to get even. "What was the nicest
thing I ever
said to you?" "I do," he answered without hesitation.
- attention n.���� , ���� mutter v. ��Ÿ�� retort v. ����ϴ�
disappoint v. �Ǹ}�Ű�� hesitation n. ����
7.When fatigue is the result of physical effort, rest is not a difficult art, but
if fatigue
comes from mental effort, sleeping may be withheld when it is urgently needed. In
this event
there is an art of sleeping, and here are some of its secrets:in order to sleep one
must
believe in one's ability to sleep:drug taken in very small doses are particularly
useful in
contributing to this self-suggestion.
fatigue n. �� physical a. 0ü��� mental a. d������
urgent a. �����, ����� secret n. ��� contribute v. �
�ϴ�
8. Columbus was the first that sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. He reached
America in
seventy days. It was about four hundred years later that the same ocean was
conquered
again--this time by air. The here was a young American airman whose name was
Charles
Lindbergh. On May 21, 1927, This Columbus to the air left New York, saying
goodbye
waving his hand to many people who had come to see him off. Thirty three and a half

hours' flight brought him to Paris. When he got out of the plane his legs almost
failed him,
but he said happi1y, "Well, here use are!"
conquer v. d���ϴ� wave v. ��; ���� see off ����ϴ�
9. My mother loved me no less ardently than my father, but she was of a quicker
temper,
and less clever at winning affection. She comply when If first remember her; she
was also
highly accomplished, but she felt my father's loss of fortune more keenly than my
father
himself, and it preyed upon her mind, though rather for my sake than for her own.
Had I not
known my father I should have loved her better than anyone in the world say how
mean she
had thought it of him to entrust all scolding to her so that he would have more
than his due
share of my affection.
keen a. ��ī�ο�, ������ prey upon:��ƸԴ� entrust v. �ñ��. '��('Ź)�ϴ�
temper n.����, ����, ȭ affection n. ��d jealous a. �ñ��ϴ�, �������
10. I think that the advocates of peace should emphasize, not only the
unspeakable disasters
to which existing policies must lead, but also, and just as much, the new world of
unexampled happiness which is opened to us if we can forget our quarrels. Man has
risen
slowly from a rare and hunted species, constantly threatened by wild beasts that
were his
superiors in strength, periodically decimated by disastrous famines, haunted by
terrors
generated by the spectacle of apparent1y hostile world of nature. Man has risen to
mastery
over the external dangers, but he has not risen to mastery over the internal
dangers
generated by his own passions of hate and envy and pride. The time has come when he

must master these internal perils or recognize that he is himself a more dangerous
wild beast
than the lion or the tiger. It is unbearable to think that all the immense progress
since the
days of primitive man may be thrown away because we can not acquire that last step
in
mastery which is the mastery over our own passions.
-Bertrand Russell, "Fact and Fiction"-
advocate n. ��ȣ�� emphasize v. ��v�ϴ� unexampled a. /�ʰ� ���
species n. ~�� decimate v. �‫��ݰ‬ϴ� famine n. ��� primitive a. �����
����d����f
1-5.�� �� �˸�: ��; ���ÿ�.
1. He (entered, entered into) the house.
2 Are you going to (attend, attend to) the meeting?
3. Please explain (me, to me) what this means.
4. He (approached, approached to ) his destination
5. They (discussed, discussed about) the problem.
6. �˸�: ��; ���ÿ�.
I like Mozart's music very much because his music sounds.----.
a) sweet and soothing
b) sweetly and soothingly
c) sweetingly and soothingly
d) sweetingly and soothing
7. A���� ����� ��: ����; B������ ���� �� ���� ����.
A. 1) Please excuse my being so late.
2) The government set prisoners free.
3) Did his family live on hie salary?
4) I remain yours truly.
5) Has he paid you and your friends the money?
B. a) He looks every inch a gentleman.
b) We think it most dangerous your climbing the mountain alone.
c) It does not do to be rude to strangers.
d) Your geography book tells you about our exports -- iron, coal, woolen goods,
etc.
e) I left my father quite well last year.
f) Does my singing in the room above disturb you?
g) Are there many apples on your trees this year?
h) Please send me by express the articles mentioned in my list.
i) Things will come right.
j) I will make you a new suit of clothes.
8. �˸�: ��; ���ÿ�.
Mr. Dalton offered----because he likes his credentials
a) her to the position
b) the position for her
c) her the position
d) to her the position
9. ���忡�� Ʋ�� �κ�; ���ÿ�
The computer _makes_(a) _possibly(b)_ _a(c)_ phenomenal leap _in(d)_ human
proficiency.

3. ����(Passive Voice)
���¶�?
‫ټ‬
'��'�� - ����'�� ����迡�� ���‫ ;���ڰ� �־‬ǥ���ϴ� �� ���� � �� 8 ��
�Ϲ���8�� '--�Ǵ�, --���ϴ�'�� �ǹ�
� �‫��ؼ‬Ѵ�.
�ɵ���: �‫ �־‬+ ���� + ����� (�‫־‬ � ���  � ����)
����: �‫ �־‬+ be ��źл� + by �ɵ��� �‫����� ���־‬
A. 3��� ����(3���->1���)
I love her. �� �‫׳‬ฦ ����Ѵ�.(����)
->She if loved by me.
Columbus discovered America. �‫ݷ‬Һν��� �� �; �߰� ��ߴ�. (���)
->America _was_ discovered by Columbus.
I have written the letter. �� �� ���� ���. (����Ϸ�)
-> The letter _has been written_ by me.
I had seen the sight. �� �� ����; �� ���� �ִ�. (��ſϷ�)
->The sight _had been seen_ by me.
I am writing a novel. �� �Ҽ�; ���� �ִ�. (��������)
->A novel _is being written_ by me.
He was doing it. � ‫� ;�� �� �״‬ϰ� �‫��־‬. (�������)
->It _was being done_ by him.
The company has been testing him all morning.
ȸ��� ���� ���� �‫ ;���� �װ‬ġ���� �ߴ�.(����Ϸ�����)
->He _has been tested_ all morning by the company.
->'�� 3��� ����; ���·� �츮�� ��� �‫ٸ‬۴ ‫" �ٴ�� �ٲ‬He has been being tested all
morning by the company."�� �Ǿ�� �� ����
�. ���� ������ ���°� �Ϸ��������� ����:

���·� �‫� �� �ٲ‬Ϸ������� ���·� ���� �ʰ� �‫� �׳‬Ϸ���·� ����.


They sell tea at that store. �� ��a���� ȫ�� �Ǵ�.
->Tea is sold at that store.
‫ټ‬
->���¿��� ��'�‫� �ڰ‬Ϲ����� � ������ ���; ��Ÿ���� by them, by us��: �Ϲ��� �‫��־‬
���� �ȴ�.
She seated herself on the chair. �‫� ��' ���� ��׳‬ɾҴ�.
->She was seated on the chair. �‫� ��' ���� ��׳‬ɾ� �‫��־‬.
->��ʹ��簡 ������ �1 �� ְ ������ �� ��‫��־‬Ī8�� �‫���� �� ��ٲ‬: ����;
��v���� ���� ��: ���¸� ��v�Ѵ�.
1. ���� ������� ���
_We(s) sav(v) that he is clever(o)_ �츮�� �‫���� �װ‬ϴٰ� ���Ѵ�.
-> That he is clever is said ( by us ).
= It is said (by us) that he is clever.
= It is said that he is clever (by us).
-> He is said _to be_ clever.
-> ����� ������� ��f�� ���‫ �ٸ‬to be��� �ܼ������ d�簡 ���� � ������� ��f�� ������
��f���� �ռ��� �� ������ �Ϸ��� ��d�縦 ����. ���� ���� "We say that he was
clever."��� �Ϸ��� ��d�縦 ����� "He is said _to__have been_ clever."��� ���ľ� �Ѵ�.
I believed that she was rich. �� �‫׳‬ � �� ٰ � �Ͼ��.
‫��ڿ‬
->That she was rich _was_ believed by me.
=It was believed that she was rich by me.
->She was believed _to be_ rich by me.
2. ��d�� ����
Nobody believes that she was beautiful.
�ƹ��� �‫׳‬ � ����Ƹ��‫�ٿ‬ ٰ � ���� �ʴ ´ � .
->That she was beautiful is believed by nobody. (x)
=It is believed by nobody that she was beautiful. (x)
->��: Ʋ�� ������ �ƴ��� �Ʒ��� �� ����: Ʋ�� �������. �ֳ��ϸ�, ����
�� �d ���
��8�� ���t� ������ ��8�� �d � ������ �� ���ʿ� x���‫� �ؾ‬ϱ� ������ �. no, never,
nobody, nothing: ���� not + any, not + ever, not + anybody, not + anything8�� ���
‫� �ذ‬Ǹ�
���� not�� ������ ��8�� ���t� ������ �ִ�. ��� �ù ‫���� �ٸ‬: �Ʒ��� ����.
It is _not_ believed _by anybody_ that she was beautiful. (o)
�� ��d�縦 ����� ���������� She is believed to have been beautiful by nobody. �� Ʋ��
������ �Ǹ� �Ʒ��� ���ƾ߸� �´� ������ �ȴ�.
She is not believed to have been beautiful by anybody.
->'�� ���� no, never, nobody, nothing�� ����ִ� ���忡���� ���·� ��ȯ�� �� �‫��ݵ‬

��
�; �����‫�� �ؼ‬d�� not; ������ ��8�� �����߸� �Ѵ�.
B. 4��� ���� (4��� => 3��� Ȥ: 1���)
He gave me the book. � ‫ �� ������ �״‬å; �‫��־‬.
->I was given the book by him. (3���)
->��b���� �‫־‬ � ������ �.
->The book was given to me by him. (1���)
->��b���� �‫־‬ � �����ε�, �� ������ ���0� �Ǵ� ��� ��=�� ����. ���� 4���
����; ��ġ�縦 �Ἥ 3���8�� ��ȯ�Ѵ�.
He gave the book to me. (3���)
->The book was given to me by him. (1���)
The book was given _me_ by him
->��b���� �‫�� �� ;�� ��־‬b ����� �տ� to�� ���� '�� ����� ��: ���·� �‫�ٲ‬
�ϴµ� �� ���� ��b���� ���� ������� �ϸ� �� ����: 3����� ������ �ȴ�.
��� ��ġ�縦 ���� ������ ����
1. ��b���� to��
I bought her a ring. �� �‫׳‬� ����� �� �‫��־‬.
=I bought a ring for her.
->A ring was bought _for_ her by me.
He asked me a question. � ‫� ;�� ������ �״‬ϳ� �ߴ�.
= He asked a question of me.
->A question was asked _of_ me by him.
2. ��b���� ������ �‫־‬ � ��� ��� ����:buy, make, get, bring.
(��ġ�� for�� ���� ����)�� send, carry, pass (�ű��, �dz ‫)����� ���� ;�� ���״‬, �
��� sell
��
He passed me the salt. �‫� ������ �װ‬ұ�; �dz��‫��־‬.
->I was passed the salt by him. (x)
3. ��b���� ������ �‫־‬ � ��� ��� ����:envy, spare, save, sell, call, kiss
��
->forgive�� envy ��: ��b���� �‫������� ������� ��� �� ���� �ڷ‬.
God forgive you your sin. (o) ���� �� �˸� �뼭뼭뼭�ϽŴ�.
God forgive your sin for you. (x)
->��� ��b���� �‫��� ������ ��־‬°� �Ұ��������.
C. 5��� ���� (5���=>2���)
_They(s)_ _call(v)_ _me(o)_ _a crazy dog(o.c)_. �‫�׵‬: ���� ��ģ���� �θ���.
->_I(s)_ _am called(v)_ _a crazy dog(s.c)_ by them. (2���)
1. to ��d�簡 ����� ������ ���
_Everybody(s)_ _expected(v)_ _Mary(o)_ _to marry John(o.c)_.
��ΰ� Mary�� John�� ��ȥ�ϸ���� ���ߴ�.
-> Mary was expected by everybody to marry John.
= Mary was expected to marry John by everybody.
2. �����, �翪������ ���
->����� �‫�� ���� ���� ����� ����� ���ڿ‬d��� ���·� �‫�� ����ٲ‬쿡쿡쿡�� to
��d���
�‫��ٲ‬.
ܿ � �������� ������.
_I(s)_ _made(v)_ _her(o)_ _go abroad(o.c)_. ���� � ‫׳‬ �
-> _She(s)_ _was made(v)_ _to go abroad(s.c)_ by me.
He heard her sing. � ‫ ״�� ׳‬ �뷡뷡뷡�θ��� �Ҹ��� ����.
->She was heard to sing by him.
He let me do it . � ‫� ;�� �� ���� �״‬ϵ��� ��� ‫�״‬.
->I was let me do it by him. (x)
->I was allowed to do it by him. (o).
�翪���� have �� let : ���°� ���.
D. Ÿ���� ����; �ϴ� ���籸�� ����
1. �‫ ���ڵ‬+ ��ġ��
Everyone _laughed at_ his idea. ��ΰ� ���� ��; �����.
->His idea _was laughed at_ by everyone.
2�� ����� �
ܾ  �� � ϳ ��� Ÿ ����� ��: ����; 縦 ����
�ϹǷ � ��ġ��
‫�״�� ����ؾ‬
�ȴ�.
ex) ask for(�䱸�ϴ�), believe in(�ϴ�), care for(������), deal with(�‫)��ٷ‬, look
for(�),
object to(-�‫��ݴ‬ϴ�) ��
2. Ÿ���� + ��� + ��ġ��
You must take good care of him. �� �� �� ������߸� �Ѵ�.
->He must be taken good care of by you. (1���)
'�� ����: take good care of �� �ϳ��� Ÿ���籸�� �����‫������ �ؼ� ���·� �ٲ‬.
����
�츮�� ���� ����; ��=�� ��: ��v�� �ľ��� ��� �� �‫��� ������ �ٸ‬°�
���������.
_You(s)_ _must take(v)_ _good care(o)_ _of him(�λ 籸)_.
->Good care was to be taken of him by you.
���9�f) ��= ����; �� ���� ���� ����8�� �‫ٲٽ‬ÿ�.
He paid great attention to the professor's speech.
� ‫��� ������ ������ ������ �� �״‬Ǹ� ����.
ex) make fun of 'v���ϴ�', catch sight of '�߰� ��ϴ�', take refuge in '�dz� �ϴ�', pay
heed to
'/���ϴ�', find fault with '����(��) �ϴ�', take advantage of '~�� ��
��ϴ�'��
� � 縦 � ����� �� �‫��� ��� �־�� �ؼ� ���·� �ٲ‬
->'�� ����: ����� ��

��縦 ����ϴ� ���簡 ���� ��: ��� �� �‫���� ���� ����ٲ‬: ����� ������ �� ��
�ִ�.
3. �‫ ���ڵ‬+ �λ� + ��ġ��
They looked up to me. �‫�׵‬: ���� x���ߴ�.
->I was looked up to by them.
She speaks well of him. � ���‫ �׳‬Ī���Ѵ�.
->He is well spoken of by her.
- is spoken well of �� Ʋ�� ǥ��: �ƴ��� is well spoken of �� �� ���� ���Ǵ� ǥ����
�.
E. �ǹ����� ��ɹ��� ����
1. �ǹ����� ���
Did you meet her? ���: �‫׳‬ฦ �����4ϱ�?
�� Ѵ
->�ǹ����� ���� �� 8��� ���ļ� ��� .
��
You met her.
->She _was_ met by you. (�� �� was�� v����� ���� ���� �� �ִ�.)
->Was she met by you? (��ȯ�Ϸ�)
Who wrote the book? ���� �� å; ��4ϱ�?
->�ǹ��簡 �ִ� �� ǹ����� ��� ������8�δ� ���� �ʰ��� �ϴ� ��=ǥ�� ���� �� ó���
���Ѵ�.
_Who(s)_ _wrote(v)_ _the book(o)_
->The book was written by whom. (�ǹ���� was�� �տ� ����)
->By whom was the book written? (��ȯ�Ϸ�)
2. ��ɹ��� ���
Bring the man here. �� ���‫=��� ��� �ڸ‬ÿ�.
->��ɹ�: �� you��� �‫־‬ � � Ǿ� �ִ�. ��� �� ������ ����; ����‫� �ٸ‬Ʒ���
���� �ǰ� �‫�� �·��� ;�װ‬ġ�� �� ��=�� ������ �ȴ�.
You bring the man here.
->The man is brought here by you.
->���� ���⼭ ������ a: ��ɹ��� � '���� ����; �ϵ��� ��Ų��'��� �ǹ��� ������

������. ��� '���� --; �ϰ� ��Ű��'��� ��; ���� �翪���� let; �� �տ� �� �‫�ش‬.
����, let�� ������ �տ� �� ��� is brought���� is�� ���� be�� �‫� ��ٲ‬ȴ�. �� ����
��ɹ����� you�� ���8�Ƿ� ��ȯ�� �� ���忡���� you�� ������.
->Let the man be brought here. (��ȯ�Ϸ�)
Do it at once. ��� �� ��; �‫�ض‬.
You do it at once.
->It is done at once by you.
->Let it be done at once. (��ȯ�Ϸ�)
Don't forget it. �‫����� ;�װ‬.
->�� ������ ���� "Forget it."�� �� ��ɹ��� �‫��ݴ‬� "Forget it."; '� ������� ����
�‫� �� ������ �� ���ٲپ‬տ� Don't�� ���δ�.
Forget it.
->You forget it. ->It is forgotten by you.
->Let it be forgotten. (��d���� ��ȯ�Ϸ�) ��� Don't�� ���δ�.
->Don't let it be forgotten. (�� ��ȯ�Ϸ�)
�ƴϸ� it�� be����� ��d�� not�� ���‫־‬ �ȴ�.
=Let it not be forgotten.
F. ��Ÿ
1. ���¸� ���� �ʴ� ����
-> have '��/�ϴ�', resemble '���', cost, befall '�Ͼ���', hold ' ���ϴ� ', become
'����
�', suit �: ����; ���� �ʴ´�.
Tom resembles his mother. Tom: ���� ��Ӵϸ� ��Ҵ�.
Tom is resembled with his mother. (x)
The dress becomes her. ���� �‫׳‬� ��� ��︰��.
The dress is becomed to her. (x)
2. ���¿����� be����, get����
The house is painted every year. �� ��: �ų� ����Ʈ�� ĥ�Ѵ�. (����)
The house is painted blue. �� ��: Ǫ����8�� ĥ��n �ִ�. (����)
->'be + p.p' �� ���ƿ� ��� '����'; ��Ÿ�� �� �ְ� '����'�� ��Ÿ�� �� �ִ� '����';
��Ÿ���� ��� ���� �ð��λ�(��)�� ���.
The gate is shut at seven. �� ��: 7�ÿ� �����. (����)
The gate is shut now. �� ��: ��� ����ִ�. (����)
He is a accustomed to living here. � ‫��� �״‬Ȱ�� �ͼ��� �ִ�. (����)
He gets accustomed to living here.
� ‫��� �״‬Ȱ�� �ͼ������ �ִ�.
->be ������ get, become, grow ��; ���� '����'�� ��v�� ǥ���Ѵ�.
At last the truth became known to us all.
���� ����� �츮 ��ο��� �˷���� �Ǿ��.
3. ���¿� ��ġ��
->���¿��� ��'�� �տ��� �Ϲ���8�� ��ġ�� by �� ������ ���δ� ������� ǥ��8�� by
��� ��ġ�縦 ����ϴ� ��찡 �ִ�. ��� ���� ���� ���� �ܿ��θ� ���ϴ�.
��
be known to--:--���� �˷����
be interested in--:--�� ���� �ִ�
be covered with--:--�� �����
be surprised at--:--�� ����
be satisfied with--:--�� ��w�ϴ�
be filled with--:--�� ���� ���
be engaged in--:--�� ~���ϴ�
be absorbed in--:--�� ����ϴ�
be pleased with--:--�� ��w�ϴ�
be astonished at--:--�� ����
be convinced of--:--; Ȯ���ϴ�
be ashamed of--:--�� �β���ϴ�

1. Great care should be taken of the books of a public library. They should not
be dirtied
or allowed to get into the hands of very young children who do not know their
value.
public library ��� ������ allow v.����ϴ� value n. ��ġ
2. A man was knocked over by a car in High Street yesterday. The car was driven
by Mr.
White. An ambulance was called, and the man was taken to the nearest hospital. The
injured
man has not been identified yet. He was dressed in a brown coat and grey trousers.
His age
is estimated to be about thirty-five. Anyone who may know this man is asked to
telephone
the police.
identify v. dü�� ����� injure v. �λ��Ű�� estimate v. ��d�ϴ�
3. Sensitive minds in all ages and countries have been troubled and perplexed by
the
problems of the world in which they were born. Even periods which in retrospect
seem eras
of great prosperity and promise were not free from such feelings.
--Humayun Kabir, Faith for a complex World"--
sensitive a. �ΰ��� perplex v. ��Ȥ�ϰ� ����� prosperoty n. ��
retrospect n. ȸ��, ȸ�� mind n. ��(��)
4. The capacity to endure a more or less monotonous life is one which should be
acquired
in childhood. Modern parents are greatly to brame in this respect; they provide
their children
with far too many passive amusements, such as shows and good things to eat.
-- Bertrand Russell, " The Conquest of Happiness" --
capacity n. �ɷ� endure v. ���, �ߵ�� monotonous a. ��v�ο�
acquire v. ��� in this respect:��
��� a����
5. Those who earn their living through manual labor command good salaries.
militant labor
unions have demanded and gotten high wages for workers in skilled trades such as
carpentry,
welding, and various kinds of factory work. Thus the standard of living for these
workers is
high.
-- G. Doty & J. Ross, " Language and Life in the U.S.A." --
manual a. �Ǽ��� command n. ��/�ɷ� wage n. ��
trade n. ��� welding n. ��b
6. Life is a little vapour that passes away, as we are told by those in holy
orders. When a
man is in a fair way and sees all life open in front of him, he seems to himself to
make a
very important figure in the world. His horse whines to him; the trumpets blow and
the girls
look out of windows as he rides into town before his company; he receives many
assurances
of trust and regard. But once he is dead, were he as brave as Hercules or as wise
as
Soloman, he is soon forgotten.
-- R. L. Stevenson, " The Sire de Maletroif" --
vapour n. ����� figure n. ���, �ι�, ���� whinny v. ���� ����Ÿ���
ride v. �� ���� Ż��; Ÿ�� ����. assurance n. ����, Ȯ��
7. Done Quixote had not ridden more than two miles when at a turn in the road, he
saw
several horsemen approaching him. They were merchants of Toledo, and they were
going to
some distant town to buy silks. There were six of them, and each carried an
umbrella over
his head to shield him from the sun.
-- Cervantes, "Don Quixote"--
approach v. �ٰ���(��)�� merchant n. ���� shield v. ����, ����ϴ�
8. Historians generally agree that the English alphabet descended from ancient
Egyptian
hieroglyphics, or "sacred writings," that were first recorded by priests more than
5,000 years
ago. Hieroglyphics are pictures carved in stone or inscribed on papyrus. For
centuries after
Egypt's decline, explorers who discovered hieroglyphic carvings in Egypt were
mystified as
to their meaning. But in 1799 an officer in Napoleon's army discovered near the
Egyptian
village of Rosetta a smooth, thick black stone covered with carvings that were
divided into
three separate sections. One section was a historical account in Greek, one was in
hieroglyphics, and one was in demotics or simplified hieroglyphics. The Greek
account said
that it was exactly the same as the Egyptian writing and this finding enabled
scholars to
decipher the mysterious ancient carvings.
descend v. /���ϴ�, ���4� carve v. v���ϴ� decline v. �����ϴ�
hieroglyphic a. �������� mystify v. �����, ��Ȥ��Ű��, �ź�ȭ�ϴ�
9. One of the most important weapons used during the Second World War was not a
weapon used against people, but rather a drug used against disease. The war time
use of
penicillin saved thousands of lives. In the First World War, for example,
pneumonia was
responsible for eighteen percent of all the deaths in the United States army. In
the Second
World War, the rate went down to less than one percent. In addition, penicillin was

instrumental in keeping wounds from getting infected and in helping to speed the
healing
process of those wounds that did become infected.
penicillin n. ��ϽǸ� pneumonia n. ��� instrumental a. /����
wound n. ��ó infect v. ������Ű��
10. From the philosopher's point of view, wisdom and knowledge are two different
things.
One may know countless facts without being a lover of wisdom. Indeed such a person
may
actually detest the person who seeks wisdom. The philosopher is not satisfied with
mere
assemblage of facts. Rather he seeks to interrelate and interpret the facts, in
order to discern
the subtle meanings and deeper sense that lies beyond the obvious. To paraphrase
plato, the
philosopher's purpose is to be a spectator of time and existence, that is to
observe the reality
of human and natural existence from a vantage point that encompasses the whole of
life. The
philosopher's seeks to penetrate the surface of life, a task that is often
overlooked by those
who become distracted by the minutiae of science. Philosophers assume that human
beings
are born with an inherent love of wisdom. Deep down each person seeks to penetrate
the
mysteries of life, thereby having the potential to become a philosopher. Before
undertaking the
formal study of philosophy this longing appears in various forms. Therefore every
human
being, to the extent that he is a lover of wisdom, possesses a philosophy of life.
wisdom n. ���� assemblage n. ����, ���� ����

interrelate v. ��ȣ ����Ǵ� paraphrase v. ���� Ǯ� ��
existence n. x�� vantage n. �켼, /�� inherent a. ������
distract v. ��=; ��� �ϴ�, ��Ʈ���߸��� minutiae r,. ��, �‫ ���ڼ‬a
penetrate v. ��վ�� tack n. �ӹ�, �� ��
���� d�� ��f
1-3. ��= ������� ���� ģ �κе� �� Ʋ�� �κ�; ���ÿ�.
1. A Galaxy _is sometimes(a)_ _called(b)_ a stellar universe _and(c)_ may _be
included(d)_
billions of star.
2. Harvard College was _the first(a)_ institution _of higher(b)_ learning _to be

establish(c)_ _in the United States(d)_.


3. She _felt like(a)_ crying because she _was laughed(b)_ by _most of(c)_ the
boys _in the
class(d)_.
4. ��ĭ�� �˸�: ��; ���ÿ�.
"They say that the clerk is a liar." "Really so!--to be a liar "
a) The clerk is said
b) It is said that he is
c) The clerk says
d) It is said him
5 - 8. ��= ������� �¸� �‫ٲٽ‬ÿ�
5. I showed him the picture.
6. Who founded your school?
7. He caught sight of a number of rabbits
8. A jet plane was seen f1ying over us.