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�Ӹ���
��� � ������ϴ� ����: � ������ �� �� ���ǽ���8��, �� ����ϰ�
���� �ִ� ǥ �������, �츮�� ��: nonnative speaker��: ��� "��ŭ �˰� �ִ� ��
� �ϴ�� ��� �‫ ��� ������� �������ڿ‬ϰ�, ��쿡 ��� �츮 �� �8 �
���� �� ���� ��
��; ��; �� ��8� Ƿ� native speaker�� ��: ������ ����� ��/�Ӱ� ǥ���� ���Ⱑ ��
���� �ʽ4ϴ�.
����,���‫��� ; �� �״‬Ѵ ١��� He swims very well.�� ���� ǥ���ϴ� ��: �츮 ����
�� ���� /���Ϲ Ƿ� ����; �ϴµ� ū �� �����4 ϴ�. ���� �� �; He is a good
swimmer.�� ���� �����8�� ǥ���ϴ� ��: � � 4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϱ�? �‫ �ٷ‬native speaker��: ��

������ ǥ��; �0���8�� ���� �ִ� ��� Դϴ�. ���� �츮�� ��: nonnative speaker��
: �Ƹ��� �� ��� ��� ǥ��� ����� ����� ����
� ������ϴ�.
��ġ�絵 � ������ � TOEIC�� ��: ���絵� ��ƹ��� ��: ����
Դϴ�. �츮�� TOEFL��
; �ø���� �ϴ��, ��f ��Ȳ������ native speaker�� ��: ����8�� ��ġ�縦 f���
����� �� ��4ϴ�. ���Ƿ� native speaker�� : �� � ; � ‫������� �������ڿ‬,
�츮���Դ� �‫� ���� �� �ݻ‬ʴ� �0� ���‫ �����׵‬ǥ�� ��İ� ������� ǥ���; ��� ü��
�� ��; �ʿ 䰡 �ִ� ���Դϴ�. ���� ������ �� å������ �츮�� �‫���� ���� ���׵‬
��
��� ǥ���� �� �ִ� ���; ����� �Ʒ�; � ‫�׵�� � � ؼ‬, ���õǰ� f��� �� ����� native
speaker����� ���� ��Ȱ�� �ǻ� ������ �� �� �ֵ��� �ϴ� ���� ��a; �ξ�4ϴ�. �� ��
���� ����� ���ϱ �  � � ����‫��� ��� ־‬, ����, ��ġ�� � ������ ;������ ���
8�� v
���‫ �ؼ‬dz���� ����, ���� �‫� ���ؼ‬Բ� �‫��� �ٷ‬Դϴ�.
Ư � � � � � � � 翡 ���� ������: ����� ����ü�� �絵�麸�‫ �ٴ‬Žd���� � �߸����� ��
: ���� �Ҽ�, �Ź�, ���� ���� �ο�� ��f�� ������� ǥ����� ��‫�� ټټ‬Ƿ�, �ϻ� ��
Ȱ�� �‫ �־‬ȸȭ�� ���۹� �ÿ� ��� Ȱ���� �� ��; ���Դϴ�. ����, �� �ܿ���� ʿ 信 ��
�� ���� ��f�� �Ǿ��� Ȯ�� �н0� �Բ� �?��; �⸦ �� �ֵ��� �4ϴ�. ����, ��
�‫� ���� ���ڵ‬н?� �‫� ���� ���� �� ���� ���� �� ������ �־‬帮�4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�.
���� ��
�‫�ڵ‬: ��ҿ� ��� ���� ����� ���� ��; ���� �� ��ϸ���� ��˴ϴ�. ���� ��
���� ����: ��� ����ϱ� '�� ����� ����� �,Ƿ �¥ ��� ��� d�� �ƴ� ��� ‫�ؿ‬
��
����� �� �� ���� �� �����()���� ��x�Ϸt� ��; ���ϰ� ��� ���� �}�
�ϴ�. �����8�� ��� ����Ϸt� ��: �� ū ������ ��/��; ���ð� ��Ȱ�Ϸt� ��
�� ���4ϴ�. �ǵ��� ���� ��/�� ��� ��; �� ʹ ‫� ���� �ٸ‬Ҽ�; ����� ���� �Ź�,��
��,AFKN ���� ��� �ִ� ����, �� �ǿ����� ��� ���� b�� ��; ���մϴ�.
���� �����в� ����‫��� �� ������ ������� ;��� ������ �ٿ‬縦 ����, ��� � ��
��d ���� �� ������, �� ������ ����; Ȯ���� ��; �� �ְ� �DZ⸦ ‫�ٶ‬ �� ��=�Դϴ�.
�ѳ��� �����ǿ��� �絵� �

Chapter 1 ���
Unit 1 ���� ǥ��� ��� ǥ��
[1] �‫� �� ;�� �״‬Ѵ�.
���‫� �� ;�� �״‬Ѵ ١��� ���л�絵� ����‫�۽‬Ű��, �и��� ��=�� ��: ���� ���� ����
���� ���Դϴ�. He swims well.
������8�δ� �‫����� �ٸ‬Դϴ�. ���� ��f�ε� ���� ���ǰ� �ֱ� ������ ��8�� ���Ƶ�
�� ��f�� ���� �ʽ4ϴ�. ���� ����� ~���� ��; �‫ ���׳‬,�� ;���‫� ��ݺ‬뷡� ���
�Ѵ ١��� She sings well.���١��� � ��� �‫ ���״‬He runs fast.��� ����ϸ� ����մ�
��. ���� �� ����: d����� ����, ��� <����+�λ�>ǥ����
� ������ ���� ��ü�� �ʹ�
��v�ο���� ������ �ֽ4ϴ�. �츮�� ���� ���, �� ���縦 ����ϴ� �츮 ���� �����
����� �η��� ��� ���� ���ϴ�. ��
�; �‫ ��ݴ‬ǥ����� ‫�ڸ‬, �츮 ��: ��κ�<����+��
��>�� ǥ��DZ� ������ <����+�λ�>�� ǥ��Ǵ� ������ ��뿡 �‫־‬ ū ����� ��
��� ���� �� � ִ � ���Դϴ�. ��� �츮�� ����ε��� ���� ������� �츮���Դ� �ͼ�
ġ ��: ��� ǥ��; ���� �ʿ 䰡 �ֽ4ϴ�.
�տ��� ���� �� �� ���� ����; ���� ǥ���ϸ� ��=�� ���4ϴ�.
He is a good swimmer.
She is a good singer.
He is fast runner.
'�� ��� ǥ����� �� ���絵 � ����4ֽ� ��‫ٲ‬ϴ�. swim �� swimmer, sing ��
singer, run �� runner�� ��谡 �� ���Դϴ�. ���� �� � ����; �� ��� ǥ����
� ���
�� �Ǿ��ϰ� ���ϴ� ���‫ ��;�� ���ڵ‬  � ϴ�
. <be����>�� ���� �ִµ��� �� �� ǥ����
<��� ǥ��>�ΰ��� be������ �ǹ�� ���ϸ� �4ֽ� �� �� �‫ݹ‬ϴ�.<be����> ���� �����
��� ����, �� be����� '���ϴ�,�뷡�ϴ�, ����'�� ��: ��ü���� �ǹ� � ��4ϴ�. ��
�縦 �8 ��� �� ǥ����� ���� �ʿ 絵 � ��������� ������ �ǹ�� ���翡 �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� ��� ǥ����� be���絵 �‫�� ��־‬θ� �����ϰ� �ִ� �ܼ��������� μ�, ������
������ �ǹǹ� ���� �Űܰ ��� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��, ��翡 ������ �ִ� ��� be���� ǥ�� ��
�‫ ��� ���ؼ‬ǥ����� �‫ �ص‬ū ������ ��� ���Դϴ�. �� ���� ����� ��Ī: ũ�� ��
���� �ʽ4ϴ�. ����
� �: ���絵 � �� ϴ� ��� ǥ��; ����ϴ� ����Դϴ�.
���� �տ������� ߵ��� <����+�λ�>�� �� <be����+���> ǥ��8�� ���� ��8�� ��
�Ǵ� ���ϱ��? ���� ��� ���‫������ ��׳‬Ʈ�� �� ź�١��� ���� ǥ��� ���ǥ��8����

�� ���� ��=�� ���4ϴ�.


She skates skillfully.
She is a skillful skater.
�� ���� ��� ǥ��; ���� ���ϰ� �Ǹ�,���‫� ��׳‬ɼ��� ������� � ��� �Ǵµ�, �� �:
����� ����� ǥ��8�� �4�� �� �� ���� � �� �‫ٸ‬ϴ�. �ֳ��ϸ� �츮�������� '�� �θ�
�� ����'�� '�� ���� ����'���� ǥ������ �ʱ� �����Դϴ�. �߱� �� �������‫ؼ‬
‫�� ����״‬:
�÷����١��� ��: ǥ��; ��Ȥ ����ϱ������, �� �����'����d�Ǿ� �ֽ4ϴ�.
�츮�������� ��� '�÷����'�� ������� '�ǾƴϽ�Ʈ, ����'��; �wθ�; ��Ī�Ͽ� ��
������, �������
� � �ǹ�� ������ �о� �Ƹ�� �w� ū ���� ���� ����մϴ�. ��
�͵� ����� ���� a�Դϴ�. ���� ��� dancer�� '��'��� �‫��ؼ‬ϸ�, �츮�������� ���
���� ����; ����Ű�� �˴ϴ�. ���� �� dancer�� ���ߴ� ���; �Ϲ���8�� ����Ű��
����� ��; �˸� '��; �� �ߴ� ���'; She is a good dancer.��� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� �wζ�� ��; Ȯ���� �ϰ� ��; ��쿡�� �տ�professional; �Ἥa professional
dancer��� �ϸ� �˴ϴ�.
��ó�� '��; �� ���, ���߱� ⸦�� � Ѵ�'�� �����8�� ǥ���� '��; �� �ߴ� ���'���
�ϸ�, ���� ����‫� �ٿ‬ι� ���縦 �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. �‫<��� �ٽ� ���ؼ‬ ����+�λ�> ����
�츮�� �8 � �� �ľ����� �ʴ� ���� ���մϴ�. ��=�� ���� ���‫� �������ڿ‬츮��; ��
8�� �‫����< �͵� ���� �ٲ‬+�λ�>���� �츮�� �絵� ���絵�� � 絵 ϳ��� ����� �� ��
�ֽ4ϴ�. �Ʒ��� f�õ� ����; ��� ǥ��8�� ���� �츮��: �������� ��絵� ����‫� ټټ‬
��f�� ����, ���‫�� ���ۿ‬Ʈ�� ��; �� �‫־‬ � �������մϴ�.
�‫ ��׳‬d����8�� ��; ���.�桸 d����8�� ���ߴ� ��� She is a passionate dancer.
���� ���x� �� ���Ѵ�.�� ������ ���ۡ� I am a poor golfer.
��: �ǾƳ 븦 � �ģ��. �絵� �ġ�� �ǾƴϽ�Ʈ��My daughter is a good pianist.
���絵 � �������: He is a good painter.(� ��� ;�� � ‫��� ״‬.)�� ��쿡 ���Ǵ�
good�� ��: ����� �� ����� �ΰ���; ��Ÿ���� ���� �ƴ϶�, ���� ����� � �ɷ�; ��
Ÿ���‫��� �ٴ‬Դϴ�. ��� �� ���� good: '������'�� � �ǹ�
� �ƴ϶� painter�μ��� ���
�� �t ‫� �ٴ‬ǹ��Դϴ�. ���� ������ ���� a poor golfer ���� ������ ��� ������ ���ۡ���
�ƴմϴ�. golfer�� ���� ����� poor, �� '�����, ����'�Դϴ�.
��� ǥ��8�� �� ���, ���絵 � �� ; �ϱ� ������ �‫ ���� ���ڼ‬ǥ���� ��������ϴ�.
��=�� ��: ���縦 絵 絵 � ���
������ �� �ְ� �Ǵ� ���Դϴ�.
�‫��� ��׳‬, �ɼ��ϰ� ����� �ִ� ��; ����.
She is a young, yet proficient and persuasive writer.
����, singer�� writer���� �� �� �ִ� ��ó��, ���� ��� � -er; �‫������ ���ٿ‬
��ü��
��Ÿ���� ���<���� �� ���>�� ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ���,���‫� ���� �״‬Դ´�=�‫�״‬
��İ��١���� ǥ��������'�Դ�'�������eat�� -er; �‫�ٿ‬, He is a big eater. ��� ǥ

���� �� �ִ� ���Դϴ�. �� � ����, ��-er: ��f�� ��: ���翡 �‫��� ���ٿ‬ϰ� ����� ��
��8� Ƿ� ����‫ص‬θ� �}4ϴ�.
���‫� ����� �״‬ȴ´١��� ���� � ұ��? �츮�� �8 �
� �δ� He walks��� �� ��=
'�����'�� �‫��ش‬ϴ� ���� �λ 縦 ã�Ƴ��� walks ��=�� �‫��� ;�װ‬ϴ�. '�����'�� 'Ȱ����,
Ƿ brisk��: ���縦 ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� �������
������'��� ����� � ����
8�� �‫��� ; � غ‬ô
 �. ��, walk��� ���縦 walker�� �‫�ٲ‬,He is a brisk walker.��� ��
�� �ִ� ���Դϴ�. '����; �� �ϴ�'�� negotiate��� ���縦 ����� ǥ������ ����,
negotiate�� ������� negotiator�� �Ἥ a good negotiator��� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��;
���� �� �����ϴ� ���: '��; �����8�� ����ϴ� ���'�� �� ����� ��; ��� , a
great user of words�� a great manipulator of words�� ǥ�� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���9�f
��= ����; ����Ͽ� <����+-er>�� ���� �ι� ���� ��f�� Ǯ�� ���ô�.
Example:���‫ �״‬ǥ�� �� ����Ѵ١� He is a great vote counter.
�‫�� �ؼ‬ǥ�� ����ϴ١��� 'ǥ�� ����'��� ǹ ���Ƿ� count votes����� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��

�絵 � ���count�� counter�� ���ȭ�ϸ� vote�� ��� �ξ�� ���� ��f�� �Ǵµ�, ��



: ������ vote counter ��,' ǥ�� ���� ���'8�� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��
� ��: ���8��
��= ��f�� Ǯ�� ���ô�. ���� ���縦 ����‫ ���ؼ‬ǥ������ ����, �����<be �� ��� +

���>�� ǥ���ϴ� ����; �� �ֽʽÿ�.


��� ��S+V+O ��S+be a[an]+O��V+er
��S+V+O+adv. ��S+be a[an]+adj.(��adv.)+O��V+er
��S+V+adv.��S+be a[an]+adj.(��adv.)+Ver

1.���� ���
� � ������ �~��Ѵ�. (���� love�� ��� lover�� �‫ٲ‬㼭 ǥ���մϴ�.)
� ����� ���� ġ�� ����. (��� ����)
2.�‫� �״‬
3. �� ���: ���� �ʴ�.
4.�‫��� ��׳‬ �� �‫��ٷ‬. ('v~�ϴ�'�� handle, manipulate�� �ֽ4ϴ�. ����'����'
�� �Ž��� ���� ��� ��ü�� ����Ű�µ�, �� media�� ����ϸ� �˴ϴ�.)
5.�‫���� �״� ���ڸ‬Ѵ�.
6.�‫�´� �� ~~ �״‬. (����� ǥ���ϸ� ������ He comes here often.�� ����, <be
����+���>�� ���Ͻʽÿ�.)
7.���� ����� ��=; �� ���� ���Ѵ�. (read one's mind�� '����� ��=; �д�'�� �˴�
��.)
8.�‫����� �� ;��� ��׳‬Ų��. ('�����ϴ�'�� ���� persuade�� ����ϸ� �˴ϴ�.)
9.�‫� ��׳‬繰; ����8�� ���Ѵ�.(�츮 �� �ϳ� �ϳ��� ��� ����� ��� �  ‫�� �ؾ‬
�� ����� �ʿ�� ��4ϴ�. ��, �������
� ��� ���絵� ;� ������ �ʿ 䰡 ��‫��� �ٴ‬Դ�
��.)
10.�‫� ��� ���� ������ �״‬Ź�; �д´�.
11.,�‫��� �״‬ϰ� ��絵 �ǿ��.('���ϰ� �ǿ��'�� smoke heavily)
Answer:
1. I am a beer lover.
2. He is a weekend golfer.
3. He is a slow talker.
4. She is a good media handler.
5. He is a woman hater.
6. He is a frequent visitor here.
7. I am a poor mind-reader.
8. She is a good persuader.
9. She is a logical thinker.
10. He is a careful newspaper reader.
11. He is a heavy smoker.

���絵 �Ϻη � ��� ǥ��; �����ϴ � ��: �տ����� ߵ��� ��� � ��� �츮�絵絵
ǥ���� ��

� �����Դϴ�. ���� ��f ���������� ���縦 �8 �
���� ����� ������ �� �� ǥ����
���� ���˴ϴ�. ���� -er; ���� ǥ��: ���Ӹ� �ƴ϶� ��絵� ������ �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
��� ������ �� ���� d���� �뵿� ;� ���� �‫�ش‬.
��This newly introduced machine is really a labor-saver.
labor-saver�� �뵿� ;� ���ϴ� ��絵 � ġ��� �ǹ��մϴ�. ���� ����� ǥ�� ���;
��ġ�� �����ϸ� ���8�� �8�� ���‫ڵ‬ų �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��ǻ�� �Ŵ�� � Online
 
Administrator�� ����; ��, ��� ��
�� �¶�� �� �ϴ� '�¶��� ����'��� ����8
��, ��� �‫�װ‬: �¶���; ���ϴ� ����Ʈ �wα4����ϴ�. System Manager�� ����
��� �ý��� �� �wα��� �µ�, ��
�: ��: �Ŵ��� �ȿ��� '�ý��� ����'�� ����
� ���DZ �մϴ�. �� -er: ������, ���� ��8� ��8ų �� ��8
������� �ǹ�
�Ƿ� �����‫� �ؼ� ����ؾ‬մϴ�.

[2]��ī�‫��~� �ݶ‬ϴ� ���: Coke man


� people�� ��� �‫ ����� �� �ͼ� �ڿ‬Ư¡�� ���, ���; ǥ���ϴ� ��찡 �ֽ�
man��
�ϴ�. ����, ��ī�‫��� �ݶ‬ô� ���; a Coke man�� �� �θ��� ǥ���� �4 ��ϴ�. ����
����� OB����� ���ô �� ���: a OB man�Դϴ�. ��, ���: ���ƿ� �� ���OB � �ֶ�
�� ����ȸ�� ����� �ǹ�� �˴ϴ�. ���� �Ϲ�� ���� ������� a Harvard man, ��ȭ ��
�� ��; �ϴ� ���: a movie man, ���� ���� �������� ������ a fruit man�� �� �� ��
��8��, ������‫�ڵ‬: ad men8�� ǥ���� ����� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. people ����, TV people(��
�۱� ����), phone people(��ȭ�� ����)ó�� ǥ���ϱ �մϴ�.
�츮 ���� ����: ���� �� ���۸���; ����մϴ�.
��Our embassy people often use this supermarket.
�‫ ��׳‬Ŭ���� ����� ����� �Ⱦ��.
��She didn't like the Clinton people.
[3]��� ǥ��; ����ϸ� ������ ����
'���ϴ� ���, �‫� ���'��� ���۾‬ι� ���縦 �� �� ��� ǥ��; ����ϸ�, �������
�� ǥ����; �� ��ĩ ��Ȳ�� �� �� �ִ� ���絵 � ��� ϰ� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ���,
���‫� �������� ���״‬ʰ� ��; ���� ���:....������ �� ���, '...�ϴ� ���';
Those
people who��� �ϱ� ���, ��=�� ���� �Ͽ� ������ ǥ�� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� �������� �ʰ� ���ϰų� ��; ���� ���: ��ġ�縦 �߸� ����ϴ� ��찡 ����.
��Careless speakers and writers often make prepositional errors.
������ �������� �ʰ� ���ϰų� ��; ���� ���; ���������ϰ� ���ϴ� ����� � ��;
���� ���� ���� �����8�� ǥ���4ϴ�.
��; �� ���� ���: ���縦 �� Ȱ���Ѵ�.
��A skillful writer is also a good user of adjectives.
��f dġ�� �����ϴ� ���8�μ� ���: ���� å; �о�� �Ѵ�.
��As a student of international politics, you should read his book.
student�� '�л�'�Ӹ� �ƴ϶� '������, v���ϴ� ���'�� � �ǹ��
ε ���˴ϴ�. �� �: Ư
���� �뵵� ��ƴ϶ � � � � � � � � � �ִ� ǥ � ��� Ƿ� ������ε����մϴ�. �տ��������� '��

��'�� '����'ó�� ������ ���� �� �ǹ�


� �н4ϴ�.

��� ��: ��� ǥ��


����
��f ��� ǥ�� ������ { �� ��� ǥ��; �‫��� ��ٷ‬ô�.
A cyclist must not use this road.
���ϸ� ������� �����‫��� �� �ڴ‬θ� �� ��‫� �� ���ؼ‬ȴ ١��� ����, �� '����� ����
��'��� ǥ��: �ſ� ���4������‫ڿ‬ϴ�. �� � ���� '����Ÿ� ź ���'��
�� �ϸ� �� �‫���ڿ‬
�������, �� ��; ���� �Ϲ���8�� ǥ���ϸ� ���� ���ο����� ����Ÿ� Ÿ���� �� �ȴ ١�
�� �� ���Դϴ�. �‫ �� ��ݴ‬ǥ��; '�� ����8����ġ�x� �����idea�� ��ȯ���ʿ��մ�

��.���ĸ��� ª: �Ӹ��� �� �����ǽ� �纹; ��8�� �‫�� �״‬ó�� �����١��� ����8�� ��


ġ�� ��=�� ���4ϴ�.
Short permed hair and a white three-piece suit gave him a look of a gangster.
'�ĸ��� �ϴ�, �纹; �Դ�'�� ���� ��� ǥ�� ���·� d���ϰ� �ֽ4ϴ�. �� ��=�� �‫�װ‬
; � ‫ �ܰ�'; �شٶ‬:�����' ���� � �' ��� �� �' �‫ ;�� �� ־‬give�� �Ἥ ǥ���ϰ� �ִ�
��, �� ��� give��; ������ ������ �ǹ�
� ���� �Ǵ��� �� ��4ϴ�. �� ������ �ǹ� ��
�κ�; ��Ÿ���� ��: �‫ �ٷ‬give �յ 4� �‫ ��� �ڿ‬ǥ���� ���Դϴ�. �� � ���� give�� ��
���� <���� �‫>���� �־‬: �츮�絵�� � 絵 ‫־‬ � ��� ����ϱ� ��� ǥ���� �ϳ��Դϴ�.
� ���� ���� �‫ >���� �־‬:���� ���‫�>����< ��>���� �ڼ‬κп��� �4 ‫ٷ�ڽڽ‬ϴ�.
��
���� ��, short permed hair and a white three-piece suit ���� ǥ��: ��ü ��
�����
� ������ <��籸>��� �մϴ�. �� ��絵� ����� ǥ��� ������
����� ‫��� �ڸ‬���
�����մϴ�. ��=�� Unit 2������ ��絵 �‫��� ;���� ���ۼ����� �پ‬캸� ���սô�.

unit 2 ��絵 �‫�� �ۼ‬ũ��


����� ��Ŀ��� ��: /���� ����, �� � � ��� ������ <����+���
‫���� ���� �ٷ‬
> �����Դϴ�. ���� '�Ƹ��‫ ��'���� �ٿ‬a beautiful lady�� �Ǵ� ��ó��, �տ� �4� a���
��d��縦 ������ ġ��, ������ ���� ���� �츮���� ����� ������� ��� �տ���
�� �� ��縦 ����� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��ó�� <����+���>����: �� ������ �����ϹǷ�,
�������
� � ���� ����; ���캸�p� �մϴ�.
[1]��ī���� ��ȣ�縦 �ϰ� �ִ� �� ģ�� <����� ����>
'�‫� �����ݿ��� ���� �ڷ‬wα�'�� �� �� ���, �츮�������� ���� ���ǡ���� v�縦
���� ��� ����
� �‫ �־‬ǥ���մ ϴ � . ��ʹ�
���������
 a Friday night TV program
ó��, ��縦 �‫ ������ ��״‬ǥ���մϴ�. ����'�����;'���� �� ��쿡�� mountain��

town; �‫������ ��״‬, a mountain town�� �� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ��� ���� ��絵 � ��


�� ���; �ϰ� �ִ� ���Դϴ�.
���� ��絵 � ��� μ� ����ϰ� ��; ��쿡�� ���� ����ʹ� �� ���ӽ��� �‫���ٸ‬
��. '��� ��;': ��縦 �����ϴ� ���� �� �‫�������ڿ‬, ���縦 ������; ��쿡�� �����
��ϴ�. mountain�� ������ mountainous�� ����‫�ؼ‬, a mountainous town�� �� �ϸ�
'���� ��:[��Ǽ�] ��;'�� �Ǿ� �ǹ� � ����� �����Դϴ�. 'd�� �� �': ��� �ɱ��?
���: 'd���� ���� ��
�'�� � �ǹ����
Ƿ a theory on information�� �Ǵµ�, ��ġ���� on
; ������� �ʰ� ��縸; ������ an information theory��� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��
����� informational: ������� �ʴ� ���� ��:��, �ֳ��ϸ� informational theory��� ��
; ���, 'd���� ���' �� �� �ǹ�
� �Ǿ� ��� �����Դϴ�. ��ó�� ����� ����� ��
��� ��絵 � ������ �ִ� ��쵵 � 8��Ƿ� �����Ͻʽÿ�. �� �� տ��� f ������
����ī���� ��ȣ�縦 �ϰ� �ִ� �� ģ������ ����� ���� ���ô�. '�� ģ��'�� a friend of
mine�Դϴ�. ���⼭
a friend of mine who is a lawyer in Chicago ��� ��� ���縦 ����� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� ����� ǥ�� �}4ϴ�. '��ȣ�� ģ��'�� �� ��縦 ������ a lawyer friend��� �� ��
�ֽ4ϴ�. <lawyerly friend�� �տ����� �����ߵ��� ���� �ǹ� � ��> ���� '��ȣ�縦 ��
�� �ִ� �� ģ��'�� a lawyer friend of mine�� �Ǵ� ���Դϴ�. ���
a lawyer friend of mine in Chicago
��� �ϸ� ��� ����κ��� ���� ����; ��; �ʿ 䰡 ��4ϴ�. ���� in Chicago���
� Chicago �� ��縦 ����� ����� a Chicago lawyer(��ī�� ���)�� ��
��� ���
�� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��ġ�� in; ��� ��=, ��=�� ���� ǥ���� ���ô�.
A Chicago lawyer friend of mine
����� ǥ���Դϴ�. ��
��� ǥ��: ����� ��d�� ���� �Ź�� � ��  �� ‫��� ��� ���ڵ‬
�ϴ� ǥ���Դϴ�. �‫��� ���׳‬డ Į; ��� �ִ� ���� �տ���; ��s� ١���� �� ��, ��
'Į; ��� �ִ� ��': ��� � ǥ��ϸ� ��;���? ��=�� ���4ϴ�.
She throw stones at his knife arm.
"Į; �� ��': ��� �Ҽ����� �� ǥ���Դϴ�. ���� ����8�� ���� ũ�� ������� ��; ��
�쿡�� ����� �����ϰ� ǥ���4{� �‫ص‬ϴ�. ���� �‫� �ٸ‬Ҽ������� ��� �ǹ��� �ִ� �‫�־‬
�����' �� �� ��,��� ְ � �‫�� �ٹ��ڿ‬ ߱ �ϰ � � ͽ 4 ϴ
١���� ������ Could I talk with
the day man? ���� ǥ��Ǿ� �4�‫־‬ϴ�. �� day man: �츮�� '�ְ� �‫���� ��'���ٹ‬
��� ��ô ������ ǥ���� � �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��=: �� �� ǥ��ϸ� ��;���?
���۸��Ͽ��� �Ȱ� �ִ� �丶��� ���� ���.
Tomatoes sold at supermarkets don't taste good.�� ���� Ʋ���� �ʽ4ϴ�. ���� '���۸�
�Ͽ��� ��� �丶���...'�� �� ǥ��Ǿ�‫�ٸ‬, ��� Tomatoes we buy at supermarkets
��� ǥ���; �����;��  � .ϴ����� �� ����: ��� � 츮���� '���۸��� �丶���...'��
�˴ϴ�. ���� ���� ����: ��=�� ���� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
Supermarket tomatoes don't taste good.

���絵 � ��ϰ � � � : � � : � 츮�� �� �ܾ � ��


��� ���� � ʿ 䰡 ��‫ �ٴ‬a�Դϴ�. ����
�� �� �� ���� �ʹ� �Ű�; �� ������ ���� ���Ĺ�� ��: �8�� �������‫�ٶ‬Ƿ� �����‫�ؾ‬
�մϴ�.
��=; a Newsweek reporter(����'ũ�� ����), a television appearance(�‫���ڷ‬o �)��
�� ��: <���+���> ǥ��8�� ���� ���ʽÿ�.
1. �‫���ڷ‬o�� ��õ� �� 2. ��Ƽ�� ���� ���� ��� 3. v�絵� ,� 4. �¸��� ����, 5. ����
�6 ,�‫غ‬. FBI�� ���� v��, 7. �������, 8. �����ֹ�, 9. �������, 10.���� ���, 11. ���
‫�ڿ‬
��, 12. ���
ι f, 13 �����, 14 ��Ǽ���, 15 ������;��ȸ, 16 �ɷ���Ʈ
Answer:
1. a TV job 2. a party goer 3. a search warrant 4. victory celebration
<��
�; a victorious celebration�� ܼ� �DZ����� ��f�� �ǹǷ� �ǹǹ�
�� �ϸ� '��
�����>
5. travel arrangements 6. am FBI investigation 7. money golf
� �ǹǷ� ��, money mahjong: '���� ����'�� �ȴ�>
<money�� ���� '��; �ɴ�'��� �ǹ�
8. a city dweller 9. a battle experience 10. campaign promises 11, a deficit
estimate
12. immigration problems 13. a communications expert
<������ communications�� '���� ���'8�μ� ����� ��‫� ����ܡ‬ǹ��ǹ�>
14. bathroom facilities 15. a photo opportunity 16. a competency test

��縦 3�� ��� ������ ���


���� ���� ��f������ ��縦 �� ���� ������ ���� ���4ϴ�. �� ��� �����‫�� �� �ؾ‬
�쵵 �ִµ�, ��=: �� ���Դϴ�.
��' ��f �� a defense issues specialist [a specialist in defense issues]
���� �ߵ� ���� ���� a drug rehabilitation center [a center for drug
rehabilitation]
�Ͽ����� �‫���ڷ‬o ���ͺ� �wα� a Sunday television interview show
��ī��� �����а� ���� a Chicago University physics professor
ȣ�� ���� ��� a hotel reservation clerk [ a hotel clerk for reservation]
�ĸ��� ����Ͻ� ȸ�� a Paris business conference
����б� ������� ���� a high school teacher acquaintance
��縦 ������ �ϴ� ��: �и� �����ϰ� ���մϴ�. ���� ���絵 � f��� �Ǵ� ��: ��
�縦 ������ ������ �� �ִ°� �ϴ� ���Դϴ�. '�� �������� ����� �� ����; �� �� ��
��4ϴ ‫�ٸ‬, ����� �����ϴ� ǥ���� �����ϱ� ��� �ϴ� ��: �����в��� �Ǵ��� �ֽʽ�
��. ���� ��� '����б� ���� ������� ���� �˰� �ִ� ���'�� ���,
a high school mathematics teacher acquaintance of mine
�� �ϸ� ��絵 �ʹ� ���n ��=�ϱ� ��ư�, �� �����ϱ ��ƽ4ϴ�. ���,
��
a acquaintance of mine who is a mathematics teacher at high school
ó�� ��� ���縦 ����� ǥ���ϴ����������մϴ�.

[2]��Ŀ �뿡� ������ <���-(������)-���>


��; �����Դ� ��Ŀ�뿡� �ģ������ �ϴ� ��߱ �ǹ��ϴ� '��Ŀ�뿡� ������'�� ���

���� a locker-room talk��
�� �մϴ�. ������8�� ������ locker-room���� �� ��: ��
ܾ ���ȭ�Ǿ� '��Ŀ��'��
�� � � �ϳ��� ����; ��Ÿ��� �ϰ�, �� ����ó�� talk;
� ���� ��縦 �����ϴ� ��8�δ� �� ��谡 �и����� ��;
����ϱ� �����Դϴ�. ��
���, ������; ����� �� ��絵 � Ÿ��4ϴ�. �� '��Ŀ��' ����
�� ��縸 8�ε� �ǹ�
� ��
���ϹǷ�, ������ ���� �‫ �׳‬a locker room���� �ϸ� �˴ϴ�. � ���‫� ������' �ڴ‬뺯� �
�� ���� ����'�� ������ ����; the protest-resignation of State Department spokesman
��
�� ǥ���� �4�‫ٵ� �־‬ϴ�.
��ó�� ������8�� ������ � ����; ������ ��Ÿ���� �͵� ���� ǥ���� ��Ư�� �����
�ϳ��Դϴ�.
��縦 ������8�� �����Ѵ�.
�Ͽ��� ��ħ ��ȥ�� a Sunday-morning wedding
4���� ���� a four-door sedan
���� ������ v�� a crime-scene investigation
ġ��� ��Ŭ ���'ġ a cheese-and-pickle sandwich
��� ������ ��� a stock-market analyst]
�Ź� f 1��; ����ϴ� ���� front-page news
�� ���� ��:[�Ƹ��‫ ]�ٿ‬dz�� a picture-postcard view
���� ��
� ��� a heart-transplant operation
���� ����
� 6���� ��ȹ a six-year deficit-reduction plan
Ŭ���� ��Ÿ���� ���� Clinton-style tax cutting
f 1�� ��f d� the number-one economic policymaker
5���� �� a five-member team
����Ѱ��� �� ���� a machine-gun tongue
�ҹ���ó�� ���� �纹 a fire-engine-red suit
����� ���p� ��: dġ�� a modern-day-Lincoln-type politician
�‫� ���� ���ٹ‬ the nuclear-freeze movement
�ĸ����� ���� 7������f ���ȸ�� the seven-nation economic summit meetings in Paris
����; ��� ��

߱ a heart-to-heart talk
<�������
� ��� =�� ��=; �ε�ġ�١���� ��/ ǥ��; ��� �Ѵ�>
46���� ������ ���� a forty-six-year-old New York millionaire
������������ ö������ �� �˹�Ʈ ���ν�Ÿ�� the physist-philosopher Albert Einstein
�� ��� 50���� ��Ƽ Ƽ�� a $50-a-head party-ticket
�ǻ�� ȯ���� ��� a doctor-patient relationship
������8�� �����ϴ� ��: ��翡�� ��d�� ���� �ƴմϴ�. <���-����>�� <���-��
����>��, �� ~�� �‫��پ‬ѵ�, ��=�� �� ������ � ǰ�絵 � ����� 8�� ����Ǿ� �ִ°�
�� �м��� ���� �͵� ��; ���Դϴ�. �������
� ������� �ϳ��� d���� ����; ��Ÿ����
��ȣ ����; �ϰ� �ֽ4ϴ�.
3��� �
ִ � �Ĵ� a third-floor cafeteria
ī������ ��� Ŀ�� caffeine-free coffee
�ѱ����� �¾ ����� ��ȣ�� a Korean-born Washington lawyer
����ó�� ���� ���‫ ���ھ‬a pencil-thin girl
���� �絵� ����������� �γ� his razor-sharp mind <mind���� '�γ�'�� �ǹ�� �ִ�>
���� 6���� �� Ȧ a red-carpeted hall
��� ������ �x��� a high-speed laser printer
������ ����
� �‫ ���� ���׳‬her rich-girl image
�ΰ��d �Ʊ� an artificial-insemination baby
�‫ ����� ��� ���� �ر‬a navy's vertical-takeoff battle plane
(ȸ�� ����) ��'(����)� higher-ups
�Ŵ� d�� �‫ �ݴ‬ķ���� an anti-big-government campaign
d�� ��[v��] ���� �� early-retirement benefits
���� Ȯ���� �¸� near-certain victory

��ġ�縦 �����Ͽ� ������8�� �����Ѵ�.


���� ��� an air-to-surface missile: '����� �� ���', an air-to-air missile: '����
�����'; ����ŵ�ϴ�. ���� '����� �����': a surface-to-surface missile��
�, '���� ��
����': a surface-to-air missile�Դϴ�. <�� ��� �츮����: ��� ���� ����> �� �
�� ��ó�� ��ġ�縦 ���絵�� � ����� ���� ��絵絵 � ô�. '�� �ֿ� ��ģ 1�� 1 ��ȭ'�� weeks
of one-by-one negotiation. �� �� �� ������� ���б������� �������
�  ��� ǹ�ȭ��
�‫��� �ڴ‬ ��d �������� �‫�־‬µ�, �� ��� ��; ȭf�� �� a prayer-in-school
amendment��� ���� ���� �Ǹ� �� �4�‫־‬ϴ�. �� �: '�б������� ���
� ��� ��d��'
��� �ǹ�
�, ����� ������ ǥ���Դϴ�. a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity�� '�ϻ� �� ��
�ִ� ��ȸ', ���� �� �� ��
��� ���� ��f�� �‫�� ����' �� ;�־‬ȯ v��8�� ���⸦ f��
�ϴ� �ŷ�'�� ��п����� an arms-for-hostages deal�� �� ǥ���4ϴ�. ����, ��� ���
��� ��ġ�� ��; �����; �� ����� ����� �� �ִ� ���뵵 � ó��� ����Ʈ��; ��� ����
�ϰ� ǥ���� �� �ִ� ���Դϴ�.

�λ 絵� �������8�� �����Ѵ�.
The book is under the table. (�� å: Ź�� �Ʒ� �ִ�.)�� �� ���忡���� under the
table(Ź�� �Ʒ�)�� �λ 絵� ��‫˴�ش‬ϴ �. ��
�; ������8�� ������ �
Ű�� ��� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��� under-the-table documents�� '(Ź�� �‫�� ���ؿ‬ȯ�ϴ�) ��
�� ����'�� �ǹ��մϴ�. ���� '40�� ���� ����'�� the under-forty generation��
�� ǥ����
�� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��ġ�簡 f�� �տ� �� ������8�� ����Ǵ� �‫ִ� ���� �ٸ‬µ�,
on-the-job training(���� ����, ���� �Ʒ�)�� �� ���Դϴ�.

���絵� �������8�� �����Ѵ�.


He rides to work. (�‫���� ��� �״‬Ѵ�.)�� ���絵 �κ�; ������8�� ������ his
�� �ϸ� 'ȸ�翡 ������ ������ ��ȿ��� �ϴ� ����'��� �ǹ�
ride-to-work reading�� �
�: ���� ��絵 � ����‫�� ���ڵ‬/�� ������ ������ ���� ���Դϴ�.
�˴ϴ�. <���� ��
‫ټ‬ ‫ټ‬
�‫' >������ ���� �� ��ڰ� �����ڶ‬û���‫�� �ڰ‬b ��ȭ�� ���ϴ� ���� �wα�':
radio call-in shows. ���� his money scare-off tactic(��8�� '���ϴ� ���� ���)�� ����
�� �������� ���Դϴ�. the go-ahead order(�����‫� �ص‬t ‫)��� �ٴ‬, a head-on
automobile
collision(���� d�� �浹), a walk-in freezer(�ɾ� �� ���� �����), think-alike

Republican conservatives(���� ��: ��ȭ���� ���������‫�� ��)�ڵ‬: ǥ��� ����Ͻʽ�


��. ���� a political life-or-death matter(dġ�� ����� �� ū ��f)�� ���� or�� ����
�� ���� ������8�� �����ϰ� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� ������8�� ����� ���絵� �������8�� ���� '�� ���ʹ� �� ���ȭ�Ǵ� ���
�� �ִµ�, more lay-offs in the car industry(�‫�� ���� ������ ���ڵ‬:
����[����])��
��: ���� �‫��װ‬Դϴ�.

���� ��ü�� ������8�� �����Ѵ�.


���� ���� ��ü�� ������8�� �����‫���� �ؼ‬ȭ �ϴ� ���� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
Ʈ���ǿ� ������ ���� ��ĵǾ� �‫־‬ '  � �� ‫�� �ڱ‬w�� ����� ��'; the secretary's
I-love-me room�� �� ǥ���� ����ε� �ֽ4ϴ�. a balance-the-budget-at-all-costs
Republican: '��d ����; ������ ȣ���ϴ� ��ȭ����'; �ǹ��մϴ�. Balance the
budget at all costs!(����  ‫������ ���ؼ‬ƶ�!)��� ������ �8������ ��‫��״‬
����Ǿ�
����� ���ǰ� �ֽ4ϴ�. What the hell���� �� ��뱸� ���, He gave me a
what-the-hell-grin.: ���‫����' ������ �״‬ü ��?'��� ���� ��=; ��� �����١��� �ǹ� �
�˴ϴ�. ���� She's just gone out with old what-d'you-call-him,(�‫� ����� ��׳‬ƹ�����
�� �Բ� ��f �� ������.)�� �� ���忡�� �� �� �ִ� ��ó��,
what-d'you-call-him[what's-his-name](�ƹ�����)�� �� ǥ�� �ֽ4ϴ�.
��ó�� ������; ����� v�� ǥ���� �‫���� ��ݵ‬ϱ� ������ �� �� ��4ϴ�. ����
���� �������� ���� ǥ���� � ������ ���� �� ��ġ�� �ֽ4ϴ�. ���� ��; �� ����ִ�
ǥ������8��, ������ν ʽÿ�. ���� �Ƿʸ� ���� v�� ǥ�� ��� ��� ; ����
������
���� �� �‫����ٶ‬մϴ�.
3. �絵 � �������<���+-ed>
�������
� �� ���� -ed�� �8������ ���‫ ���� ����� ����� ��ٿ‬ǥ�� ���;
�: ������ ���¿ʹ� �‫�" ��� ���� >� ټټ� �ٸ‬絵 � ������� ��
�˾ƺ��4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�. <��
��'�� ���, square face(�絵 � )��� -ed�� �‫ �ٿ‬square-faced boxer��� ǥ���� ��������
�ϴ�. <����� � ����� ; ���ǹ� ��: �պκп����� �����ߵ��� square face�� ���絵 � �
������
�� �ϳ��� ����; ��Ÿ���� �ִ‫ �ٴ‬a; Ȯ�����ϱ� '�‫>���ؼ‬
'�Ӹ��� �� �� ����': ��� � ǥ��ϸ� ��;���? ���� a monster with three heads��, a
monster which has three headsó�� ��ġ�絵 � �����絵 �� ��� ǥ���� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
���� ���� square-faced�� �������, head��� ��翡 -ed�� �‫���ٿ‬, a three-headed
monster��� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�.
��
� ��: ����; ����θ�, �� ����� � ��ü�� Ư¡ ��; ������ �� ���� ��� ���
�縦 ������� �ʾ Ƶ� �DZ� ������ ������ ���մ ϴ�.

���絵 � ������; �����


�, <S+have+ ��� +���>��<����+������+���-ed+S>
�� �˴ϴ�. �� ���� ���� ��� ���4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�.

The flowers have a primary color.


��primary-colored flowers(�� �ɵ�: ������ǹ
�.)
The sound has a high pitch.
��high-pitched sound(�� �Ҹ��� =v�� ���.)
The plants have deep roots.
��deep-rooted plants(�� �Ĺ���: �Ѹ��� ���.)

���ü Ư¡; ������ ���

��: �������� ���� ���� a black-eyed Oriental lady


õ�� ��: ���� �ҳ� an angel-faced girl
����� ��; �� ���� a wicked-faced man
��Ӹ� ���� a bald-headed man(=a baldpate, a baldhead)
y�� ��; �� b�� ��� a sleepy-eyed receptionist
�ֲ‫�� ���� ���ٴ‬ȣ�� a one-eyed black lawyer
����� �� an oval-shaped face
��; �‫�� �ݸ‬: ���� �� his half-shaved face
� �鸸���� a silver-haired Ohio millionaire
����� ������
������ 24���� ��� ���� a slender, dark-haired girl of twenty-four
���; ��: ����Ͻ��� a battle-scarred businessman
‫ټ‬
���‫� �ڰ‬Ŵ�ť� ĥ�� �‫ �� ���׳‬her well-manicured hands
��� ��: �:�� a broad-shouldered young man

������ ����� �ܰ�; ������ ���

��ũ ���‫� �� �ڸ‬Ż� a silk-hatted gentleman


�ǹ
Ͻ�ĿƮ�� ��: 10�� �ҳ� 3�� three miniskirted teenagers]
���� ���� ��: ���Ϸ����� a red-shirted Irishman
/ġ�� �‫ٴ‬ϴ� ������ ���� ���� a kindergarten-aged boy
�Ż 纹 ���� �:�� a business-suited young man
�� ��Ŷ; ��: �±��� �ǻ� a white-jacketed Thai doctor

������ ���‫� �ݰ‬µ��� ������ ���

�, reform(����) ���� ��ľ ������ reform-minded���


���� mind�� 'd�� ,����'�� �ǹ�
�ϸ� '���� ��; ��'�� �˴ϴ�. ��� reform-minded politicians�� '������ dġ����'��

�� �ǹ�
� ��Ÿ�4ϴ�. ��= ���� ���ô�.

�7��� ��; � ߱ �� Ϸt� �� a single-minded pursuit of money


���� ���� ��� a strong-minded person
���� |: ����� a narrow-minded old lady
���� ������ ���� a nasty, mean-spirited man
���� ���� �����ĵ� strong-willed reformists
�µ��� a��: �Ż� a mild-mannered gentleman
�ܱ � då�� ��=���� ���� a sure-footed foreign policy leader
�����[ȥ���� �ƴ�] ��ĥ������ a full-blooded Sicilian
��=���� ��: ��� a good-natured man
���� ��ü ������ dġ���� media-oriented politicians

���Ÿ: ��� �� ���� ����; ��Ÿ�� ���

�7��� ���� ��� �� an old red-bricked house


���� 6��; �� ��� red-carpeted stairs
���� ��: ���� a straight-backed chair
���� �� �� �� a wheeled stretcher
��8�� �� �� a hand-lettered menu
���ʷ� �� ª: �� a brief penciled memo
���ֿ� ��a; �� ��' a space-based defense
���忡�� ����� ��‫�� �ݽ‬ü ���� ȸ��
a bare-chested press conference in a swimming pool
<a bare chest�� '�ƹ� �͵� ���� ��: ��ü ���'�� ���ǹ
�>
Ÿ����� ��: �������� �ְ��� a Time magazine-sized weekly
�� ����� �ִ� ū ���� a large flowered hat
� � �: �� a high-priced foreign contracts
�Ƹ�带 ��: ���� �ũ�� almond-topped ice creams

���� <���+-ed> ������ iced���‫�� �ٴ� �׳‬縦 ������ ice tea�� �� ���� ����մϴ�.
������� '����
� Ŀ��'�� iced coffee�ε� �� �� �ְ�, �� ice coffee�ε� ����� �����մ�
��. iced�� d�� �и��ϰ� ��=���� �ʾƼ� ��
� ǥ��8�� �‫ ��;��ٲ‬� ϴ�
.

[4]���� ��ü�� ���� ������� ��Ÿ <������ ����+���>

��=: �տ��� ����� <���+-ed>�� ���°� ����� ������ ���°� ��縦 ����ϴ� ��
�Դϴ�.
������ �������� known; ��� �տ� �ξ� ����μ� ����ϴ� ����� a well-known
novelist(/���� �Ҽ���)�� ��� ���縦 ����� ��ġ��, a novelist who is known well
(�� �˷��� �Ҽ���)�� �˴ϴ�.
���� '���� ��ü�� ���� ������� ��Ÿ'�� a media-manufactured star��� ǥ���� �� �ְ�,
��
�: �� a star who is manufactured by the media�� �DZ �մϴ�.
a media-manufactured star������ media�� manufactured�տ� �4µ�, �� ���: ������ ��
���°� � ϴ� ��쿡 � ���
� � 8�� ��= ��絵 � ��� , �Ϲ���8�� �� �տ� ��絵 � ���
, ��
�絵 � �����8�ν� ���絵 � ��‫��� ������ڼ‬Դϴ�.
�� Soviet-built airstrips in Nicaragua(�ҷ��� ��ī��� �Ǽ��� Ȱ�ַ�)���
� � ��� ��
�絵 �ľ��ϱ� ��� ������ airstrips in Nicaragua which was built by Sovietó�� ���
���絵 � ����‫��� �ؼ‬ϸ� �����ϱⰡ ���4ϴ�.
�����
� �= �� ��: �� ���� ���; /���� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ�. ù°, <S+be+p.p+by+���>
��<���+������+p.p+S>, ��°, <S+be+adv.+p.p>��<adv.+p.p+S>. ���� ���4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�. ù
��° ��쿡 �‫�ش‬Ǵ� ���� ����, ��=�� ��: ���� �ֽ4ϴ�.

The fruit was dried by the sun.


��sun-dried fruit (���� �� v�� ����)
The wagon are drawn by horses.
��horse-drawn wagons (���� ��� ����)

�� ��° ��쿡 �‫�ش‬Ǵ� ���� ��=�� ���4ϴ�.

The flowers are brightly colored.


��brightly colored flowers (ȭ���ϰ� ä��� �ɵ�)
��� ���Ⱑ ���� �� �� a smoke-filled room
������ ��: �Ǿ� a well-connected businessman
���� ����; �����‫ �� �ؼ‬: ��� a self-appointed negotiator
��ҵ� ��� �Ļ� a canceled dinner
��d; �� �ƴ� ��f �� a well-informed economic advisor
������ ��‫ �� ��� ټټ‬Ƽ a female-dominated party
÷�� ��� ��ǻ�� ó���� ���� ��� �ý���
a high-tech computerized mailing system
�‫�ڵ‬ȭ�� ��� �ý��� an automated registering system
d�� ���� ���� �wα� a government-financed space program
���忡 ��a�� �ִ� ������� ü��
a New York-based restaurant chain
������� �Ʒ�; ��: v~�� an American-trained pilot(=a pilot who was trained in
America)
����絵 � ���ij��� ������
a chauffeur-driven Cadillac limousine
������ �‫���� ���غ‬ staff-prepared speeches
=�� ���� drunken driving
�ֱ� ��ȥ�� �‫ ���ڷ‬o �wε ༭ a recently married TV producer
��� ä��� �Ǹ� ����� a newly hired salesgirl
�ſ� ��� �� �� ���� a much-loved pop singer
TV ��� a televised debate
���� �ǿ� ��� a half-smoked cigarette
����� ����� d�� ����� a court-appointed psychiatrist
�� ���� �ʿ� snow-covered meadows
����� �ϼ��� ���� ���� a half-completed construction site

{5]������ �����
� Ÿ ��� ����<���� -ing+���>

�������
� ����� ������ ���� ����, �� ���翡 -ing�� �‫����� �ٿ‬ ����� ��� ; ��
�캸�4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�.

���‫�����ڵ‬ ���

an interesting book(�ſ� ����ִ� å, ����ִ� å)�� interesting: �����, ��� ����


interest���� /���Ǿ�4ϴ�. ���� ��������� �‫�� ;�ݽ‬ȴ ‫������ٱ⺸���ٴ‬� �ܼ���� '=��; �Ĵ�
� � � � ' � � � � 3 � � � ǥ � � ; � � � � � � an eating house(=a house for eating) � � �
� � a negotiating table(=a table for negotiating): ' � � � � � � ��� ' ��� � �ǹ�� , � 絵�
� � � � ��� � � � � � � ; � Ѵ ‫� ���� �ٴ‬ƴմϴ�.
�  � � � � � � � a walking stick ��� � � � � � ; f � � � ϸ 鼭, stick; � � � ϰ � � � = � � � �
� � � � ; � � � � � � ϴ � ' � � � � � � ' � � �ƴ϶� ' �Ȱ � �ִ� ������' � � �ȴ ‫��� �ٴ‬Ǹ� ��
� � � ֽ4ϴ� . d � � ģ � � � � � � � � � �ƴ � � � � � 4 ϴ � . � � � � ��� � � � � � � :
� � � � � Ǵ � � � � � �ִ� ����� � � � � � � � � ‫ ���״‬ū � � � : � � � � �ʾƵ� �˴ϴ� .
a discouraging story � � ' � ǿ � ; �Ұ � � ϴ � ��߱ �', a flourishing business � � ' � �Ⱑ
� � � ' ��� � �ǹ � � Դ ϴ � . < � � � � flourish � � '� � � ϴ � , ( � Ĺ � � � � � ) ���ϴ �'� �
towering man: 'ū � � � ' ��� � � � ε � , � ‫ ���ڵ‬tower � � � � ' � � � � � ‫� � � '�ڴ‬ǹ�� �ֱ�
� ϴ � . ' � � / � � �‫־‬ ~~ � � Ƽ � � � � � � � � � ‫'�ڵ‬: the idle, partygoing rich � Դ ϴ � .
� � : � � � ° � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � , � ‫� ����� ���� ���� ��ݵ‬ǹǹ� �ƴմϴ � .
Look at the singing girls.(� 뷡 � ϰ� �ִ� ���‫� � � ;�ڵ‬ʽ ÿ � .) � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ; � � Ÿ � � � � �ֽ4ϴ� . ��� ; � � � � � � 絵 � � � � � ǥ���ϸ�, those girls
are singing � � � Ǿ � ��� � ��� � ���; �� Ȯ� � �ϰ � � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ� . � � � �
knees( � � � � �ִ� ���� ����), soaring prices( � � � � � � � �), murmuring
trees( � � � Ÿ � � � � �
� � ) �  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ӽ� �ǰ � �ֽ4 ϴ� . � � ó � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
�ƴϸ� � � � � � � 8 � � � � �ǰ � �ִ���� ����8 � � � � � � �Ǵ � � � � � �ֽ4ϴ� .

��� � � � , ��� � � � , � ‫ �����ڵ‬-ing+ � � � � � ���

a quick-thinking young man( � Ӹ � ȸ � � � � � � � : � � ) � � � � � � � ‫ �����ڵ‬-ing � � ;


� � � � � , � � � 8������ ;���� �����‫ � � � � � � �ڵ‬ϰ � �ֽ4 ϴ� . a tired-looking
� � � � ǥd; �ϰ � �ִ� ����' � ε � , � � tired � � ��� � տ � � � � � � � � � � �ִ� �����
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � � chain-smoking laborers( � ‫�ٴ‬絵 � ǿ � � �
chainó � � , � � 絵 � � � �4ֽ� ���� :�� �‫ص‬ϴ � .
�� �� � � � ; ���  �‫�ڸ‬,
 <S+V+C> � � <C+ � � � � � � + v -ing+S> � � � Ǵ µ � , The girl
looks good. � � the good-looking girl( � � � � �ҳ � ) � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .

�: � � � � � Ҽ � � � a youthful-looking novelist
� � � � � � �  � �Ÿ� � ��� ��� � a slender, athletic-looking man
�ɰ � � � �� � � �� � � a serious-looking man
� ŷ � � � 8 � � � 絵 � �f � � an appealing-sounding proposition
��� � ��� � ��� � ��� � a bad-smelling shirt
� � ����� �絵 � �� ‫���� ���׳‬Ʈ ���
a fancy-sounding name of her apartment
��� �8 � � ���ϴ � ��� � � � a straight-talking negotiator
� � �´ � û� � � � a tight-fitting jeans
� ‫�ٴ‬絵 � � � � � � � � � � � � � dġ� �
a chain-smoking, blunt-talking politician

��� � � ���ϴ � Ÿ� � � � � � ���

a film-editing room ( �ʸ� � � � � � )

��� : ' �ʸ� ; � � � � � ϱ � ' � � � � ', � ‫��� �ٽ‬ϸ � a room for editing film � � � ǹǹ �,
edit � � � � � �  � � � ϴ � Ÿ � � � � � � � � ; �մϴ � . � � � � edit � � � � � � � film � �
film-editing � � � Ǿ � � � = � � � 4 � � � 絵 � � � �ϰ� �ֽ4 ϴ� .
You can save a lot of money. ( � � ; � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ� . ) � � � � � �
�  � � � � � � � � � � � ִ�� �սô�. �� �� Ÿ���� save�� ����� money�� 'ġ�� �
� � � 絵 � � � � � �8 � � � ‫ �ؼ‬money-saving ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ� . � � � �
money-saving device � � ' � � ; � � � � � � � �ִ� ��ġ' � � �˴ϴ� .
�Ʒ � � � � � � � � � < �‫�־‬+Ÿ � � � � + � � � � � > � � < � � � � � + � � � � � � + Ÿ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � 4 ‫غ��ڽڽ‬ϴ� .

ī � � ��� � � a car-racing team


� � � � � � ��� ; � � � � � � � an eye-catching ad
� ð � � � �ɸ � � � � � time-consuming task
�‫ٹ‬‫� � � � � � � � � � � �ر��� � ٹ‬
the Navy's nuclear-missile-firing submarines
� � � � � �å � � � crime-fighting techniques
� � � � ; � ~ � � ϴ � �ֺε � gossip-loving housewives
� � ��Ƹ � � � � � Ͼ � diamond-buying business
� ‫���� ⸦ڱ‬ϴ� � � � a self-sacrificing man
CIA � � d � � � � � � � � �
the CIA's intelligence-gathering function
��� ��� a mountain-climbing accident
� � �ǹ� � � � � � � �ʴ� � � � � � � � � radar-evading fighter bombers

[6] � � � � � � � � � � � � � <something of � � >


He is something of an artist. � � � � � ١�
� ���� ���˷� �� �‫� ���� ״‬ǹ� �,
��� ⼭
something of � � ' � � � � ; � � � � d � � � � �ϰ � �ִ�'���� � � � Դ ϴ � . something of a
' � � � � � � � � � ' � Ǵ � ' � � � � � � � � � � � � � '; �ǹ � �ϰ � , a something of a
ö � � � � ' � � , ö � � � ‫ �ڴٿ‬a � � � � � � : � � ���; � � � մ ϴ � . something of a liar � �
� � � � � � � � � ' � � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � ߴ‫��� �ٴ‬ӽ �� � � � � ˴ϴ � .
enough( � � � � � ) � � enough of � � � � � � � · � � � � Ǿ � , He is enough of a compamy
� � � ‫ ������ �״‬ȸ����ǹ ١��� �˴ϴ� �. � � enough of an idealist � � ' � � � � � ���
� � � ', enough of a sexist � � ' � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ' ��� � �ǹ � � Դ ϴ � .
� � ��� ; � � � � Ѵ ١��� �ǹ� � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8 � � , �Ϲ � � � 8 � �
� � � ϴ � � � � � ' � � �ǹ�� � � � � � � � � � � > � � � � nothing � � much � � � � � � �
�ǹ� � � = � � � � � 4 ϴ � .
.
� ��Դ� ���‫� ���� �ڴٿ‬ѱ����� ���.
He is nothing of a scholar.
� ‫� ����� ��׳‬ ֺ δ � �ƴϴ � .
She is not much of a housewife.
� � � � � 絵 � �� � � � � Ѵ�.
I am not much of a cook.
� ‫� �״‬λ � ��� � ÷ � ��� � � � ϴ � .
He is too much of an inside player.

�տ � � � � ‫ �ٷ‬ǥ���: ��=�� ���� ��� �� ���� ��쿡 � � � � � ˴ϴ�.

� ‫ � ;�� �װ‬絵� ϴ � � � : � � � � � � � � �ǹ� .


His demanding money is enough of a threat.
� ‫׳‬ � ��‫ �װ‬ȥ�� ������� ����� �Ұ����ǿ���.
It was something of a mystery why she went there alone.
� ‫ �״‬:�‫ ���װ‬Ī � � 8 � � � 絵 � �� ʾҴ�.
It didn't sound much of compliment.

[7] � � �
ִ � ����<the+ � � � � >

� � � � � � � ' � � � � :' ��� � �ǹ � � � � � � � rich � � the � � � ‫ ���ٿ‬the rich � �


� � � � � ‫ڵ‬项; � � Ÿ � � � � rich people � � �˴ϴ� . � � = � � � � � � � � �ֵ���
� � � � ��� / � � � ϰ � � � � Դ ϴ � .

� � � � � , �ϵ� � � � , � � u � � � � � � � �
the homeless, the jobless, the hopeless
� � ü � � � �ְ� � ִ � ���� the handicapped
Ư�� ����� �Ƿ��� �ִ� ����
the established and the powerful
� Ÿ � � � � � � � � ‫� ��� ���ڸ‬踦 ����� ����� �����ߴ�.
The streets were filled with the unemployed and the hungry.
� � � ‫ູ� ��ڵ��� �ݵ‬ �� ϴ ��� �� �� ���� ���� ���� �η � � � .
The rich are not necessarily happy. However, I still envy them.
� � ģ � � � 絵 � � � � � 1 � � � � ; �‫� ��־‬Ѵ�.
We should give the wounded first aid.
[8] � � � ǥ� � d� �

� � � ǥ � � ; d � � � � , � ��� ��� ���‫ � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � ~�� �ݱ‬v � � � � �? �


� �  � 4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ � . � � � � � � � � � � � ġ � 簡 �ܾ����� ܾ  ��� �ִ� b � � f � μ � � � �ȴ ‫�� �ٴ‬
; � � � � � �; � � � Դ ϴ � .
� � � � � � � ‫��� �װ‬Կ� ���� �� � ������ ���
American air strikes from offshore aircraft carriers
� � � � � ü � � � � η � ; � � ġ � � Ű � � d � � � ‫� ���� ���� �ڱݿ‬wα�
a government-financed space program with manned moon facilities
� � � � � 絵 � �� 7 � � � � ; � � � Ư � � � � dġ � �
a unique politician with a long show-business back-ground
Ŭ � � � � d � � � � � ߵ���
a Clinton Administration expert on the Middle East
Ű � � ū 50 � � � � � � � � � a tall, silver-haired man in his fifties
� �ɿ � � �   � �� � Ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � �
the shocked reactions on the faces of jurors
� �ҿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � 絵 � � � � � � �
a face-to-face prison talk with a suspect
� �ī � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � McCarthy's postwar Communists hunts < � � ī � ô �
� ‫�� �ڸ‬ź � � � � 8 � � / � � � ϴ � >
� � ī� � d� � � � � � � � � � � �
a former Carter Administration arms reduction adviser
170 � � � ��� ���� �����
a $17 billion welfare-reform proposal
� ‫ ��ܱ� ������ݰ‬då anti-Communist foreign policy
� � � � � � � ��ֹ� ��ġ ȣ�� an expensive Miami Beach hotel
� � Ÿ �ӡ � � � � � � � � � � � � � a crime-reporter for the � � Time � �
2 � ð � ¥ � � � � � � Ư � � � wα �
a two-hour-long TV special on boxing
570 � � � � ��� ��v 6� �
a $57-billion bailout loan

unit 3 native speaker �ܼ��, � � � � ��� � ��� �

� � �  � � � � ϴ � � � � � �‫־‬ � ��� �ִ� ���� �� �� ��� ��絵 � � � � �ϴ� � � :


� � � н � �ʱ� � � � � � � ��� ��ΰŸ � � � �ϳ� � � � Ǿ � � ; � � � Դ ϴ � . � 츮 � � � � � ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � , � ‫ � � � � � � ;�װ‬ǥ � � � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� . � � 絵 � � � � � � � � ʰ�
� � � � � ִ‫� �ٸ‬p � � � , � � f � δ � � 4�� �� � ϴ � .
� ܼ�, � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � � � =�� ���ؼ‬: � � f � � �ֽ4 ϴ� .

�ϳ� � � � � � � �ִ� ���� �‫� ���װ‬ϳ��� ���� ��� �տ� ��d��� a[an]�� �8�, �� ��
��� � � � � � � � � � � ‫ ������ �ڿ‬s � � � � � δ � . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �‫׳‬
�Ѵ �.

� � � � � � � � Ģ � � � � � � � � � 絵 � ‫�� �ٷ� �� �ִٸ‬f � � � � � � � մ ϴ � . � � � � �


� � , � � / � � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � � 翡� � a� � �0 �, � � � � � �
��� � ��� � � � � � � ��� Դϴ �.
unit 3 � � � � � � � � � � Ƽ � � � � � � Ŀ (native speaker) � � � � � � ü � � � � ; � � � � , ��
� � �˾ƺ� � � � �ϰ 4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ � .
� � 8 � ε � � � � � � � �ܼ��, � � � � � � � � � ϴ µ � � �  � � � �ְ���, � � � � � � н � ;
� �  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ٶ‬ϴ � .

[1]� ‫�� ���پ‬d � � � a� � � � � �

� � � � � � � � 翡 ��� ǥ � � � � � � Ƿ  4�‫־‬ϴ � .

He introduced me an ex-wife of Tom


��� ; � 츮 � � � � � ‫��ؼ‬ϸ � � � � � ɱ � ? � � � ‫ �״‬Ž � � � � � Ƴ � � � � � � � � �
� � � ‫��� �ٸ‬Դϴ�. ���� �ϼ����� ��° ġ���, �� �ǹǹ � ��� ���� ����: ���մϴ�.
�‫�߸ �� �ؼ‬:��ǹ �����Դϴ�. ������ ���ӽ��� �� ǥ��Ǿ�°� �ϴ� ���‫�� ���� �ؿ‬
f � � �ƴմϴ � . �‫��� �ؼ‬��� ��n �ֱ� ������ ũ � � � ߸� ������‫ٴ‬ �ߴ�� �‫��� � ؼ‬Դϴ�.
��� � ��� �; ��� � � 츮 � � Ž � � � �ȥ � � � ; � � � d � � � ľ � � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ� .
� ͼ � an ex-wife � � � � � � : Ž � � � Դ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ִµ � < � � ���
� ‫ � ;��� �ٴ‬û � >, � � �  � � � � � � � �ϳ� � � � � � � � ϰ � �ֱ� �����Դϴ�. ����
� � � � � � � � ��� � d � � � the � � � ͼ � the ex-wife of Tom � � � Ǿ � � �մϴ � . � �
� � � � � � � ‫��ٽ� �ؼ‬ϸ� ,

� � � ‫� �� ���� �״‬Ƴ� �� �� ��; �Ұ��� �١�‫�־‬


� � � � � � � � � � � ‫˴� ���ؼ‬ϴ�. � � · � � ' � � � ǹ� � � � � � d � � � a� � � � � Ե �
� � � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � �ֵ���, � � d � � 絵 � � �ø � : � � � � � � 4 ϴ � . � � = � � � �
��� Դϴ �.

We had coffee in a Black & White Cafeteria.


� � � � ȭ� �Ʈ � � ī � � � ��ƿ��� Ŀ�Ǹ� ���� �.

� � � � ȭ� �Ʈ � � Ŀ �Ǚ � � տ � � � a � � � � ; � � � ? Ŀ �Ǚ � � � ��� : � � / � � � ��Ƿ � � � �
a � � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� . � ����� a � � � � � � : � � � � � � Ŀ � � ü � � a � � � � �ϳ� � �
��� � � Դ ϴ �.
� � / � � � � տ � ��� � � a � � � � � � � , ��� � � �ǹ�� f � � � � ľ � � � � � � � � ϸ � � �
�ϰ � � � � � � 4�� �� �� �� ϴ ߴߴ � . < � ��� �� ���� �츮 � � � � � ‫���� ���ؼ‬
ü� �a � � �ͱ � � �
� ‫� ���ؼ‬ʿ�� ��=>
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � å � ϴ � � � ; � ~ � � Ѵ ١��� ��= � � � � � �

I like walking with my dog


� � � 絵 � �my dog � � � � � � � � / � � ; � � � � մ ϴ � . � � , � ��/�� ;�� ����� ���‫ڽڽ‬
� � � � � Դ ϴ � . a dog ��� � �ϸ � � � Ư d �ϰ � � � � � � � � 3 � � � � � � , ��� �� ��� �
� � � � � � � � 絵 � �� � � � ‫� �ٴ‬ǹ� � �Ǿ � � � � � � � ϴ � .

�� �d� � � � ��/ � � � � �ǹ � � �

� � � � � ; � � n � � � � � � � � � t ١���� �� ��, You'd better take your


umbrella.ó � � � � � � � �
� � / � � your � � � Ἥ � � / � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � : � � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . ��� � �� ��/�
� � � � / ��� � � �ǹ�� � � � Ե Ǿ � � � 8 � Ƿ� , � � � � � � � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬մϴ�.

� ‫ ��׳‬ 
� ���� �� Ҹ � � � 8 � � � � � � � � �ȳ � � ϼ � � � ? � � � � � � � � ߴ�.
(1)She said hello to me with a smile on her face.
(2)She said hello to me with her smile on her face.

� � � � s smile � � her smile: � � � � � ӽ � � � � ‫��ٸ‬ϴ� . (1): �ܼ���ϰ� '��� ���


� � Ÿ � 4 ϴ � . � ‫ � ׳‬:�� � � � ����� / � ��� ��(2 ) ���� Ư / � � � � ��� � � � � ӽ � � �
� Դ ϴ � . � � � � / � ุ‫��� ��� ��ݿ��� �׳‬ǹ� � � � � � � � � � � � � �� ҡ � � � �ǹ��
�4ϴ � .
� � = � � � � ������� ~ � � � � �ܼ��, � � � � � � � � fa; � � � � � � � � � � � �ս ô � .
� � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � �� �
ְ �, � � � � : � � � � ��ų � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � ‫� ��ٶ‬ϱ絵� ‫�ٴ‬, � � � � � ~ � � � � � � � � � � � ǽ � � � ; � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � �ʾ� ; � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫� ��ٶ‬ϴ � � � � � d � 信 � � � � � � � � � � Դϴ�.

[2] � � � � ' � � ��� � � ��� �ϴ°�? <� � � � � � >

� � � : � � � � � � � , � � � � � ... � � , � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � , � �
� � , � � ... � � � � � � � � � ֽ 4ϴ� . � � � � � � � � � � �Ǵ � � � � � �ϳ� ��� � � � � տ �
��� ��� � � � � 絵 � � � � � �8 � � �մϴ � . � տ � � � ��� � ‫ ����� �ٷ‬Ƿ � , � � a � � � � �
� � �ǹ � � � � � ; � � � Դ ϴ � . � � f � � � � � � � � � � ; � � = � � � � � � � �  � ô � .
� � �
' ��� � � � Ȱ 絵� �
, ¦8 � � � � � �; � �Ÿ � � � � ���

� ‫ ��׳‬û � � � � �  � � � ��� � .
She was wearing jeans and a sweatshirt.

� � � � � � � ܼ�, � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ȯ � � � � � � � � �ִ‫ � � ;�� �ٴ‬d �մϴ � . � � � �


� � , � � ' � � � Ȱ � �ϳ� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � �ϴ � �� � � � �
� � � � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� . �Ȱ � : � ¿ � � � � � � � � � 2� � � � � � � � 8 � � � Ǿ � �ֱ�
� Ǿ � � � Ѵ ‫ ��� ���� �ٴ‬d � � Ÿ � 缺 � � �ֽ4 ϴ� .
��� � ��� � �   � �� � � � ġ � � : � � � � � � �ִ� ���� ����Դϴ�. ���� ������
� � � � � ¿ � � � � � � � ' �ϳ� � � � � � � ' � � �ǹ Ƿ � � � � � � � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�� �մϴ�. �
� � � � � � � ¿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ��Ƿ � � � � � � � � ; � ‫� � ������ �� �ؾ‬ ��
� � � � � � � ܼ�� ����ϴ � .
� � � Ź ߰ � �縻 ó � � � ¿ 찡 � и � �ϰ � � � � � � � � � 8 � ε � � и � � Ǿ � �ִ� ��: � �
� � � ( � � κ � � � � � � � � � � ¿ � � � � � ; � � � � 8 � � � ű � � � � � ) , � � � � � � � � � Ѵ �‫ٴ‬
�˴ϴ� . �Ȱ � ��� � � ' Ȥ: � � � � ó � � �ʿ� � � 8 � � � ¿ 찡 � ‫�� �ִ� �پ‬: �ܼ���
� Ź � ��� � 縻, � 尩 ó � � � ¿ 찡 � и� � � � � : � � � � � � � � � ϴ � � � � � �ξ � � �
� � � � � � � � � , � � f � � ��� � � � � : � ��� ������� �ʽ4ϴ�.
��� � � � � � ‫� ���ؼ‬ ��� ����Ƽ�� ����Ŀ����� �и��ϰ� �˰� ����ϴ� ������ �‫���״‬
� � � � � �; � � � Դ ϴ � .

� � ' �ϳ � � � å � � ' � � � � �‫��־‬.


A pair of scissors was left on the desk.

� ܼ� ������ was � � � � � � : �‫־‬ a pair ��� � � � � � Դ ϴ � . Two pairs of


� � � � 絵 � �� � � � � � were � � � � � � ‫˴� �ؾ‬ϴ�. � � �  � � � � � � � ‫�ڸ‬, This pair
is sharp.( � � � � ' � � � � � ߸���.) ��� � � � � 忡 � � � � � и � � � ' � � �ϳ� � � � � �
The[These} scissors are sharp. � � � � � � � � ' � � � � � ‫� �ڷ‬Ǵ� �� �‫�����ڷ‬, �ƴϸ�
� � �Һ и � � ϴ ‫��� �ٴ‬Դϴ�.

� ‫� ���� �״‬Ȱ� ; � � � .
He wore a gold-rimmed glasses

� � � � � � : a pair of gold-rimmed glasses � � pair of � � � � � � ǥ� � � � � � Դ ϴ � .


� �' � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � 긮 � � � � � � � ƴϹǷ� �‫׳‬ � � 絵 � 絵 � � ‫�� ��ߴٶ‬
She told the story to me in tears.ó � � tears � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � մ ϴ � .
��� � � � = � � � � � � � � � 簡 <�ܼ����> � � � � < � � � � � � > � � � � � � � � � � � ô � .

Ž � � f � � : � л � �ǹ� .
Tom and Jane are students.

Ž� � � � �� �, f �ε � � � �� �, �հ � � � � � � ��Ƿ � ��� � � ��� � � Դ ϴ � .

5ų � ι � �ʹ� �ɾ �  � � � �Ÿ � � .
Five kilometers is a long distance to walk.

1 kilometer � � �ܼ������, 5 kilometers � � ��� � � Դ ϴ �. ��� � ��� � ��� 縦


Five kilometers(5ų � ι � � � ) � � �ܼ������ ; � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ� . � � '5ų � ι � � � ' � �
� � � � � � � � >; � �Ÿ � � � � 쿡 � � �ܼ������� ϴ � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � = � � � � � 4 �
'10� �' � � � �ϳ� � � � � � � ; � � Ÿ � � � Ƿ � �ܼ������ մϴ�.

� � �ռ � � � � � � � � : 10 � ��ǹ� .
Ten dollars is the price of this handkerchief.

� 2����� =� ���  �� �ϱ � 2� � 4� � � �ǹ � � � ��� �8�δ� ��� ��� � �


(1)Two and two is four.
(2Two and two are four.
� � � � d � � � Դ ϴ � . (1) � � � � � � 2 � � 2 � � � � � ϴ ‫ � ;�� ��ٶ‬ �ϳ� � � d � � � �
� � � ֽ4ϴ� . � ��� and � � � � : � � ; �ϳ� � � � � � � 8 � � � ľ � � � �ܼ�� ���� ϰ� �ִ�
� � . (2) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 2 � � � ִ �� ���‫��� �ؼ‬縦 � � � � � � 8 � � � � :
� � : � տ � � � ��� � ‫ �ٷ‬Tom and Jane � � � � � � � � =< � � � ⼭ �ܼ�������� ��� ΰ � ,
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ΰ � � � ȭ� � � � � ǽĿ � � 4ֽ� � ϴ � . � � , ��� � � � � �ܼ��, � � � �
��� � � � � � � � 4 ϴ � . � � � � 濡 � մ� �� ��踦 Ȯ���������ϴ������� � ��մϴ�
  .
��� / � � � � ǥ � � 8 � � Seven years is a long time.(7 � � : � � � � � � �ǹ� . ) � � Seven
have passed since he died. (� 7 ��:�� �‫ � � � � �װ‬귶 � � .) � � � � � � � � � �ֽ4ϴ� .
� � � � �� ��° � � � � � � � � � � seven years(7 � � ) � � � � � � � � � � �ǹ�� � � � � Ǿ �
� � have � � � Խ 4 ϴ � . � � , � � � � , � � � ‫�� ���� �ذ‬ε � � � 귯 � � � ‫�ٴ‬
� � ó � � � Ÿ � , � ð � , � � � � � � �ϳ� � � � � � � ; � � Ÿ � � � 3 � , Ȥ: � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � d �ǹ Ƿ � � � �ǰ � �ʿ� �մϴ � .
��� � � � � � � � � ܼ � , ��� � ��� � � � ��� ��� ��� � � � ��� � �� ��� � ��

� � ħ � Ļ 翡 � � � � � � � � � Ͱ� �t �.
Bread and butter is[are] good for breakfast.
� � � �  ����� � ��� �丶 � 絵 � � 8 � � � � : � � � � � 带 � � � � �� �ִ�.
Lettuce, onion and tomato makes[make] a good salad.

� �= � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 4� �‫ � � � �ڿ‬簡 �ܼ������� ͵� �ְ�, � � � � � � � � �͵�


� � � ‫��ش‬ϴ � � � � � � � � � � ΰ � , �Ǵ � �‫� ���־‬ǹ�
� �� �ϸ� �� �� 絵 � � � � � � � �
�ϴ �.

å� � � � � � � � � � f � � � � ƴ � .
A package of books was delivered yesterday.
<�‫ ��־‬a package ��� , of books � � � � � �  �ǹ
�
>
� � � � � � � � � � � � � 絵 � � �ϵǾ��.
Materials for this house have been shipped.
�ҳ � � � � � � : � � � ǿ � �ִ�.
Half of the boys are in class.
� � � � � � � � � �: � � � � � � �ƿ Դ � .
Half of the pie was given to me.

' � � � � � � � � , � � � ǿ � � � � � � � � �ҳ � � � �ֱ� ������ ���� ��8 � � , � � � � =


� � � � � � � � � � pie
� � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � � ܼ �� ���� 4ϴ � . < � � � � � 翡 � � � ‫ ���ؼ‬Unit 3 � �
� � � � 8 � � ��� � � � � � = � � � � � � � � : � � � 8 � � � � � � � � � � �
ֽ 4 ϴ� .

(1) �մԵ � � � � Ϻ δ � � � � ư � � � .
Part of the guests have left.
� � � � � Ϻ ΰ � �ı � � Ǿ � � .
Part of the house was destroyed.
(2) � � � � � 忡 � � � � : � � � � � � � ‫� ;�۾‬ϰ � �‫��־‬.
A number of men were working at the factory.
� ‫��� ��װ‬ϰ� �ִ� ������ ��� ����.
The number of men working there was small.

� � � � � � � � a number of � � many � � �ǹ�� , �‫ ���־‬men; � � � � ϰ � �ֽ4 ϴ� .


� � � � ° � � � 忡 � � � � number � � ' � � ' � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8 � � �‫;���� ���־‬
� � � � <many a+�ܼ����� > � � = � � � � �ܼ����� 縦, <many+ � � � � �� �>� �= � � � �
� � � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬մϴ�. Many a boy was [Many boys were] dead.(��: �ҳ���� ���.)
�� �� ��� � � � � � ��� Դϴ �.
� � = � � � � : � ‫ � ټټ‬ȥ���� �� �� �ֽ4 ϴ� .

(1)There was a cup and saucer on the table.'


� � ��� � � � Ű � � Ź � ħ � � � � � � Ʈ � � �‫��־‬.
<a cup with a saucer>
(2)There were a cup and a saucer on the table.
� � ��� � � � Ű � � Ź � ħ � � �ϳ� � � �‫��־‬.
' � � � � � � � � : � , � Ű � � Ź � ħ � � �ϳ� � � � ‫� �־�ٴ‬ǹ� � Դ ϴ � .
� ‫(������ �װ‬1) �‫ � � ;�ٸ‬Ʈ � � � � � Ƽ � �ܼ������� ��߰ �
 , (2) � � � � � � ��� � � �
��� � ��� � � ���
� ߴ‫���� �ٴ‬a � � �ֽ4ϴ� .

d � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �‫��־‬.
There was a man and a woman in the garden.

� � � ⼭ a man and woman ��� � �ϸ � ' � � � � � � � � � � ' � � � � ‫� � � � ���ݳ��ݳ‬


��ϴ�.
��
ʹ � � ‫�� ���� ���� �ݴ�� ��=�� ������ ���� �� ��� ���ؼ‬d � � � a� �
�ϳ� � � � � �
� ‫� �ؾ‬մϴ�. �� ���� ���� � ���� �ǹ��ϰ� �DZ� �����Դϴ�.

� ‫������ �״‬鼭 = �ǰ� �� �ϴ � .


He is a poet and musician.

��
ຸ � ���� ������ ���

� �= � � ' �б � ' � � '� � � � ' � � ��� � � � � � ��� � � � �տ � a� � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� .

� � � �յ � � � � � � � � п � ; � � y � � � ߴ�.
Edmond just graduated from law school.
� ‫��� ��׳‬忡 �ִ� ��θ � � � Ʈ � б � � � � ‫��ٳ‬.
She went to journalism school in New York.
� ‫ � � � � � � � � � ;�� ��׳‬Ƿ � � � � � .
She was sent to hospital for back injury.

� � ó � � � б � � � � � � � � � � � �ǹ � ; �ǹ � � ϴ � � � � � �ƴ϶� , � � ��� ��� � � �


� � � � 絵 � � � � � ʽ4ϴ�. �б���� '����ϴ� ��', ����: 'ġ�Ḧ �� ��' � � � � � � � �
� � , ��� � � � � � � �  � � � � � � �� Ƿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .
� ��� ��� � � � � � � � � � � ( hospital) � � ' �Կ � , � � � ' ��� � �ǹ�� � � � Ǿ � ; � � � ,
� � � � � � � մ ϴ � . � � � � � �  � 4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ� . be in{out of] the hospital( �Կ � [ � � � ] � �
[enter, go to, be sent to] the hospital( � � � [ � Կ � ] � ϴ � ) , be taken to the
hospital for
treatment(ġ �Ḧ ' � � �Կ � � � � � � � ) � � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .

(1)�  ��� �� ��‫�� �� �׳‬: � � ȸ � � � � � ϴ � .


She goes to church once a month or two.
(2) � � � � ȸ � � � 絵 � �; � � � � � .
I dropped by a church to ask the way.

(1) � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � �ǹ � � � �ƴ϶� , ' � ' � � �Ϸ � � � � � � � ; � � Ÿ � � � Ƿ � � � ȸ � �


��� � � � Ǿ ��� �� �� �ֽ4ϴ� . (2) � � ~ � � � � � � �ǹ�� �ƴ϶� , � � � � � � ȸ � � �
b� � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .
� ��� ��������� ���� �տ��� ��� �Ͱ�� � � ���� ���‫˴ ټټ� �ٸ‬ϴ�.
� � � Ļ 縦 � ϱ� ' � � � � ��� � � � � ; �˰ � � � ; � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � � � Ļ 縦 � ϱ� ' � ‫�� �ؼ‬
� � � � � � �; � � � , I went to restaurant. � � � � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� . � � , I went to
restaurant. � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬մϴ�.
� � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � �ƹ� � � � � � б � , � � � � , � � ȸ � � � � � � d � � � �
(temple) ��� � � � (shrine) � � � � 쿡� � � 絵 � �絵 ɱ��?

� � � � � � � � � � 翡 � к �; � � � � Ҵ � .
We lit a candle at the shrine to Saint Anthony.
� � � 絵 �帮 � � '� � � � � � �  � � .
We entered the temple to worship.

��� � ��� � �� � � � 忡� � � � �� ��� � � ���翡 ��� � �ִ� ����, � �


‫ټ‬
� � � � � � � � the shrine � � � Ǿ � 8 � � , � � � � ° � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ִ� �˰� �ڰ‬
� � � � � � the � � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .
�Ϲ � � � 8 � � shrine � � temple � � � � / � � � � Ī � � �Բ � � � � Ǿ � ; � � 쿡� � � � � �
� ϴ � . � � = � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . the Bulkuksa Temple( �ұ � � � ) , the Meiji Shrine( � � ġ
��� � ��� � �ϰ� ��� � � � 쿡� � � � = � � � � � � the � � � � � � � � � �ʽ4ϴ� . a
Roman, Buddhist]temple( � � α � [ � ���, � θ � , �ұ � ] � � � ) , a Shinto shrine(( � Ϻ � � � )
�� �� ��� Դϴ �.
� � � � , � � = � � � � � � 'ħ � � ' � � ' � � � � ' � � � � � � d � � 絵 � � � � � ʴ� ��찡 �ֽ4 ϴ� .

� ‫�� ������ ���� �״‬f � � �Ϸ � ~ � � � � � � �‫��־‬.


He was in bed all day with a headache yesterday.
� ‫� �׳�� ���� �� ���� ���ڿ‬ɾƼ� � � � � �  � ® � .
She sat in chair by the fire knitting a sweater.

� � � � / � � �ռ � � 4��� ���� ���‫ٷ‬ϴ� . � � �  � �bed �� � chair � � 'ħ � � ,


�ǹ � � ϴ � � � � � �ƴ϶� , ' � � � ‫�� �ڴ‬, �ɴ � � � ' � � � � : ħ � 볪 � �������
��� Դϴ �.
bed � � ' � � ħ' ��� �ǹ�� � � � � � � � , � � d � � 絵 � �d� � 絵 � 4 � � � � � � 年� ϴ � .
� � � � ° � � � � � � � � � � chair � � � տ � a � � �͵� � � � � 4 ϴ � . <in a chair> ���
�Ϲ � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � ϴ � � � � � � }4 ϴ � .
� � � ܿ � ����, � � � � � � [ � � � � ] 8 � � � � � Ǵ � � � 쿡� � < � � � � � + � � � > ǥ � � � �
train � � on ��� in � � �Բ � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � a[an] � � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � �
traveled by train.(� ߴ����� ����� �‫�״‬.)< � � � � � � > / He traveled on[in] a
train.(� ‫�� �״‬
� � Ÿ � � � � � � � ߴ�.) / I let him know the result by telephone.( � � � � � ���
��ȭ�� �� ��
� � ; �˷ � � ‫��־‬.)< � � ż � � > / They talked over[on] the telephone.( � ‫�׵‬: � �ȭ � � ��� ߱
�� ��� � � � � .) ��� � �� ��� Դϴ �.
� � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � ִ � ��Ȳ� �� ��Ȱ �ֺ��� � ִ � ��, � Ǵ � �  � � � ;
� � � � � и � � � � � 쿡� � � � � the � � � � � � մ ϴ � . Don't leave the door open.( � �
� � � 4ֽ� �� �� ����� :�� � ϴ � .

[3]� ‫ �״‬d � � � � � � ; �~ � � Ѵ � . < � � � � >

Love is blind.( � � � : �  � �ǹ
.)� � Luck was with him.( � ‫~� ���� �״‬Ҵ�.)�� ���,
� � ' � � ' � � � � � � � � � ' �ϳ� � � ' � � � � � � �ִ� ������ ���� �ƴմϴ�.
� � � ��� � � � � � ° � � � � � � � � � � � � � � : �
ܼ � ���� �� �� �� 4 ϴ� . � � � �
� � � � ; � � �ʽ ÿ � .

She likes class discussion.


� ‫� ��׳‬б � � � � ; � ~ � � Ѵ � .
She likes a lively class discussion.
� ‫ ��׳‬Ȱ� � � � � б � � � � ; � ~ � � Ѵ � .
We had a class discussion yesterday.
�츮 � � : � � f, � б � � � � ; � ߴ�.

"discussion � � � � � � � Դ ϱ � ?" � � � � ‫������ݷ‬  4 ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ � . � � � � � � � � � � d � ǿ � � Ű �


�ʿ� � � � 4 ϴ � .
(1) � � � � � � ' � б � � � � ' �Ϲ � ; ȭf � � � � � � � 8 � Ƿ � , � � � � � � � � � � � � 4ϴ � .
� Ǵ � � � � Դ ϴ � . (2) � � � � � � � � � � � ‫� ��׳‬б � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � ~ � � ϴ �
� � 'Ȱ� � � � ' � б � � � � ; � ~ � � մ ϴ � . � � , � � �  � � � � � � � '�б � � � � ' �  �
��
��

� � � ' ��� ' �  �ϳ� ' � � ~ � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � 8 � Ƿ � a � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . (3) � � � � � �
��� < � � � � � � � � '> � � � � Ÿ � 4 ϴ � . � � ' � � � � � � � � � � 8 � � � � � � �ֽ4ϴ� . �
� � � � � ; � � � � � � � � � � � � class discussion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
' � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ʈ � � � ľ � � ϼ�4 ϱ� ? � տ � � � � ‫� � � � � � ;���� �ٷ‬
�4ϴ � .

1.� � � 縦 � � � ǽ � � � � � � � : � � � � 8 � � � ‫�� �ٷ‬쿡� � ��� � � � ��� � � ‫�� ��״‬


2.� � � 縦 � 絵 � ϳ��� ~��� �‫�� �ٷ‬쿡� � a � � � ´ � .
3.� � � 縦 � � � � �ִ� ��' � � � ‫�� �ٷ‬쿡� � a� � �8 �, � � Ƚ� � � � � � ��� � �� 쿡
� � � � � � �´ �.

� ‫ �״‬f � � � � � � � ; � � � � � ߴ�.
He has won a Jane's love.
� ‫ �״‬d � � � � � � ; � ~ � � Ѵ � .
He has a true love of horses.

'� � � ' � � ~� � � � � � , '� � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � , �Ͻ � � � � � � � � ' � Ǵ �


� � � ' � � , � � ~ � � � � � 4 ϴ � . � � � � � � � � � � � � ' � � � ' � � ~ � � � � ' �ϳ� ' � �
� � � � , '� �, � � Ҹ � ' � � � � 絵 � ƴ���, a straight face(��ǥd�� ��), a tired voice
�
( � � ģ � � Ҹ � ), a no-nonsense voice( � ‫�� ���پ‬Ҹ� ) � � : � ��� ' � � , � � Ҹ � ' � �
� � � �Ÿ �4ϴ �.
� � =: �   �
�簡 ~ � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .

� � � � : � � �  � � � � � � : � � � ‫� �ذ‬絵� ȴ�.
This job requires a deep understanding of English.
'� � � � ' � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 4 ϴ � . '� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� Ƿ � , � � d � � � a � � �ɴϴ � .
She felt a happiness that she couldn't quite hide.
� 2 � ;ູ � ���� �� ���� ������ ��‫ � � �׳‬.
� � � � � � � that � � � Ͽ � � � �  ~ � � � � �ູ �� ΰ � � � � � � � � ϰ � �ֽ4 ϴ� . � � a;
� 絵 � �� � 8 � � � � � � = � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � � �ֽʽÿ�.
' � � � � � � : ' �  � � � � � � ' ; � � Ÿ � � � � � � � ��� , � � = � � � � : '~ � � ' � Ǵ �
� �.

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