Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 259

��� � � � � 1

��� � � � �
SUPER ENGLISH READING

� 迵������
� � � � � � �

�Ӹ � � �
v � � � � � � ġ � � � � : � � : � ѱ � � � � � � е � � 鿡� �˸ �
1. � � � : � � � � � ��� � ��θ � �� � � � �ִ�!
� � � � � ‫ ���ڵ‬v� 翡 ���ϸ�, ���� ���: � ‫ ���� �ִ� ���� ���ڽڽ‬ɷ� ���
� ܿ� 1/100d � � � � � � � � � ϴ ٰ� �� ����; � � � � � � �ٰ��� մϴ�. ���� �� ���
� � � �� � � , � � � : � � � � � � � � � � �� � � � ‫� ���� �����ڶ‬ƴ϶�, � ‫;�ڽڽ‬
� β � � � � � � � , � ‫�� ����� Ⱑڱ‬û �� �����; v ����� �� �����ϱ � ' ��
� � � � ‫��� �� �ؾ‬Դϴ�.
� � , � 4ú � � � � � � ; � ‫���� �ִ����� ����� �ؼ‬ɷ��� 3/100d�� ���� �
��� � � � � � � ִٰ� ��� ���� .�����‫� ���غ‬Ǹ�, �и��� ��� �տ��� ��ο�
� � � 谡 �������, � � � � �� ��� � ��� � � � �ʴ � � � � � � ε � 1 � � �� �
��; �� � Դ ϴ � . ��f � � �� � � ɷ � ; �� � � � ϴ � ��� �Դϴ �. �� ��� � � �
ȿ������ ����ϱ��?
d� � � ϵ � � ϻ � Ҽ � ! - � 4 ��ϴ�. d��; �� �� ����� � ������ �� ������
�ʰ � > � ϱ � ? ' � � � � � � � � ; ' � � � ϰ � � � � � ��� � � � � �� � � � � ‫پ‬
� � � ߴɷ��� �>�ϴ�. Einstein: � ‫���� ���ڽڽ‬ɷ��� ���� 1/3; �����ٰߴߴ�
� մ ϴ � . � ��� ����, � � �  � � � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � ± � � � . �  � � �ϸ
��� � � � � � � ߴɷ�; �⸦ �� ��;���?
� ܼ��� ��Ȱ - ' � � � � � � � � � � � ‫پ‬ � �� ߷�: � ‫�� ���ܼ� ���ٷ� �׵‬Ȱ � � � �
��� � ���Դϴ�. ��� � � ��� � � 鵵�����������‫ �ٸ‬  � ����� ϴ� ��v��
� � � � � ϴ ٰ� �‫�ؼ‬, Einstein: � � � � � �  � �� � � � ٰߴߴ� �մϴ�. ��Ȱ;
� ܼ��ϰ� ��; �Ӹ� �ƴ϶�, �Ӹ� �ӿ��� ���ʿ ��� ����� �͵ �; ������
�ʾ Ҵ ٰ� �� մϴ�. ��� ����  � ��Ž��� � ƾ� � ϴ � � � v � � ���; ��� � � �
� � � ٰߴߴ� �ϴ� ��� d������ ������ �� ���� �ʽ4ϱ�? ���ʿ��� �� �� ��
��� � � � � ּ��ѵ��� �‫ �ڽڽ‬,��8����‫� ���ٿ‬ϰ� ��: �Ͽ��ִ�����
��� � � �
��� � � � � � � ‫��� ��־‬Դϴ�.
��� � � � , ��� � � � � � �Ӹ � ��; �� � � û � � � ‫��� ����� �� �ؼ‬μ � � � .
� � �  ��� ��‫� � � � � � ;�� ���� ���־‬ � �  � � � � > � ϴ � . � � = � � û �Ҹ �
' � ‫ ���ؼ‬Mozart � � � � : � � � � = � ǰ � � � � � =� � ; � � � � � � � v� � � �
� � ; � � �� � � � � � � }4 ϴ � .
2. �� � � � � � � � ȿ� � � � � � ��� � � � � � � �� � .
(1) � � � � � � � �� � !
‫ڰ‬
� � � ‫� ���� �� �ڰ‬ʾ� ���� � �� ��; f��8�� ������ ������ �� ���� ������
� � > � ϴ � . ù°, � � � � � � � �� � � � � � � � , � � � � � � γ � � ‫� �� �� ��־‬ ִ �
� � � � �� � � � � � � а � � � �, � � � � � � ȿ� � � � � � ���8� � ��� �ϸ� ���
�ϴ � � � � � ��� � �ʰ � � � �  � � � � � � �ִ‫ � � ;�� �ٴ‬v � ϱ � ' � � � � �� � ,
� � ° � δ � � � � � � � �� � �� � � ε � � � ��� � � � � � � : � � ; � 츮츮츮�� ������
��= � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � ‫ �ٴ‬a; � � � � � � v � ϱ � '� � � � � Դ ϴ � .
� ‫���ڷ‬o � wα ��� �ܱ����� ���� �� �ѱ������� ���� "How do you think
of Korea ?" � � � � � �  � µ � , � � : � � �  � ƴ մ ϴ � . �� � � � 쿡 ���鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 ����
How � � � � � � � � � �ʰ � , What; � � � � ϱ � � � � � � Դ ϴ � .
(2) � � � � � ; � � � � ��� � � ϴ ° � , � � �� � � � �� � ?
� � � � f � � � � � ‫� ���� ���ؼ‬ǰ��� ��ġ���� �ʴ� �� ����, ���‫��ڴ‬ 
� � � � � ó � � �ܱ�� ���� ���� ���� �� � � � � � � � � �� � � �� �մϴ �
� ֳ��ϸ� ��; ���� ���� ���� ��ŭ � � � � � � ; �а � � � � � � � � � , � � ;
��� � ��� � ��� � ��; �� � � � � 쿡�� ��; � ‫� �������ڿ‬ϴ� ���� �Ϲ���8��
� � Ʊ � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � � � � � , � � � ‫������� �ڴ‬нÿ � � � � � � ��;
� � � � � ‫���־‬, � � � � � � � � � ɷ � : � ��� �ʾ ҽ4ϴ�.
(3) � � � � �� � � � � � � � � - ǥ� � �  � � � �н 
� 츮�� ���鿡 ����ϴ� ������ ���� ���, � � � � � � � � � ϱ � , �б � �
�� ��� � � ��� � � ִ� ��쿡 ���‫ �ڴ‬ǥ � � � 8 � � � � � � � ϴ � ��� � ��� �
� � � �� � � � ϰ � �ֽ4ϴ�. � ��쿡 �鿡 �ܾ �� � � ‫� �ؼ‬�� � �� ϰų�
� ۷� ǥ � � � Ѵ ‫�� �ִ� � ˰� � � ;�� �ٴ‬-� � �� � �� ��� �� � � � � �5 � � �
���Դϴ�. ��� � � � � � � � �  ó= � � � � ��� � � � ; ��� � � � �� � � � 8 � �
� � � � Դ ٰ� ���� ���ʽÿ � . � � � � � б � 1 �г � � � � � � � ��� � � ��3 , � ‫ߴٸ‬
‫� � � � " ���� ����ڿ‬

� � : � ˾Ƶ � � � � �‫��� ���� �� �־‬�; � � � Դ ϴ � . ǥ � � � 8 � � �


� � � � Ѵ ‫�� �ٴ‬: �� � � � � ; � � � մ ϴ � . � � 3 � � � θ � � ϴ ٰ� ��= � � � � : � � � �
; � � � � �ٰ���� d � ��ô � .
Reports have it that the prisoner has escaped.
� ���, � � � � "� � � � � � � � � ϸ � .� � � � Ѵ � " � � � ��; ��Ÿ� � � �
�� � � ˰ � � ִ ٰ� ��d � ��ô � . �‫��ٸ‬� ���� ' � � � � � � ; � �  � ���� ��
Ÿ � � � � � � � ; �˰ � �ִ� ���Դϴ�.
Reports have it that the prisoner has escaped.
=It is reported that the prisoner has escaped.
=According to reports, the prisoner has escaped.
=The prisoner has reportedly escaped.
� � � Ÿ � ü � � � Ǿ � �ִ� �κе � � � � � � � ǥ � � � � Ʋ �� � � � � � � �ֽ4ϴ�.
�� ��= � � �� ��= �� � � ; �� � � � � � Ǿ �ٰ���� d� ��ô � .
Legend has it that the king was born a begger.
( � � � 4��‫ � � �س‬ � � � ϸ � , � � � � : � � � � � � ¾  �ٰ��� Ѵ � .)
�ΰ � � � � Դ � �ͳ � �Ǵ � � � � � � � � � �ִ� �߸��ɷ��� ��8�Ƿ�, ���� ���� ����
� � � � � �� � � �� � � � � ; � � � � �� ��; �� � Դϴ �.
'... � � � � � ϸ � , ~ � � � � Ѵ � . ' � � � � : '.have it that~.'8 � � � � Ÿ � � � � �ֱ�
� � . �‫ ��; �� �� �ְڱ‬:�� ��=�� �‫��ٸ‬���.
1) Rumor has it that~.
( �ҹ � � � � � � ϸ � , ~ � � � � Ѵ � . )
2) A Korean proverb has it that ~.
(�ѱ � � � �Ӵ 㿡 ~� � � � � � � �ִ�.)
3) A political theory had it in those days that~.
( � � � � � � � d ġ �� п � � � � ϸ � , ~ � � � � ߴ�.)
��� � � � � � � � ‫��� ���ݱ‬ƿ� ��� ���� ���忡�� �� � � � 8 � � � � � � ǥ � � � ;
� � � � Դ ٰ� ���� ���ʽÿ � . �� � � 7 � � � � � �  d � � �� �� � . � ϼ�
f � � � � � ‫�ؿ‬
��� � � � ‫� �ٷ‬ � � � Դ ϴ � . �� � � � � � � п � , � � � � � � 麸�� �� ���� ���鿡
� � � � � 4�‫־‬ϴ�. �� � ��8�� �� å; ������ ����ϼ���. �8�‫� � � � � � � �װ‬
�� �� � � մ ϴ �. �� ��=� � � � ��� � � � ~ � � ϰ ų � �ʿ � � � ϴ � å; � � = � �
�� ��; �� ��; �� � Դ ϴ � .
� � � � , � � = � � � ‫�־‬n�ִ� �츮��; �� � � ‫��� �������� �ؼ‬ ��
(spoken
English) � � � ‫־‬ � � ǥ � � ɷ � ; � � � � � � � � � ʽ ÿ � . 20 � � � � �  � � d � � � ¾ Ҵ ‫�ٸ‬
��� � � � � � ٰ� �� �� ��; � � � � � 4 ϴ � .
1) � � � Ļ 簡 ��Ǿ � � . � � � � �ƺ � � � ð � � 3ʶ � .
2) � � � � �� � � 谡 �θ � � � . � � � � � � � � ; � � ?
3) � � � � Ź � � ' � � �ִ� �Ź � ; � � � � � 3ʶ � .
4) Ž: � ‫���ڷ‬o; �ʹ � � � � � ��� � �� ��� �.
5) � � d � � � ƿ � . � � �ִ� �б � � � � � ��� � ��� � � � ��� � �ʾƿ � ?
6) ( � � ȭ � � � � � ︱ ����) "f � � � ް ‫ڽڽ‬ϴ�."
�4
7)( � � ȭ � � � ‫ָ� �ٲپ‬鼭) " �� � � � � � � � � °ž � ."
8)( � � � � � � � � ~ � � � ︱ ����) " � � � � � � � ƶ � . "
9) � ‫�ٱ���� �ٷ��� �ְڴ‬.
10) � б � � � � � � � � ¿ � � �ֽ� �� ֽ�4ϱ � ?
11) �ʴ � � � � ⼭ �� ‫� ⸸��ٸ‬ϸ� �ȴ�.
12) � � � � � � � ƿ � � � � � � � ��¦� � � � ��� � � � �  � ‫��־‬.
13) � ‫�ڴ‬ ְ ���� ���� ���5��� ;���� �‫�װ‬.
14) � � � ߴߴٰ ����ʹ� ���� ������� �� � ‫��� � װ‬Ѵ � .
15) � � � � �; � ϰ � �  � � � � � � � � � �ְ‫? �ڴ‬
16) � � � � ü � � � � � 濡�� ����; ã � °Ŵ � ?
17) � � � � ü � � ���淡, � � � � � � �� � � � � � � � ϴ � ?
18) � ‫� �״� ������ �ڱ‬տ � � � ; � � �ִ� ��: � � � � �; � � Ѵ � .
19) � ‫ �״‬a � � � Ļ � � Ϸ � � � � � � � ���.
20) � � � � � � ��f �� �ƿ8� � � ��� � �  � ��?
� � : � � � � ; � ‫���� �� ��ݵ‬θ � � � Ÿ � � � � �ִ� ��: � ƴ � � � , ' � � � ѱ ۷�
� ‫�־‬n �ִ� ����; � � � � �� � � � � � � ϴ � ��� � � � ��� � ��� � ��� �
� Ű ܺ��� ��= � � � � � 4 ϴ � .
1) Dinner is ready. Go get Dad.
2) I'm already full. (Do you)Care for more rice?
3) Go get me the paper on the table.
4) Tom seems to watch too much television(or I'm afraid Tom watches
television too much)
5)Don't worry. He's doing well in school, isn't he?
6)"I'll get it."
7)"This is for you."
8)"Answer the door."
9)I'll see you out.
10)Can you give me a ride to school?
11)All you have to do is just here.
12)Stay put here till I come back.
13)I'll help you through college.
14)I'm afraid you went too far in scolding him.
15)How can you get away with such a thing ?
16)What the hell are you looking for in my room ?
17)Who do you think you are, telling me to do this and that?
18)He wants to keep everything he can get his hands on.
19)He's out to lunch.
20)When do you expect him back?
�� � � � � , ��d � � � � � � � � � � . � � 8 � � f � � � � � � � 帰 ��� 8 � � � � å;
� � � � Ͻ ø � , �� � d � � � � � � : � � � � 귯귯귯 ����‫״‬ϱ � � . � � å � � � � � 4 � � �
� ȿ � �ִ� ��: � � � � � �  �  � � � � ��� � � � 浥������ : � ‫��ڷ‬Դϴ�.
�� � ; � � � � � � � �ȭ �ϸ � � � � � � �� � � � Ƿ� ; ��; �� ��8� � � � � ���
Ȯ���մϴ�.
‫ڰ‬
(4) � � � � � ‫���� ���� �ߵ��ڰ‬.
� 츮���� �л � � � � � � � � � � ��� �Ƿ � � � � �  � � �  � � � � � � � �ٰ��
� � � ϰ � �ִ� ������ ���� � ִ � �� ��: � � , � � �: � �8 � � � � � � � � ���Դϴ �
� ֳ��ϸ� ����: �� � �ܾ���� �‫�־‬n � � ; � � � � � �; � � d � � � � �
� 迭�‫� �ؼ‬ǹ�� � � � ϰ � � � � � � � � � ; �Ϸ � � � � � � � � � , � � κ � � � � � 쿡 �‫��־‬
� � � � ; ǥ� � � ϴ � � � � � �ʿ � � � �ܾ�� ��ü � � � � � � � � �ִ� ��: � ƴ ϱ �
� � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � � � � � , "� � � � � � � � � : � � � � Դ ϱ � ?" � � � d � � � �
��Ÿ � � � � � � d; � � � � �� �ô�. �� � � ��� � � ��� � � � 8 � � � � � � �ܾ��
( �� � � �, "What", "is", "your" � � ' ): � � � � � � � , "nationality?" � � �
� ܾ�� ������ ���� �ʽ4ϴ� . �‫��ٸ‬� �ƹ��� ���� ����Ƿ��� �‫پ‬ � ����
��, �� � ܾ �  ‫�ٸ‬, "What is your nationality?" � � � � � : � � � � � � ;
� � � Դ ϴ � . � ‫ݸ‬鿡 � ǥ �� � ; � � � � � : � � � : �ʿ � � � � � � � � � � � f � � � �;
� ‫�� �� ���ؼ‬ � �� ,�� � �� ;�� �� ����� ��8���‫(" ���ڵ‬I'm)Korean."
ó � � � � � � Ѵ ‫� �͵� �ٴ‬Ƹ� �˰� ��; ��ϴ�. ��� ��8�� ����� � ��� ���
� Ǵ � ǥ� � ; � � � � ��� � � � � � � � , � � � �ܰ迡 ��������������ǻ 縦 �����
ǥ � � � � � � �ִ� �ɷ��� ���� ���Դϴ�. �ֳ��ϸ� �‫� �ٷ‬ � �� � ��� � � ��
�5 � � ϴ � � � � � � � � � � � �� � � ‫���� �������ڿ‬ � � ��� � � Դϴ �.
��� � � �ʿ 伺 - � � � �� � � � � Ϻ � � � � п � � � � � � ѱ � �л � � � � TOEFL
��� � ��8 �t � �� � � � � � Ͼ � � �ִٰ� �մϴ�. �� ������ ��, � ѱ � / � л �
�� �� � ��: �� � � � � ���ǿ� � � � � �  � 븩; � ϰ ų � � � � � � paper � �
� ‫��� �����ۼ‬ϱ � � � � � �� � � � մ ϴ � . �� � � � ; � � � � � , � � f � 츮�� ����
� � 0 : ǥ � � � ɷ � ; � 淯�ִ� ����8 � � � Ϸ � � � � � � � ȯ � Ǿ � � �մϴ � . � � � ,
ǥ� � ɷ � � � ��� � � � � ‫ش‬ɷ�: ����� ��� �Ӹ� �ƴ϶�, ������ d���� ���
��� � � � ��� � � � �ӵ � � � � � �ξ � � � � � � � � � ϴ � .
(5) � � � � � � � � ; � � � � ϶ � .
��� �б � � � ��� � � � � � �� � � � � � ; ��� �ϱ � ��� � �ϰ � �ɼ � �ִ´ � �
��� �: � ָ ��ϴ� ���� �}4ϴ�. �ֳ��ϸ�, ��� ѻ���: ����� ǥ���Ŀ�
ģ� � � � � � � � �ִ� ������ ��ȸ�� ���Ѿ� ����, �‫ݸ‬鿡 � ����� � � ��ȸ��
:��
�Ƴ � � � � � f � � � � �ֱ� �����Դϴ�. ���Ƿ� � � � � � � � � ; � � � � ϸ � � � � � ‫�ٿ‬
� � �  �ξ � � � � � � � ��� � � � � �ִ� �ɷ��� ���ϴ�.
� � � � б � 1�г � � � � ��� � � � � �ִ� �������8 � δ � Oxford Elementary
Learner's Dictionary of English � � � � õ � մ ϴ � . � ��� �� å; � � � � Ͻ ô �
� � � ‫ڵ‬鿡�Դ� LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH�� WEBSTER'S
NEW
WORLD DICTIONARY (SECOND COLLEGE EDITION) � � � � õ � � � 帮�� �ͽ 4 ϴ�. ��� ‫�ڴ‬
��� � � � � � � � � a � � �ֱ�� ����, � ‫� �ٸ‬鿡� ���� � ��d � � � � � Ǹ � � �
� � � � 8 � � , Ư � � � ۹��� ����� �ִ� �е鿡�Դ� ��: ����; �‫ݴ‬ϴ�. ���‫�ڴ‬
��� � � � � � ‫� �ٴ‬ƽ����� �ֱ�� ����, � � 뿵�鿡 �о � � � ϴ � � е 鿡�Դ�
�ʼ � � � �� � � ��� � � � � � � ; � � ŭ � � : � � � � � Դ ϴ � . � ��� ����: � 밳
� ϳ � � � 8 � � � � � � � � Ϲ Ƿ � , � � � � � � d � � � � � � � 4{� ���� �ߴϴ�.
(6) � �  � � � � � � � � � � ϳd � � � ��� �.
�� � ��ȸ � � �� � � � ��ȸ� � �� � � � ε 巯��� �‫ �ٸ‬a: � � û � � � � ��
( � Ǵ � � � ȭ ) � � �ӵ � � � � � � � � �ֽ4ϴ�. ����� �� �� ���ȿ� ���n ���4�
��ο � �� � � � �з �: � � � � � � � �  � � � ļ � � � � � ��� � � � з � � � � ‫�� �ٵ‬
� � � 4 ϴ � . � ��� ��븦츮븦 ���� " � � � � � � � � � ô � "(the age of knowledge
explosion) � � � � θ � � ϴ � .
ȫ��ó�� ��� ���n ���4� d���� ��x ���ָ�8 � �
� � Ÿ � � � � � � � � � 찡찡찡 �� 8 �Ƿ � � � ο � �ܾ ��Ͱ� �����n ���4 � ��:
� 翬����� Դϴ�. ���Ƿ� � ô 뿡뿡찡 �8�� �������‫ �ڶ‬x � , � � � � � � � о � � �
�м � � � � � � � � � � �Ϲ � � � � � � � �� ��� � � � ‫� ��ݵ‬о � � � մ ϴ � .
��� � �� � � ִ ������� Reader's Digest � � TIME, Newsweek � � � � � ‫�ڴ‬
� ͽ4ϴ � . � � ۹ ������ ����� ��: � е � : � � � ‫ڽڽ‬Ź � �ϳ � � � � д � � � � �
� }4 ϴ � .
��� � � � 뿵�鿡 ���� ����� �Ƿ� � � � � � d � � � � � � � � = � � �ֳ� ��ͷ�
��d � � �� � � � � . �� � � ��= �� � �� � � � � ˰ � �ִ� ���� ���� ��‫�ٸ‬
� � 뿵�鿡 ����� �‫���ڶ‬n �ִٰ� �� �� ֽ�4ϴ�. �‫ݸ‬鿡 �‫��� ���� ���־‬
� � �� � ; � ˰ � � ִ ‫�ٸ‬, � � � � � � � 뿵�� ���ַ�: � � � � � � � � � ϴ ٰ� �� ��
� ֽ4ϴ�.
1) to clone
2) gene splicing
3) savvy (adj.)
4) zero-g environment
5) glut
6) to hype
7) laid-back
8) clout
9) strung out
10) to recycle
11) heady
12) bioclene
13) to bite the bullet
14) to bottom out
15) to level off
16) childproof
17) knee-jerk
18) press kit
19) CPI
20) R and D, R & D
� 1 : � ‫ )ؼ‬to produce a generally idential duplicate of an organism by
replacing the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus of a body
cell from the organism
(� �d � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � ü � κ � � � � � �  ü� � � � � � �ٰ��
� � � � ü � � /� � � � 8 � � ��� � � � ��ü� � �� � �  � �.
2) / � � � � � � � � . �� � : � � � � genetic engineering(/ � � � � � ) � Ǵ �
recombinant. DNA( � ‫ � � � � � )���� �� �ٻ‬Ǿ � � � � � ǰ � � � = .
3) shrewd or discerning � � � � � ϰ ų � � к � � � � � �ִ�
4) weightlessness � � � ߷� ����
zero-gravity environment
5) oversupply � � � � ʰ �
6) 1. to deceive
2. to rouse or stimulate � ‫��ڱ‬ϴ�
3. to promote or publicize in a sensational way
7) relaxed; easygoing; unhurried � � �  �� �
,� �1 � �
8) power or influence � � � Ǵ � � � � � �
9) 1. addicted to a drug � � �  �ߵ��Ǿ � �ִ�
2. physically debilitated from or as if from long-term drug addiction
(� � � � � � � � � � � � ߵ��� � ��ġ �� � � � 8 � � � ߵ��Ǿ � � � � ó � � � � ü � � 8 � �
� � � � � n �ִ�)
10) to process (as liquid body waste, glass, or cans)in order to regain
material for human use.
(� � � � � �� � � � � � Ḧ � ‫ � � � � ' ��� �ٽ‬ü � � ü � 輳�� , /� �, � � � �
� � ' � � ó� � � ϴ � )
11) at a head or climax � � d � � � � �ִ�
-the heady days of Solidarity � � � � ��/ � � v � � ���
(� � � � ) � � � ܾ ��� �� � � ǹ� � � � � � ��� � � �ϵǾ � � � � � �ʽ 4 ϴ � .
12) free or almost free of harmful or potentially harmful organism
(as bacteria)
( � � � ��ƿ � � � : � ‫ط‬Ӱų� ������8�� �‫ط‬ο � � � ü � � � � ��ų �
� � � Ǿ � � ) a bioclean room
13) to enter with resignation upon a difficult or distressing course of
action.
(ü � � � ϰ � � � ư ų � � � � 뿡뽺뽺 ����ൿ��ο � � �  � �)
14) to decline to a point where demand begins to exceed supply and a rise
in prices is imminent.
( � � 䰡 ���; �ʰ � � ϱ � � � � � � 8� �� ������ � ‫ �ؼ‬a8 � � � ϶ � � ϴ � )
15) to become stable or constant � � d �ǰ ų � � � d � � � � �
16) designed to prevent tampering by children
( � �� � � � �  � � � � � � �� �ϵ � � � � � � � � ‫�س‬:)
a childproof door lock
17) readily predictable; automatic � � � � ��� � � � � � �ִ�
a knee-jerk reaction
18) a collection of promotional material for distribution to the press
( � Ź � � 翡 �������ֱ� ' � � ȫ� � � ‫)��ڷ‬
19) consumer price index � Һ � � � ��� � ���
20) research and development � � � � � � ��� �
�� � � ܾ  ��ʹ� TIME�� ���� ���4� �͵��Դϴ�.
3. � � å � � Ư ¡
(1)  � � � � � � � � � b � ‫��ٹ‬
� � ‫� ���ݱ‬츮��� 鿡鿡� ��� ���鿡鿡 � ‫ ���� �ؿ‬å � � : �ƹ � � �
��� � � � � ‫�س‬ų � , � з � � ٰߴߴ� �ϴ�� �������� ������ �з���; �� ��‫�ؼ‬
� � � � � � ; � з � � 4����͵� : � ‫س‬ϴ�. �� å:, �� �������� �з � � � ;
�� �, ��� � � �ѱ� � � ��� � � �  � � � � � � � � � b � ‫� �ٹ�� ���ؼ‬츮����
��� � � � ��� ��� � ��� � ��� � � � � � � � ��� � ��� �� �;
ü� � � � 8 � � � 4ֽ� ��‫ٷ‬ϴ�. �ƹ���, �� å: � ѱ ���; '�‫��� �ؼ‬ �‫���� �ظ‬
��� � � � � � � � � 8 � � � ‫�ٷ‬p � � õ � � ߴ‫ ���� ���� �ٴ‬Ŀ� ‫ �ٶ‬Ư¡�� �ִٰ� �� ��
� �> � ϴ � .( � � � � � ‫��� ���ڼ‬캸캸캸 ,�
�� � å � � Ư ¡; � � � � ��� � �� ��;
���Դϴ�.
(2) � � � � � � ���ɷ �
��� � � ���л� � � � ��� � � � � ‫� �ٴ‬ å � � �  � � � � � � � � � � ; � Ű ܳ�:
�� � ��= �� � � � � ��� � ��>�ϴ �.
.. � Ը � ŭ � � � � � ұ � � ϰ � � � ħ : � � �� � 14 � � Ʈ �� � �� � , � � � � ���Դ �
dȮ�� 100�Ŀ�� �� ��� ������..
� � � � � � , � � � � � ��ʽÿ � . � � � � ü �� � � � � � � � � Դ ϱ � ? � � � ‫� �� �ڴ‬
� ˺ � ��� � � θ � � ϴ � . ��� � ˺ � � � � � � � � ��� � � � �� � ɷ � ; ��ĥ �Ӹ �
� ƴ϶ � , � � � � ϴ � �е � � � � � � � � � � ð � � � d � � ; � � � � � Ϲ Ƿ � � Ϸ 绡�� �
� �Ǿ � � � մ ϴ � . � � � ‫ �� �ڴ‬å � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � ‫���� �� ��ݵ‬
� � ; � � � � � > � ϴ � . ù°, � 0�� ������ ������ ���‫� � � � ־‬ � � ġ � � �ִ° � ?
� ‫��� ���װ‬ ����ġ �
�� � � � � � � � �� � ġ �ִ� ���ΰ � ? � � � � � � å� � � Ǹ �
/ � � � 8��0 �� ���� � { � � ġ � � � � Ǵ � �͵ 鵵 ���ֱ�� ���� ���
� � ȸ � � � � � 漺����� � �� �� ���� ��f � � � ȵ Ǹ � � � � � � ˴ ϴ � . � ���
��� � � � ��a � � � � ��� � ��� � ��� � �ʴ � � � � � : �ϳ � � � � � å � �
� � � ö � � � � � � 鿡 鿡鿡4ϴ�. �ƹ���, �Ϲ���8�� �츮������ ��0 � � � � � � � �
� � w � � a� � � � � � � � ��� ��� � � Ʒ � � � � � w ��� � � � � ‫ؿ‬Ա� ������, ��
å � � � � � � � ‫� ������ �ڴ‬鿡 � ��� ��
�� ; �� �4ϴ �.
(3) � � � � � � � � ο � �õ �
� ѱ � �л � � � � �� � ��� � ��� � ��� � �ִ� ���� ���� �0 � � �
� ‫ � � � � ;���� ���־‬: � � = � � � Ų ‫� �ٷ‬Ž ö � � � �ö ö 鼭 �� ; � ‫� �ؼ‬ǹ ǹ�
� ľ � � Ϸ p � � Ѵ ‫ �ٴ‬a � Դ ϴ � . � � � � ��� : � � �  � � �  �� �� � � � �
�ѱ� � � � � � ‫װ‬ � � ‫ � � � ��� ��� ������ ���ٸ‬, � � : � � � � � ε � � � ��⸦
� � 8 � 鼭 �‫��� �������� �ٷ‬ϰ� � � � ��� � ; � Ӹ� � ƴ϶� , �‫;���� ���־‬
� ù ‫��� �������� ���ٸ‬ϰ� � � � ��� � � � � � � � Ŀ� ‫�� �ۿ‬8���� �‫��ٶ‬ϰ�
� �> � ϴ �. � � � � � � , � � � � � 8 � � ��� � � � �ʽÿ � . � � � � � � � � � 
��� �, �� ��� � � � ϴ � � � ��� � � � � � � ; � � ų � � о � � � 鼭 �������Ѹ���
� ‫� ����� �� ���� ���� ������ ������ �ٷ‬ƴϰ�>�ϱ� ? ���� ��� � � ;
� �ġ � � � � � � � � � � ; �ֱ� ' � ‫�ؼ‬, � � å � � � � � � � ‫ ڰټ‬Ұ� � � � 츮���μ � � �
� � � � � � � 鼭�������� ; � 츮���� �ű � � � � � � � � � �ִ´ � � � տ � � � � ‫�ڷ‬
� � �  8 鼭 ���p Ϸ � �õ���>�ϴ� �. ������, ���� �� � ��; ���� �ִ‫�ٸ‬
� Ϸ 绡�� �����. � ��ϸ� ������ �ǹ� � �� ���� �ľǵ� �Ӹ� �ƴ϶�,
��� � � � ��� �� ��� � ģ� � � � � � �� ��>�ϴ �.
(4) � � 뿵��� ����ü � � � �
� � å� � � � � � ��� � � � � � ��� � � � � 뿵��, � � � � ü � � � � � ��� �ü
����� ‫�ؼ‬, ������ ��� 鿡 ģ������ �� �ֵ��� ����� ���>�ϴ�.�Ϲ�����
���� �н?��� �� � ����� ����‫�س‬: ��: �Ƹ� �� å�� �츮��� ���
鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡
ó= �õ��� ���� ���Դϴ�. ��뿵���� ���� �ε 巯�� Ư¡ ��� �ϳ���
����ü ǥ����� ����ü ��8�� �а� ���0� �ִ� ������ �� �� � ֽ 4ϴ�.
�������, ��ſ��� "lay one's hands on"�� �� �ߴµ�, ����=: "get"��
"lay"��� ���縦 ��Ƴ��� �‫־‬ "get one's hands on"�� �� ���� ����
���ǰ� �ֽ4ϴ�. �� � ���: �������� ���� � ���������� ��Ÿ����
��>�ϴ�. �������, ��ſ��� "What I'm trying to do is to prove my
innocence." ��� ��8��, ��뿵�鿡���� � ��� ü�� ����8�� "What I'm trying
to do is prove my innocence."��� ���°� �е���8�� �� ���� ���ǰ�
��>�ϴ�.
(5) ���簡�� ��� �5� ��: =�Ĺ�
�ƹ��� ���簡�� ��: =���� � ���� ��‫ �װ‬,�‫�ٸ‬: �Ǹ��� =���� �� ��
�� ��>�ϴ�. �� å������ �ֽĿ� ���� �Ը5� �������ְ�, �� � ֽ Ŀ��� ��w��
�������� �����; ����� ����Ϸt� ���� ����ϴ� �е��� �‫� � ڰټ‬Ƿθ�
�3����� ��� ������ � ��ȿ� ����ִ� /�Ӹ� ������ ���>�ϴ�.
� /�Ӵ� û��f ����; ���‫ٻ‬Ӹ� �ƴ϶�, ��뿵�鿡 ����ü ��� ���� �����
��
; ������ ְ �, ��-���ε��� ����; �����ϴ� ���� ����; �ָ�, �� ��������
����; �����‫־‬ � � 8�� �������� �λ�; ��ư��µ��� �����: ������
�Ǹ��� �Ͻ4ϴ�. �ƹ��ɷ� ���� ��8�ð�, �� �‫� �ٸ‬е鿡�Ե� ��: ��=;
�����ֽʽ ÿ�.
4. �� å: �� ��� ����϶�.
(1) ö���� ��ȭ�϶� !
�츮�� �Դ� =�Ĺ��� �츮���� ������ �Ƿx�, �캸켱찡 ��ȭ�� �Ǿ�� �մϴ�.
�츮�� �ϴ� ��ε� ������ �Դϴ�. �� å�� �‫ ;���� ���־‬ö���� ��ȭ�‫�ؼ‬
�‫� ������ �������� ���װ‬ǿ� ���� �ǵ��� ������ �մϴ�. ���� �ʴ���,
�ƹ��� �� å�� �tٰ� �ϴ��,��ſ��Դ� �‫� ���� ���װ‬ҿ��� ��‫;��� �ٴ‬
����Ͻʽÿ�.
(2) ó=�� ��ȭ�� �‫�� ��� ���ڽڽ‬f�� �����.
���9�f ��� ����� ������ �Ƿ�8�δ� ������ ������ �� ��� ��f��
����� �� å; ������ ����� ����� �‫�� �ڿ‬f�鸸 �‫��� �ٽ‬ʽ ÿ � . ����
���‫�� ���� �� �ذ‬f�� �ϴ� f�� ��Ҵٰ� ��=�� �‫��ٽ‬ѹ� ���ʽÿ�. ����‫�ؼ‬
����Ͻø� ��h���� Ʋ������ ���� ��ġ��, ������ ���; �:� �� ��;
���Դϴ�.
(3) ��� ����; ����; '�� �‫�϶��� ��ڷ‬.
�� å�� ���4� �����Ӹ� �ƴ϶�, ��8�� �������� ��� ����
� �д� ��;
����� ���ϰ� �‫� ���۾‬ɷ�; �⸣�� '�� �‫��ڷ�� ���غ‬ʽ ÿ � . ������
����� �ϴ� ����� ���: ���� ��ο� �������� �鸮��������� Դϴ�. ���
����� ���� ��: �
ܱ ��� � н9���Դϴ�. �ϳ� d���� �� ��� �Ͻø�, ����
��� ����� �ǻ 縦 ����� ��Ÿ�� �� ��; ���Դϴ�. ���� �� å �κп�
���� ����; '�� �‫�>�� �� ����� ��ڷ‬ϴ�. ���� ��; ����ϰ���
��d�� �ð��� �� �‫����� ���� �ڿ‬ϰ� ���� ��; ��� �Ų ‫� ����� �ٷ‬Ű�
��� �‫����س‬ø� Ʋ������ ���  ���� �ȸ�
���ʽÿ�. ��d�� � Ⱓ ���� ��
‫���� ���ۿ��� �ڽڽ‬��� ��� ���Դϴ�.

�����մϴ�. ����; ��ϴ�! �迵��August 1983

DOING IS ACHIEVING !
Billy Graham on Education
Evangelist Billy Graham was holding a question-and-answer session at a
theological seminary with a group of ministerial students. One young man,
obviously tired of Greek and Hebrew and classes in theology, was eager to
get out into the field. "Dr. Graham." he asked, "if you were my age, with
the world in the shape it's in, would you still spend several years just in
training ?"
Graham's answer surprised everyone: "Young man, I cannot think of a
better use for your time right now than developing the gifts God has given
you. If you were told to go into the woods to cut down trees and were given
an ax that was made of good steel but was dull, the time spent sharpening
the ax would not be considered wasted. Stay in school and sharpen your ax."
What you can do, or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power,
and magic in it. ...Goethe

Table of Contents
(�Ӹ���)
1. STRUCTURE
1. �⺻ �� v�� �ľ�
1. �‫)⺻�(���ڵ‬
2. �‫� ������(���ڵ‬ǹ�)
EXERCISE 1
3. �‫ �����ڵ‬Ÿ����ȭ
EXERCISE 2
4. �‫ ���ڵ‬+ ���� (�⺻)
5. �‫ ���ڵ‬+ ��ġ�籸 (�⺻ǥ���� Ȯ��)
EXERCISE 3
6. f 2 ��� ����(�ǹ�)
EXERCISE 4
7. ������ ���� (������ ��v�� Ư¡)
EXERCISE 5
8. ������ ����� ���
EXERCISE 6
9. ���¿� ���� (�‫�ڵ‬-Ÿ��)
EXERCISE 7
10. �4�� ���
(1) ��Ļ��� ��Ģ
(2) ��ľ��� 'ġ�� �ǹ�
(3) ��ľ�� �Ǽ�ľ��� �и�
(4) �ѱ���� �‫��� ��� �ٸ‬
EXERCISE 8
11. ���屸������� ��

(1) ����; '�� ��

(2) ��v�� '�� ��

EXERCISE 9

2. d���� ����
1. �����
EXERCISE 10
2. d��������ġ : ����
EXERCISE 11
3. d��������ġ : �ο�����
(1) �κкο�
(2) ��ü�ο�
EXERCISE 12
4. d��������ġ : ����
EXERCISE 13
5. ������-���籸
EXERCISE 14
6. d��������ġ: �л 籸
EXERCISE 15

3. ��v�� ����
1. �� ����
2. ������ ���(��v�� d��)
EXERCISE 16
3. That-clause�� ��ȭ
EXERCISE 17
4. b����ġ�� with
EXERCISE 18
5. b����ġ�� at, on, in
EXERCISE 19
6. ����λ�
EXERCISE 20

2. STYLE
1. ���� �‫�־‬
EXERCISE 21
2. ǰ����ȯ
EXERCISE 22
3. �‫��� ;�ݺ‬ϱ�
1. ����� �‫���� �ٲپ‬
(1) ��ġ ����
(2) ��ġ ����
(3) /�� ����
EXERCISE 23
2. ��� �븮 � (�
��)
EXERCISE 24
3. �뵿��� �� ���� �븮��(��)
EXERCISE 25
4. ��: ��; �‫���� �ٸ� ���� �ٲپ‬
EXERCISE 26
5. ��ü�� �‫���� �ٲپ‬
EXERCISE 27
3. CONTEXT
1. ���� �4�
1. Thesis Sentence
2. Topic sentence
EXERCISE 28
3. Key Words
EXERCISE 29
2. �4�� ����
EXERCISE 30
3. ������ ��踦 ���� �ִ� ��ġ
EXERCISE 31
4. ���ư� �ǹ�
1. ������
� ������
2. �ǹ�
� ���� �ӿ��� ã�ƾ� �ϴ� �‫�� �����ٺ‬/
3. ��d�� ������ �ľ��� �ǹ��ϴ°�
4. ������ �ʿ 伺
EXERCISE 32

4. ENGLISH WAY OF THINKING


1. ������ ��ġ��
1. ��ġ��� ����� ���
2. ��ġ��� ��
EXERCISE 33
2. �ѱ���� �‫��� �ٸ‬ (������ ��ǥ��)
EXERCISE 34
3. '��'Ÿ����
EXERCISE 35
4. ��d�� ��
1. ��b��d (�ϰ��d)
2. ���ߺ�d
3. �ѱ���� �‫�� �ٸ‬d�� ��
EXERCISE 36
5. �ѱ���� �‫��� �ٸ‬
1. ����� ���縦 �~��Ѵ�
2. ��ľ�� �Ǽ�ľ� ������ ���
EXERCISE 37
3. ������-����
EXERCISE 38

5. EXPRESSION
1. �ǹ��� ����
EXERCISE 39
2. ��ǥ���� �߰� � : ǥ���� ��äȭ
EXERCISE 40
3. ���� /��: Pun
EXERCISE 41

���9�f ��Ǯ��
EXERCISE 1-40
APPENDIX 1: 10 FULL-LENGTH ARTICLES
1. Lost and Found
2. What Makes Tycoons Tick ?
3. "They Hassle People at Whim"
4. "The Pole of Code and Cruelty"
5. The Man in the Water
6. Fall Leads man Inward
7. "Dig Into the World"
8. Unforgettable Albert Einstein
9. Jean-Paul Sartre
10. Bacon and the Experimental Method

APPENDIX 2: ��� ���� ��f

1.STRUCTURE
�⺻�� v�� �ľ�

What Is Life ?
Life is a challenge...meet it Life is a song...sing it
Life is a gift...accept it Life is an opportunity...sing it
Life is an adventure...dare it Life is a journey...complete it
Life is a sorrow...overcome it Life is a promise...fulfill it
Life is a tragedy...fase it Life is a beauty...praise it
Life is a duty...perform it Life is a struggle...fight it
Life is a game...play it Life is a goal...achieve it
Life is a mystery...unfold it Life is a puzzle...solve it

1. �⺻�� v�� �ľ�


1. �‫)⺻�(���ڵ‬
�‫��ڵ‬翡�� � �;���� ���‫���� ����� �־‬ ���.
��= ������: ������ �‫��ڵ‬簡 �鿡 ������ �� �����‫�ش‬.Ư�� �ѱ����
�‫ �ٸ‬a�� �����϶�.
1. This knife cuts well.
2. There's something the matter with this pen. It won't write.
3. These shoes wear well; they will last for at least two years.
4. This play reads better than it acts.
5. (a) Her letters always read well.
(b) His novels always read interesting.
(c) His scientific papers read like novels.
(d) Her letters always read as if she copied them from books.
(�ǹ�) 1. �� Į: �� ���.
2. �� �濡�� �����ΰ� �� ��� �ִ�. ������p� ���� �ʴ´�.
�: �� 2��: �� ����
3. �� �Ź�: ����. �� �.
4. �� ���: �����ϴ� �ͺ��� �о�� ���� �� ����.
5. (a) �‫�� ����� ���׳‬f�� �о�� �~ƺ��δ�.
(b) ���� �Ҽ�: ��f�� �о�� ����ִ�.
(c) ���� ���� ��: �о�� �Ҽ��� ���‫�; �ش‬3� �‫�ٴ‬.
(d) �‫�� ����� ���׳‬f�� �о�� å���� ����� �: Ͱ �3�;  ‫�ش‬
(�‫)���� �׳�� ���� �� ���ٴ‬
������ ���
Anonymous writer, on a strength often overlooked:
One day a small boy tried to lift a heavy stone, but couldn't budge it.
His father, watching, finally said, "Are you sure you're using all your
strength ?" "Yes I am!" the boy cried. "No, you're not," said the father.
"You haven't asked me to help you."

2. �‫� ����( ���ڵ‬ǹ�)


���� ���‫� ���ڵ‬ѱ���� �Űܺ ��� ������ � ǹ�
������ � � ��� �͵��� ����
�ִ�.
1. This book sells like hot cakes.
2. These clothes don't wash easily.
3. This material doesn't dye well.
4. The book will not translate well.
5. The door locks automatically.
6. The box broke open when it fell.
(�ǹ�) 1. �� å: ���� ������� �ȸ���.
2. �� ��: ���� ������ �ʴ´�.
3. �� ���� ������ �ߵ��� �ʴ´�.
4. �� å: ���� �ߵ��� �ʴ´�.
5. �� ��: �8�‫���� ��ڵ‬.
6. �� ���‫��� �������� �ڴ‬n�� ���ȴ�.
cf. They broke open the box = They broke the box open.
� � � � | ߷ � :��
‫��� ڸ‬ ‫����� �׵‬.
��d���� �����
When Goliath came against the Israelites, the soldiers all thought, "He's
so big we can never kill him." David looked at the same giant and thought,
"He's so big I can't miss."
First woman: "That's a lovely coat you're wearing."
Second woman: "Oh, thank you. My husband gave it to me for my fortieth
birthday."
First woman: "Really? It certainly has worn well."

EXERCISE 1
1. The meat cuts tender.
(N.B.) tender; soft or delicate and easily chewed, broken, cut etc.
2. Democracy reads well, but it doesn't act well. - George Bernard Shaw
3. It will never pay to get angry.
(N.B.) pay; to be profitable
��
�; ��n�4�
cf. pay off [Colloquial]: to bring about a desired result; succeed
�����ϴ�
4. An 11-year-old girl in India gave birth to a son and both were
reported doing well at their home.
cf. (a) He is doing well in school.
(b) He did well on the test.
(c) Man 1: You mean you stopped drinking just because she asked you
to ?
Man 2: Yes.
Man 1: And you gave up cigarettes for the same reason ?
Man 2: That's right.
Man 1: And you stopped gambling just for her ?
Man 2: I did.
Man 1: Then, after all that, why didn't you marry her?
Man 2: Well, I figured that since I had become such a clean-cut,
desirable fellow, I could do better.
(����) �ǹ�
� ���Ƽӿ��� ��d�ȴ�:
do better= to marry better
give birth to: to bring forth ����
gambling: ����
figure[Colloq]:to think;consider;suppose; believe. clean-cut:good-looking
trim , neat, etc.��d��
5. (a) He fared well on his trip.
(b) I think I fared well in the examination.
(c) The unions will fare badly if the government's plan becomes law.
(d) LONDEN(Reuter)- British companies spent record amounts on
advertising last year, a sign that national economic revival is imminent,
according to officials of the industry. "The sort of companies which invest
heavily in television advertising are those which normally lead the economy
out of a recession," Waterson said. In 1983, television advertising should
grow by another nine percent, after inflation, the industry's forecasters
say. Waterson predicted that classified advertising in the press, which has
not fared so well in the past year, will pick up shortly and the entire
industry will then really take off.
(N.B.) record (adj.): �������
amounts = amounts of money �‫�ݾ‬
imminent:likely to happen very soon �� ���� ���ɼ��� �ִ�;
impending �ӹ���
normally: ordinarily; usually
recession: a temporary falling off of business activity
�Ͻ����� �������
should: will probably �Ƹ� ~�� �����
after inflation: ���� ��·�; f�ϰ�, ������8�� (in real terms)
pick up: to improve �� �~����
shortly: in a short time; soon
the entire industry: �� ������
take off: �����ϴ�
* a sign = which shows (see p. 69)
6. (a) This medicine works well if you have anything the matter with your
breathing.
(b) A woman found that her wristwatch wouldn't work, so she wrote to the
manufacture. When she got no answer, she sent the company a telegram
reading: "I have one of your watches. What time is it ?" That worked-they
sent her a new watch.
(N.B.) have anything the matter with=have anything wrong with; have
trouble with ~�� ��f�� �ִ�
reading=that read.
7. (a) A: John has yet to receive any acceptances to graduate school.
B: I'm sure things will work out for him.

Laugh & Stay Fit!


Dear Dad,
Gue$$ what I need mo$t of all. That'$ right. Plea$e $end me $ome $oon. Be$t
wi$he$. Your $on $am
Dear Sam
NOthing much has happened lately. Glad to kNOw you like your school.
Write us aNOther letter. NOw I must say goodbye;just wanted to send a NOte.
(b) DEAR ABBY: I'm 22, with two children, ages 3 and 4. I'm divorced for
the second time. I have been dating a man who is 52 years old. He is
financially very well-off and wants to marry me. He treats me very well and
cares for my children. Abby, do you think marriage between a 52-year-old man
and a 22-year-old woman could ever work out? I like him a lot, but I am not
what you would call madly in love with him. I was madly in love with my
first two husbands, and they both treated me like dirt. I haven't made any
promises yet, and this man is not pressuring me, but I need your advice. What
do you think it takes to make a marriage work ? TWO-TIME LOSER
DEAR T.T.L.: Don't marry anyone while you are still seeking advice. All
that is necessary for a marriage to succeed is for two people to really
need each other.
(N.B.) The problem has yet to be solved = The problem has solved yet
�� ��f�� ���� �‫� ����ذ‬ʾҴ�.
work out: to have a good result
��: ��� ��n�4�.
graduate school: ���п�
well-off: in a favorable or fortunate condition or circumstance;
prosperous; well-to do; wealthy; rich.
care for: to have a liking for;like
�~��ϴ�
He is what you call a self-made man
�‫� ������� ����״� ������ �ڼ‬θ��� ����� �
pressure: to exert pressure on
~�� �з�; ���ϴ�
take: to require;need;be necessary
8. He stands 5 feet 10 inches.
9. The tree measures 12 feet around.
10. The Cuba I saw during a recent two-week trip does not measure up to
the ominous threat to mankind that Reagan portrays.
(His proficiency in English is not up to the average.)
The elderly man ahead of me on the supermarket checkout line had trouble
keeping up to with the cashier as she rapidly rang up the prices on the
register. " Miss, why do you go so far ?" he asked. "I hardly know which
items you've already done." "Sir, think of me as a dentist," she replied
brightly. " The faster I do it, the less it hurts."
(N.B.) ring up:to record or meet
cf. A patient can run up expenses of $250,000 before getting a liver
transplant.

3. �‫ �����ڵ‬Ÿ����ȭ
��κ��� ������ �����: �‫ ����ڵ‬Ÿ����� ��� ���ȴ�. ���� �츮��
���� �‫��� �����ڵ‬ϰ� �ִ� ������� Ÿ����� ���Ǵ� ��찡찡찡 ����
��8�Ƿ� �����‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�.
1. (a) I'll walk home.(intransitive)
(b) I'll walk you home.(transitive)
2. (a) She got pregnant.
(b) He got her pregnant.
3. (a) He overworked and became sick.
(b) He overworked himself sick.
4. (a) She talked to him about starting a business.
(b) She talked him into starting a business.
5. (a) She argued with him about the decision.
(b) She argued him out of the decision.
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) ���� �ɾ �� ���‫�ڴ‬.
(b) ���� �ɾ �ʸ� ����� ���t� �ְ‫�ڴ‬.
cf. 1) I'll drive you home. �ʸ� ����� �¿�� �ְ‫�ڴ‬.
2) I'll see you home. �ʸ� ����� �‫�ٷ��� �ְڴ‬
2. (a) � ‫� ��׳‬ӽ �� ߴ�.
(b) � ‫ ״�� ׳‬ฦ �ӽ��ϰ� �ߴ�.
3. (a) �‫���� ���� �״� ����ؼ‬.
(b) �‫���� ;�״� �ڽڽ‬ϰ� �ߴ� ���� �������� �����‫�ؼ‬.
cf. He overworked his horse sick.
�‫���� ;�� �״� �ڱ‬ϰ� �ߴ� ���� �������� �����‫�ؼ‬.
4. (a) � ���‫����� ;��� ���׳‬ϴ� �Ϳ���� ‫��� �ؼ‬Y��.
(b) �‫�� �����ؼ‬ � �‫����� ;��� � ׳‬ϰ� �ߴ�.
5. (a) � ���‫�� �� �׳‬d�� ���ߴ��������� �����‫�ؼ‬.
(b)�‫�� �����ؼ‬ � �‫�� �� � ׳‬d���� ����� �( ��ΰ�) �ߴ�.
cf. She argued him into the decision.
�‫�� �����ؼ‬ � �‫�� �� � ׳‬d; ������ ������.

EXERCISE 2
1. (a) He walked me to exhaustion.
(b) He walked himself to exhaustion.
(c) I wrote a letter. My mother addressed the envelope. I stamped it, and
we walked the first letter of my life to the mailbox.
(N.B.) address the envelope: ���� �ּҸ� ����.
stamp: to put a stamp on. ~�� ��ǥ�� ����
�.
2. (a) I don't know how to work this machine.
(b) This medicine works wonders.
3. (a) In yesterday's edition of The New York Times, there was a
tragicomical piece of news that a very fat woman, whose sole wish was to
lose weight, dieted herself to death.
(b) The merest titter of a sneeze will get you "God bless you's" by the
score, but when you almost cough yourself to death, all you get are dirty
looks.
(N.B.) sole:single /����
lose weight:
��Ը� ����
� (�‫ݴ‬븻) gain(or put on)weight
��� �ô.
sneeze: ���
"God bless you's":"God bless you"
������ ��ä���� ���� ��� Ⱑ ���� �ʱ ⸦ ��8�� �‫��� ��ٴ‬Ǵ� ����
������
by the score:
20����(���⼭��"�ſ� ����"��� ��8�� ���Ǿ�=)
4. (a) Remember that we could laugh you out of politics.
(b) He had seriously considered suicide, but reasoned himself out of it.
(c) When she couldn't talk him out of the hazardous performance, she asked
Helen to intervene.
(d) Presumably he meant to stay simply that he thought it would be easier
to negotiate the Cubans out of Angola than to negotiate the white minority
out of power in Southern Africa-but that is not what he said.
(N.B.) hazardous:dangerous; risky ; perilous '����
intervene:
�����ϴ�
Presumably: It may be presumed that
�����t�; probably
mean to (do):intend to (do)
negotiate~out of power:
~�� ����‫ �ؼ‬d�ǿ��� �������� �ϴ�.
A Great Man
Dear Ann Landers: A great man died today. He wasn't a world leader or a
famous doctor or a war hero or a sports figure or a business tycoon. But he
was a great man. He was my father. He didn't get his picture in the paper
for heading up committees. I guess you might say he was a person who never
cared for credit or honors. He did corny things-like pay his bills on time,
go to church on Sunday, and hold an office in the P.T.A. He helped his kids
with their homework and drove his wife to the shopping center to do the
grocery buying on Thursday night. He enjoyed hauling his kids and their
friends to and from football games. He enjoyed simple things-a picnic in
the park, country music, mowing the grass, and running with the dog.
Tonight is the first night of my life without him. I don't know what to do
with myself, so I am writing to you. I am sorry now for the times I didn't
show him the proper respect. But I am thankful for many things. I am
thankful that I was able to let him know how much I loved him. He died with
a smile on his face. He knew he was a sucess as a husband and a father, a
son, a brother and a friend. I wonder how many millionaires can say that.
Thanks for listening, Ann Landers. You've been a great help.-His Daughter
5. (a) The bright young lad thought he could talk his way out of
anything. Stumped by a tough midyear exam, he wrote this excuse across the
cover:"Only God knows the answer. Merry Christmas!" He got his paper back,
marked:"God gets an A. You get an F. Happy New Year!"
(b) As the railroad conductor entered our car, my friend discovered he had
left his ticket at home. Trying to joke his way out of the awkward
situation, my friend told the conductor, "I'm not a dishonest guy. Look, my
face is my ticket." The conductor didn't miss a beat. "And my duty," he
said, "is to punch every ticket."
(N.B) bright:clever;smart ������
lad:a boy or youth
stump: to puzzle, perplex, or baffle
��Ȳ���ϴ�.
tough:very difficult
get back �ǵ��� ��
awkward:not easy to deal with ��ó��
delicate ��
���
beat: a blow �ϰ�

Dear Ann Landers: You have printed complaints from telephone operator,
secretaries, office-cleaning personnel, farmers, used car salesman and
hair-dressers. How about me ? I am a shoes salesman. Shopping can be
tiresome. It's nice to be able to sit down in comfortable chairs and
pleasant surroundings and rest for a while. If this is what they want, why
don't they say so instead of running the clerks ragged and trying on every
pair of shoes in sight ? Prom time is the worst. At least half of the
evening shoes we sell to teenage girls are returned because "they don't
fit." These shoes have been danced in for several hours and cannot be
resold so we give them to charity.(The girls get their money back.) After
the white season is over we get about 30 percent returns. They then want to
trade the whites in for black or brown. If we balk they threaten to
complain to the home office. The home office does not want complaints, so we are
stuck.I don't know where that saying, "The customer is always
right," came from because four out of 10 who come into place are rude,
nasty and trying to get something for nothing. sign me-From The Best
Shoestore In Ohio.
Dear Ohio: I spoke with several Chicago shoestore salespeople and they
get the same kind of lemons, but your percentages exceed theirs by at least
twice.
If you want to be enthusiastic, act enthusiastic.

4. �‫���ڵ‬+����(�⺻)
��� �� �� �ִ� ��: ���(����, ��籸, ����� ����)��
����(���籸 ���� )��. ����� ������ �ʼ� �����, �‫ ������� �߰� ����غ‬Ҵ�.
1. (a) He was a millionaire.(����) - He was. (x)
(b) He did a millionaire. (�‫ )���غ‬- He died. (o)
(He died + He was a millionaire)
2. (a) He was broke.(����)
(b) He returned home broke.(�‫)���غ‬
3. (a) The day was cloudy.
(b) The day broke cloudy.
4. (a) The box was open.
(b) The box broke open.
5. (a) You don't look your age; you look a lot younger.
(b) You're big boy now. Act your age.
6. (a) You look tired.
(b) You sound tired.
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) �‫� �״‬鸸���‫���ڿ‬.
(b) �‫� �� ;�� �״‬鸸���‫���ڿ‬.
2. (a) �‫����������� �״‬.
(b) �‫��� �� �״‬ƿ�; ���� �����������.
3. (a) �‫�׳‬: ��ȴ�.
(b) �‫�� ������ ���� ;�� ���׳‬ȴ�.
4. (a) �� ���‫��ڴ� �����־‬.
(b) �� ���‫��� �ڴ‬n�� ���ȴ�.
5. (a) �ʴ� �� ����� ������ �ʴ´�. �ξ� �� ���δ�.
(b) �� ��f �� �Ǵ�. �� ����� �°� �ൿ�‫�ض‬.
6. (a) �� �ǰ��� ���δ�.
(b) �� ��Ҹ��� ��8�� �ǰ��� �� ����.

5. �‫���ڵ‬+��ġ�籸(�⺻ǥ���� Ȯ��)
������, ��ü�� v��ó��, �⺻���Ǵ� ��v�� �ִ�. ��� ��v�� �ľ��ϸ�
�츮�� �� ��: ��v�� �‫ �ٸ‬ǥ��; ����� �� �� �ִ�.
(�⺻) He is like his father in character.
(�Ļ�) 1. He looks like his mother.
2. It seems like ages since we went to the theater.
3. Sometimes I feel like an orphan.
4. You sound like a different person on the phone.
5. This meat tastes like mutton.
6. This flower smells like roses.
7. His scientific papers read like novels.
(�ǹ�) �‫� �״� ������ �ڱ‬ƹ���� ����ϴ�.
1. � ‫״�� �ܸ� �ڱ‬ � ��ӴϿ� ����ϴ�.
2. �츮�� ���忡 ���� ���� ��ġ �� ���븦밡밡 ����ó�� ���δ�.
3. ������ ���� ��ƿ� ���3� �‫��� ���ٴ‬.
4. ��ȭ�� �� ��Ҹ��� ��8�� ��ġ �ʴ� �‫���� ��� �ٸ‬.
5. �� ���� ���� ����� ����ϴ�.
6. �� ��: ���� ���
� ����ϴ�.
John: Tonny is getting suspicious of his wife.
Peter: Why ?
John: Because she's stopped acting suspicious of him!
One morning when it looked as if my husband was going to miss his commuter train,
the family dashed around madly laying out his clothes,
assembling his briefcase, helping in every manner possible. Billy, age two,
wanted to do his bit, but kept getting in the way. Finally he discovered
the one remaining job- and promptly sat down and devoured Daddy's
breakfast.

EXERCISE 3
1. Please don't mind if she acts sore.
(N.B.)sore[colloq]:angry; offended; feeling hurt or resentful
2. (a) You should take exercise to stay fit.
(b) Don't dye your hair brown; I want you to stay a blonde.
(N.B.) take exercise: �; �ϴ�
stay fit: to remain healthy �ǰ�; /���ϴ�
dye �����ϴ�
3. (a) She looked the very picture of health.
(b) She casually asked him his age. "I'll be ninety-three this weekend," he
said. "Oh? You don't look it."
(N.B.) casual: uninterested �������;
dispassionate; nonchalant; indifferent
4. The eclipse day dawned cloudy, but a slow clearing set in and
astronometers took hope.
(N.B.) eclipse: �Ͻ�(�Ǵ� ���)
dawn: to break �յ��� Ʈ��.
a slow clearing set in = it began to clear up slowly
������ ������ ����
� �����ߴ�
set in: to begin
take hope: ���; ����
cf. lose heart ���; �Ҵ�. �Ǹ��ϴ�.

DEAR ABBY: I am newly married and expecting a baby. My problem is that my


in-laws have two dogs that are like part of their family. These dogs are
infested with fleas. I'm sure the fleas are in the carpet, so it's a
year-round problem. Please understand, my in-laws aren't dirty or anything
like that, but their dogs have fleas.(Can fleas hurt a baby or cause
disease ?) The flea bites cause itchy red bumps on me, but I suppose
they're not too serious. It's funny, but my husband isn't affected by flea
bites the way I am. How do I bring this up without sounding picky or
neurotic? I don't want to hurt my in-law, as they are super people and I
love them very much. NEEDS ADVICE
DEAR NEEDS:Fleas can be serious. They can also be eradicated. And if your
in-laws are really "super" people, they will consult a vet about how to
keep their dogs flea-free forever.
5. He recommended me to keep a diary of my life, full and unreserved.
(N.B.) keep a diary: �ϱ ⸦ ����
unreserved: frank or open in speech
������ �о� ���
6. The infallible test for a gentleman is to drop in on him unfed and see
what he does about it.
(N.B.) infallible: not liable to fail �������� ��;, Ʋ����� ;
reliable ��; ����
drop in on: to visit (someone) without warning, informally
���� �뿡뺸뺸 ����‫� ������ ;�ݽ‬ʰ� �������� �湮�ϴ�
7. I believe that each new generation arrives bearing a message that it
must deliver. And our role is to help that delivery.
(N.B.) bear: to have
deliver: to give forth , or express, in words; say
8. The ideal amount of sleep for you is that which enables you to walk up
refreshed and eager to meet the morning.
(N.B.) refresh: Ȱ�⸦ ��ã �� �����.
meet: �����ϴ�
9. Helen did well during her growing years. Yet, in her senior year at
college, her letters home began to be irregular. On the phone she sounded
preoccupied.
(N.B.) preoccupied: with the mind fixed on something else
�� �Ͽ� d���� ��n �ִ�;
inattentive to present matters
�� �տ� ���ִ� �Ͽ� ���; ������� �ʴ�
10. Today there are millions of American who are suffering from
respiratory problems. It comes from standing at supermarket checkout
counters holding their breath.
(N.B.) respiratory problem: ȣ��� ���(��ȯ)
hold one's breath: ��; ���ߴ�.
11. In the final analysis, none of us goes through life debt-free. We all
owe something to somebody. But the most noble motivation for giving is not
prompted by a sense of duty. It flows freely from unselfish love.
(N.B.) in the final analysis: after all factors have been considered
����; ����� �� ��
debt-free: free from debt; without debt ���� ����
motivation ����/��
prompt: to urge �����ϴ�;
be the cause of (~�� ������ �Ǵ�)
unselfish: not selfish ���������;
altruistic; putting the good of others above one's own interests
12. Born in Berlin in 1929, Previn studied at the Berlin conservatory for
three years before his family fled to America to escape the persecution of
Jews. They arrived in California "dead broke." and Previn did everything
from demonstrating electric organs to playing for dance classes to help
out.
(N.B.) conservatory:a school, or academy, of music, art,etc
flee: to run away
persecution: cruel oppression
������ ���, ����
dead broke:completely penniless
�� ��Ǭ ����
*help out=help his family out of its financial difficulties
�����
� �� ���� ��� ǥ���� ��8�Ƿ� ����� ‫��ؾ‬Ѵ�.
13. At about 200 ft. beneath the sea all the men suffered frequent
headache, occasional absent-mindedness, and the strange experience of
waking at night perspiring even while feeling bonechilling cold.
(N.B.) absent-mindedness: d���� ����(����)����
bonechilling cold: �0� �ø� d���� ��
boiling hot ���� ��; d���� ���
cf. stone-dead ������ �Ͱ� ��
14. A Los Angeles man makes a practice of saying the most outrageous
things in elevators to see what reaction he gets from other passengers. The
other day he was telling a friend, "I was on the No. 38 bus going to Santa
Monica when this girl got on completely naked..." He was interrupted by a
little old lady who said, "The 38 bus doesn't go to Santa Monica."
(N.B.)make a practice of = to practice
��õ�ϴ�.
outrageous: very absurd ���� ����
� ��
very offensive or shocking �ſ� �����ϰų� �������
interrupt: to break in upon a person while he is speaking
���� ����ϴ� �� ����� .
15. His career read like an advertisement for the rewards of hard work.
16. The traditional founder of Taoism, Lao-tse, had the best "immaculate
conception" of all. He was conceived with the aid of a shooting star, and
born 70 years old, white-haired, and full of wisdom, according to the
popular story.
(N.B.) immaculate: spotlessly clean
Ƽ���� �����
conception: ���� - conceive
To offset the depression I felt at reaching my 40th birthday, I treated
myself to a new hairdo and a new outfit. Walking down the street, I was
flattered when two young men waved at me, saying something in Spanish.
Acting the proper lady, I ignored them, tossing my head haughtily as I
marched resolutely onward. A third man tried to speak to me as I strode
past his car. He finally leaned his head out the window and yelled, "Ma'am,
they're trying to tell you-you're walking in their wet cement."

6. �‫���ڵ‬+���� (�ǹ�)
��� f 2��� ������ �⺻: "be" �Ǵ� "become"�� �� �� �� �ִ�. ����
�Ϻ� "����"�� ��Ÿ���� f 2��� ����� "be" ���‫" �ٴ‬remain"�� ��
�����(���‫� ��"���" ���ڿ‬ǹ� � �����=�� �����϶�).
1. (a) His warning went unheeded.(=remained)
(b) Because of the oil crisis many banks went broke.(=became)
2. (a) Inflation still runs high in that country.(=remains)
(b) The well has run dry.(=become)
3. One day suddenly he fell gravely ill.(=became)
4. At these words her hearts grew light.(=became)
5. Their patience has worn thin.(=become)
6. This contract still holds good.(=is or remains)
7. He stands fast in his resolve.(=remains)
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) ���� ��� ����: ����‫��� �ؼ‬Ǹ� ������� �ʾҴ�.
(=People went on not heeding his warning.)
cf. His warning was unheeded.(=People didn't heed his warning)
(b) ��/'�� ������ ��: :����� �Ļ��ߴ�.
2. (a) ��ȭ��â�� ���� ����‫��� �� �ؼ‬  �
��� �� .
(b) �� �칰: ���� ��ȴ�.
3. ��3� ���‫� ���� ���� �ڱ� �״‬ɸ��� �Ǿ��.
4. ��
� ��; ���� �‫=�� ���׳‬: ������s��.
5. �‫� ���׵‬γ���: ��Ƽ� ����s��.
(=�‫�׵‬: �� ��� ��; �� ��� ���忡 �������.)
6. �� ���: ���� ����‫ �ؼ‬/ȿ�ϴ�.
7. �‫ ����� �״� ����ؼ‬Ȯ���ϴ�.
(notes) heed: to pay attention to
...�� ���Ǹ� ������
broke: bankrupt �Ļ���
fast: firm Ȯ����

EXERCISE 4
1. His words ring false to me.
2. (a) Male chauvinism still runs rampant in many German business.
(b) You never miss water till the well runs dry.
(c) Today's world is running low on serenity but high on strains and
stress.
(d) The water problem is as close to you as the glass on your dinner table,
but too often people do not get alarmed until the taps run dry.
(N.B.)male chauvinism:
���� '�� ���, ��x���� ��
rampant:widespread; rife �θ� ��n �ִ�
serenity: calmness; tranquility; equanimity
��=�� ��d
get alarmed:
���� �Ǵ�(��, ����f�� �ߴ��ϴ ‫)�ٴ� ��; ��ݴ‬
tap: a faucet �����
3. (a) Her mouth fell open, and her eyes were wide with surprise, anger
and terror.
(b) His speech did not receive enthusiasm from the audience; it just fell
flat.
(N.B.) His speech did not receive enthusiasm from the audience=His speech
was not enthusiastically received by the audience
���� ������ ���� û��: �������� ����; ������ �ʾҴ�.
fall flat: to fail in the desired effect
�‫�� ���� ��ٶ‬n���� ���ϴ�.;
arouse no response
�ƹ��� ����; �ҷ� ��8Ű�� �ʴ�.
fall through: to come to nothing; fail
4. Most economists agree that after years of dangerous inflation, the
world has entered a time when prices will fall or hold steady, forcing a
reversal of longstanding economic policies.
(N.B.) hold: to remain
longstanding:
�7����� ����‫�ؿ‬
reverse: to change to the opposite; alter completely
(����) 2. (c): For years Congress has been long on threats to "do
something" about South Africa and short on action.
The defendant came forward at his trial to plead guilty. "Why didn't you
plead guilty at the start and save us all a lot of time?" asked the judge.
"I thought I was innocent," replied the defendant. "But that was before I
heard the evidence against me."
5. (a) As a boy he often went hungry.
(b) He went bald at the age of thirty.
(c) "The stock market has reached the point where the prudent speculator
should be caution,"warns one broker. For the moment, however, that advice
is going unheeded.
(d) There are millions of people looking for jobs these days. But one job
consistently goes wanting-night watchman at the Hollywood Wax Museum.
Almost two dozen men held the job last year, and they all quit in fright.
It seems they started "seeing things" at night.
(N.B.) prudent:discreet ������;
cautious;circumspect
specular: ������
heed: to pay close attention to
~�� ����� ���Ǹ� ������
consistently: continually; always
wanting(�� �ܾ��� ‫' �ڿ‬a man to do the job'�� ��Ǿ� ��=)
laking; without
quit: to leave
see things: ����� �����
6. Quickie fad diets actually make it more difficult for people to keep
trim. But you can develop eating habits that reduce excess weight
safely-and permanently.
(N.B.) quickie[slang]: done, completed, attained, etc. in less time than is
usual or desirable.
cf. a crash diet.
fad: passing fashion �Ͻ����� /��
trim: fit; healthy
keep trim=to stay fit �ǰ�; /���ϴ�
develope:to form ���ϴ�
7. Last week American officials confirmed in talks with the Soviets in
Vienna that the U.S. stands ready to sell them a whopping 23 million metric
tons of grain in the current fiscal year. Moscow bought 13.7 million tons
during fiscal 1982.
(N.B.) confirm: to make certain
Ȯ�����ϴ�, Ȯ���ϴ�
whopping:extraordinarily large
��û���� ��:;
staggering
grain �
the current fiscal year:
�� ȸ�迬��
8. As a young man he was a deeply committed communist, and in World War
II he commanded combat units. But in the 1950's, as a senior faculty member
at Moscow's military academy, he gradually grew disillusioned with the
Soviet system, and in the early 1960's he went public with a personal
campaign for democratization and against abuses of power.
(N.B.) committed: devoted �������
grow disillusioned with: ~�� ȯ��; �3���
abuse: wrong, bad, or excessive use

7. ������ ���� (������ ��v�� Ư¡)


��= �����鿡� ������ �⺻������ v�� Ư¡�� �� ��Ÿ���ִ�. ���� �Ǵ�
�‫� ���غ‬븩; �ϴ� ������ ���¿� �ָ��϶�.
1. (a) Though friends for many years, they finally ended up enemies.
(b) We drank to feel heavenly and ended up feeling like hell.
(c) We drank to feel exhilaration and ended up depressed.
(d) We drank to get calmed down and ended up with the shakes
(=shaken)
(e) You'll end up in hospital if you drive so fast.
(=hospitalized)
2. (a) He died a millionaire.
(b) He died penniless and friendless.
(c) He died believing that he had found the Far East.
(d) He died without knowing that he had made a great discovery.
(He died+He didn't know that he had made a great discovery)
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) ��� ������ ���� ģ����8��, �‫�׵‬: ��ħ�� ���� ������ ����
�Ǿ��.
(b) �츮�� õ��� ��: ���; ��8�p� ��; ����8�� ���� ������
ħ����s��.
(c) �츮�� ��‫ڷ‬p� ��; ����8�� ���� ������ ����Ǿ��.
(d) �츮�� ��d�Ϸp� ��; ����8�� ���� ������ ����Ǿ��.
(e) ����� ���� �� ��� ���� �ż��� ��� �ɰ���
�.
2. (a) �‫� ��;�� �״‬鸸 ���‫���ڿ‬.
(b) �‫ ��� ���� �� ;�� �״‬ģ���� ����.
(c) �‫�� ٰߴߴ � Ⱑ״� ��; �� �ڱ‬
�� ߰� ; � �‫ص‬
� �Ͼ��.
(D) �‫���� ;��� �ٴߴ � ;� �߰� ����' Ⱑ״� ��; �� �ڱ‬.
(����) (a) vote Republican
=(b) vote for a Republican candidate.

EXERCISE 5
1. It has taken me ages to get this garden in order.
(N.B.) ages[colloq]: a long time.
get~in order:~; d���ϴ�.
2. It's all we can do to keep ourselves in food and clothing;holidays are
out of the question.
(N.B.) to keep oneself in food:
�Ļ 繮 f�� �‫��ذ‬ϴ�.
cf. We're running out of food
�츮�� ��; ���� ����n���� �ִ�.
out of the question:impossible
�Ұ����� ���� �ȵǴ�;
not to be considered
���� �� ���
3. He went in to the interview in a defiant mood, but came out with his
tail between his legs.
(N.B.) with one's tail between one's legs: in a state of complete defeat
������ �й��‫�ؼ‬
4. In every struggle for power in which he has engaged, he has so far
come out top dog.
(N.B.) engage in: to take part in
~�� ���ϴ�.
so far:thus far; up to the present ��‫���ݱ‬
top dog[slang]: the person in a dominant or leading position, especially
in a competitive situation f 1����
5. (a) The gangster ended up in the electric chair.
(b) We started for Radio City, but wound up at a little night club in
Greenwich Village.
(c) There is no such thing as a risk-free society. Even a virtuous life has
its risks, as illustrated by a proverb: "The couple who goes to bed early
to save candles ends up with twins."
When noted American economist Milton Friedman visited Hong Kong, a
reporter asked him, "If an economist assumes the presidency of the United
States-you, for instance-would it be possible to set the country's economy
in order?" With a smile and without a moment's hesitation, Friedman
replied, "No. For I would then be a politician."
(N.B.) There is no such thing as~:
~�� ��: ��: ���.
(d) Tokyo's inflation rate for 1982 is expected to wind up at just above 3
percent, the lowest level in 23 years, and the national inflation rate may
follow suit, the Japanese government said Tuesday. Nationwide figures for
the year have yet to be compiled, but economists predicted similar trends
for the entire country.
(N.B.) follow suit:to follow the example set
���õ� ���� ���
have yet to be compiled=have not been compiled yet
���� ������ �ʾҴ�.
- See (N.B.) on p.22
6. Joey Adams says he heard of a woman who stood up in a divorce court
and said she didn't want alimony. "All I want," she started "is for my
husband to leave me as he found me." "And how was that ?" the judge asked.
"I was a widow."
(N.B.) (a) reality ���
(b) reality as it is �ִ� �‫��� ����״‬
- See #5 on p. 52
DEAR ABBY: Our daughter is 29, divorced and on her own. She has an
excellent job that pays $15 an hour, but for some reason she is always
short. Last year when it came time to pay her income tax, she was flat
broke, so we, her parents, ended up paying $2,200 to the IRS for her. We
warned her at that time that she had better start saving some money for
taxes, but when taxes were due again this year she was in exactly the same
predicament. My husband and I are in our late 50s and are trying to save
for our retirement. We both work, but we're far from rich. Our daughter
tells us that an agent with the IRS has been calling her repeatedly,
threatening to sell her house and car and leave her with nothing. Can the
IRS do this ?
CAN'T BELIEVE IT
DEAR CAN'T: You'd better believe it, because the IRS can. However, before
it gets to that point, the delinquent party is given every opportunity to
pay. In some cases, an automatic deduction is made from every paycheck. the
money goes into a saving account specifically set up to pay taxes. The
selling of personal property is always the last resort.

8. ����� ����� ���


������ �ӹ��� ��糪 ���縦���� Ƿ (����� ���縦 ���ͼ �
ϴ� �����
�‫� ������ ���־‬ǹ� � �ϼ��� ������, ���� ���縦 ����ϴ� ���� �ƴϴ�)
�λ�� ��� �� �� ���. �����
� �= �� ��: ��v�� �ſ� � Ǿߴ� �ִµ�
��= �����鿡� ������� ���; �‫���� ���� �������� ���غ‬. 
1. (a) I have it safe at home.(I have it at home +It is safe)
(b) Set your goals high.
2. (a) You are wrong.
(b)You got me wrong.
3. (a) I can't get this door open.('����'ǥ��)
(b) Can't I have the door open ?('����'ǥ��)
4. (a) I have everything ready.
(b) I think I have this poem memorized.
5.(a) I have his name on the tip of my tongue.
(b) You'll have the car in the ditch if you are not careful.
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) �‫�װ‬: �����ϰ� �� ����Ǿ� �ִ�.
(b) ���� ��ǥ�� ��� �����.
2. (a) �� ��: �߸�Ǿ� �ִ�.
(b) �ʴ� ���� �߸� �����ߴ�.
3. (a) �� ��
�; �� �� ���.
(=I can't open this door)
(b) ��; ���� �� �� ��;��?
4. (a) �����Դ� ������ �‫�غ‬Ǿ� �ִ�.
(b) ���� �� �ø� ����� ��Ҵٰ� ���Ѵ�.
(=I think I have memorized this poem)
5. (a) ���� ��
��� �� ������ �ɵ���(���8��� ���� �Ѵ�)
‫ڰ‬
(b) �������� ��8�� �� ���� �Ĺ ‫�ڰڴ‬.
(����) ��
� ���� ǥ��: Ư�� ����ü ��� ��� ��� ���ǹǷ� �� ���� �ξ��
�Ѵ�.

EXERCISE 6
1. (a) Get involved.
(b) Get them involved.
cf. I can't get them to change their minds.
2. (a) Don't go and get drunk on that whisky.
(b) Don't go and get them drunk on that whisky.
(����) ��ġ�� on�� �����϶�!
3.(a) I have a term paper due next week.
= I have to hand in a term paper next week.
(b) I agree with you, save that you're got one or two facts wrong.
(c) Which eye have you got open, honey ?
DEAR ABBY: I'm in love with this guy I work with. We have a lot in
common. His marriage stinks and so does mine. We've done a lot of talking,
but that's all. I can't get this guy out of mind, Abby. We've made plans
to spend a weekend together, but he never showed up. When I saw him at work
on Monday, he said he had the feeling he was being followed and didn't want
to take a chance. This guy really appeals to me like no man I have ever
known. He keeps saying he would like to get to know me better, but that's
as far as it goes. What I need to know is this: Why can't I get him to meet
me away from work? GOING CRAZY
DEAR GOING:Because he's either chicken or henpecked. In any case, you're
both married to other people, so forget him. He's doing what he does
best-talking.
(N.B.) stink[slang]: to be no good.
come up: to happen
�Ͼ
��
make it[colloq]: to do or achieve a certain thing
���; �ϰų� �� ��
take a chance: to take/run a risk
����; �ϴ�.
chicken[slang]:timid or cowardly
(d) "I think we should go over this letter together one more time."
" One more time? I think I have it memorized."
(e) It is embarrassing to have someone looking over your shoulder while
you're at work, as though you could not be trusted.
(N.B.) due: that is to be submitted(or paid)
f���ϰų� ����‫��ؾ‬ϴ�
save=except; but get~wrong:
~; �߸� �����ϴ�(�ľ��ϴ�)
have it memorized= to know it by heart
�‫� ����� ���װ‬Ӹ��ӿ� �ϱ�Ǿ� �ִ�.
(f) We have demand growing by about 12 % a year and supply growing by about
2% a year, which yields 10% inflation.
(N.B.) yield:to produce as a result
�� ���� ����Ű �
4. (a) Look out where you kick that ball, or you'll have through the
window.
(b) You'll have that pram over if you don't take more care.
(c) We're having some friends over for drinks this evening.
= Some friends are coming over (to our home) for drinks this evening.
(d) He insisted on having the agreement down in black and white.
(N.B.) you'll have it through the window = it'll break through the window.
pram:/����(�� ������� baby carriage��� ��)
have/put~down in black and white=set~down in writing
~; �۷� ���δ�
5. (a) I want my money back.
(b) When do you except him back ?
(c) My life has become a continuing treacherous nightmare. I starve myself
for a week and lose between 10 and 12 pounds. Then I go crazy and eat
everything in sight. Within 10 days I gain back all the weight I lost.
(N.B.) treacherous: faithless
��=; n���
starve:
�����, ���ָ ��� �����.
go crazy:
��ġ�� �Ǵ�, �߱� ��ϴ�.
6. (a) The horse is loose.
(b) The animals broke loose and left the field.
(c) This pole is coming loose and will soon fall over.
(d) All night the man on the rig had been pushing the drilling pipe deeper
into the soil below Louisiana's Lake Peigneur. At about 1,240 feet the
pipe, a 39-ton string of steel, got stuck and they couldn't work it loose.
(N.B.) rig: equipment for drilling an oil well
/�� �; '�� ���
get stuck: �‫�ٴ‬�
(e) Oxidation is, of course, vital to life itself; our bodies add oxygen to
food in a kind of flameless combustion to extract vital energy. But
oxidation is not always beneficial, according to the least scientific
theory. When oxygen combines with an atom, it sometimes jars loose an
electron. An electron-poor atom, known as a "free radical," automatically
seeks another electron, and starts a chain reaction that can lead to cell
damage.
(N.B.) oxidation:��ȭ< oxygen(���)
vital: necessary or essential
�ʿ� �Ұ�����
combustion: the act or process of burning ����
free radical: ��/��
jar: to shake ; jolt ������
‫ڰ‬
electron-poor ���‫�� �ڰ‬w��
chain reaction �������
7. (a) They caught him red-handed.
(b) She was caught shoplifting in a department store.
(c) The literature instructor had spent almost the entire class period
lecturing on the life and writing of Edgar Allan Poe. He noticed one
student with a blank stare and decided to try to catch him off guard.
"Mr. Thompson, since you seem uninterested in what I have to say, I can
only conclude that you already have a vast knowledge of Poe. Perhaps you
would care to give the other members of your class the benefit this wisdom
by describing the man in one word." Without a change of expression, the
student replied, "Dead."
(d) Irish McCauley, at five-foot-two, was the smallest and most picked-on
boot in our platoon at Parris Island. The day he was caught with his hands
in the pockets of his fatigues, the drill instructor made him fill the
pockets with dirt so he'd be sure to keep his hands out. Next morning at
reveille when the platoon snapped to attention, the usually stern DI
suddenly doubled up with laughter. Glancing down the ranks, I saw McCauley
with daffodils protruding from every pocket. "They grew overnight, sir," he
solemnly assured the DI.
(N.B.) red-handed:with hands covered with a victim's blood; in the very
commission of crime or wrongdoing
�˳� ����; ����� ���忡��
shoplift:
(����ð� ��)��Կ��� ����; ��ġ��.
pick on[colloq]:to tease ���
boot[slang]:a navy or marine recruit, especially one in a training camp
�‫�� �غ‬� �‫� �����ر‬ź�, Ư�� �Ʒú�
platoon: ������ �Ҵ�
fatigues: ���ε��� �‫�۾‬
reveille: the first assembly of the day v
snap to attention: ��� ��� �‫��� ���ڼ‬ϴ�
come to attention ��� �‫��� ���ڼ‬ϴ�
stern:grim ������
double up: to bend over �㸮�������
protrude: to thrust or jut out ��8�� Ƣ��4
solemnly: ����ϰ�
8. Meanwhile, the health and fitness boom must be a major factor in some
very bracing statistics. Heart disease, the nation's No.1 health problem,
is down 20% since 1967. According to the American Heart Association,
strokes have dropped by one-third. Life expectancy has risen to a record 73
years. The cholesterol controversy has Americans eating 6 Ibs. less beef
than a decade ago. They also drink 4% less alcohol. Though smoking figures
among the young, especially females, are rising slightly, 1.8 million older
smokers have given up cigarettes. In a country so lately thought to be
dedicated to pleasure and self-expression that will be no small
achievement.
(N.B.) fitness:healthiness ������ ���
bracing: refreshing ���; �ϵ����ִ�
life expectancy: �����(��ռ��)
record: �������
cholesterol: a crystalline fatty alcohol found especially in animal fats,
blood, nerve tissue, and bile and thought to be a factor in atherosclerosis
����� ����� ���‫ �ݷ‬Ư�� ���� �����. ���, �Ű�v�� �� ��� �
  �߰ߵǸ�

���� ��ȭ���� �� ������ �Ǵ� ��8�� ���
controversy: ���
dedicated: devoted ����ϴ�, �����ϴ�
DEAR ABBY: My husband, who is in his 40s, has a new hobby. He makes
obscene phone calls. He dials numbers at random, and he has an "affair"
with her on the phone. I have caught him at it several times. He says he
isn't really doing anything wrong, it's just a harmless pastime. Then he
begs me to forgive him. What should I do? WORRIED IN MAINE
DEAR WORRIED: Your hubby's hobby is a symptom of a sick mind. It could
also bring him trouble with the law. I urge you to get him to a doctor
before he finds himself in a serious trouble. He needs to be examined by a
psychiatrist.
As a passenger boarded the Los Angeles-to-New York plane, he told the
flight attendant to wake him and make sure he got off in Dallas. The
passenger awoke just as the plane was landing in New York. Furious, he
called the flight attendant and demanded an explanation. The fellow mumbled
an apology and, in a rage, the passenger stomped off the plane. "Boy, was
he ever mad!" another crew member observed to her errant colleague. "If you
think he was mad," replied the flight attendant, "you should have seen the
guy I put off the plane in Dallas!"

9.���¿� ����(�‫�ڵ‬, Ÿ��)


������ ����ǥ��: '����'�� '����'8�� ��������µ�, ����ǥ��: '�‫��'���ڵ‬
'Ÿ����'�� ���������. ���� ���¿��� ��ü �ȿ� '���'�� �ǹ� � ��� ��8�Ƿ�
���µ���� ������ ��f�� ������� �ʴ´�.
1. (a) He has a lot of money(= possesses). (����)
(b) He is having breakfast(= is eating). (����)
2. (a) The bank is open.
(b) The bank is opening now.
3. (a) She is polite.
(b) She is being polite(= She is behaving politely now).
4. (a) He is dead.
(b) He is dying.
5. (a) be married (to) ...�� ��ȥ�‫�ִ���� �ؼ‬.
(b) get married (to) ...�� ��ȥ�ϴ�.
6. (a) be up �Ͼ �ִ� (����)
(b) get up �Ͼ��
� ( ‫)���ڵ‬
(c) get someone up �Ͼ��
� ϴ� (Ÿ����)
6.1 (a) be pregnant �ӽ� ����

(b) get pregnant �ӽ��ϰ� �Ǵ�
(c) get someone pregnant �ӽ��ϰ� �����
6.2 (a) be involved (in) ���ϰ� �ִ�
(b) get involved (in) ���ϰ� �Ǵ�
(c) get someone involved(in) ���ϰ� �����
7. (a) be at an end ���� ���ִ�
=be over
(b) come to an end ���� ����
(c) bring ...to an end ...; ������
= put an end to...
7.1 (a) be in existence x���ϰ� �ִ�
= exist
(b) come into existence/being �¾��
(c) bring ...into existence/being �¾�� �ϴ�
7.2 (a) be in contact with ...�� b���ϰ� �ִ�
(b) come into contact with ...�� b���ϰ� �Ǵ�
(c) bring ... into contact with ...�� b���ϰ� �����
7.3 (a) be in power �Ƿ�; ����ִ�
(b) come to power �Ƿ�; ��� �Ǵ�
(c) bring ... to power
...�� �Ͽ��� �Ƿ�; ��� �ϴ�
7.4 (a) be in use ������� �ִ�
(b) come into use ������� �Ǵ�
cf.fall into disuse
(c) bring ... into use ...; ������� �����
7.5 (a) be in play �‫��ۿ‬ϰ� �ִ�
(b) come into play �‫��ۿ‬ϰ� �Ǵ�.
(c) bring ... into play ...; �‫��ۿ‬ϰ� �����
7.6 (a) be on one's feet �Ͼ �ִ�
(b) get to one's feet �Ͼ��
(c) bring ... to one's feet ...; �Ͼ�� �����
7.7 (a) be on one's knees ����; ����ִ�
(b) drop/fall to one's knees ����; ���
= kneel
(c) bring ... to one's knees
...�� �Ͽ��� ����; ��� �����
7.8 (a) be off to a start ����� �ִ�
(b) get off to a start ����ϴ�
(c) bring ... off to a start ...; ����ϰ� �����
8. (a) be of age ������ �Ǿ��ִ�
(b) come of age ��� �����
8.1 (a) be down with a cold
(b) come down with a cold
9. (b) come about �
��ϴ�
= come to pass
(c) bring about ���ϰ�
� ����
= bring to pass
9.1 (b) come home to ...���� ��������
(c) bring ... home to ...���� ... ����ϰ� �����
9.2 (b) come to light ...������� �Ǵ�
(c) bring ... to light ...; �����ִ�
10. (a) be broke
���� ����n�ִ�, �Ļ���¿� �ִ�
(b) go broke �Ļ��ϰ� �Ǵ�
10.1 (a) be in effect ȿ��; �����ϰ� �ִ�.
(b) go into effect ȿ��; �����ϰ� �Ǵ�
(c) put...into effect
10.2 (a) be on a diet ���� � �� �ִ�.
(b) go on a diet ����� ��
��
(c) put...on a diet
...�� �Ͽ��� �����; �ϰ� �����
11. (a) be apart �и��Ǿ��ִ�
(b) come apart �и��Ǵ�
cf. fall apart
(c) take...apart �и��ϴ�
cf. put together v���ϴ�
12. (a) be in charge of ...�� ���� å��; �ð��ִ�.
(b) take charge of ...�� ���� å��; ���ô�
(c) put...in charge of
...�� �Ͽ���...�� ���� å��; ��� �����
13. (a) be on fire ��Ÿ�� �ִ�.
(b) catch fire ���� �‫�ٴ‬
(c) set...on fire ...�� ��; ���
= set fire to...
14. (a) wear a beard
��; �淯���ް� �‫ٴ‬ϴ�.
(b) grow a beard ��; �⸣��
(����)11. (b)
(1) At last her dream came true.
(2) The walls came tumbling down.
= The walls tumbled down.
(3) There were signs that the shaky status quo was coming wholly unhinged.
(4) Their carefully prepared plans came unstuck.
(5) The whole plan can come unraveled.
cf. The plan failed to stick.
(���) keep body and soul together

A missionary found himself face to face with a raging lion in a jungle. "I'm
going to eat you," roared the lion. "Prepare for death." At that, the missionary
dropped to his knees and prayed more fervently than he ever had before. Then,
cautiously peeking through his fingers, he saw the lion also kneeling, with
front paws covering his eyes. Looking toward heaven, the missionary exclaimed,
"Isn't it wonderful...to think that my words can soften a wild beast's heart."
Whereupon the lion dropped his paws and snarled. "Hold your tongue! I'm saying
grace."

EXERCISE 7
1. He was deep into debts last year, but now he's almost out of debt. I hope
he'll keep working hard so that he may not get into debt again.
2. I found that the elevator was in good order last night. But you say now
that it is out of order. What's the matter with it? I can't understand why it
gets out of order so often these days. Anyway, you must have it mended as soon
as possible.
(N.B.)mend: to repair: fix
3. Watching from behind the police lines as the milk trucks charged, one 18
year old youth noted that the police" were dropping like ninepins. The crowd
would attack, and some more would drop. It was a massacre." Recalled Constable
Leslie Bright, a 28 year old with only three weeks' street experience: "I got
hit in the face with a brick; then another brick put me out. When I came to I
had footprints all over my uniform. Those kids were really gunning for us."
(N.B.) charge: to attack vigorously or move forward as if attacking.
note: to notice; observe.
massacre: the indiscriminate, merciless killing of a number of human beings
�븦뷮븦 ��

constable: a policeman.
put out: to cause to lose consciousness
�ǽ�; �Ұ� �����. Ÿ����
cf. pass out: to lose consciousness; faint
�ǽ�; �Ҵ�. �‫���ڵ‬
come to: to recover consciousness
�ǽ�; ȸ���ϴ�. �‫���ڵ‬
cf. bring to: �ǽ�; ȸ���ϰ� �����. Ÿ����
gun for: to hunt for with a gun; look for in order to shoot or harm
4. If Ronald Reagan thinks that "staring down" the Russians is going to make
the United States the predominant world power again, he is in for a big
disappointment. The belief that the Soviet Union is responsible for the loss of
American prestige is naive and oversimplified, typical of a good guy bad guy
mentality. It is especially dangerous considering the possibility that Reagan
may soon sling one of the biggest pistols ever known: the overkill capacity of
the U.S. nuclear arsenal.
(N.B.) stare down: to stare back at (another) until he turns his gaze away
���⼭��"'���ϴ�." �Ǵ� "9�����"�� ��8�� ����=.
be in for: be certain to have or get (usually an unpleasant experience) (����
ǥ� � )
cf. come in for: to get (����ǥ��).
naive: foolishly simple; childlike.
a good guy bad guy mentality: ���� ����;(���⼭������� ;), ���ó��,
ܼ �� ϰ� ����� ���ϴ� ����� �ܼ��������� .
��: ���� ���� ���8�� �
overkill: the capacity of a nation's nuclear weapon stockpile to kill many
times the total population of any given nation.
arsenal = weapons
5. Tumlir warns that strong international cartels in steel, oil and some other
basic commodities are forming or are effectively in place. These are propping up
prices, fueling inflation, restricting trade and limiting growth. This does not
do Western capitalism's image much good, or help the credibility of Western
governments that sometimes quietly encourage the formation of such cartels.
(N.B.) be in place: �‫�ִ�����ڸ‬.(����ǥ��).
cf. come into place �‫� ����ڸ‬Ǵ�(�‫)���ڵ‬
put...in place �‫����� ����ڸ‬, ��ġ�ϴ�(Ÿ����).
prop up: to support; shore up; back up
6. When I began to gain weight I vowed to go on a diet, but I lacked
willpower. In desperation at 20 pounds overweight, I put my 14 year old son in
charge of my diet. Steve was delighted. With typical teen age ruthlessness, he
would stop a potato chip halfway to my lips. "You can't eat that! Put it back,"
he would say firmly. When he came home from school he would ask, "What did you
eat today?" and listen with deep interest and appropriate reactions.
I cut down drastically on my food intake. I didn't have to stiffen my resolve
when faced with a goodie; I just said to myself, "Steve won't let me eat that,"
and I gradually lost the whole 20 pounds, coasting along on his willpower.
As for Steve, he had the time of his life. After years of listening to "Do
your homework!" and "Do your practicing!" and so on, he finally had a chance to
tell an adult what to do, and to feel virtuous about it at the same time.
(N.B.) gain weight = put on weight.
In desperation at 20 pounds overweight: �� � d � 20 �Ŀ�� �� ������
��Ը� ����
� '�‫���¿��� �ִ� �� �� ����� ���� �ؼ‬.
ruthless: pitiless; merciless ���‫���ں‬.
appropriate: suitable; proper.
cut down on: reduce �����.
drastically: ũ��, ����(��8��).
coasting along on: ...�� ���Ծ� ������� �ʰ�. sail along on.
the time of one's life: an experience of great pleasure for one

It's a Wise Parent...Overhearing my husband and me making plans for a weekend


trip, our 16 year old daughter announced that she wanted to stay home alone.
Upon getting our negative reaction, she pleaded, "Why can't I? You used to say
no because I was too young, but now..."
"Now," interrupted her father, "you're too old."

Doctor to patient: "Sorry, but right now you're not in good enough shape to
get in shape."
Daughter to father: "But I don't want to be beautiful and break hearts. I want
to be a cardiologist and mend hearts.
To get into shape, you have to be in reasonably good shape. Otherwise, your
susceptibility to injury goes way up.
10. �4�� ���
(1) ��Ļ��� ��Ģ
�밳 �� �ܾ����� �� ľ�� �Ǽ�ľ� �տ� ����, ���� ��� �� ��ľ��
�Ǽ�ľ� �‫�´� �ڿ‬.
1. he has failed chiefly for lack of funds.
�‫�� �ڱݺ‬ � :�� ������ �‫�װ‬w ������ ��.
2. He is my uncle on my mother's side.
�‫������ܻ� ���� �״‬.
3. He read everything (that) he could lay his hands on.
�‫� Ⱑ״� �ڱ‬մ� �� �ִ� ��: ��� �о��.
(2) ��ľ��� 'ġ�� �ǹ�
1. (a) She tried not to go.
�‫��� �� ��׳‬p� �ֽ��.
(b) She did not try to go.
�‫��� ��׳‬p� �‫� ���־‬ʾҴ�.
2. (a) Only I hit him in the eye yesterday (Nobody else hit him in the eye
yesterday).
������ ��f ���� ��; ���ȴ�.
(b) I only hit him in the eye yesterday (I didn't do anything else to him).
���� ��f ���� ��; �����⸸ ��; ���� �.
(c) I hit only him in the eye yesterday (I didn't hit anybody else in the
eye).
���� ��f �‫�ٸ‬...���� �‫� ����� �ٸ‬ƴ϶�...��; ����; ���� �.
(d) I hit him only in the eye yesterday (and I didn't hit anywhere else).
���� ��f ���� ���� ����; ���� �.
(e) I hit him in the only eye yesterday (He has only one eye and I hit him in
it).
���� ��f ���� �ϳ����� ��; ���ȴ�.
(f) I hit him in the eye only yesterday (It happened that recently).
���� �Ұ� ��f ...�7� ���� �ƴ϶� ...���� ��; ���ȴ�.
(g) I hit him in the eye yesterday only (I haven't done it but that one time).
���� ��f�� ���� ��; ����; ���� �.
(3) ��ľ�� �Ǽ�ľ��� �и�
�������
� ����� �4� ��ҵ�; �� �� �ִ´�� ������ �� �κп� f���Ϸt�
������ �ִ�. (��� '��� ߴ � ��'�������' ��'�‫־‬Ǿ��ִ� ��: �‫���� ��� �ٷ‬
�������) �� � ���� ������ ���� ��ų� �ſ� �� ��ľ�� ������ �� �κ�8��
�зs��� �ȴ�.
1. The time seems to have come / when we should pay more attention to the
needs of the needy.
������ ���鿡� ��ʿ��� �͵鿡 � ���: ���; ��←�� ���������Ͱ���.
(N.B.) �缱 ������ ���; �� ��: "time"�� �.
2. As President, Lincoln appointed men to his cabinet / whom he considered
most capable for the job.
�����8�� ��; ��, ����: �‫�� ���־‬å�� ���� /���ϴٰ� ���� ����;
����� �Ӹ��ߴ�.
(4) �ѱ���� �‫�� �ٸ‬Ĺ��
1.(a) a wave
(b) a mountain of a wave
2.(a) a girl
(b) an angel of a girl
3.(a) stability
(b) a semblance of stability
3.1 (a) normality
(b) a semblance of normality
4.(a) Life is based on carbon chemistry.
(b) Life, as we know it on earth, is based on carbon chemistry.
5.(a) English is an international language.
(b) English is an international language, as they call it.
= English is what they call an international language.
6.(a) Times became "hard."
(b) Times became what my father called "hard."
7.(a) He seldom goes to church.
(b) He seldom, if ever, goes to church.
8.(a) Religion played little part in their lives.
(b) Religion played little, if any, part in their lives.
9.(a) The economy of the country boasts a steady annual growth rate of 3%.
(b) The economy of the country boasts a steady if unspectacular annual growth
rate of 3%.
10. (a) Such a decision will bring about harmful results.
(b) Such a decision will bring about harmful if not fatal results.

"Dean, I need a raise," the college football coach pleaded


"Hell, Coach," the dean shrugged, "you make more money than the entire
English department. How can I justify giving you a raise?"
"I'll show you what I have to put up with," the coach replied, opening the
office door and calling in the team's star running back. "Son," the coach said
to the player, "run over to my office and see if I'm there."
"Sure, Coach."
Twenty minutes later, the winded athlete returned. "No. sir, Coach," he
panted, "you ain't there."
Thanking the player and sending him back to practice, the coach turned to the
dean and asked, "Now do you understand?"
"I sure do," the dean agreed. "The dumb son of a bitch could have phoned."
EXERCISE 8
1.(a) She entirely failed to understand the problem.
(b) She failed to entirely understand the problem.
2.I have a mountain of dirty clothes to wash.
3.It is one of the greatest tragedies in life for an angel of a girl to be
married to a beast of a man.
4.But in the capital city the new government is hard pressed to maintain even
a semblance of order.
(N.B.) capital city: ��.
be hard pressed / put to (do) ...= have difficulty ...ing (...�ϴ6�) �ָ�
�Դ�)
5. Every successful man I have heard of has done the best he could with
conditions as he found them, and not waited until the next year for better.
(N.B.) "better" ��=�� "conditions" �� ��Ǿ��.
6. Though motion pictures (or movies, as they are usually called in the United
States) are just a little over fifty years old, they have grown to be the most
popular and widespread form of entertainment in the world.
7. Whatever the exact source of his appeal, Koch, like Ronald Reagan, has
managed to persuade the citizens that happy days are here again in the face of a
continent of evidence to the contrary.
(N.B.) in the face of = in spite of.
to the contrary: �‫���(����ݴ‬籸).
cf. on the contrary: �‫(��� �ݴ‬
 �λ 籸)

A man went to his pastor and confided that he found life empty.
"Why?" asked the pastor.
"Because the woman I love has just rejected my proposal of marriage."
"Don't let that get you down," said the pastor brightly. "A woman's 'no' often
means 'yes.'"
"But she didn't say, 'No,'" replied the man sadly. "She said, 'Phooey.'"
8. As Walesa's car inched through the crush of supporters, some overexuberant
fans even managed to lift the rear wheels off the ground. A sticker on Walesa's
windshield seemed to capture the spirit of the moment: IT'S EXCITING TO BE
POLISH.
(N.B.) Walesa (��"��) :���� ��/��v� ����.
inch: to move by inches; move very slowly.
crush: a crowded mass (����� �μ���� d���� ��: ������ ���; �� �ܾ���
����ϰ� �������‫)�ش‬.
overexuberant: overexcited.
capture: to represent (ǥ� � � � �ִ�)
9. In 1875 Edison discovered what was later known as the radio.
10. The discovery of what was later named penicillin, on the mold on the dish
of agar, occurred in 1928.
11. Because of the revolt, the general assumed what was described at the time
as a dictatorial role.
(N.B.) revolt: a rising up against the government; rebellion; insurrection
(�‫)�ݶ‬.
assume: to take on or put on (���ô�)
12. Mao's death set the stage for what may turn out to be a prolonged and
destructive struggle for power between moderates and leftists.
(N.B.) prolonged: protracted (�������).
moderate: �°��� �λ�.
leftist: a person whose political position is radical or liberal (����� �Ǵ�
��/������ �λ�)
13. While the medical profession has conquered most of the childhood diseases,
boys and girls seem to be afflicted, as much as ever, with whatever it is that
prevents them from being sleepy at bedtime.
(N.B.) be afflicted with: ...�� �ɷ��ִ�.
while=although

Writing humor was not easy for Robert Benchley. Every word was born in pain,
and composing the opening sentence was sheer torture.
One morning, in his hotel room, he inserted a sheet of paper in his typewriter
and typed the word "The." He leaned back to see what he has wrought. He looked
at it for more than an hour while he waited for other words to follow. They
didn't.
He went downstairs, has a leisurely lunch, then returned to his room. He sat
down at the typewriter and stared at it. He stared until five o'clock. Then an
idea came to him. After "The," he typed" hell with it." With a feeling of
accomplishment, he went downstairs to dinner.
14. Poets are concerned with people and with life, and they use the medium of
poetry to communicate their understandings and the truths of life as they see
them. They try to give us the "feel of the idea" and the "experience beneath the
idea," They interpret the innermost spirit of a people, of a country, of a
civilization; for poetry is a revelation or an interpretation of life in some of
its aspects. The poetic material is life as it is known to the emotions, and the
emotions are universal and enduring. Moreover, the poet senses the eternal
rhythm that runs through all of life.
(N.B.) be concerned with: to be interested in.
interpret:to explain the meaning of; construe (Ǯ���ϴ�).
aspect: a side. universal: ��������
15.In a scientific inquiry, a fallacy, great or small, is always important,
and is sure to be in the long run constantly productive of mischievous if not
fatal results.
(N.B.) fallacy: a false or mistaken idea; error.
mischievous: harmful
16. The story goes that Alfred once took refuge in the cottage of a poor
peasant. The good wife was left in ignorance of his identity and therefore had
little time for this seemingly idle fellow. For Alfred spent his time gazing
into the fire and dreaming of further plans to defeat the Danes. Called upon
some errand, the good wife drew his attention to some cakes which were baking in
front of the fire, and told him that he must watch them carefully during her
absence. Alas! So preoccupied was the English king that the good wife found, on
her return, nothing but a few remains of her cakes. Whereupon, the angry woman
seized the royal hair and proceeded to scold him severely. So runs the story.
Whether it is truth or legend we cannot confirm.
(N.B.) The story goes that... = Legend has it that...; it is said that...
take refuge: �ǽ��ϴ�.
was left in ignorance of his identity = did not know who he was.
this seemingly idle fellow: ��8�� ��� �ƹ� �ϵ� ���� �ʴ� �� ���
(= Alfred).
called upon some errand: � ��; ���� �6�� �䱸������ .
draw one's attention to...: ...�� ��'�� ..�� ȯ���Ű��.
proceed: to begin and continue

The secretary of a highly irascible department head in a government office was


being interviewed for another job. One of the questions she was asked was: "In
the position you now hold, do you have any decisions to make?"
"I certainly do," she replied. "Whenever Mr.Smith tells me to get that s.o.b.
on the phone, I have to decide which one."
(N.B.) (a) be on the phone
(b) come on the phone
(c) get/put...on the phone - Put him on.
cf. Put him through.
17. It was 6:30 p.m. and the stocky man in the light beige suit was talking
about the weather. He had tried to take a walk, but the drizzle and the knot of
well wishers outside had scared him back into the hotel. Instead of returning to
Chambre 15, the room he has occupied during his weekly visits to his
parliamentary district for the past 35 years, he had wandered into a small
thicket of journalists in the hotel dining room who were waiting for the early
projections from sample precincts. In contrast to his usual aloof attitude
toward reporters, Francois Mitterrand seemed to want company during these final
hours of his long vigil. Yet he is a failure when it comes to small talk and so
he had avidly seized on a remark about how it always rains here in Chateau
Chinon. Forthwith, he proceeded to launch into a lecture on local meteorology.
(N.B.) stocky: heavily built; sturdy; short and thickset ��������
drizzle: a fine, mistlike rain �����, ��
���
knot: a small group or cluster.
scare: to frighten suddenly or startle; terrify.
thicket: a thick growth of shrubs, underbrush, or small trees ������ ���
projection: a prediction or advance estimate based on known data or
observations.
precinct: a subdivision of a ward, as for voting purposes
������ ��d����; ������ ���ű�
aloof: reserved and cool �ʿ���
company: companionship; society; being with another or others.
vigil: a purposeful or watchful staying awake during the usual hours of sleep
(���⼭��"��� ���Ű�� ���Ѻ��ƿ� ��"; �ǹ���).
small talk: light conversation about common, everyday things; chitchat.
avid: eager and enthusiastic.
seize on: ������ �����, ����� �þ����.
forthwith: at once; immediately. launch into: to throw oneself into with
vigor; rush into; plunge into ��½ �‫���پ‬
meteorology = weather
18. "�� ���‫ �� ��"�ڴ‬ ��n�� !
In the dictionary of youth there is no such word as "fail." Remember the story
about the boy who wanted to march in the circus parade? When the show came to
town, the bandmaster needed a trombonist, so the boy signed up. He hadn't
marched a block before the fearful noises from his horn caused two old ladies to
faint and a horse to run away. The bandmaster demanded, "Why didn't you tell me
you couldn't play the trombone?" And the boy said, "How did I know? I never
tried before."
Many years ago, I might have done just what the boy did. Now I'm a grandfather
and have a lot of gray hair and what a lot of people would call common sense.
But if I'm no longer young in age, I hope I stay young enough in spirit never to
fear failure-young enough still to take a chance and march in the parade. - Walt
Disney
(N.B.) There is no such ... as ...: ...�� ��: ...�� ���.
sign up = to sign on
(����� �� � �� ‫ )�ؼ‬ä���ϰų� ä��Ǵ�.
There is no such thing in anyone's life as an unimportant day!

11. ���屸������� ��

������ �‫��ڸ‬κ��� ����; �����ϴ� ��ҵ� (�‫�־‬, d����, �����, ����)�� 'ġ��
�ű�� ��: �� ���� ��/������. : ù°, ������ ����; /���ϱ� '�‫� �ؼ‬Ǵ� ������
ȿ�� ��� '�‫� ���ؼ‬ǹ� ��� ȥ��; ���ϱ� '�‫�ؼ‬, ��°, ��v�� '�‫�ؼ‬.
(1) ����; '�� �� �
����; �����ϴ� ��� ��Ұ� �����8�� �‫�� �ٸ‬Һ��� �� ������ �� ��Ҵ� �‫�ڷ‬
����ϰ� �‫�� �ִ� �ڿ‬Ұ� �� �‫���� ���ڸ‬Ѵ�.
1. �‫�־�� ������ �ڸ��ٲ‬
(a) He who loves reading is happy.
(b) Happy is he who loves reading.
(��Ģ) Be����� �� ���� ���忡���� �‫�ڸ��ٲ‬: Be���� �տ� �ִ� ��ҿ� �‫�ڿ‬
�ִ� ��� ����� �Ͼ.
��
A is B.
- B is A.
2. ������ ������ �‫�ڸ��ٲ‬
(a) His contribution made the expansion of the library possible.
(b) His contribution made possible the expansion of the library.
(��') ���� (a)��   � �����
���� ��� ��8��, ���� �ſ� �� ������
"possible"�� �� �ܾ � ��� ���� Ǵ��� �� �� �� ��8�Ƿ� ����: �밳 (b)��
���; ���Ѵ�. ���� ������� � � �� �ִ� ��� ����8�� �� �κп� �‫���־‬
������ �4 븦 f���Ϸt� ������ �ִ‫��� Ⱑ�� �ٴ‬�� � ��ȴ� .
3. ������ �λ�(�λ 籸, �λ��� ����)�� �‫�ڸ��ٲ‬
(a) Don't put off what you can do today till tomorrow.
(b) Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
(����) ���� 9a)������ "till tomorrow"�� what clause�� ���ԵǾ� �ִ� ��8��
�����ϰ� ���� ���ɼ��� �‫־‬ �� � ���: �‫� �������ٶ‬ʴ�.
(2)��v�� '�� ���
��v�Ǵ� ��: ���η� �� ��ϴµ�, ��� ��쿡�� �� �κ��� ��v�ǰ� �ִ‫;�� �ٴ‬
�����ִ� ��(���‫��';�� �ڴ‬v��ġ'��� �θ���)�� � ִ ‫ �ٴ‬a�� Ư¡��
�.
1. ������ ��v
(a) Laughter is so characteristic of our species that man has been defined as
the laughing animal.
(b) So characteristic of our species is laughter that man has been defined as
the laughing animal.
���
� ~w���� ��=: �ʹ��� ��Ư�ϹǷ� ���: ��� ������ � ��d�Ǿ�
�Դ�.
(����) "So"�� ��v��ġ��.
2. ��� ��v
(a) I little dreamed that I would meet her again.
(b) Little did I dream that I would meet her again.
(����) �λ��� �� ��� ��� v���� "did"�� ���‫ �ٴ‬a�� �����϶�. �‫���־‬
����ȿ� Be���糪 v���簡 �ִ� ��쿡�� v���� "do"�� ���� � ʴ´ �.
(1) He was never so happy!
- Never was he so happy!
(2) I have never seen such a beautiful girl before.
- Never before have I seen such a beautiful girl.

A man was telling his colleagues about unintentionally driving through a


puddle of water and splashing a pedestrian, a visitor from Florida.
"How did you know he was from Florida?" asked one co worker. "Did you stop to
apologize?"
"No," replied the man. "I didn't stop because he was awfully big and he looked
mad. But I knew he was from Florida because I could hear him yelling something
about the sun and the beach."

EXERCISE 9
1. Fundamental to the existence of science is a body of established facts
which come either from observation of nature in the raw, so to speak, or from
experiment.
(N.B.) fundamental: forming a foundation or basis; basic; essential.
body: a group.
in the raw: �‫����ڿ����� �״‬.
so to speak: as it were; that is to say; in a manner of speaking; as one might
say �����
� ��
��� � ,�‫�ڸ‬
2. Almost all of the world's civilized populations believe that the earth is a
sphere. Only among isolated primitive tribes is the theory that the earth is
flat accepted.
(N.B.) sphere: any round body; globe; ball.
isolated:set apart from others ���Ǿ��ִ�
primitive: uncivilized ��ȭ�Ǿ����� ��:
theory: an idea or notion; opinion.
flat: ������
3.A good poem resists to the death its reduction to a flat statement.
= A good poem defies paraphrasing.
(N.B.) to the death: to the very end; to the end of life.
reduce: to put into a different form; translate; paraphrase.
flat: dull; monotonous ��v�ο�
statement: an expression.
defy: to resist completely in a baffling way
4.I shall never forget the disgust I felt one day in the United States when I
heard quoted for the first time the well known words of an American soldier, "My
country, right or wrong."
(N.B.) disgust: a sickening dislike; deep aversion (��0�); repugnance.
quote: �ο��ϴ�
5.The only way in which social life can continue is for each individual to
keep unimpaired his or her own independence and self-respect as well as that of
others. This may be done by respecting the rights and happiness of others at the
same time that we seek our own happiness and protect our own rights.
(N.B.) impair: to damage; spoil.
self-respect: �‫ڽڽ‬ſ� ���� x��, ��x��

I discovered at an early age that most of the differences between average


people and great people can be explained in three words- "and then some."
The top people did what was expected of them, and then some. They were
considerate and thoughtful of others, and then some. They met their obligations
and responsibilities fairly and squarely, and then some. They were good friends
to their friends, and then some. They could be counted on in an emergency, and
then some.

6. Precisely how President Ford will apply himself to the solution of the
immense and urgent national problems he has inherited no one can prophesy.
Certainly it will be extraordinarily difficult and, at times, exceedingly
painful to cope with the problems of inflation, dwindling natural resources,
national defense, environment, disadvantaged minorities; the problems of
rebuilding vital foreign alliances and of charting peaceful relations with
nations that still proclaim their determination to destroy Western democracy.
But I think there now exists among the American people a vast storehouse of
goodwill and potential energy, a readiness to make sacrifices- provided the
people are shown why sacrifices are needed and why they will be meaningful. T he
tapping of this great human resource awaits only national leadership.
(N.B.) apply oneself to: ...�� ���; �����
�.
immense: very large; vast; huge; enormous.
urgent: calling for immediate action; grave; pressing �����
prophesy: to predict; foretell.
cf. prophecy: prediction.
at times: sometimes; occasionally.
cope with: to deal with; handle ó���ϴ�.
dwindle: to decrease; diminish �‫�ٴ‬.
disadvantaged minorities:
�Ҹ��� ó�� �ִ� �Ҽ� ��� �Ǵ� ��~��.
chart: to plan ��ȹ; �����.
potential: unrealized; latent ��������
provided (that) = if. tap: to make use of; draw upon ��
��ϴ�.

There may be more to it than that. Perhaps folk tales are so enduring because
now, as in the days of outlaw heroes and headless horsemen, legends endow life
with the mystery, awe and romance that make it endurable. Or perhaps folk tales,
old and new, urban and rural, are so full of life themselves that they will not
lie still in their graves. Consider the modern classic about the woman in Ohio
(or was it Oregon? or Maine?) who is doing the laundry in her basement when she
impulsively decides to remove her soiled dress and add it to the load. Her hair
is in rollers and the pipes overhead are leaking. She spots her son's football
helmet and dons it. There she stands, naked except for the helmet, when she
hears a cough. The woman turns to face the meter reader. Says he, as he heads
for the door: "I hope your team wins, lady."
(N.B.) endow X With Y = to provide X with Y.
impulsively: on an impulse; on the impulse of the moment ������ �浿 8��
don: to put on �Դ�

Three cross-eyed prisoners stood before a cross-eyed judge. The judge glared
at the first prisoner and demanded, "What's your name?"
"Eli Krantz," answered the second prisoner.
"I wasn't talking to you!" the judge snapped.
"I didn't say anything!" the third prisoner cried.

2. d���� ����(����� ���)


1. ����� : ���  �Ų ‫����� �ٷ‬Ϸp� ���� ����.
� ����� ����� ����ϰ� �ִµ�, ���� ��⸦ �����ϱ� '�� �‫⸦�� �װ‬
���� ������ ��ʹ� �‫� �ݴ�� ��´ٸ‬�� �  ɱ�? ���� ��Ⱑ ����� ����
���� ��; ����
�. �����ϰԵ� �������
�� ������ ��0��� ������ �츮��
��
� ��8�� ���  �����Ϸp� �� �Դ�. ��h �� ���; ��� ������ ����
�� �‫�� ��״‬  鼭 ����� Ϸp� �‫� ���� �� �ؾ‬Դ�.
1. He tried again - only to fail.
(1) He tried again.
(2) He only failed
2. She called me this morning - to say that she couldn't come.
(1) She called me this morning
(2) She said that she couldn't come
3. You should not stress the one - to the exclusion of the other.
(1) You should not stress the one
(2) and exclude the other
4. They wrangled for eleven hours - before voting - to accept the pact.
(1) They wrangled for eleven hours
(2) They voted
(3) They accepted the pact
(�ǹ�)
1. �‫� �״� �� �ٽ‬õ���8�� ������; ���� ��.
2. �4� ������ ��‫�� ���� �׳‬ȭ�ߴ��� �� ߴ � �� ������
�����‫�ؼ‬.
3. ��� �ϳ��� ��v�ϰ� ������ �ϳ��� f���‫� ���ؼ‬ȵȴ�.
4. �11 : �‫�׵‬ð� ���� ������ �‫�� �ڿ‬ǥ� � � ‫�� �� �ؼ‬d; �Ƶ鿡� � .

EXERCISE 10
1.(a) They parted - never to see each other again.
(b) In the three centuries since 1650, the human inhabitants of the globe have
increased fivefold - to reach a total of about 2.5 billions in 1950.
(c) U.S. support for Mubarak must strike a careful balance - so as not to cast
him as little more than a U.S. puppet, imperiling his fledgling hold on his
country.
(N.B.) strike a balance (between X and Y): (X�� Y ����
�) ����; ��
��.
cast: to project; portray; depict �����ϴ�
puppet: �5��.
fledgling: ��f �ܿ�������� �� , ��f �� ��ǰ� �ִ�.
hold: control ����, ���
(d) Each year thousands of books are published, many of them to attract
momentary attention - only to disappear gradually from the shelves and the minds
of readers - a few to remain in circulation as long as books are read. Even
among "best sellers" only a few have a lasting value or interest.Those few are
the books that make literature, that make culture. They are original,
informative, sound and irreplaceable.
(N.B.) lasting: enduring �������
informative: educational; instructive /����
(e) As we look back, we can indeed see the notion of individual rights
broadening out - to include more and more of the people, until it came at length
to be extended to them all. It was the great message of the French Revolution to
proclaim the doctrine of the "rights of man" as applying to all men simply
because they are men, and not only to some men because of some special
superiority or prestige.
(N.B.) notion: an idea.
at length: after a long time; at last; finally.
proclaim: to declare �����ϴ�
apply to: ...�� ���Ǵ�.
prestige: renown ��,'��

Life in this electronic age is tough on kids. Two sixth-graders felt the call
of the fishing pole one afternoon, and took along their walkie-talkies. Word of
this got to the teacher, who borrowed a walkie-talkie from another student. The
teacher tuned in and, sure enough, heard the truants, whereupon he promptly cut
in to suggest that they appear in the classroom posthaste. Which they did.

2. (a) When I was a junior, I quit college - to the great disappointment of my


parents.
(b) Roman magistrates accused the early Christians of stressing the individual
conscience - to the detriment of the state worship.
(N.B.) magistrate : ġ�Ȱ�.
accuse ...of...: ...�� ...��� ��/�� ����ϴ�(���ϴ�).
stress: to emphasize; underline ��v�ϴ�
detriment: damage; harm �ջ�, ��
state worship: ��������
(c) Reagan resumed the routine of the Presidency by slow degrees, venturing
down to his desk for the first time after the surgery and appearing at a Cabinet
meeting - to a long standing ovation.
(N.B.) resume: to begin again or go on with again after interruption
�‫����� �ٽ‬ϴ�
venture down to:
��  ���� ...�� �ɴ�(�ɾƼ� ��; ����) sit down to.
standing ovation: �⸳�‫�ڼ‬
(d) This week he will announce, - to the surprise of no one, that he hopes to
remain the 105th mayor of New York for four more years (read eight).
3. If you are not content with the merchandise, you may return it - for an
exchange or a refund.
4. This book contains a totally new outlook - which combines the wisdom of the
past with scientific knowledge to solve the problems of the present.
5. (a) I had been puzzling over the problem for over an hour - without any
result, - when all at once the solution flashed across my mind.
(N.B.) puzzle over:
...�� ���‫��� ����� �ؼ‬ϴ�.
all at once: all of a sudden; suddenly ���‫�ڱ‬

Answering an ad for employment, a young student arrived early for an


interview, but found several applicants ahead of him. He wrote a quick note and
handed it to the receptionist, telling her it was important that her boss
receive the note at once. She smiled as she read it, then took it to the boss.
"Dear Sir," the note read. "I am tenth in line. Please don't make any decision
until you've interviewed me."
He got job.

(b) The mark of a first-rate intelligence, as F. Scott Fitzgerald said, is the


capacity to entertain two contradictory propositions in one mind simultaneously
- without going crazy.
(N.B.) entertain: to have in mind.
contradictory: conflicting; inconsistent ���Ǵ�
simultaneously: at the same time; concurrently
6. (a) Experience is a revelation - in the light of which we renounce our
errors of youth - for those of age.
(b) The Democrats reject Reagan's three year, across the board slash in income
tax rates - in favor of a much narrower one year reduction
(N.B.) renounce: to give up ���. ����ϴ�
across-the-board: �������, �Ѱ�����.
slash: a steep reduction �������� �谨
(c) Lubbock, dry and bleak, is 318 miles from Dallas on the flat cap rock of
west Texas. The population is 180,000, and 22,000 are Texas Tech students. John
Hinckley Jr. was one of them, a business major, as of September 1973. He never
finished, but over the next seven years Hinckley attended classes more than half
the time. By 1977 he had dropped business - in favor of liberal arts and earned
at least a B average - good enough to be on the dean's list. But once away from
home, he made not even a token effort to fashion a social life. Says a Texas
Tech spokesman: "We can't find a single university recognized activity he
participated in."
(N.B.) bleak: not cheerful; gloomy; dreary; dismal =����
flat:smooth ������
cap: top.
drop: to give up.
liberal arts: ������.
token: slight �‫��� ڰټ‬
fashion: to make.
spokesman: �뿡캸뺯 .��
*as of: at or on (a specific time or date) - The regulation takes effect as of
March 1.

A party of scholars were going out one day in the holidays to catch rabbits.
Among them was one who was singularly devoid of the quality known as common
sense, so the others asked him not to talk for fear he should scare the rabbits.
But he had no sooner caught sight of a number of rabbits than he called out:
"Ecce multi cumiculi," which in English means," Behold many rabbits." Of course
the rabbits ran off to their holes, and the sportsmen were disappointed. They
scolded their noisy friend, but he innocently answered, "Whoever would have
thought that rabbits could understand Latin?"

7. (a) The prince of Wales did better than most other anglers this year when
he landed one salmon in only five days of fishing. On average, fishermen have
had to spend 18 days in their waterproof wading gear this year / before catching
a single salmon.
(N.B.) land: to catch.
salmon: ���� (��=�� �����϶�-"l": ��=��).
on average: �����8��.
wading gear: ���� �� �� �Űų� �Դ� ���.
(b) A heroin dealer can be fined $50,000 and sentenced to up to 30 years in
prison, with a minimum confinement of six years / before becoming eligible for
parole. The same person trafficking in methaqualone faces a maximum of ten years
in prison, a $30,000 fine and four years before parole. The Drug Enforcement
Administration wants to equalize the penalties for heroin and methaqualone
dealing.
(N.B.) fine: ���; ���ϴ�.
sentence: �����ϴ�.
up to = a maximum of (�ְ�).
confinement: imprisonment (���).
‫ڰ‬
eligible: legally qualified ����8�� �‫�ִ� ���ڰ‬
parole: �����.
traffic in:
...; �ŷ��ϴ� (Ư�� �ҹ����� �ŷ��� ~���ϴ�) < deal in (...;
�ŷ��ϴ�)
(c) The tales of videomania are universal. In downtown Rio, a young messenger
arrives punctually every day a few minutes before the playtime arcade opens,
then gets in half an hour / before reporting for work: he spends more than a forth
of his $98-a-month salary for the privilege. In Bogota,Columbian youngsters who
peddle contraband cigarettes on the street wind up putting much
of their earnings into the games. Australian fans join clubs / that supply
newsletters and sponsor social gatherings / where scores and performances are
compared.
(N.B.) get in = to put in
� (����ü���� ���� ����� ǥ��8�� "�� �ð� ����� �"
Ѵ� ��: "�� �ð� ���� �� �
����; �ϴ�"�� ��; ���´�).
report for work: ���忡 ����ϴ�.
peddle: to carry from place to place and offer for sale
...; ���� ���ƴ ‫ٴ‬ϸ 鼭 �ȴ�.
contraband: forbidden by law to be imported or exported; smuggled ��
While rushing to a meeting after I had finished teaching for the day, I eased
my car past a stop sign. Immediately I saw a police car's flashing red light
behind me, and I pulled over to the curb. I was relieved to recognize the young
police officer as a former English student of mine.
My relief turned to dismay when he handed me a ticket anyway. "Sorry, Mrs.
Gaines," he said. "That sign was a period, not a comma."
8. (a) Japan is skilled in the mass production of high-quality goods and has
become a formidable competitor in established industries like memory chips and
home electronics. But Japan encourages corporate development / at the expense of
individual initiative.
(N.B.) formidable: dreadful (������)
hard to handle or overcome
�‫�ٷ‬ų� �‫��غ‬ϱ� ���.
chip: a semiconductor body in which an integrated circuit is formed or is to
be formed.
����ȸ�ΰ� ��Ǿ� �ְų� ��� �‫�ݵ‬ü ��ü
corporate: ȸ�� , ���ü.
initiative: â�Ƿ�
(b) Saxon became convinced that most introductory algebra texts used in high
schools are unclear and confusing, often hindering students from learning the
rudiments. He attributed the frightening decline in mathematics test scores
across the country to abstruse textbooks written in the name of the New Math by
"arrogantly inept" mathematicians who do not teach beginners. Like many other
classroom algebra teachers, he found that such textbooks emphasize mathematical
theory / at the expense of practice and are usually written in baffling jargon.
Emphasis is placed on rapid exposure to many "topics," or procedures. Before
students can master one topic, explains Saxon, they must move on to a new one.
The great sin, he insists, is that the books teach abstract theory first and
skills second - the reverse of the order in which children normally learn.
(N.B.) hinder: to prevent; stop.00
rudiments: first principles, elements, or fundamentals
���� �� ����
attribute ... to ...:
...�� ����; ...�� ������.
abstruse: hard to understand; recondite.
inept: unfit (�������� ��:) : inefficient.
baffle: to confuse; puzzle; confound
��Ȳ�� �ϴ�
jargon:
����(�8�� ������� �‫)���� �� ڰټ‬.
place emphasis on = to emphasize; stress (��v�ϴ�)
(c) The second big immediate decision, which could well be announced
simultaneously with or even before the MX program, might seem easier, since its
cost is less and it entails no environmental problems. But it is four months
overdue. Weinberger initially expected to reveal in March what sort of
intercontinental manned bomber the U.S. would build to replace its aging fleet
of 316 B-52s, whose mission it is to retaliate against the U.S.S.R. if a nuclear
strike is ever mounted. But here the Secretary ran into a dilemma that bedevils
all such programs: whether to wait for the development of hot new technology, at
the price of forgoing a weapon that could be used quickly, or order arms that
could be put into production rapidly, at the cost of settling for something less
effective than a later one could be.
(N.B.) entail: to cause as a necessary consequence
�ʿ����� ���� �ʷ��ϴ�
involve. overdue: delayed in arrival or occurrence beyond the time set
or anticipated
d��s�ų� ��d�� �ð����� ���
retaliate: �����ϴ�.
mount a nuclear strike: �‫���� ;��� ����ٹ‬.
bedevil: to plague diabolically �Ǹ�ó�� �������
harass; spoil ��ġ��
hot (slang): excellent; good. forgo: to give up; abandon; relinquish
����ϴ�
settle for: to accept or agree to (something less than the best, or than hoped
for).

Put to the Blush


A couple had just moved into a new home. As they were preparing for bed one
night, their cat, Mister, started begging to go out. The couple hesitated
because they wondered if the cat had become familiar with the new surroundings
yet. But the cat kept insisting, and the couple finally decided to let him go.
When the wife awoke at daybreak she remembered that Mister was still out, so
she crept out of bed and tiptoed to the front door. "Mister, Mister," she called
softly. No cat. She stepped outside and called louder, "Mister! Don't you want
to come in?" That time the cat heard her - and so did a jogger running in front
of her house. The cat streaked inside and the jogger called back, "No, thank
you, ma'am - not this morning."

2. d��������ġ : ����
����: �‫� ��� ���־‬տ� �4� ��ġ���4� �‫�� �ݰ� �ڿ‬ġ����8�� ���еǰ�, ��
����: �� ��� ����
� ������ġ(comma, of, etc.)�� �ִ� �Ͱ� ��� ��8��
���������.
1. (a) A congenial sort of person, my father has not made an enemy in his
life.
(b) My father, (who is) a congenial sort of person, has not made an enemy in
his life.
2. (a) Goethe the poet is far better known than Goethe the scientist.
(b) To get ahead in the world, that was extremely difficult in those days.
(c) They have done a wonderful job of restoration.
(d) Zoo animals feel safe because of the conviction that their cages are
solid.
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) ��d�� ~���� �����
ñ ������, �ƹ������ �ϻ�� ��; ��
��� ������ ��8��
�.
(b) = (a)
(����) ���� 1���� "a congenial sort of person" ; ������� ‫ ���� ���ݱ‬:�‫���ڵ‬
������ ó���� ����, �‫�װ‬: �߸���. �ֳ��ϸ� �� ��:, ������ ��� ����
��/�� �ǹǷ�, �λ��� (as he is a congenial sort of person")�� �‫پ‬ ������
����
�� ���� ���� Ÿ���ϱ� ������
�.
2. (a) ���‫״� �����ڷ‬μ����8���� �‫�ٴ‬μ� �ξ� �� �� �˷�n �ִ�.
(b) �⼼�ϴ� ��, �‫���� ����� ����� �� ���װ‬.
(c) �‫ �����۾‬: � ‫� ;�׵‬ſ� �� �� ��Ҵ�.
(d) �������� �������� ����; ����� �Ǵ� ��: �츮�� ưư�ϴٰ� �ϱ�
�������.
Once, at a story conference, Charlie Chaplin, an unpredictable eccentric, kept
slapping at a fly buzzing around his head. Calling for a swatter, he swung
several times but missed. At last, the offender settled down before him, and
Chaplin lifted the swatter for the death blow. He paused, looked carefully at
the fly and lowered the swatter. "Why didn't you swat him?" he was asked.
Shrugging typically, Chaplin said, "It wasn't the same fly."

EXERCISE 11
1. A political and economic conservative, he displayed a strong social
conscience that showed itself in deeds rather than words.
2. The author of geology book for junior high school students, Golden is
currently writing one on astronomy for the same audience.
(N.B.) one = a book. the same audience = junior high school students
3. Russia sidestepped the issue of diplomatic recognition for East Germany.
4. She arrived in Korea some three years ago with the express purpose of
taking care of Korean War orphans.
(N.B.) some = about.
express (adj.) = special; specific
5. An extremely important process, photosynthesis is the ultimate source of
food for almost all organisms on earth.
6. A bundle of past struggles, future aspirations and present tensions, she is
never in true repose. (careful: think of logical relationship!)
7. This new educational system emphasizes the fact that there is nothing like
seeing for oneself. That is, knowledge gained by actual experience is understood
the best and is remembered the longest.
(����) �ǹ� � ӿ�d �ǹǷ� �‫� ��ݵ‬ű⼭ ã�ƾ� �Ѵ�.
� ���� � ���
8. Saroyan was a literary nonconformist who brought to his freewheeling "folk
tales" an unruly vitality, a rosy optimism and an exuberant defiance of artistic
and commercial conventions. The son of Armenian immigrants, he quit school to
write at 15 and by 26 had declared himself a genius.
9. Agatha Christie, the famous mystery writer, was asked how she liked being
married to an archaeologist.
"An archaeologist is the best husband any woman can have," she replied. "The
older she gets, the more interest he has in her."

3. d��������ġ : �ο�����
�տ� ���� ���� �Ϻ� �Ǵ� ��θ� �‫ ���� �ٸ‬Ǯ���� �ִ� ��; '�ο�����'
(elaboration)��
�� �θ���� � Ѵ�.
(1) �κкο�
(a) There are two forms or aspects of science.
(b) The genes, or units of heredity, are composed of nucleic acid.
(c) Suddenly he feels free - the freedom that rises out of total despair.
(2) ��ü�ο�
(a) He completed the task in a week, (which was) a remarkable achievement.
(b) He saved the little girl from drowning at the cost of his life - (which
was) a heroic act.
(�ǹ�) 1. (a) ���п��� �� ���� ���� �Ǵ� ����� �ִ�.
(b) /������, �� /���� ��'�� �8�‫���� ��ٻ‬n �ִ�.
����:��� ���� b�ӻ� or�� ��=��� �‫ �ٸ��ٴ‬a�� �����϶�.
cf. Which do you like better, beer or wine?
(c) ���3� ��/�� �‫ ���ڱ� �״‬- ������� (������) ����� �Ͼ�� �  �
��/��.
2. (a) �‫�� �� �״‬f�� 1���Ͽ� �����ƴµ�, �‫�װ‬: ���� ����� ���.
(b) �‫� �� �״‬ �ҳ ฦ �ͻ ����� �ʰ � �ְ
�� �‫� ;��� ���ڽڽ‬Ҿ�µ�, �‫�װ‬:
���
�������� �ൿ����.
(����) �ο���ġ�δ� or, comma, dash, that is (to say), which-clause �Ǵ� '��
which-clause' ���� �ִ�.
�Ƴ��� ���
Charlie, I am warning you against your hours. The night before last, you came
home yesterday. Last night, you came home today. This evening, if you come home
tomorrow, I won't be here.

EXERCISE 12
1. Conquering sickness and poverty, Madame Curie made one of the most
magnificent discoveries of all time, the discovery of radium.
2. Nearly all societies at nearly all times had a leisure class, a class of
persons who were exempt from toil.
3. He is a storybook example of the typical American businessman, a man who is
willing to take the big risk to get the big reward.
4. Earnest hemingway is a major writer; that is one who has managed to get
into his work the whole central experience of his time.
5. I think they are men with a rare degree of prudence, wisdom, and compassion
-qualities that are much needed now.
6. A friend is going through an identity crisis and an energy crisis at the
same time. He doesn't know who he is, and he's too tired to find out.
7. The immediate goal of the European "peace" movement is to reverse a 1979
NATO decision to deploy a new generation of U.S. built nuclear missiles starting
in late 1983. But some of the movement's leaders are already arguing that the
campaign should not cease until nuclear weapons are banned from the entire
continent, a condition that would leave the Western European countries
vulnerable to the overwhelming preponderance of the Soviet Union in conventional
arms. The driving force of the movement is a feeling that Europeans have lost
control of their future, that they could be incinerated in a war between the
superpowers. In West Germany, the starkest of the protest slogans hits closest
to the gut of the matter: ICH HABE ANGST (I am afraid). It is a feeling being
articulated across Europe by a frightened young generation, and by its elders
too.
(N.B.) vulnerable: open to attack.
conventional arms: �緡������ .
the gut of the matter = the heart of the matter
(��f�� �‫)�ٽ‬
8. Poland tottered on the verge of total economic collapse. Not since the
disaster of Germany's Weimar Republic in the 1930's had a modern industrial
state faced a peacetime economic failure of such catastrophic dimensions. As the
economy faltered, the shortages of food, clothing and other basic necessities
made queuing an increasingly exhausting and frustrating way of life, an ordeal
made all the more cruel by the onset of an unusually harsh Polish winter.
9. Perhaps the saddest dilemma facing South Florida is the plight of the
refugees from Haiti. Law enforcement officials pick up about 500 Haitians a
month on Florida's beaches, but probably just as many slip in without getting
caught. The 600 mile journey from Haiti is often arduous, a measure of how
desperately Haitians want to leave their country. Many sell all their
possessions and hire professional smugglers, who often starve them, beat them,
or even dump them overboard. Others pull their money to buy a makeshift boat and
then hire a local fisherman, who may know little about navigation, to bring them
to America. The trip can easily end in tragedy, as happened when a rickety
30-ft. sailboat carrying 63 Haitians was swamped in the Florida surf last month,
claiming the lives of 33.
(N.B.) pick up: catch; arrest.
as many = about 500 Haitians.
slip in: ��¦ ���4�(����).
arduous: laborious; onerous; strenuous.
a measure of = which shows. dump overboard:
�� ��8�� ��n���.
end in: ...�� ������.
claim: take ��� Ѵ�
10. This year West Germany faces the prospect of a 1.5% decrease in its gross
national product (nearly $825 billion in 1980). Unemployment is predicted to
climb from 1.2 million now to 1.4 million by the end of 1981. Inflation is
edging toward 6%, much below the Community average but enough to stir memories
of the hyperinflation that tore the Weimar Republic apart. The crunch has, among
other repercussions, held 1981 increases in defense spending to less than 3% in
real terms, a retrenchment that brought strong U.S. criticism.
(N.B.) the Community = the European Community.
crunch: an economic squeeze ��f����
repercussion: a far-reaching and unexpected effect.
in real terms: ���� ��鿡� �
retrenchment: a reduction of expenses �����
11. In essence, Reagan aims to treat the causes, not the symptoms, of nuclear
proliferation. He believes that nations wanting nuclear weapons badly enough
will find the means to get them; that the best deterrent is to alleviate that
desire, through easing regional tensions and supplying conventional military aid.
At the same time, Reagan plans to increase exports of U.S. nuclear technology to
nations pursuing peaceful nuclear energy programs, a plan that will probably do
little to relieve America's perceived complicity - if not make matters worse.
(N.B.) nuclear proliferation: �‫ �����ٹ‬Ȯ��.
conventional military aid: �緡������� v.
america's perceived complicity:
�‫��� ������� �ٸ‬ϰ� �ִ� � � ��
��� ���‫ٹ‬о����� �� ��� ���(��)
12. One Wall Street adage has it that if a person has not made his first
million dollars by the time he is 30, he is never going to make it. In 1776 Adam
Smith wrote that it was young people who had "the contempt of risk and the
presumptuous hope of success," precisely the skills needed to found new
businesses. Indeed, a large number of entrepreneurs have achieved success at a
very early age. One of many examples: William Gates, 26, dropped out of Harvard
in 1975 during sophomore year to form Microsoft, which makes software for
personal computers. Its 1981 sales: $15 million.
(N.B.) adage: an old saying.
One Wall Street adage has it that ... = According to one Wall Street adage,
.... Presumptuous: too bold or forward; overconfident
13. Each year, thousands of Americans die from fires. In too many of the
cases, death occurs because so much skin is burned away that vital body
functions are disrupted. Essential fluids ooze out, and natural defenses are too
weakened to fight off bacterial infection. To prevent these complications,
doctors try to cover burn sites with skin grafts from undamaged portions of the
patient's body, but often there is too little skin left and they have to resort
to using skin from pigs or cadavers. Being foreign tissue, these grafts are
usually rejected in three to 25 days. The ideal solution would be artificial
skin, a goal that has eluded scientists. But last week a team of Boston
researchers announced they had a successful skin substitute made from a
startling mixture of ingredients: cowhide, shark cartilage and plastic.
(N.B) ooze out : to flow or leak out slowly.
fight off : �ο� ����ġ��.
resort to : to turn to.
elude : to escape from.
cf. I remember his face very well, but his name eludes me for the moment (=I
can't remember his name).
* ���� ���忡���� ���� "startling"�� �����϶�.
14. An estimated 25 million Americans have dvslexia, a condition that has been
detectable for years by a battery of tests. Dyslectics, who are often lefthanded
or ambidextrous, tend to reverse letters (b for d), twist words (was for saw),
confuse ```word order (please up hurry), subtract from left to right, or
have difficulty
with sequential thinking. Despite these problems, they may be intellectually
brilliant, with oral skills so keen they are able to bluff their way through
early grades. Dyslectics can become high achievers like Edison, Einstein,
General Patton, Nelson Rockefeller and Bruce Jenner. But they are often
misdiagnosed as retarded or emotionally disturbed.
(N.B.) dyslexia: impairment of the ability to read, often as the result of
genetic defect or brain injury �ұ� ���
battery: set; series; array.
sequential thinking: �迭��� ���� ��n������ ���
bluff their way through early grades:
����� �����; �‫��� �ؼ‬г�; ���ij�����.
retarded = mentally retarded d����8�� ��0�� ��:
15. He listened to the opinions of the older people, and seemed to have
moderate political views, a rare thing for a young man.
16. The Polish experiment showed that a Communist government can be forced to
make some reforms, but that it cannot give up a substantive measure of control
without the fear of losing it all. Solidarity's hope that a totalitarian Marxist
system could be made accountable to society proved to be an illusion, evidence
that a Communist society cannot tolerate freedom as it is known in the West.
Walesa and his movement had made a travesty of Communism's pretensions in the
eyes of the world. An authentic proletarian revolution had risen, just as Marx
had predicted, only to be put down by the guns of the oppressor class: the
Communists themselves. However Solidarity's revolution may ultimately run its
course, the movement brought the heady taste of a new life to the Poles. That
memory will die hard, if at all. Nor will the world forget the lessons in
courage displayed by the millions of Polish workers who were inspired by Lech
Walesa.
(N.B.) substantive: substantial; considerable (�����).
measure: amount.
accountable: responsible �; ���
make a travesty of:
...; dz���ϴ �, dz����8 �� �ִ�. ����
authentic: genuine; real.
put down: to suppress ����ϴ�
subdue; crush.
oppress: to keep down by the cruel or unjust use of power or authority
����ϴ�
heady: intoxicating ���ϰ� �����
exciting �ų���
die hard:
�� ���� (�������) �ʴ�.
evidence = which shows

A minister passed along to a beginning preacher a trick he used when he saw


the congregation nodding a bit. "I suddenly say to them, 'Last night I held
another man's wife in my arms.' When everyone sits up, shocked, I continue, 'It
was my own dear mother.'"
The young preacher thought he'd try it. The next Sunday when most members of
his congregation were drowsing, he said in a loud voice, "You know, last night I
held another man's wife in my arms." Stunned, the congregation sat bolt upright
and stared, whereupon the preacher stammered, "Oh, dear - I've forgotten who she
was."

Art Depreciation
On a painting trip, a friend and I were crossing a field to get a better look
at a decaying barn. As we picked our way through the weeds, Marty stumbled over
an old bucket. Dented, misshapen, with a rusted-out bottom, it was hardly a
thing of beauty. But Marty was delighted. "That's a bucket with character," she
said. "Can't you just see it as a still life?"
The farmer next door had come out and was eyeing us curiously. Marty asked if
it was all right to take the bucket home. "I want to paint it," she explained.
"Lady," he said, "you think that's gonna help it?"

�������2

4. d��������ġ : ����
����� ~����; �ε��ϴ� ��~�� Ư���� b�ӻ�� b�ӻ� ���ǰ� �Բ� ���ÿ�
����, ���� �Ǵ� �λ� �븩; � Ѵ�.
1. (a) Sailors who are superstitious will not embark on Friday. f���� ���
= Superstitious sailors will not embark on Friday.
(b) Sailors, who are superstitious, will not embark on Friday. ��f���� ���
= Sailors, as they are superstitious, will not embark on Friday.
2. (a) This is the house (that) he built.
(b) He changed his mind, which made me angry. �����=���� ���
3. (a) I gave him what I had. (= that which)
(b) I gave him what money I had. (= the money that)
4. (a) He is a walking dictionary. ��d���� ���
(b) He is what you call a walking dictionary. �������� ���
(�ǹ�)
1. (a) ��
�; �ϴ� �����: �‫��ݿ‬Ͽ� �踦 Ÿ�p� ���� �ʴ´�.
(b)�����:, ���; �ϱ� ������, �‫��ݿ‬Ͽ� �踦 Ÿ�p� ���� �ʴ´�.
(����) : ��f���� ����� �������� �ǹ�
� ������� ������ ��� �ӿ���
ã�ƾ� �Ѵ�.
2. (a) ��
��� �‫�� �װ‬: �����.
(b)�‫���� �װ‬ � .�‫�ٲپ‬ ;�� ���‫ ���� ���״� �ڽڽ‬ȭ���� ������.
(����) ���� ��ü�� ��; �� �ִ� ����� ��f���� ����� which���� �.
3. (a) ���� �‫��� ���� ���� ��; �־‬��.
(b) ���� �‫��� ���� ���� ��; �־‬��.
4. (a) �‫���� �״‬ ִ � �������.
(b) �‫���� ������ �״‬ ִ � �������� �θ��� �� ����� �.
Marriage is a book of which the first chapter is written in poetry and the
remaining chapters in prose. - B.Nichols
Towering genius disdains a beaten path. It seeks regions hitherto unexplored.
- Abraham Lincoln

EXERCISE 13
1. (a) I said nothing that made him angry.
(b) I said nothing, which made him angry.
2. A man who can stick to nothing is sure to fail, no matter what he may
undertake.
3. I am that which was, which is, and which shall be.
4. Effective knowledge is that which includes knowledge of the limitations of
one's knowledge.
5. A woman with true charm is one who can make a youth feel mature, an old man
youthful, and a middle-aged man completely sure of himself.
6. Robots are not a panacea for all the ills that industry is heir to.
7. Do not trust such men as praise you to your face.
8. Kant made a powerful and ineffaceable impression upon me, the like of which
I never afterwards experienced in any of my philosophical reading.
9. One of the major embarrassments to which lecturers are submitted is the
audience's looking at their watches. I once asked John Erskine if he found the
ordeal particularly trying.
"No," he replied, "not until they start shaking them!"
(N.B.) be submitted to - be subject to.
trying: that tries one's patience; annoying; exasperating; irksome
10. Love is creative, greatly enriching the lives of both the receiver and the
giver. It is the only thing in the world of which one cannot give anyone too
much. Genuine love has firmness and discipline for which there can be no
substitute; it can never harm or inhibit or spoil; it can only benefit.
(N.B.) You cannot be too careful of your health.
= The more careful of your health, the better it is.
11. It is possible that science may in principle describe the structure and
actions of man as a part of physical nature. It is clear, however, that man is
not thus completely accounted for. Left wholly out of consideration is the realm
of ideas and idealism, of understanding and emotion, that gives life its human
significance.
(N.B.) describe = account for; explain.
physical nature = physical world.
realm: area; sphere
12. The teachers at our Sunday school took turns giving the lesson. Usually
they'd round it off with, "Now, children, the moral of this story is..."
One day, Miss Brown, the teacher whose turn it was, made the story
particularly exciting, and the youngsters were delighted. One boy asked if Miss
Brown might not give the lesson more often. "We like her very much," he
explained, "because she hasn't any morals."
(N.B.) take turns...ing: ��ʷ�(���ư��鼭, �����)...�ϴ�.
round off: finish; end
13. Dean Rusk, former secretary of state and now professor of international
law at the University of Georgia in Athens, is constantly called upon to give
interviews, and is accordingly well prepared. One day last spring, arriving
early at the university's studio, where a television show was to be taped, he
took his place on the set and reviewed his notes while the crew completed
preparations. The floor manager announced that they would begin in five minutes.
Rusk produced a compact from his pocket, took out a powder puff and applied it
to his bald head, which would otherwise reflect the TV lights. He then put the
compact away and announced he was ready to begin.
(N.B.) tape: record on magnetic tape ��ȭ�ϴ�
produce : take out ������
14. Many parts of the U.S. are experiencing what may become the worst winter
on record since 1870.
15. I liked him very much but I was not in any was what the world calls "in
love" with him.
16. A new encyclopedia is designed to shrink as man learns more.
Most encyclopedias require additions as new discoveries are made. But chapters
will have to be deleted from The Encyclopedia of Ignorance, a compendium of what
man does not know in the sciences, as discoveries are made - about how gravity
works, for example, or how plants produce flowers, or why people become addicted
to drugs and alcohol.
The book, recently published by Pergamon Press of New York, contains
contributions from 60 eminent scientists writing on what they do not understand
in their fields.
17. Possibly for the first time, a soccer match has been delayed by laughter.
Five thousand Athenian soccer fans, awaiting the start of an exhibition match
between a Greek team and a Chinese team last year, rose and stood in respectful
silence as what they took to be the Chinese national anthem reverberated from
the stadium's loudspeakers. The Chinese team on the field, observing all those
standing Greeks, also came to polite attention, assuming that the Greek anthem
was being played.
Then a lilting female voice rose above the unfamiliar music - to extol the
virtues of a local toothpaste.
(N.B.) an exhibition match: �ù���.
He took her to be a teacher.
�‫״� �׳‬ � ��� ��
�� ���ߴ�.
... take: suppose; presume.
come to attention: ����‫��� ���ڼ‬ϴ�.
18. In spite of the injury to his leg, Clark, at six, had no reluctance to
attend school. During his later preschool years he had been willing to spend
more and more time away from his mother. His parents had talked enthusiastically
of school, and Clark accepted it at their valuation. The teacher was form him an
extension of his parents, armed with the same powers of conferring pleasure
through approval and pain through criticism, and to Clark that pleasure or pain
was important. Clark participated in whatever way the teacher suggested. If the
group set out to make a big picture showing the fire department, Clark painted
his section diligently. If the group was talking about the visit to the
firehouse, Clark was properly attentive. Clark had what the teacher, Miss Baron,
thought of as good work habits. Left to himself, he kept busy for longer than
the others, who were all too prone to forget their work for play or chatter.
19. There is a question about he extent to which any one of us can be free of
a prejudiced view in the area of religion.
20. Behind the Polish military move loomed the shadow of the Kremlin. Indeed,
if the government of General Jaruzelski had not imposed the crackdown, the
Soviets certainly would have. The presence in Warsaw of high-ranking Soviet
officers, including Marshal Viktor Kulikov, even suggested a direct Soviet role
in planning what amounted to an invasion by proxy. For more than a year, the
Kremlin had made it clear that it would not indefinitely tolerate the
development of a union movement that could challenge a Communist government as
directly as Solidarrity had - a movement that was calling, in effect, for
government by consent of the governed.
(N.B.) loom: to appear or come into sight indistinctly, especially in a large,
portentous, or threatening form
Ư�� ũ�ų� �ұ��ϰų� '������ ���8�� ����ϰ� ��Ÿ���ų� �þ� ���4�
crackdown: an action taken to stop an unlawful or disapproved activity (�ܼ��).
amount to: to be equal to
...�� �‫����ٸ‬
proxy: �븮��.
make clear: ��� �����.
indefinitely: ������8��.
in effect: actually; virtually
��ǻ� ...�� �‫�����ٸ‬.
government by consent of the governed:
��������� ���ǿ� ���� dġ(��, ����dġ).

It's the Thought That Counts


It was the last day of our vacation, and my husband informed me that he was
going to get in a final game of golf. I had the tedious task of packing and
organizing for the return trip. To make matters worse, he asked me to delay
doing the laundry until after his game so that I could wash and pack his dirty
golf clothes.
As the day wore on, I became more and more impatient. I couldn't pack until I
did the wash, and I couldn't wash until he returned. I visualized an evening of
drudgery instead of enjoying the final hours with family and friends.
By the time he walked through the door, relatives had already gathered to say
good-by. They were shocked speechless when my first words to my husband were,
"Get your clothes off! I've been waiting all day."
(N.B.) get in , to put in: �����ϴ�.
tedious: tiresome; boring.
organize: to arrange.
delay + ...ing: ...�ϴ� ��; ����.
do the laundry: to do the wash(ing); wash.
wear on: to pass away gradually.
visualize: to imagine; envision �Ӹ���8�� �z���.
drudgery: hard, menial, or tiresome work.
get... off , take... off: ����

Weak Heart
An Irish story tells of the young man with a weak heart who inherited a
fortune in Ireland. the lawyer thought the priest would be the best bet to tell
him. "Don't you worry your head about it," said the priest. "I'll look in on the
lad and let him know."
At the cottage, the priest talked about one thing and another. "Pat, my boy,
if you were ever to come into money, BIG money, what would you do with most of
it?"
"Sure, Father, it's hard to say. I suppose I'd give most of it to you for the
church." Whereupon the priest fell dead.

5. ������ -> ���籸


ְ � ������+����'�� ����n�ִ� ������: ���� �‫�پ‬n�� ���籸���ȴ�.
'�
1. (a)Many of them hold opinions(that are) different from mine.
(b)The man(who is) talking to the teacher is John's father.
(c)The map(that was) made by them was not entirely wrong.
2. (a)He sent me a telegram saying(= which said) that he would be back soon.
cf. He went out, saying that he would be back soon.
(b)Art is an international language, appealing(= which appeals) directly to the
senses.
(�ǹ�) 1.(a)� � �‫׵‬� ��: ����: ���� �ǰ߰�� �‫�ִ� ���� �ٸ� ���ظ‬.
(b)����Կ��� ����Ͻô� ���� ���� �ƹ������
ô .
(c)�‫׵‬鿡 � ���������� ��� ����8�� ���� ��: �ƴϾ��.
(����)'�
ְ � ������+be����+����(����л� �Ǵ� ��źл�)'�� �� ��n�ִ�
������� ������� be���縦 ���� �� �ִ�.
2.(a)�‫´��� ;�� �� �� ������ �״‬µ�, �‫�װ‬: �� ���ƿ0 ‫������� �ڴٴ‬.
cf. �8�� �‫����� ��״‬鼭 �����0 ƿ ‫ ������� �ٲپ‬:���� ��).������ �ߴ���� �‫ڴ‬ٰ �
�� �� ��‫ �ٴ‬a�� �����϶�.)
(b)����: �ϳ��� ��f��μ� �츮�� ������ ��b��8�� ȣ���Ѵ�.
My neighbor and I, riding home from work on the bus, were discussing the high
cost
of home repairs. "In recent weeks alone," he exclaimed, "the TV man made two calls,
a
carpenter came to fix a leaky roof, an electrician was in to replace faulty wiring
- and
they all charged exorbitant fees. Any more calamities will wreck the budget!" We
got off
at our stop and were headed for our respective homes when my neighbor froze - there
was a plumber's van in his driveway. "Just for once," he said slowly,"I hope my
wife is
having an affair."

EXERCISE 14
1. A shoplifter caught stealing a ring in a jewelry store pleaded, "Please don't
call the police. I'll be glad to pay for it."
When the cashier presented him with the bill, he said, "That's a little more than
I'd
planned to spend. Could you show me something less expensive?"
(N.B.) shoplifter : a person who steals articles from a store during shopping
hours. be
caught ...ing : ...�ϴٰ� �������(��Ű��).
plead : to beg(��û�ϴ�)
2. Behind aluminum's versatility lie properties so diverse that they almost seem
to
belong to several different metals.
(N.B.) versatility : adaptability to many uses �������� �븦뵵뵵 �
��
� �����ִ� ��

property : attribute �Ӽ�


characteristic quality. diverse : varied �‫���پ‬
3. One summer, in almost all store and restaurant windows on the Massachusetts
island of Nantucket, large signs were posted prohibiting the entry of people with
bare
feet. There was, however, a noticeable exception. A small shop off the main street
boldly displayed the message "Bare Feet Welcome." The shop : the local sandal
maker.
(N.B.)post : to put up(����
�). displayed the message = posted the sign
4. Reading is not only a supplement to experience. Good reading is experience
itself.
The author who can write with power and insight and truth can make his perceptions
a part of your awareness of the world around you. Thus the person who deprives
himself
of the wisdom and understanding of great writers deprives himself of an invaluable
experience that can be gained in no other way.
Through books, you can listen to the best minds of your own time and of all time,
speaking on subjects of universal interest.
(N.B.)a supplement to : ...; �������ִ� ��. mind : a person having intelligence
or
regarded as an intellect.
5. Darwin, after going round the world, spent the whole of the rest of his life
in his
own house. Marx, after stirring up a few revolutions, decided to spend the
remainder
of his days in the British Museum. Altogether it will be found that a quiet life is
characteristic of great men and that their pleasures have not been of the sort that
would
look exciting to the outward eye. No great achievement is possible without
persistent
work, so absorbing and so difficult that little energy is left over for the more
strenuous kinds of amusement.
(N.B.) stir up : to incite or provoke �‫� �ڱ��ؼ‬Ͼ�� � ϴ� , �����ϴ�
the remainder = the rest �� ������
characteristic : typical ��������(�‫�� �ڿ‬ġ�� "of"�� �´‫ �ٴ‬a��
�����϶�.)
absorbing : taking all one's attention; very interesting; engrossing. strenuous :
requiring great energy ��: d��; �䱸�ϴ�
6. Italians survive in spite of a vast gap between them and their increasingly
weak
and ineffective governments. They survive in spite of a selfare system that is out
of
control, schools and social services that are in disarray and, perhaps worst of
all, a
bureaucracy so swollen and inept that it is mocked as lacci e laccioli, shackles
and
snares. Last November a series of powerful earthquakes struck southern Italy,
leveling and isolating entire villages, killing 3,000 people and leaving 300,000
homeless. Relief was rushed in, including $50 million in U.S. aid. So far, because
of
bureaucratic bungling, only $4.2 million of the U.S. funds have been spent to help
the victims. That is scarcely surprising, considering that survivors of earthquakes
that rocked the Sicilian province of Belice 13 years ago are still living in
temporary
housing.
(N.B.)disarray : disorder; confusion. inept : inefficient. bungling :
inefficiency.
rock : to shake; cause to tremble or vibrate. housing : houses

������� ���
Napoleon was one day searching for a book in his library, and at last discovered
it
on a shelf somewhat above his reach. One of the tallest men in the staff stepped
forward,
saying :
"Permit me, sir. I am higher than Your Majesty."
"You are longer," said the Emperor with a frown.
Quip-Witted
In 33 years of teaching, my husband has carried his lunch to school in quite an
assortment of used paper sacks, but one morning he hit a new low. The only bag that
I could find was as thin as parchment and decorated with silhouettes of Victorian
women.
As I handed it to him with apologies, he smiled and said, "That's okay, honey.
Baggers
can't be choosers."
A co-worker started wearing contact lenses that require distilled water for the
cleaning
process. She was shocked to discover the liquid costs nearly a dollar a gallon. "It
only
shows the truth of the old saying," she said grimly. "Distilled water runs steep."

6. d��������ġ : �л 籸
�л 籸��ũ�� �� ����� ��������� : ����(�Ǵ� �‫� )���غ‬븩; �ϴ� ��, �������� �‫پ‬
��
���� ��, �λ����� �‫پ‬ ������ ��, �� ��° ������ ����; �л 籸����Ÿ�� ��.
1. Feeling a little uncomfortable in a new suit, I arrived at the Head Office in
good time.
= I arrived at the Head Office in good time, feeling a little uncomfortable in a
new suit.
2. She received the message saying that Bill was missing.(= which said)
3. Other things being equal, the simplest explanation is the best.
(= If other things are equal)
= The simplest explanation is the best, other things being equal.
4. This train leaves here at 10, arriving at the next station at 10:30.
(= and arrives)
(�ǹ�) 1. �� �纹; �Ծ � ‫ � � � � � � ڰټ‬ϰ� �3� ä, ���� d���� �ð����� ����� ����

���翡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡ߴ� .
good : considerable ����� -> in a good while ����� �ð��� �� �‫�ڿ‬
2. � �; � � � � ‫׳‬µ
Ҵ �, �‫ �װ‬: ���� ���Ҹ���
�� ������
��.
3. �‫ �ٸ‬v�ǵ��� ���‫ �ٸ‬, ���� ������ ������ ���� ��: �����.
4. �� ����� �� ��; 10�ÿ� ������, 10�� �‫ ����� ���� = � � �ݿ‬Ѵ�.
(����) '�� �� ���� ~���� �л 籸 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 ù ��°�� �� ��° �л 籸鿡鿡 'ġ�� ��
��� ��
�ִ � .

Sign and Co-Sign


Every day at noontime I play video games at an arcade. This sign appeared one day
on
the machine: "A fool and his money are easily parted." This hurt my ego, so I
ripped off
the
offending notice and threw it away. There under the first sign was another:
"The truth
hurts,
doesn't it?"

EXERCISE 15
1. Living as we do in a money -oriented society, we naturally prize money too
much.
(N.B.) Living as we do -> As we do live. money-oriented : ����'��,
������������. prize : to set a value upon; value highly
2. (a) Given the opportunity, they might be able to make something better of
their lives.
(= If they were given...)
(b) Given their inexperience, they've done a good job.
(= Considering that they're inexperienced)
(N.B.) do a good job : ��; �� �ϴ�
3. (a) Who do you think you are, ordering me to do this and that?
(b) What do you think you're doing, telling me to shut up?
4. He lay with his eyes open, gazing at the morning light streaming in through
the
curtains.
(N.B.) stream in : �óy�ó�� �귯��鿡鿡鿡 ��
5. While trying to locate an item in the meticulously kept files of a co-worker
known
for his high opinion of himself, I came upon a large folder boldly labeled:
MISTAKES.
Consumed with curiosity, I opened it. The file was empty.
(N.B.) come upon = come across; discover by chance. consume: to absorb completely
������ ...�� ���; ������; engross
6. A new ad posted in our apartment house by a young boy announced that he would
wash a car for 50 cents. I promptly took advantage of his offer and, knowing that I
was
his first customer, gave him an extra quarter for a job well done. Upon passing his
sign
about ten minutes later, I was amused to see that it now read: "Car Wash 75 cents -
Experienced."
(N.B.) ad = advertisement ����
post : to put up �����, ����

take advantage of : to make use of ����ϴ�
quarter : one fourth of a dollar ; 25 cents
7. Each day in our small town the siren at the fire station blows at 6 p.m. One
evening
it sounded at 7:15 p.m. Concerned, a group of us townspeople gathered to see which
way
the fire trucks would go.
When they didn't leave the station, we asked what was going on,"There isn't any
fire,"
we were told. "the firemen are having a meeting and not enough of them showed up."
(N.B.) sounded = blew. Concerned: Worried. go on : to happen; take place. show up
: to
come; arrive; appear
8. one evening, my sister-in-law's family decided that they would fly the
American flag
every day instead of just on special days. The next morning they carried out
that decision.
Soon after the flag was placed in the bracket on the porch, there was a knock on
the
front
door. When my sister-in-law answered it, she found the mailman standing there.
Pointing
to the flag, he asked, "Why is the flag flying today?"
After listening to the explanation, the mailman walked away saying, "Thanks. I
just
wanted to make sure I wasn't working on my day off."
(N.B.) answer the door: (����~��� ��ũ �Ҹ��� ���)���� ��������. on one's day off:
�‫� �����ٹ� Ⱑڱ‬ʴ� ����(� ���� ���‫��ڽڽ‬Ͽ�)
9. Thoughout his long career as one of America's best-known novelists, Dos Passos
has remained true to his belief that a writer is an architect of history. Convinced
that
tomorrow's problems can best be solved by searching the past, he has dedicated his
life
to accurately portraying the sights and sounds of the world around him for
future generations
to see and understand. As a portrait of 20th-century America, Dos Passos' novels
are
unsurpassed.
(N.B.) convince : to persuade �����ϴ�,Ȯ�Ž�Ű��
dedicate : to devote ��ġ��
portray :
to describe; depict; delineate. for future generations to see and understand = so
that future
generations can see and understand them ��� ������� �‫���ֵ� �� ������ ���� ;�͵װ‬
10. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, addressing a group of educators in Washington
not
long age, outlined in some detail his own teaching experience, which includes a
short stint
as associate professor of political science at a Minnesota college. "I mention my
teaching
background," Humphrey said,"because, considering the precarious future of public
office,
I thought you might like to look me over."
(N.B.) address : to speak to. stint : an assigned period of work(�‫��ٹ‬ð�)
precarious :
uncertain; insecure. look over : to examine
11. As of all other things, one can have too much even of reading. Indulged in
to excess,
reading becomes a vice-a vice all the more dangerous for not being generally
recognized
as such. Yet excessive reading is the only form of self-indulgence which fails to
get
the blame
it deserves. The fact is surprising; for it is obvious to anyone who candidly
observes himself
and other people that excessive reading can devour a man's time, dissipate his
energies,
vitiate his thinking and distract his attention from reality.
(N.B.) indulge oneself in: ...�� Ž���ϴ� to excess: excessively for not being ...
= because
it is not ... dissipate: to waste or squander(�����ϴ�). vitiate: corrupt; weaken
morally; debase. distract: to draw away; divert

�˴�
When the morning's freshness has been replaced by the wariness of midday, when
the
leg muscles quiver under strain, the climb seems endless, and, suddenly, nothing
will go
quite as you wish - it is then that you must not stop!
-Dag hammarskjold
��ħ�� �ż����� �ѳ��� ������8�� �8���� :0�� ���‫ �ٸ‬,��‫� ��ٲ‬ĵ�Ÿ���, �ö� ����
�� ��: ����� �����, �‫ ���ڱ‬,����, �ƹ��͵� �8�� ���� ���� �‫ �� ����״‬- �� ����
�� �‫״‬븦밡밡�����‫ !�϶���� �� �� ���ؼ‬- �� �ϸ�����
Prayer for bad times
Dear God: Help me be a good sport in this game of life. I don't ask for an easy
place in
the lineup. Put me anywhere you need me. I only ask that I can give you 100 percent
of
everything I have. If all the hard drives seem to come my way, I thank you for the
compliment. Help me remember that you never send a player more trouble than he can
handle.
And, help me, Lord, to accept the bad breaks as part of the game. May I always
play
on the square, no matter what the others do. Help me study the Book so I'll know
the
rules.
Finally, God, if the natural turn of events goes against em and I'm benched for
sickness
or old age, help me to accept that as part of the game, too. Keep me from
whimpering
that I was framed or that I got a raw deal. And when I finish the final inning, I
ask for
no laurels. All I want is to believe in my heart that I played as well as I could
and that
I didn't let you down.

3. ��v�� ���� : b����ġ��� ����λ�


1. �� ����
��κ��� ��ġ�籸鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡�ּ� ������ ǥ�����¶�� �� �� �ִ�. ���Ƿ� �� �
��ġ�籸鿡鿡 鿡ε��ϴ� ��ġ��� b�ӻ 簡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡‫ ������ �ؼ‬ǰ���� �� �� �ִ�. �Ϲ�
��ġ��� �����‫�ؼ‬, ��� ��ġ�縦 ���‫' �ڴ‬b����ġ��'��� �θ���.
1. (a) He failed again. I got disappointed.
(b) He failed again, so I got disappointed.
(c) He failed again, to my disappointment.
2. (a) The envelope was yellow. It was old.
(b) The envelope was yellow because it was old.
(c) The envelope was yellow with age.
3. (a) He is heavy. He is a small boy.
(b) He is heavy though he is a small boy
(c) He is heavy for a small boy
4. (a) He fell in love with her. He first saw her.
(b) He fell in love with her when he first saw her.
(c) He fell in love with her at first sight.
5. (a) He went there alone. I warned him not to.
(b) He went there alone though I warned him not to.
(c) He went there alone despite my warning.
(�ǹ�) 1. �‫� �װ‬Ǵ ‫� ���� �ٽ� �����ؼ‬Ǹ��ߴ�.
2. �� ����� �7� ��� ������ ����Ǿ� �‫��־‬.
3. �‫� �״‬ ������ ���� �.
4. � ‫״� �׳‬ฦ ó= ����; ���� �‫�� ��� ��׳‬s��.
5. � ����� �‫ ������� ����� ���״‬ȥ�‫� �ڼ‬ű � ��� .

2. ������ ���(��v�� d��)


��κ��� b�ӻ 翡�������� ���; �ο��ִ� '�ǹ�'�� ��Ÿ������(����
���, because���� '��/'�� �巯鿡鿡 �ִ�). b����ġ�翡鿡鿡 鿡� �ǹǹ � ��Ÿ��
���� ��8�Ƿ� ���� �ӿ��� �츮鿡鿡 鿡‫ ;�װ‬ã�Ƴ��� �Ѵ�.
1. (a) He is getting the worse for drinking.
(He is getting the worse + He drinks)
-> He is getting the worse because he drinks.
(b) I felt none the better for the medicine.
(I felt none the better + I took the medicine)
I felt none the better though I took the medicine.
(c) He is clever for a child.
(He is clever + He is a child)
-> He is clever though he is a child.
2. (a) A wise man grows wiser with age.
(A wise man grows wiser + He grows older)
-> A wise man grows wiser as he grows older.
(b) He came to see me with a heavy rain falling.
(He came to see me + A heavy rain was falling)
-> He came to see me though a heavy rain was falling.
(c) What a lonely world it will be with her away!
(What a lonely world it will be + She goes away)
-> What a lonely world it will be if she goes away!
(�ǹ�) 1.(a)�‫��� ;�� �״‬ñ� ������ ��ŭ �� ��ȭ�ǰ� �ִ�.
(b)���� �� ��; �Ծ��� v�3� ������ �� �‫� ���� ���ݵ‬ʾҴ�.
(c)�‫� �״‬������ ����ϴ�.
2. (a)����� ���: ����� ����
� �� ��� ��������.
(b)�‫��� �� �״‬ϰ� ������ �‫� ������ ���� ���־‬Դ�.
(c)�‫׳‬ � ��� ‫���� �ٸ‬:   �ܷο����!
� ��
"What is the meaning of the insignia on your uniform?" asked the nosy woman.
"I'm a naval surgeon,"he replied.
"Goodness," she exclaimed, "how you doctors specialize hese days!"
EXERCISE 16
1.He seemed a little surprised at the question, which seemed to have nothing to
do
with the subject under discussion.
2.Diffident at first of my powers, I learnt in the end to have confidence.
3.You can't wait for symptoms to appear. Undetected and untreated, high blood
pressure
will get you. It's a sneaky, silent killer.
(N.B.) get : to kill
4.With all his staunch individualism, he was a man who knew how to cooperate.
5.Fires were not unusual in the old city of London, with its labyrinth of narrow
streets and tightly packed wooden houses.
6.It is an extraordinary thing that the Greeks, with their lively and penetrating
minds, never realized the possibilities of either microscope or telescope.
7.Even with the impressive advance in language-teaching methodology made in the
last
three decades, it is not difficult to find lessons that violate the principle of
"sentence
connectedness." In their emphasis on structure, the currently available
audiolingual
texts often
fail to pay sufficient attention to vocabulary and meaning with the result that
many
pattern-practice drills contain sentences that are only tenuously connected, if at
all.
(N.B.)the principle of "sentence connectedness" = the principle that sentences
must be
logically well connected. In their emphasis on structure:(�‫�͵װ‬:) ��v��
��v�ϴ6�(��v�ϴ� ������)
8.In the field of politics women play an important part also. Not many women have
been
elected to the national Congress, and though there have been women governors of
two states,
there has never been a woman president. Yet women are so important as voters that
no
candidate for office can afford not to be aware of their attitudes. Women did not
have
the right to vote until 1920, but woman suffrage did not, as many men predicted,
merely double
the total number of votes cast on each side of a question, with the women voting
the same
as their husbands. Instead, women began to study the issues and candidates and make
up
their own minds.
(N.B.)suffrage = right to vote. each side of a question: �‫�� ���־‬f�� ����
9.Between delicate sips of tea, he said education was a wonderful thing.
10.For its sermons to the contrary, the world loves a big spender.
11.He went to see the football game in spite of his doctor's advice to the
contrary.
12.Questions of education are frequently discussed as if they bore no relation to
the
social system in which and for which the education is carried on. This is one of
the
commonest reasons for the unsatisfactoriness of the answers.
(N.B.)bore no relation to = were not related to
13.Thus the evidence is accumulating that history may be about to repeat itself.
Businessmen in various countries are today making money by selling arms to the
communists, just as their predecessors did to aid Hitler up to the outbreak of
World
War II. Many people in the West who should know better are blindly assuming that
the East will not risk a big war. The same kind of miscalculation was made in the
late
1930's.
(N.B.)be about to (do) = to be going to (do). the East : �����
14. A woman boarded an airliner after having obviously spent too must time in the
bar at the terminal. The stewardess, against her better judgement, complied with
the
woman's request for a martini, but rejected a refill order minutes later. The
incensed
passenger demanded, "What's your name, girl? I'm gonna report you!" "My name?"
said the stewardess. "Of course, it's right here." She pointed to the nameplate on
her
uniform.
The passenger started at the nameplate. She blinked. She stared again. Then she
settled back in her seat in defeat. "Guess you're right," she muttered. "I can't
read
it."
(N.B.)board: to get on. comply with: to act in accordance with. incensed:
enraged.
gonna = goint to. *Everyone advised against the trip.

3. That-clause�� ��ȭ
That-clause�� �����‫�(��� �ؼ‬Ǵ� ��籸) �Ǵ� b����ġ�籸鿡鿡 �� ��. �� ����
���� �‫��� ���� ���� ���� �ٲ‬Ǵ� ��ġ��� "of"��� a�� �����϶�.
1.Her tone implied anger.
-> Her tone implied that she was angry.
2.Her face betrayed no sign of embarrassment.
-> Her face betrayed no sign that she was embarrassed.
3.He insisted on my having a try.
-> He insisted that I (should) have a try.
4.The prospect is for prices to continue rising faster than salaries.
-> The prospect is that prices will continue rising faster than salaries.
= It is expected that prices will continue rising faster than salaries.
= Prices are expected to continue rising faster than salaries.
(�ǹ�) 1. �‫�� ���׳‬Ҹ��� �‫׳‬ ȭ�� ���ִ‫� ;�� �ٴ‬Ͻ��� �‫��־‬.
2. �‫ ���׳‬  � ����� Ȳ�ϰ� �ִ‫ �ٴ‬ǥ� ð � � � � � � � � � � � �ʾҴ � .
betray : to show; indicate; reveal
3. �‫� �~״� ���� �� �� �غ‬Ѵ ٰ� �����ߴ�.
4. ������ �1
‫��� ����ؼ‬� �� ���� �ö� ����� �.
(����) That-clause�� ���� �‫� �� �� ���� �ٲ‬տ� �ִ� ��õ� �ܾ � ���
 �.������Ƿ � � � = � � � � � � ǥ � � � � Ʋ; � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
���� ��� (Ư�� ��ġ��)�� �
1. (a) a sign that -
(b) a sign of -
2. (a) insist that -
(b) insist on -
3. (a) The prospect is that -
(b) The prospect for -

EXERCISE 17
1.He feigned ignorance about the matter.
2."Who is that widow?" he asked, feigning indifference.
3.An undefinable something about the room seemed to suggest masculine
habitation.
4.Thus the idea of the earth as the center of the universe was destroyed.
5.NASA thought the project might run to $8 billion. Still, when offered some $3
billion less than that, the agency faked optimism, took the money and kicked off
the work.
(N.B.) run to < come to = to cost ����� ��� kick off: to start
6.In the course of the meal, I remarked to the President that most of his
advisers
seemed to be putting the risk of a soon-renewed Middle East war at "somewhere
between 60 and 70 percent."
(N.B.)1. The damage stands at $5 million ���5 :�‫�ؾ‬鸸 鿡���
2. The police put the damage at $5 million ����: ���5 ;�‫�ؾ‬鸸 鿡��� ���� �ִ�
7.American financial tycoon Carnegie spoke of the disgrace of dying rich and
argued
that the millionare should "be but a trustee for the poor."
8.A teen-age girl in Florida and a man of 30 in Utah killed themselves, leaving
notes
that spoke of depression over Lennon's death.
9.Carter rightly calls Reagan naive for thinking the Soviets can be intimidated
into
accepting deep cuts in their existing arsenal by the threat of a future U.S.
buildup.
(N.B.) naive: foolishly simple. arsenal = weapons
10.There was not a line in her countenance, not a note in her soft and sleepy
voice,
but spoke of an entire contentment with her life.
(N.B.) countenance: face
11.The workers trust their bosses to make the right decisions because there is a
pervasive sense that both labor and management are working together. In Japanese
companies, as a general rule, managers rise from within the corporate ranks, adding
to the feeling of camaraderie and shared experience.
(N.B.) pervasive: widespread. labor = workers. management = managers. share
experience: (���迡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡뽺鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡Ͱ� ��ſ � �� �� ���� ��8 �ϱ �)
�������ϴ�.
12.In this view, deep spending cuts and a one-year modest tax reduction could
result
in the worst all possible economic worlds: an inflationary recession. Thus some
economic
advisers are telling the White House to fight to the end for its tax plan - at the
very
time that the Administration is having trouble countering Democratic troops in
line. The
outlook is not only for a long argument in Congress, but for divided counsel within
the
Administration.
(N.B.) spending cuts: (����d����) ����谨. result in: to bring about; lead to;
cause. the
worst of all possible economic worlds: ������ �‫�� ���־‬f����.
Democratic troops in line: (������� ���; ����Ű�p�) �뿭; ���‫����� ��ٵ‬ϰ�
�ִ¹��
ִ ���. outlook:
prospect. counsel: advice
13.To be sure, there in nothing in the state of East-West relations today that
would
make a Soviet attack likely. But Western strategists cannot afford to rule out
the possibility
of a sudden change in Moscow's policy. In case of a sudden military threat, NATO
could
not mount a credible deterrent - at present force levels and with the present
economic
and political weaknesses of many Western governments. In terms of numbers, the
alliance
today is outnumbered, outgunned, out-tanked and outplaned. This is primarily the
result
of the massive buildup of Soviet armed forces.
(N.B.) rule out: to exclude ��f�ϴ�
mount a credible deterrent = to deter it credibly ��;���ϰ� �‫����� ;�װ‬ϴ�
cf. mount an attack on = to attack. in terms of: regarding;
concerning; with regard to
14.Most of the official indicators show Italy's economy to be in serious
trouble. Inflation
pushes along at nearly 21%. Industrial production has slumped by 5.4% since last
August,
and unemployment idles 1.5 million people. The battered lira continues to decline
in value,
and projections are for a government deficit of at least $31.2 billion by year's
end. Milan's
Borsa Valori, the country's principal stock exchange, shut down abruptly for three
days last
month to forestall a panic after a sharp sell-off sliced share prices by 20% in an
hour.
Nothing like that had happened since 1917, in the aftermath of Italy's humiliating
World
War I defeat at Caporetto.
(N.B.) official indicators: ������� ��f��ǥ��. projection: an advance
estimate; forecast.
stock exchange: ��ǰŷ���. forestall: to prevent panic: a widespread fear of the
collapse
of the financial system, resulting in unreasoned attempts to turn property into
cash,
withdraw money, etc.
15.Perhaps the most encouraging forecast by the members of the TIME Board of
Economists is for a slowdown in inflation. They predict that it will end the year
at around
an 8.6% annual rate, vs. 13.2% for the last quarter of 1980. The small surplus in
world
petroleum markets is now keeping a tight grip on oil prices, and that will remove
one of
the key causes of recent inflation. Homeownership costs, which account for
about one-fourth
of the consumer price index, are up from a year ago, but the increases are tapering
off
because sales are slow. Good crops and heavy livestock production so far this year
should moderate food price increases in the months ahead. Finally, a stronger U.S.
dollar will make
the costs of imported goods lower and keep pressure on domestic companies to hold
down
their prices. Walter Heller, President Kennedy's chief economic adviser, concludes
that the
U.S. is "virtually guaranteed a lull in inflation for most of the year."
(N.B.) taper off: to diminish or stop gradually. moderate: to cause to become
moderate;
restrain. lull: a short period of quiet or of comparative calm, lessened activity,
etc
16.An endless variety of laws, restrictions, customs and traditions affects the
practice of abortion around the world, although the general trend is toward
liberalized laws.

A statistician who had never taken care of his four small, energetic children by
himself reluctantly promised to look after them one Saturday afternoon while his
wife
went shopping. When she returned, he gave her a note that read:
"Dried tears - 11 times. Tied shoelaces - 15 times. Blew up toy balloons - 5 per
child.
Average life of each balloon - 10 seconds. Warned children not to run across street
- 26
times. Children insisted on running across street - 26 times. Number of Saturdays I
will
go through this again - 0."

DON'T WASTE IT
On this day-
Mend a quarrel.
Search out a forgotten friend.
Dismiss a suspicion and replace it with trust.
Encourage someone who has lost faith.
Keep a promise.
Forget an old grudge.
Examine your demands on others and vow to reduce them.
Fight for a principle.
Express your gratitude.
Overcome an old fear.
Take two minutes to appreciate the beauty of nature.
Tell someone you love him.
Tell him again.
And again.
And again.

4.b����ġ�� with
With�� ���籸鿡鿡 鿡λ 籸鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡. �츮 ѱ��
鿡ο��� �� ����
� �: ������Ƿ�
���⼭�� ���‫���� ����� ������ �ڿ� ���ؼ‬. �� ��ġ�簡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡λ 籸鿡鿡 鿡
鿡v�� �����ϱ�
�‫��ٶ‬.
1.WITH + NP
He is sure to succeed with such knowledge and experience.
(He is sure to succeed + He has such knowledge and experience)
-> He is sure to succeed since he has such knowledge and experience.
2.WITH + NP + -ING
With everybody insisting on going there, I don't know whom I should send.
(Everybody insists on going there + I don't know whom I should send)
-> As everybody insists on going there, I don't know whom I should send.
3. WITH + NP + P.P.
We are born with our eyes closed.
-> When we are born, our eyes are closed.
4. WITH + NP + ADJ. or ADV.
Don't speak with your mouth full.
-> Don't speak when your mouth is full.
(�ǹ�)1. � � �‫�� � ״‬İ� ������ ��8�Ƿ� Ʋ������ ������ �����.
2. ������ �ű ���‫ڴ‬ ٰ � �����ϰ� �‫־‬, ���� ������ ������ ����� ‫�ڴ‬.

3. �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡; ���� �¾��.
4. �Ծȿ� =���� ���� ����;������ ��; ���� ���ƶ�.
When I discovered, to my dismay, that my aged great-aunt still climbed over
the garden fence to visit her next-door neighbor, I asked her why she didn't take
the less dangerous route down the driveway and up the street.
"Look," came her sharp reply, "I'll be ninety-eight at the end of this year and
I'm running out of time.

EXERCISE 18
1.We've had a pretty lean time these last few months, with my husband out of
work.
(N.B.)have a hard time : ���; ��.
2.Mrs. Smith had her hands full, what with three children, an invalid husband and
an
aged mother to look after.
3.The young couple already have a child between them, with another on its way.
4.I ascended the platform with nothing ready in my mind.
5.I can't read anything with children around.
6.They lived in the same house nearly a year and a half without a single word
spoken
between them
7.With the earth cut away from his feet, Oliver resumed his aimless drift along
the
continent
8.He sat, (with his) head down, thinking over the matter.
9.I stood straight as a needle, my shoulders back, my head high, my eyes avoiding
hers.
10.With fightings in Vietnam and elsewhere in the world today going on
incessantly, that goal of a warless world seems remote to attain as ever.
11.With Israel insisting on haveing direct talks with the Arab states on a Middle
East
settlement, the possibility for a successful peace pact seems remote.
12.With the Communist regime in the north still going to every length to slander
South
Korea, Korea's reunification seems as far away as ever.
(N.B.) go to every length = to do everything. go to any lengths = do anything.
Korean parents usually go to great lengths to send their children to best schools.
(= take
great pains)
13.Meanwhile, it was reported that the most prospective sites for the conference
are
Seoul and Pusan, with the latter being a stronger possibility.
14.Bernard Bereson, the art historian, loved life. When he was almost 90,
he said, "I would willingly stand at street corners, hat in hand, asking passersby
to
drop their unused minutes into it.
15.With nearly 60 per cent of her entire population still dependent upon the land
for a livelihood, Korea should direct more efforts toward the modernization of
farming methods before anything else.
(N.B.) livelihood : means of sustaining life;living(�����). direct/make efforts
toward; -; '�� ���; ������.
16.In Sweden, as you drive through certain intersections on a red traffic light,
a photo is automatically taken. You receive in the mail a picture of your car going
through the light, with time and date printed on it, and a summons.
Conveniently, you may pay the 300-kronor fine at your local bank or post office.
(N.B.) in the mail:����8�� summons:an order or command to come, attend, appear,or
perform some action (���⼭�� "���; ����� ��ɼ�"��� �ǹ� � ����=).fine: a sum
required to be paid as punishment or penalty for an offense(���)
17.A mother accompanied by two young sons was in a hurry to get a six-pack of
beer checked out at the supermarket. In order to have the exact change, she
borrowed
three cents from one of her boys. "Then it happened," she relates."There I
stood, eight months pregnant, with my four-year-old screaming,'Please don't buy
beer
with my pennies, Mommy!'"
(N.B.) check out: ���; �ϰ� ������. relate: to tell
18.It was six o'clock on a bitterly cold and drizzly morning, and a group of
hunters waited in misery in the duck blind. At length one hunter, his hands blue
and ice
forming on his eyebrows, said aloud what all were thinking privately.
"Fellows," he said, his teeth chattering, "I don't believe I can stand much
more of this pleasure."
(N.B.) blind: a place of concealment, as for a hunter; ambush(�ź����). at length:
at last. stand: to bear; put up with
19.A mother took her daughter to a great artist to have her portrait painted
and when the work was at length finished they went to see ti. The artist put it
before
them and the mother looked at it, her face expressing displeasure, and said not one
word.
Nor did the artist open his lips, and at last the girl, to break the uncomfortable
silence, said, "Where shall we hang it, Mother?" And the lady replied,"Just where
you like, my dear, so long as you hang it with the face to the wall."
20.One of the running jokes in the days of President Lyndon B. Johnson's
Administration was the President's diet. Mrs.Johnson did everything she could to
keep him
on it, and he often went to great lengths to indulge himself in his favorite
high-calorie treats.
One day, at a Washington Senators baseball game, someone in the large party in
the
President's box ordered hot dogs and began passing them around. The President
was suddenly seen sitting doubled over, his head between his knees, wolfing down
a hot dog. Off his diet again, he was afraid that Lady Bird might be watching
the game on television and see him eating it.
(N.B.) running: continuous. do everything one can: to do one's best. go to great
lengths: to take great pains(��ô �ָ� ����). double up: to double over; bend over
(�㸮�� �����). wolf down: to gulp down(�ܲ����� �� Ű��)
21.As a rookie in the Atlantic City, N.J., police department, I was assigned a
beat on the boardwalk. Hardly a day went by when I didn't come upon a child who
had become separated from his parents.
One afternoon, I spotted a small boy standing alone, obviously lost. I tried
first to gain his confidence - I took him to the nearest ice-cream stand and bought
him a cone. Time passed with no sign of the boy's parents, so the next step was to
call
for a patrol car to take him to headquarters. I told the small fry to stay put
while I went to the call box. When I returned, he was nowhere in sight.
Within minutes, the car arrived, and one of the patrolmen asked me where
the child was. I felt stupid; it's humiliating to say you've lost a lost child.
But I told the officers what had happened and gave a description of the boy."What
did you treat him to?" asked one of the men.
"An ice-cream cone. Why?"
"Because," answered the officer,"that kid lives only a few blocks from here,
and you're about the fifth rookie he's conned for a treat!"
(N.B.) lost: ��; ��:. stay put: �� �‫�ִ����� ���ڸ‬. about: perhaps. con: to
swindle;
cheat
22.The gunman was almost a caricature of his violent breed - "a terrorist
with a capital 'T', as one of his interrogators put it. Mehmet Ali Agca, a 23-year-
old
Turkish hit man with at least one spectacular murder to his credit, could
have passed - and nearly did - for a Palestinian or a Latin American. His
ideological
underpinnings were loose; his slogans made him out to be anti-everything. He had
sprouted from the far fringes of the Turkish right, but his two-year crusade
against
the Pope could just as easily have served the purposes of the anarchistic left. One
of
the world's most-wanted criminals, he had floated with impunity across Western
Europe, arriving in Italy well dressed, well armed and well supplied with cash.
(N.B.)breed: a kind; sort; type. a terrorist with a capital "T"(= a Terrorist);
a great or special terrorist. as one of his interrogators put it = as one of his
interrogators called him. what at least one spectacular murder to his credit = who
was believed to be responsible for at least one spectacular murder. pass for: -��
���ϴ�.
cf. take - for ... underpinning: foundation. with impunity: without being punished
23.William Garcia was a successful California anaesthesiologist when his life
began
to disintegrate at 40. He had a serious automobile accident, then marital problems
surfaced, leading him and his wife to separation and divorce. Feeling depressed and
guilty, Garcia turned to drugs. He checked into a psychiatric hospital in Arizona
but stayed only six weeks before returning to Californa - and to drugs. Although he
managed to keep practicing medicine, his professional reputation suffered. At 42,
totally strung out on narcotics and with his career in ruins, Garcia checked into a
motel and deliberately overdosed on heroin.
Garcia's suicide attempt failed. But each year a disturbing number of physicians
do manage to kill themselves. Accurate statistics are hard to come by because many
suicides go unreported, but different experts estimate that from 36 to 77 of
every 100,000 physicians die their own hand every year, at least three times the
rate for
the population at large. Put another way, almost as many doctors commit
suicide annually - upwards of 130 - as graduate from Harvard Medical School. Of all
professionals, doctors may be the most self-destructive. Says Garcia, now on the
staff
of Los Angeles' Suicide Prevention Center : "With the statistics the way they are
for physicians, I feel very fortunate to have made it."
Although blessed with challenging work, social position and comparative wealth,
doctors contend with long hours and the knowledge that a single mistake can maim,
disable or even kill. These pressures often carry over into their personal lives.
Says
Los Angeles Psychiatrist Robert Litman: "By and large, doctors are not good, steady
companions. They're good providers but lousy lovers."
(N.B.) disintegrate: to break up. surface:to come to the surface;become known.
strung out:'slang'suffering from the physical or mental effects of addiction to a
narcotic
drug. overdose on:to take an overdose of. come by:to get;obtain. go unreported=are
not
reported. the population at large=the entire population. upwards of=over;more than.
With the statistics the way they are for physicians=As the statistics are the way
they
‫ڰ‬
are for physicians(�ǻ���� �8�� ����� �‫�ڻ� �����ڰ‬Ƿ�). to have made it=to
have
survived(�‫� �����ڻ‬ʰ� ��Ƴ��� �� ��). contend:to fight, struggle. by and large:on
the
whole; in general;considering everything. lousy:'slang'poor;inferior.

People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. I do not
believe
in circumstances. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up
and look for the circumstances they want, and if they cannot find them, make them.
-Bernard Shaw

5.b����ġ�� at,on,in
1.(a)Many people fled to other lands at eh outbreak of the war.
-> Many people fled to other lands when the war broke out.
(b)At this rate we will soon run out of money.
-> If we go on spending at this rate, we will soon run out of money.
2.(a)On investigation some curious facts came to light.
-> When an investigation was made, some curious facts came to light.
(b)He will prove, on a closer acquaintance, a kindhearted man
-> He will prove, when you get acquainted with him more closely, a kind-
hearted man.
3.(a)His mother died in childbirth.
-> His mother died while(she was) giving birth to a child.
(b)One must be careful in passing judgments on a person's character.
-> One must be careful when he passes judgments on a person's character.
�  ���� ����� �‫ٸ‬Ƴ���.
(�ǹ�)1.(a)��: ������ �� ������ �Ͼ��
flee:to run away
� ��2 �����‫� �ٸ‬츮 鿡 鿡
(b)�� 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡���.
2.(a)v���� ���� ���
� �� �ִ� ����� �巯鿡鿡鿡鿡.
come to light:to become known
(b)�� ������ ��;�� � ‫ �״‬ģ���� ������� ���� �巯鿡鿡 鿡鿡�� �.
3.(a)���� ��Ӵϴ� ����� ��ư���
� .
give birth to:����
(b)�‫� ����� �ٸ‬ΰ ‫� ���� �ݿ‬Ǵ�; ���� ������ �����‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
pass judgments on=to judge
When I asked my wife to wash my quilted coat, she looked at the
laundry-instruction tag and said,"It says it should be washed alone. To save
electricity and water,I'll wait till I have something else that has to be washed
alone and do them both together."

EXERCISE 19
1.It would be an ill-bred person who did not feel his blood boil at the
inflictions of
such malignant cruelty.
(N.B.) malignant:very malevolent to malcicious
2.The rapid technological advances of the twentieth century have been bought at
the expense of an alarming depletion of our natural resources.
(N.B.) depletion:gradual using up or destruction
3.Horowits delights in simple pleasures, with a few choice friends who visit him
regularly and for whom he plays the piano at the slightest encouragement.
(N.B.) delight in:to rejoice in. choice(adj.):carefully chosen
4.This visa can be renewed upon a new application.
5.There are many books of which you cannot get the full value on a single
reading.
6.On a closer look, he found the dark object was a dead tree.
7.A good writer is wise in his choice of subjects, and exhaustive in his
accumulation
of materials.
8.Whatever the learned may say about a book, and however unanimous they are
in their praise of it, it is of no use to you unless it interests you.
9.In out admiration for greatness, we tend to overlook errors that are often to
be
found in great work. Because of this tendency, I believe it necessary to examine
for
error those theories which are generally accepted.
10.If consumption goes on at present rate, world reserves of copper,lead, and tin
will be sxhausted by the turn of the century. And at present rate of consumption,
world reserves of iron ore could run out in less than a hundred years.
(N.B.) run out = to be exhausted
11.One of the characteristics most puzzling to a foreign observer is the strong
and
imperishable dream the American carries. On inspection, it is found that the dream
has
little to do with reality in American life. Consider the dream of and the hunger
for home.
The very word can reduce nearly all of my countrymen to tears.
(N.B.) have little to do with: -�� ���� ��谡 鿡鿡鿡. reduce someone to tears:to
make
someone weep<bring - to tears.
12.Language is an indispensable instrument of human society. It is the means by
which individuals understand each other and are enabled to function together as a
community. Indeed, it is unlikely that any human organization could either be
formed
or long maintained without language. Certainly, in the absence of communication,
the complex structure of modern society would be utterly impossible.
(N.B.) in the absence of = if it were not for;but for ; without.
utterly:completely;
absolutely
13.When comedian Joey Bishop was host of the "Tonight Show,"he was plagued
with autograph seekers. One day, when someone stopped him on the street and asked
if
he was Joey Bishop, he smiled politely and replied, "No. I only look like Joey
Bishop."
Then, on second thought, he asked the woman if she was a fan of Joey Bishop's.
She smiled politely and replied, "No.I only look like a fan of Joey Bishop's."-and
walked away.
(N.B.) plague: to vex; harass; trouble; torment
14.A doctor was in the bathroom of a lunatic asylum watching his mad patients
bathe. Suddenly one of them cried, "It's time for the doctor to bathe." Then
another
cried,"Let's drown him!" On his crying, all in the bathroom gathered around the
doctor, with their eyes fixed on him. They insisted on his being drowned.
Seeing his danger, the doctor thought out a trick."All right,my lads," he said.
"But suppose now you give the doctor a good cheer before you drown him."
This reasonable proposition being at once agreed to, a loud cheer resounded
through the building. This unusual noise, needless to say, at once brought the
keepers to the bathroom
(N.B.) lunatic asylum: a mental hospital. They insisted on his being drowned=They
insisted that he(should) be drowned.
15.America's "Marxophobia" must be the single greatest obstacle to its efforts to
promote democracy around the world. Washington's reluctance to give aid to
Nicaragua will probably send that country right into the arms of the Soviets.
America must stop getting jittery at the mere mention of socialism. It should also
cast
a wary eye on some of the governments it does back, such as Argentina and Chile.
Dictatorships cannot be the friends and allies of a country that professes the
highest
regard for democracy and human rights. The United States must be understanding
toward democratic experiments like that in Nicaragua.
(N.B.) "Marxophobia":fear of Marxism. jittery:very uneasy or nervous. back:to
support
or help. regard: respect and affection; esteem
16.Norway has one of the toughest drunk-driving laws in the Western world. Any
driver who is found to have more than. .05-percent alcohol in his blood
automatically
spends a minimum of three weeks confined in a special facility. There offenders
make furniture, stud snow tires, do electrical work, or perform household chores.
In
addition to serving time, they lose their license for one year on the first
offense, and
permanently if convicted again within five years.
Hardly anyone, no matter how influential he might be, beats the rap. Of some
20,000 Norwegians sentenced to such facilites in the past four years, several have
been celebrities, including members of the parliament.
(N.B.) confine: to keep shut up; detain. serve time: to be in prison. beat the
rap =
to escape the punishment
17.My husband and I first met while we were theachers in Idaho. We planned to be
married during spring vacation in my hometown in New Mexico. Since we had such
a long distance to drive, we wrote a letter to the superintendent of schools asking
if we might be granted two days of personal leave in order to make the trip. The
superintendent replied that the school board, in determining valid reasons for
personal leave, did not include getting married. Since there was no such provision,
he went on, he would grant us the two days as medical leave - on the premise that
we were both clearly suffering form lovesickness!
(N.B.) personal leave ���� ��d�ް�.
valid: sound; cogent. provision: ��d,v��
And then there was the commuter on the train who was looking everywhere
for his ticket - in his pants pocket, his jacket, his wallet. He was searching with
great frenzy, much to the aumusement of the other passengers, who could see that
he had the ticket in his mouth. The conductor snatched the snip of pater,
punched it and gave it back. When he moved on, the commuter's companion
said,"I bet you feel pretty stupid sitting there looking everywhere for your ticket
when it was right in your mouth all the time."
"Stupid?" replied the commuter. "I was chewing the date off."

6.����λ�
�ϳ��� ���� �����‫� ������� �ؼ‬λ 糪 �λ 籸鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡ǻ� ����λ��� �θ���� � Ѵ�.
1.Understandably, he bitterly attacked Communism
-> It is understandable that he bitterly attacked Communism.
2.Conceivably, the situation could get worse.
-> It is conceivable that the situation could get worse.
3.People thought that the prisoner was deservedly sentenced to death.
-> (People thought that the prisoner deserved death sentence + He was
sentenced to death)
4.Much has been said, and with reason, against entrance examination.
-> Much has been said against entrance examination, and there is reason for that
(= and it is justifiable)
5.The criminal is reportedly still at large.
-> According to reports, the criminal is still at large.
-> It is reported that the criminal is still at large.
-> Reports have it that the criminal is still at large.
(�ǹ�)1. �‫������ �װ‬Ǹ� �Ŷ ��ϰ � ����� ��: �����Ҹ ��ϴ �.
2.�� ���°� ��� ��ȭ�� �� �ִ‫�� �ٴ‬: ���� �� �ִ� �����.
3.����: �� �˼� ����� ��: ��: �����ϴٰ� ���ߴ�.
4.����: ���н���; �‫��ݴ‬ϴ� ��⸦ ���� �‫ؿ‬Դµ�, �ű�� ������
��/�� �ִ �.
5.������ ���ϸ�, �� ����: ���� �������� �ʾҴٰ� �Ѵ � .
At a grand Christmas party, a young man asked an attractive elderly lady for
a dance."Sorry, I don't dance with a baby," refused the lady. The young man
challenged,
"Sorry, I didn't know you are pregnant."
In a crowded department store, a young couple was Christmas-shopping. In the
hustle and bustle, the wife was separated from her husband. She turned to a guide,
"I
have lost my husband. Where can I...?" Before she finished, the couldn't-care-less
guide replied, "Sorry to hear it, Madame. The funeral department is on the top
floor."

EXERCISE 20
1.To practice what one preaches is admittedly not so simple
2.Such kind of conflict can be properly described as suicidal.
3.I think I could be justly blamed if I saw only people's faults and were blind
to
their virtues.
(N.B.) were blind to = did not see
4.The Arabs argue, with some justification, that Israel so far has benefited most
since the ceasefire.
5.There is nothing praiseworthy in sacrifice itself, and before a man does a
self-sacrificing thing, he may reasonably ask himself if it is worthwhile.
6.In sum, all of us might profitably heed the advice of that Senate committee on
nutrition - and reduce our sugar consumption.
(N.B.) heed: to pay close attention to;take careful notice of
7.To control the number of illegal aliens entering the U.S. in the future, the
Administration is considering sanctions - presumably stiff fines - against
employers
who knowingly hire such immigrants.
(N.B.) alien:foreigner. sanction: f��vġ. stiff:severe;high fine: ���
8.Hua Kuo-feng prosumably became premier with Mao's blessing, but there is not
evidence that the chairman anointed him as his own successor. Thus the chances are
that it may take weeks if not months before the divided leadership can agree on a
new bead of the party.
(N.B.) blessing:approval. anoint:to appoint;designate.The chances are that -=It
is
likely or probable that-; Probably. leadership=leaders.
9.Five years later, the heads of all the nations in the European Community
conferred on Monnet the title of Honorary Citizen of Europe - the only man ever to
be so honored. And for good reason. His was a noble idea - to unite the nations of
Europe in the service of peace and worldwide cooperation. And, to a remarkable
degree, his vision has triumphed.
(N.B.) His was a noble idea=His idea was a noble one. in the service of=for
10.Mr.Jones lived for the most part, retired in the country, with one sister, for
whom
he had a very tender a affection. This lady was now somewhat past the age of
thirty,
an era at which, in the opinion of the malicious, the title of old maid with no
impropriety might be assumed. She was of that species of women whom you rather
commend for good qualities than beauty.
(N.B.) era = age. the malicious=malicious people with no impropriety =
with propriety = properly. commend: to recommend; praise
11.At a trial in Detroit's Recorder's Count, a young woman who had accused the
defendant of making an improper proposal was asked to state the question that
allegedly had been asked. It embarrassed her to repeat it, so she was permitted to
write it on a piece of paper. After the judge, prosecutor and defense counsel had
read it, it was passed to the jury. Each juror read it, and gave it to the next
juror.
After an attractive female juror had read it, she attempted to pass it to the man
on
her right, but found him dozing. Without comment, she nudged him and gave him
the slip of paper. The awakened juror read the note, smiled at her, nodded and put
the note in his pocket!
(N.B.) recorder: a judge who has the same criminal jurisdiction as a police judge
12.As soon as a stranger is introduced into any company, one of the first
questions
which all wish to have answered, is, how does that man get his living? And with
good reason. He is no whole man until he knows how to earn a blameless livelihood.
At a department store, a difficult customer and a patient clerk were having a
hard time getting together. Nothing the clerk provided was exactly what the
woman wanted. Finally, the finicky shopper said in annoyance, "Can't you find a
smarter clerk to serve me?"
"No,"said the saleswoman. "The smarter clerk saw you coming and
disappeared."
(N.B.) get together:'Colloq.' to reach an agreement. finicky:too particular;
overly fastidious;fussy ��ġ�� ��‫ٷ‬ο�

2 STYLE
�����ľ�; '�� �����‫�۾‬

1.���� �‫�־‬
�Ϲ���8�� �ѱ���� ���� �‫־‬ ȸ���ϴ� ������ ��8��, ����(����ü)�� ���� �‫־‬

���� ���� Ѵ�. ��


�: ������ ��ü�� �ѱ����� ��ü���� �� �‫��پ‬ϰ� ����� ����
���� �ϳ���.
1.Why do dyou think so?
-> What makes you think so?
2.His father died suddenly, and he had to give up school.
-> His father's sudden death forced him to give up school.
3.Compare them carefully, and you will see the difference.
-> A careful comparison of them will show you the difference.
4.The reporting was so real that nearly everyone was convinced that the
'invasion' was realyy taking place.
-> The realism of the reporting convinced nearly everyone that the 'invasion' was
really taking place.
(�ǹ�)1.��°�� �ʴ� ���� ���ϴ3�?
2.�ƹ��� ���‫��� �ڱ‬ư����� � ‫� �״‬б��� ������ ��; �� ����.
3.�‫����� �� �˰� ����� �� ���װ͵�; �ڼ��� ���غ‬.
4.�� ������ �ʹ��� ����‫' �� ������ ���� �ؼ‬ħ��'�� ��f�� ������ �ִ� ��8��
�Ͼ��.

��: ���ΰ� ����Ͽ���


�!
������ ������ �����
� �= ��; ���ø� ��� d�� �����Ͻ� ���Դϴ�.
Good translations are like women:If(they are) faithful they are not beautiful, if
beautiful they are not faithful.
(�Ǹ��� ��: ���ΰ� ����ϴ�. ��, '����ϸ�' ������ �ƴ��ϰ�, ���‫������� �ڸ‬
�ƴ��ϴ�.)
‫��ٸ‬� ������: � '����'; ���Ͻ÷ƴϱ�? �߹���, �Ƹ��‫�ٿ‬鼭�� �����

������
���!

EXERCISE 21
1.His fatness renders him unable to touch his toes.
2.The flood left many people in the village homeless.
3.The introduction of labor-saving technology has cost many people their jobs.
4.The U.S.-led boycott of the Olympics cost the Soviets millions of dollars in
lost
revenues.
5.Arson is suspected in a fire that destroyed three downtown business over the
weekend.
(N.B.)business:a commercial or industrial establishment;store,factory,etc.
6.At 52, he was the chief hope of continuity for the Islamic revolution,
whose terrifying
politics have split Iran into bitter and contending factions.
(N.B.) politics:political methods, tactics, etc;sometimes,specifically,crafty
or unprincipled methods.
7.Notice seen on the bulletin board of a Florida air base:"The following enlisted
men
will pick up their Good Conduct medals in the supply room this afternoon.
Failure to comply with this order will result in disciplinary action."
(N.B.)�ο�� �� ���� �� ó= �: ����ϴ� ����.->Students entering the class late
will please sit at the back of the room(�ʰ� ���ǽǿ� ���4� �л��: ���ǽ� �� �‫���ڸ‬
�ɾ��ֱ� �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�.). comply with:to act in accordance with. result in:to lead
to. disciplinary
action:¡��vġ (����)������, ��� ��; ���ø� ��; �� �Ƽž� �մϴ�. ��
�:
�ͻ���ϱ��!
8.He is secretive about his age:published estimates put him in his early 70s, but
he
has the look and vigor of a man much younger, turning out three novels a year with
metronomic regularity.
9.Precisely what ails Brezhnev is a closely guarded secret, known only to a
handful of
Kremlin insiders. Speculation has included cancer of the jaw, emphysema, heart
disease,
gout, and leukemia.
10.College students would be better prepared for independent thinking if there
were
less emphasis on conformity in high school.
(N.B.) conformity:action in accordance with customs, rules,
prevailing opinion,etc; conventioal behavior
11.The next 25 years in science will see the elimination of infectious disease as
a cause
of death, new sources of energy, solutions for the disposal of radioactive waste,
and
computers that will create as well as solve problems.
(N.B.) radioactive waste ���� ���(����)
12.Egypt's problems defy easy solution. The per capita income is a meager $469
per
year. Its middle class is beset by an acute lack of affordable housing. Industry
is virtually
stagnant, and productive foreign investment is anemic. The country now imports half
of
its food.
(N.B.) The beauty of the scene defies description=The beauty of the scene is
beyond
description = It is impossible to describe (in words) the beauty of the
scene. meager: small,
inadequate. beset:to trouble from all directions; harass; besiege. acute:
very serious; critical;
crucial. housing=houses. virtually:in effect;practically;almost anemic:��������
13.In Egypt, a patina of superficial prosperity gilds a fragile economic core.
The
revenues from new trade policies and foreign investment are flowing to an all too
visible superclass of the very rich. But at the same time, The great mass of
Egyptians
are struggling with overcrowding, a breakdown of critical services and lack of
productive
jobs.
(N.B.) patina:a thin crust or film;appearance. gild:to coat with a gold
color. fragile: easily
broken, damaged, or destroyed;frail. all too visible:(��� ����)�ʹ��� ���� ��
���. critical:
very important;vital. services:���, ��� ��'�� �ü�
14.Most people have covered the windowpanes of their homes or apartments with
thick black paper or tinfoil, in order to keep the lights on during the blackout.
The
reason is not so much the fear of air strikes as the noisy urging of young people
and
children who act as self-appointed civil defense wardens. The briefest glimpse of
light
from a window starts a chorus of "Turn it off" from a dozen directions.

2. ǰ ����ȯ
� ����, 2)ǰ�縦 �‫ٰٲ‬ų�, �Ǵ� 3)��'�� ��'�‫�ڸ‬
������� ��: ����(d��); 1)����
�� ��Ÿ�� �� �ִ�. ��f�� �ѱ���� �‫ �ٸ‬ǥ� � � Ŀ � � � � � � ϱ � � ‫��ٶ‬.
�8 �
1.(a)Disease frequently accompanies war.
-> Disease is a frequent accompaniment of war.
(b)He succeeded as a novelist.
-> He was a success as a novelist.
-> He was a successful novelist.
2.(a)Power tends to corrupt.
-> Power has a tendency to corrupt.
(b)He studied the problem carefully.
-> He made a careful study of the problem.
(c)She resembles mother closely.
-> She bears a close resemblance to her mother.
3.(a)John works hard.
-> John is a hard worker.
(b)Younghee speaks English well.
-> Younghee is a good speaker of English.
(�ǹ�)1.(a)��: ���� ���£ 鿡鿡‫ݵ‬ȴ�.
(b)� ‫� �״‬Ҽ����� �����ߴ�.
2.(a)�Ƿ�: �����ϴ� ������ �ִ�.
(b)� ‫�� �� �״‬f�� ���� ���DZ�� �����ߴ�.
(c)�‫�� ��׳‬Ӵϸ� ���� ��Ҵ�.
3.(a)��: ������ ��� Ѵ�(���� Ѵ� ).
(b)����� ����� ��; �� � Ѵ�.

EXERCISE 22
1.The bill had a rough passage through the House of Lords.
2.(a)Kennedy had a fresh way of doing things.
(b)Accident has a disconcerting way of making new history.
3.He had a surface acquaintance with a number of ancient writers.
4.Her face had grown pale, and she made a futile attempt at a smile.
5.The Greeks made no formal distinction between philosophical thought
ant natural sciences.
6.She made a late appearance at the party.
7.For several years he engaged in a casual practice of law at his home.
8.Though defeated, our team put up a plucky defense against their taller
and huskier opponents.
9.Questions of education are frequently discussed as if they bore no relation
to the social system in which and for which the education is carried on.
10.Singing commercials are a recent invention.
11.No reasonable person would take offense at what you said.
12.Dancing as a performing art was a relatively late development in the
United States.
13.The automobile was a total wreck, but the driver, luckily, escaped with minor
cuts and abrasions.
14.Carl's sore arm is not a new development but the return of a chronic ailment.
15.Love is blind, but marriage is an eye-opener.
16.About this time, I got hold of a book on how to save energy. It was a real
eye-opener.
17.Any presidential candidate whose appeal is mainly to partisans in his own
party
is a sure loser in 1980.
18.She has pursued life and love with fierce energy all of her 50 years. She is
one of
Germany's best-known actresses, a performer in 54 films, including "Silk Stockings"
and
"Decision Before Dawn" in Hollywood.
19.A:"May I please get this prescription refilled?
B:"I'm sorry. We can't give you a refill on that, sir. You have to get a new
prescription from your doctor."
(N.B.) get a prescription filled: (�ǻ���) ó���� ��濡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡; ���ϴ�.
20.I called the operator and asked her to place a call for me. She replied
stiffly,
"You can save time and money by dialing the number yourself."
"I know," I said, "but I've got the time and I'd like to spend some of it before
it
stacks up." She mumbled something and gave me a disconnect.
21.Business, now limping along, will start to improve as winter melts into
spring, but
recovery will be slow and painful. A tax cut to spur individual saving, consumer
spending and business investment is almost a certainty before year-end.
(N.B.) winter melts into spring:�ܿ������ Ƽ� ���� �Ǵ�(��, �ܿ��������� ����
�4�)
spur: to stimulate. before year-end = before the year ends.
22.Strange as it seems, the most common way of gaining fillegal entry into
residences
is through unlocked doors. Burglars frequently stroll apartment hallways and
residential streets looking for the door that opens with the turn of a knob. Even
if
you are home, your doors should be locked at all times, including those in your
garage.
(N.B.) the door that opens with the turn of a knob = the unlocked door.
23.In a town near Amsterdam they had to erect a statue to somebody no Dutchman
ever heard of - "Pieter." He's the brave little Dutch boy who stuck his finger in
the
dike and saved the area form flooding.
The story of Pieter is entirely an American invention, but so many American
visitors asked about him that the Dutch decided it was only sensible to erect a
status
in his honor.
(N.B.) only:just;quite;really
24.Art may be defined as skill on the part of man in the production of the
beautiful,
or in giving embodiment or expression to the ideal. The beauty of Nature is
changing
and transient. It has its coming and going. The storm may smite and darken it, or
the
rude hand of winter.lay it low. Art captures it and represents it for us in
permanent
and ideal forms. The painter, the sculptor, the architect, and the musician or
tonepoet,
seize the anels of beauty as they pass, and hold them fast that they may bless us.
(N.B.) transient:passing away with time; not permanent;temporary; transitory.
smite:to
strike or attack with powerful or disastrous effect. lay low:to cause to fall by
hitting.
fast:
firmly. that - may ... = so that - may ...
25.Bing Crosby writes of an experience he had while traveling by train through
the
Southwest many years ago.
Our train was stopped, and we were told there'd be a wait, so I walked up and
down
the track behind the train. The rear brakeman, a hard-bitten little Texan, was
walking
up and down, too, swinging his lantern. He came up to me and said,"They tell me
that
rascal Bim Crosland's aboard. They say he's quite a singer, but as far as
I'm concerned, Larry Ross could run him in a gopher hole."
I agreed with him and thought no more of it. In the morning, there came a knock
on our door. It was the brakeman. He eyed me with a twinkle and said, "You
hoaxed me, didn't you? You're Bim Crosland yourself! Just for that, you've got to
sign my book."
So I signed it:"Bim Crosland."
(N.B.) hard-bitten:tough; stubborn; dogged. He's quite a singer:� ‫����� �״‬
�����. cf.I'm
not much of a singer(=I don't sing well). run someone into a gopher hole:-�� �㱸�
‫�ۿ‬
�� ����
� �Ͱ� ���� . hoax:to deceive
26.Not long ago, dying at home was a fact of life for the terminally ill. Today
that
is no longer true. Enormous progress in medical technology makes it possible to put
up a strong fight against a disease and to prolong life, but one consequence is
that
more and more terminal patients spend their final days in hospitals.
(N.B.) the terminally ill = terminal patients(��; ���� �ɷ��ִ� ����)
27.If you see a pelican standing with its flat feet on a sandy beach, you may not
think that he is much of a flier. But he is. Watch him as he moves along at about
twenty-six miles an hour, almost touching the tops of the waves. Often he flies
with
his companions in a long line of pelicans. They follow one another up, over and
down the waves, move their wings together and stay the same distance form one
another. This is a perfect group flying show.
(N.B.) The bird is not much of a flier. = The bird is not a good flier=The bird
does not fly well. cf. He's quite a singer.

��� �� ��
A successful, unmarried career woman had a married sister named Joan, whose
life centered on her husband and children. One day, The mother of the two women
was talking to the single daughter. "You're not married,"she said."You don't have a
man to take care of you. What's going to become of you?"
"Mother, for heaven's sake,"the unmarried woman snapped. "I'm living exactly as
I like. I make plenty of money, and I can spend it on myself. I don't have to worry
about what some man wants. I go to Europe twice a year. I entertain. I have all the
friends I want, and I'm not tied down to housework or kids. My life is glamorous
and
wonderful."
There was a pause and then the mother said,"I'know. Don't tell Joan."
(N.B.) center on:to be concentrated or focused on(-�� ���ߵǾ� �ִ�).
become of: to happen to; be the fate of. tied down to: -�� ����(��ſ�) �ִ�.
glamorous: fascinating,
alluring ��Ȥ����
She was writing to her son, congratulating him on his engagement. "My darling
boy," wrote the mother,"what glorious news! Your father and I rejoice in your
happiness. It has long been our greatest wish that you should marry some good
woman.
A good woman is Heaven's most precious gift to man. She brings out all the best in
him and helps him to suppress all that is evil."
Then, there was a postscript in a different handwritting:"Your mother has gone
for a stamp. Keep single, you young fool!"

3.�‫��� ;�ݺ‬ϱ�
����� �‫� ;�ݺ‬Ⱦ��ϴ� ����. ������� ����; '�‫�� �ؼ‬: ��; ��Ǯ�� �ϴ� ��츦
f���ϰ�, ������� �� �� ���� ��: �‫���� �ٸ� ���� �ٲپ‬.
1.����� �‫���� �ٲپ‬
(1)��ġ����
(a)If you want a true friend, you will find one in him.
(b)If I am a fool, you are another.
(c)He is still a mere child and should be treated as much.
(2)��ġ����(��� �տ� �4� ����)
(a)Ours is still a developing country.
(b)To some of his contemporaries Socrates looked like a sophist.
(c)Reports have it that the criminal is still at large.
(3)/�����
(a)You should read Shakespeare and other immortals.(=immortal writers)
(b)From the classical philosophers I turned to the moderns, thinking that
among them, perhaps, I should find what I wanted.
(=modern philosophers)
(c)The first circulating library was opened in London in 1740. Rivals
quickly sprang up in London and in the provinces as well.
(=Rival circulating libraries)
(�ǹ�)2.(a)�츮 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡ߵ�����.
(b)�Ϻ� �‫��� ���ڽڽ‬ô��ε鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡ũ������ �˺�����ó�� ������.
(c)������ ���ϸ� �� ����: ���� �������� �ʾҴٰ� �Ѵ � .
3.(a)���ͽ��Ǿ�� ��
۰ ������ ������; �о�� � Ѵ�.
(b)��� ö���‫�ڵ‬κ��� ���� ��� ö���‫ڵ‬鿡鿡Է� ����; �‫�ٲپ‬µ�, �‫�װ‬: ��¼��
�‫׵‬鿡鿡Լ� ���� ���ϴ� ��; ã�� �����‫��� ����� �߱� ;�� �ٴ‬.

EXERCISE 23
1.You must help them, and that at once.
2.They thought him shy, which he was, and dull, which he was not.
3.It is undeniable that Hitler was a genius, albeit the most evil one the modern
world
has known.
(N.B.) albeit:although
4.We are all equal in this, that we all have twenty-four hours a day.
5.In terms of their traditional functions, arts have lost their reason to exist.
(N.B.) reason to exist:x���‫�� �� �ؾ‬/, x����/
6.Instead of getting rid of his prejudices, the average person whitewashes
them and
tries
to pass them off as principles.
(N.B.) whitewash:to conceal the faults or defects of. pass off:to be accepted
7.In spite of its aloofness and independent bearing, the domesticated cat has
come
to depend upon man for food and protection.
(N.B.) aloof:reserved and cool(��'���� ������ �Ͽ� �ʿ���) bearing:manner;way of
behaving;mien
8.Like the infant whose birth they symbolize, stars, by living and dying, enable
whole
new worlds to be born.(�� ����: �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡 鿡 鿡ű�Ⱑ �� �Ƿ � ����϶� !)
9.Not because of their superior intelligence but because of the conditions under
which they have had to do their work, anthropologists have developed ways of
studying human groups which have been found to have certain advantages over the
methods characteristic of the workers in other fields.
(N.B.) have an advantage over -:-���� �� ���� ��a; ���� �ִ�. characteristic of
= peculiar to(-���� ��Ư��) cf. It is typical of him to arrive late for an
appointment(�8������ �‫�� ��״‬ӽð��� �ʰ� ����� Ѵ �.)
10.It is the bravest quality of all, this ability to look past dark times to
brighter ones,
to believe that questions do have answers, that challenges can be met, that
problems
will be solved.
(N.B.) do have answer���� do�� �‫��� �ڿ‬縦 ��v�ϴ� ����; � Ѵ�. meet:to deal with;
cope with(ó���ϴ�)
11.I saw Strictland not infrequently, and now and then played chess with him. He
was of
a severe temper. Sometimes he would sit silent and absent-minded, taking no notice
of
anyone; and at others, when he was in a good humour, he would talk in his own
hesitating
way. He never said a clever thing, but he always said exactly what he thought.
(N.B.) not infrequently: �幰�� �ʰ�(= frequently;often). now and
then: sometimes; occasionally;
once in a while. He was of a severe temper=He had a severe temper.
humour(humor):mood
12.Sometimes I ask myself at night what I have done that day, what new thought or
idea
I have had, what particular emotion I have felt, what there has been to mark it off
from its
fellows;and more often than not it appears to me insignificant and useless.
(N.B.) mark - off from ...=distinguish - from ... more often than not:more than
50% of
the time. cf. as likely as not; probably
13.A deep mistrust of science and technology is expressed by many in our society
today. Were it to prevail, this sense of suspicion and frustration could result not
only
in our failure to solve our present crises, some of them the result of past misuses
of
technology, but also in our future inability to deal with problems we may not even
be in
a position to predict.
(N.B.) Were it to prevail=If it were to prevail. result in:to lead to;cause;end
in
14.If looked at through the eyes of some of its greatest writers, the Victorian
Age
can be seen as an age of change and doubt. Yet in the eyes of very many Victorians
it
was an age of progress, confidence, and achievement; and those who came immediately
afterwards looked
back on the period as essentially one of stability.
15.Legend has it that John F. Kennedy decided to enter politics one evening after
a
long conversation with his father. Joe, Sr. was supposed to have told Jack that
since
Joe, Jr. had given his life for his country during the war, it was now up to
Jack to uphold the family's
tradition of political public service. The entire family would support Jack, his
father said. And
as the story goes, Jack heeded his father's urging, and decided to enter politics
on
the spot.
But the truth is somewhat different. Certainly there was a political tradition in
the Kennedy
family. To be sure, Joe, Sr. wanted to see this tradition carried on, and certainly
he felt it
should be carried by Jack since Joe had died. But this is all too simple - for it
takes
everything into account except the one most important thing - the remarkable
personality of Jack Kennedy.
(N.B.) Legend has it that=The story goes that;It is said that;According to
legend.
enter politics: d�迡 ��鿡鿡鿡 ��.
up to: the duty or resposibility of;dependent upon; incumbent upon: It's
up to you whether you decide to take the job. heed:pay attention to. on the spot:1.
at
the place mentioned(�N鿡鿡鿡鿡) 2. at once; immediately. take into account:take
into consideration
16.It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always
looking at
one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a
world
that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness - an
American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings.
The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, this longing to
merge his double self into a better and true self. In this merging he wishes
neither of the older selves
to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the
world
and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of white Americanism, for
he
knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wished to make it
possible
for a man to be both a Negro and an Amercan, without being cursed and spat upon by
his
fellows, without having the doors of opportunity closed roughly in his face.
(N.B.) look on: �����ϴ�,����ϴ�.
in amused contempt and pity: ����ִ‫���� ���� �ٴ‬ϰ� ��d�ϸ 鼭.
One ever feels his twoness = An American Negro always feels his doubleness.
two unreconciled strivings: �ΰ��� ȭ�‫�� ���ص‬: ����.
merge: unite. bleach:whiten ǥ���ϴ�.
spit upon: -���� ħ�b��.
in one's face: before one �‫���� ���ڽڽ‬

��� ��: ��
A friend, driving on a long stretch of California freeway, became the tail-ender
in
a line of cars traveling at precisely 53 miles an hour. After a while he pulled out
and, doing 57 m.p.h, passed the rest. Seconds later a siren sounded and lights
flashed.
My friend sighed and pulled over.
The officer approached. "When I finished my shift this afternoon," He said, "I
bought a
quart of ice cream to take home. Then I got a call to stay on duty. The ice cream
is
going to melt, so I decided to give it to the first motorist who had ithe courage
to
pass me. Enjoy!"
(N.B.) tail-ender: ���� ����'.
do 57 m.p.h.: to drive at 57 m.p.h. pull over(to the curb): to drive to the
curb.
shift: (����)�‫�ٹ‬. stay on duty: ����‫��ؼ� �ٹ‬ϴ�.

2.���븮 鿡 鿡 (��)
1.Democracy in the true sense of the word is still unknown in that country.
2.Khrushchev first met Stalin in 1925, when the younger man was elected a
delegate
to the 14th Party Congress.
3.In 1950, one person out of 30 earned $10,000 or more a year. Today, one person
out
of three earns that much.
cf.Ghana has twenty-three tribes, speaking as many different languages.
4.(a)The American woman enjoys more leisure and freedon than her Korean sister.
(b)French students have far more homework than their American counterparts.
(c)The Japanese prime minister had a brief discussion over the matter with his
British opposite number.
(�ǹ�)1.��d�� �ǹ������ �������Ǵ� ���� �� ��� � �˷�n��� �ʴ�.
 
2.�������t� 1925� ó=8�� ��Ż��; �����µ�, �� �‫ �ؿ� �״‬f 4�� ����
����ȸ�� ��ǥ�� ����Ǿ��.
3.1950���
� 30 � ��� 1���� 1� ���� �Ǵ� �� �� ��� ����; ���µ�,
�4ó����� 3�� ��� 1���� ���� ����; ��´�.
cf.�������� 23�� ��w�� �ִµ� ����� ����ϴ� �� ����� ��ŭ �ȴ�.
4.(a)��� ����: �ѱ� �������� �� ��: ������ ��/�� ������ �ִ�.
(b)�v� �л��: ��� �л�麸鿡鿡 鿡鿡f�� �ξ� �� ����.
(c)�Ϻ� ���: �� ��f�� ���ߴ����� ������ ���� �������� �����‫�ؼ‬.
opposite number = counterpart

A Cerebral Conversation
A Sri-Lankan professor went to London on his sabbatical leave. After three months
he was tired of English food and went to a butcher shop to buy something to allay
his
homesickness.
"Have you brain?" he asked the butcher.
The butcher stared at him for a minute and then said,"If I had any, do you think
I'd be working here?"

EXERCISE 24
1.The author of a geology book for junior high school students, Golden is
currently
writing one on astronomy for the same audience.
2.I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody, if asked for, nor will I make a
suggestion to this effect.
(N.B.) deadly: lethal. if asked for = even if I am asked for(one)-even if
somebody asks
me for one
3.The domestication of the wolf is by no means so difficult as is usually
supposed,
especially in the case of the American species. There is, however, one striking
difference between the modern dog and his wild cousins.
4.We are all familiar with the distinction represented by the words
"civilization"
and "culture". Civilization, as I have already suggested, is usually thought of as
in
the main materialistic achievement, culture as religious, acacemic and artistic;
and it
is then assumed that not merely a parallelism but even a causal relationship
exists between the two phenomena.
(N.B.) in the main: mainly; on the whole; largely(���, ��ü��)
paralleism: close resemblance; similarity.
a causal relationship: ���
5.As he tells in the Apology, Socrates in his time defied both tyranny and
democracy.
He had no respect for either the powerful few or the powerful many. Although no
voice has
ever been raised more eloquently than his in defense of the individual, he was no
democrat in the free and easy sense of the term. It was a democracy that killed
Socrates - and that
died in the process. Greek civilization never recovered from this old man's death.
(N.B.)defy:to resist or oppose boldly or openly. have no respect for=do not
respect
6.Most casual visitors to the zoo are convinced, as they stroll trom cage to
cage,
that the funny gestures of the inmates are no more than a performance put on solely
for their entertainment. Unfortunately, however, nothing could be farther from the
truth than this view of the contented, playful caged animal. Recent research has
amply
demonstrated that many caged animals are in fact facing a survival problem
as severe as that of their cousins in the wild - a struggle to survive, simply,
against
the monotony of their environment. Well fed, well housed, well cared for, and
protected
from its natural enemies, the zoo animal in its Super-Welfare State existence is
bored,
sometimes literally to death.
(N.B.) put on: to stage ���ϴ�
care for: to take care of; look after.
existence = life. to death: to the extreme; extremely
7.I did know Nehru at all intimately; in fact, I did not even meet him many
times. But
his personality made an immediate impression at one's first meeting with him, and
this
impression did not change over the years. Nor was the effect he made just an
impression
;the word is weak and too cold. "Captivation" comes nearer to the truth. Here was a
human
being who could win one's heart and keep it.
This would be something remarkable in anyone in any walk of life; but in someone
whose position was humble and obscure it might not be so surprising as it was in a
world-famous statesman who has left a deep mark, and this on the whole world and
not just on his own country. In this great statesman, the lovable human being was
not
smothered by the eminent public figure; I should say that, in Nehru, there was not
even
the faintest touch of pomposity or self-importance or self-consciousness. He
retained the
spontaneity and the buoyancy of youth after he had been carrying for years an
unusually
heavy burden of office. It was not till his last years that the unforeseen breach
between
India and China began to bow him down under its weight.
(N.B.) at one's first meeting with him = when one first met him. win: to gain.
walk
of life: ��ȸ�� �ź���� ���. -> people from all walks of life.
smother: to stifle; suffocate; suppress.
touch: a trace;tinge ����,���� retain: to continue to have; keep. breach:
a break in friendly relations ��ȭ
8.It is my Aunt Grace's practice to travel by bus and to notice what most people
miss.
One Saturday morning the 144 bus passed a busy intersection often confused with the
next. When Grace looked out the window, she saw two young girls outfitted for
camping.
They looked nervous. When her bus arrived at the next intersection, she saw two
young
men outfitted in the same manner standing by a car. They, too, obviously were
waiting
for an appointment.
Grace got off the bus(which meant she would have to wait an hour or so for the
next)
and approached the young men. They spoke to her in a foreign accent. Grace
described
the girls she had seen, and the young men left. When the small happy band returned
to
thank her, what she had supposed was confirmed. There had, indeed, been a mix-up!
Anxious to return good for good, the chattering little group insisted they be
allowed
to take her home. Grace refused. Grace is independent. And, from the soft telling
of
it, you
can see that it matters, and you can understand why the young people agreed and
crossed
the avenue to a gift shop and returned with a little cotton elephant.
Now there is a remembrance in Grace's apartment, but there are also four young
people
who, whatever direction they take, are bound to remember a strange city where a
lady
took the trouble to be friendly to them.
(N.B.) outfit: to equip �ʿ��� ��� ���� �ִ�
a foreign accent: ���� ����.
the small happy band: ������� ����� ����; ������ ��ſ��ϴ� �� �:��
�.
matter: to be of importance; be significant
9.Our era has also been widely known as the Age of Anxiety, especially since the
publication of W.H. Auden's poem of that title in 1947. Not that the poet was
responsible
for generating the feeling. He merely captured it, gave it a name, and made us more
aware
of its pervasiveness. Thirty-two years later, the anxiety has not gone away; if
anything it
has been heightened. How much of it can be attributed to the accelerated
acquisition of
scientific knowledge and its widespread application? Plenty.
It would be an exaggeration to say that the Age of Anxiety was brought on by the
Age
of Science. There is no way to measure precisely how much of our anxiety is
directly
related to science and how much to other factors in our lives. But there seems
little doubt that science has been a major producer of anxiety.
(N.B.) Not that = I don't mean that. if anything = if there is any difference
� ����
� �ִ‫�ٸ‬
10.Of the 1,139 students in Harvard class of 67, 90 students declared themselves
"undecided" about their career plans; of this year's 1,000 or so, there are at
least
250 in that limbo.
(N.B.) "class of 67"���� ���‫ �ڴ‬y����
� �Ÿ ����.
Early one morning my postman husband had to wake up a man to sign a receipt
for a letter. Sleeply, the man opened the door, placed the paper against the wall
and
signed. When he handed the receipt back, my husband was puzzled to find it was
blank. Then he spotted the signature - on the wallpaper.
A man was in a grocery store with his stingy friend when two robberts
stormed in and announced a stickup. As the robbers began searching the patrons
for money, the man felt a nudge. "Take this," his pal whispered.
"Don't give me a gun," the man whispered back. "I don't want to be a hero."
"It's not a gun - it's that twenty-five dollars I owe you.
(N.B.) stingy: miserly ���
storm in: to rush violently in > get in. stickup: slang'
holdup < Hold up!�� ���

3.�뵿 鿡 鿡 鿡 鿡��� �븮 鿡 鿡 (��)


1.(a)Ideas are funny things-they never work unless you do.
(b)No man ever behaved more grandly when(he was) unjustly condemned
to die than did Socrates.
(c)Computers spare men from making a lot of unnecessary conjectures.
So do the bikinis.
(d)They don't believe in miracles and neither do we.
2.(a)"Will this trick work?"
"I hope so."
(b)"Will they be back in time for the meeting?"
"I don't think so." (or I'm afraid not.)
3.(a)Do as you are told, or you will be punished.
(b)Come at once:otherwise you'll be too late.
��� �캸콺콺�� �Ŵ�-�츮 鿡 鿡
(�ǹ�)1(a)���� ������� ��8�� �ƹ��� �ҿ��� ��8�� ����
�.
(b)��‫� ���ݱ‬ƹ��� �δ��ϰ� ����� ��; �� ��ũ�������� �� '���ϰ�
�ൿ�� ���: ����.
(c)��ǻ�ʹ� ���鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡: ���ʿ��� ����; ���� �ʰ� ���‫�ش‬. ��Ű���� �������.
(d)�‫�׵‬: ����; ���� �ʴµ�, �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡.
2.(a)"�� �跫鿡鿡 ȿ��; �����ұ�?"
"�� �
‫��� �ٶ‬��"
(b)"�‫ ���׵‬ȸ� ǿ � �ʱ� �ʰ� ���ƿñ�?"
"�� ���� ������ �ʴ´�"
3.(a)��ù�: ��� �8�� �����������
� ,‫ �� ض‬ó��; ��; ����
� �.
(b)���� �3ʶ�, �8
�� ����� �� �ʹ� ��; ���� �.

EXERCISE 25
1.I have no patience with the college graduate who whines that his diploma
doesn't
help him get ahead in business. And less patience with the college graduate who
tries
to prove that it does.
(N.B.) have no patience with = can't put up with. whine:to grumble; complain. get
ahead:
to rise; advance; succeed.
2.A young accountant stayed late at the office day after day. Finally, the boss
called
him in and asked for an explanation.
"Well, you see, sir," he stammered, "my wife works, too, and if I get home before
she
does, I have to fix dinner."
(N.B.) fix: to prepare
3.It always amazes me the way a real-estate agent's attitude changes when you're
trying to sell instead of buy. I once called in an agent to sell my house.
"It's a big house," I said. "It even has two wings."
"Most turkeys do!" he said.
4.I do not deny that the feeling of success makes it easier to enjoy life. A
painter, let
us say, who has been obscure throughout his youth, is likely to become happier if
his
talent wins recognition. Nor do I deny that money, up to a certain point, is very
capable
of increasing happiness; beyond that point, I do not think it does so. What I do
maintain
is that success can only be one ingredient in happiness, and is too dearly
purchased if
all the other ingredients have been sacrificed to obtain it.
(N.B.) let us say: �����.
win: to gain.
maintain: to assert; argue.
dearly: at a high cost
5.The cost of the internal transportation system in a big city is massive. Year
by year
the cost of oil and electricity consumed in the hauling of people has been
accumulating,
and so has the human cost, in physiological wear and tear.
(N.B.) hauling = transportation.
wear and tear: damage
6.As long as the term "art" is applied to a realm so vast and indefinite as to
embrace
literature, music and dance, theater and film, the visual and decorative arts, and
other
equally diverse activities, their classification - the way in chich each is
regarded as
being
either unique or like others - will remain a controversial but necessary
undertaking.
Classification is a useful approach to the organization of knowledge in any field:
the
classification of plants and animals in the 18th century led to the discovery of
evolution
in the 19th. In the arts, classification can be of immense help in understanding
the
interrelations between arts and in drawing attention to characteristics of each
that might
otherwise go unnoticed.
(N.B.) embrace: to include; contain. undertaking: task.
7.The growth of circulating libraries aided the expansion of literature. At a
time when
the prices of books were very high in relation to the purchasing power of the great
majority of the population, circulating libraries were an important social
invention. They
furnished those who had acquired a taste for reading with access to books otherwise
out
of their reach. They helped to reduce the gap between interest in reading and
purchasing
power.
The first circulating library was opened in London in 1740. Rivals quickly sprang
up
in London and in the provinces as well. By the end of the century, about 1,000
libraries
dotted the country. Their rapid success testifies to the growing interest in
reading.
(N.B.) furnish: to provide;supply. access: a way or means of approaching,
getting, using,
etc. otherwise out of their reach=that might otherwise have been out of their
reach.
testify to: to bear witness to; be evidence of; indicate
8.The importance of the fast-moving stream of events in our modern world makes it
imperative that we be well informed. Significant social, economic, and political
issues, all
demanding serious and open-minded investigation, require more than ever before a
higher
level of reader enlightenment.
To advance in knowledge one must forever learn more, study more, reason more.
Reading
helps accomplish this; in college about eighty-five percent of all study involves
reading. If,
as it certainly does, progress comes through study, then reading is perhaps the
student's
chief means to academic progress.
(N.B.) imperative: absolutely necessary; urgent. enlightenment=being well
informed. reason:
to think coherently and logically; draw inferences or conclusions from facts known
or assumed

Campus Comedy
My wife was typing footnotes for her lengthy term paper in history when I
suddenly
sneezed. "Gesundheit", she said, and returned to her typing. I sneezed again.
Without
lifting her head, she muttered, "Ibid"

(N.B.) ������ ��ä����;���� ���Ͼ���� "Gesundheit"(health)��� �ϴµ�, �������


"God bless you"��� � Ѵ�. �‫���� ����� ���־‬: "Ibid"��� �ܾ� �� � ��Ѵ � .

4.��: ���� �‫���� �ٸ� ���� �ٲپ‬


1.God certainly looks after the man who takes care of business first.
2.If Soviet women cherish golden trinkets, young Moscovites go for hand-me-down
American-made clothing.
3.Civilization has to do with the environment in which we live. Culture is
concerned
with life itself and the way it is lived.
4.Modern civilization rests upon machinery and science as distinguished from one
founded on agriculture and handicraft commerce.
5.Though the Europeans and Japanese are reluctant to revalue their moneys, the
conuntries with strong currencies may have to make a joint upward movement of
5% to 10% within a year or two.
6.Mees will oversee the cabinet and domestic-policy staff. Baker will direct all
functions of the White House staff. Both will sit on the National Security Council.
(�ǹ�)1.�ϳ��Բ����� �� ��; ���� ������ ���; �������ֽŴ�.
2.�ҷ��� �������� ��8�� ���� ��ű��� �~��Ѵٰ� �Ѵ ‫�ٸ‬, ��ũ���� �:���:
���� ��f �⼺��; �~��Ѵ ٰ� �� �� �ִ�.
hand-me-down: secondhand; ready-made and cheap
3.����: �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡Ȱȯ� � � � � 谡 鿡鿡8��, ��ȭ�� ��Ȱ ��ü�� ��Ȱ��İ� ��谡
�ִ�.
4.��뿡밡츮��: ���� ���п� ���; �ΰ� �ִ�, ���� ����� ���; ��
������ ��
as distinguished from = unlike
5.��� /���� �Ϻ�: ȭ�� �����ϱ⸦ ��������, ������ ��ȭ�� ���� ������:
1�� �Ǵ� 2�� ����� �Բ� 5% ���� 10% �λ����� ��; �� ��;��  .
� �
6.����� ������ ����då ��� ����; �����ϰ� �ǰ�, ����Ŀ�� ��ǰ� ����;
�����ϰ� �� �����. �� ���: ��� �����Ⱥ�ȸ���� �ӿ��� �� �����.
He sits on two congressional committees.
�2 �‫�� ��״‬ȸ�а�'��ȸ�� �ҼӵǾ� �ִ�.
(����)�� �κ��� �н�: ����; �ľ��ϴ� ���� ũ�� ������ �ȴ�.

EXERCISE 26
1.Millions of French families live without the conveniences common to other
industrial
economies. One out of three French homes is officially considered to be over
populated:
28% have no hot water, 55% are without baths, and 77% lack telephones.
(N.B.) convenience: useful, handy or helpful device, article, service, etc.
industrial economy:
an industrial economic state ����f����
2.With regard to theory and practice there are two opinions. Some say that theory
is
one thing and practice another, so that they do not necessarily go together. Others
are
of the opinion that it is because of the inaccuracy of theory that the two do not
agree.
(N.B.) with regard to: as to; concerning; about.
Theory is one thing and practice (is) another
(thing) = Theory is different from practice; Theory and practice are two
different things.
not necessarily = not always.
3.The Koreans are a mainly rural people, but they are gradually becoming
urbanized.
In 1925, fewer than 5 percent of the population lived in cities. By 1970, more than
30
percent of South Koreans and probably almost as high a percentage of North
Koreans were city dwellers.
4.In his study of historical change, McLuhan believes that the invention of a
certain,
crucially relevant tool or machine initiates huge changes in the environment which,
in
turn, engineer transformations in both man's social relations and his perception of
experience.
(N.B.) crucial: of supreme importance; decisive; critical. relevant: appropriate;
pertinent.
initiate: to start. huge: very large; immense; vast; enormous. perception of
experience;
"���迡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡ν�"-����� �Ǵ� ��ġ��; �ǹ���.
5.Inactivity is another myth. Surveys show that people over sixty spend much less
time being entertained by radio and television than people in their twenties.
Another incorrect assumption is that old people are full of complaints. Some
studies
indicate that the old have at least one thing in common with the young: both seem
to
feel generally happier and more satisfied with themselves and their way of life
than the
middle-aged.
(N.B.) Boldü�� �� ���� ��п� �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 ù°������ ��; ��ü��8�� �ľ���
��
�ִ�.
6.We know very little about Shakespeare, because, in his days, historical stories
were devoted to the lives of kings. It was beyond imagining that a common actor
would be of interest in the future. Similarly in Scott Joplin's lifetime, it
never occurred
to anyone that history would want to know what a songwriter - especially a black
one -
was like.
(N.B.) �� �‫" �����ۿ‬Similarly"��� �ܾ � ������ � 帧; �����‫�ش‬.
7.Man, Nietzsche thought, tugs himself in two opposite directions. The Greek god
of
wine, Dionysus, represents the feeling part of man: vital, creative, inspired but,
if carried
to excess, also deranged and destructive. Apollo, the sun god, stands for the
reasoning
part of man, drawn toward order, systems, and justice with the risk, of course, of
deadening overorganization.
(N.B.) tug: to pull; drag. if(it is)carried to excess = if it is excessive.
deranged:
disorderly;
insane. deaden: ��d; �Ұ� �ϴ�
8.Even when a suspect is apprehended, the chances of his getting punished are
mighty
slim. In New York State each year there are some 130,000 felony arrests;
approximately
8,000 people go to prison. There are 94,000 felony arrests in New York City; 5,000
to 6,000
serve time. A 1974 study of the District of Columbia came up with a similar
picture. Of
those arrested for armed robbery, less than one quarter went to prison. More than
6,000
aggravated assaults were reported; 116 people were put away. A 1977 study of such
cities
as Detroit, Indianapolis and New Orleans produced slightly better numbers, but
nothing to
counteract the exasperation of New York Police Commissioner Robert McGuire: "The
criminal justice system almost creates incentives for street criminals."
(N.B.) chance: a possibility. mighty: 'colloq'very; extremely. felony: a serious
crime,
such
as murder or armed robbery. come up with = produce. aggravated assault: ��������.
exasperation: great annoyance; anger. criminal justice system: �����f�� incentive:
stimulus; encouragement
9.For some, mention of automation calls up an image of a world of robots in which
humans do not work. For others, automation suggests the intricate engineering
problems
of self-regulating system. To many, automation is practically synonymous with
mechanization in industry. For most, however, the term is a vague one having
something to do with electronics and automatic production. Just what is all means
for
the man in the street is not too clear.
(N.B.)�� ������ �4�� 'A����'X�� a�� ���ϰ�, C���� X�� c�� ������, ���� D����
X�� ����; ���ϴ���� �и����� �ʴ ‫����� �ٴ‬.
call up: to make one remember; recall intricate: complex. be synonymous with:
having
the same or nearly the same meaning as. vague: not clear. the man in the street =
most
(people); the ordinary(or average) man. have to do with: -�� ��谡 �ִ�.
10.The new unemployment rat: 8.9%. Everyone who hears that percentage will know
it is fraught with troublesome forebodings. Yet the modern habit of mistaking
statistics
for reality makes it easy to overlook the fact that the rate stands for an
indigestibly large
number of individuals - 9.5 million. Each point in the unemployment rate also
represents,
as the President explained last month, roughly $19 billion in potential but lost
federal
revenues, plus some $6 billion in financial assistance that the Government
disburses to
the
jobless. Such statistical elaborations usefully suggest the vast scope of
unemployment
and its
staggering cost in both forfeited wealth and rescue efforts. Yet it is essential
to remember
that statistics tell nothing whatever about the reality of jolbessness.
That reality is always personal and almost always lashed with a confusion of
difficult
emotions. Indeed, the psychological cost of joblessness is more hurtful to many
victims
than the strain of making financial ends meet. A few individuals, true enough, are
so oddly
disposed that they can take unemployment with upbeat nonchalance, making a lark of
it
or seizing the opportunity to switch careers. Still Americans more typically take a
cruel
psychic bruising when they lose a job(Never mind the cause). And if joblessness
goes on
for long, men and women of all ages, occupations and economic classes tend to
suffer a
sharp loss of self-esteem, a diminished sense of identity, a certain murkiness of
purpose, a sense of estrangement from their friends - a sort of feeling of exile
from wherever they feel they really belong.
(N.B.) fraught with: filled, charged, or loaded with. the Government = the
federal
government
(����d��). disburse: to pay out. forfeited = lost. make ends meet: to get just
enough
money for one's needs; manage to keep one's expenses within one's income(���� ���
ߴ�).
are so oddly disposed = have so odd a disposition(�ʹ��� ����� ����; ����
�‫־‬)
upbeat: cheerful; optimistic.
nonchalance: calmness.
make a lark of: make fun of.
take a cruel psychic bruising: ������ ��=�� ��ó�� �Դ�.
never mind the cause = it doesn't matter what the cause is; regardless of the
cause

5.��ü�� �‫���� �ٲپ‬


1.College graduates with active interest in the arts proved more creative than
those who had no interest in the arts.
(A->A'): who had active interest in the arts
(A'->A): without any interest in the arts
2.At the beginning of this century, a newborn could expect to live to the age of
about 50; today the expectancy is about 70.
(A->A'): a new born can expect to live to the age of about 70
3.A country within which the divisions have gone too far is a danger to itself; a
country which is too well united is a menace to others.
(A->B): which is too badly divided.
4.It is often said that in prosperity we have many friends, but we are usually
neglected when things go badly.
(A->A'): when things go well
(A'->A): in adversity
(B'->B): we usually don't have friends
(�ǹ�)1.���� Ȱ���� ���; �����ִ� ����y���‫��� ����� ���� ���� ���ڵ‬
���� y���‫ڵ‬麸鿡鿡 鿡鿡 â������ �� ���� �巯鿡鿡鿡鿡.
2.�� ���� �ʿ��� ��� �¾ �  �ִ� �� 50������ �� �� ��8���� ����� �� �‫�־‬µ�,
�4��� ������� �� 70����.
3.�ʹ� ���ϰ� �п��Ǿ��ִ� ����� �� ���� ��ü���� '���� �Ǹ�, �ʹ� �� �ܰ��Ǿ�
�ִ� ����� �‫���� �ٸ‬鿡鿡鿡 '���� �ȴ�.
4.���� �� �� ������ ģ���� ��8��, ���� �� ���� ��; ������ �밳 ģ���� ����
��ٰ�, ����: ���� ��� Ѵ�.

EXERCISE 27
1.Today young men and women meet each other with much less difficulty
than was formerly the case.
(N.B.) than was formerly the case = than in the past(or than did their
counterparts
in the past)
2.Geisel has a military appearance but a civilian mind. With Medici it is the
other
way around. Geisel is smarter and he seems to belong to no one. He stands a better
chance of winning the presidential election.
(N.B.) he seems to belong to no one: �‫� �״‬ƹ����Ե� ������ �ʴ� ��ó�� ���δ�.(��,
�� �����ϴ� ������ ��'�� �д ‫)����� �ٴ‬. stand/have a good chance of-: -��
���ɼ��� ����.
3.A certain historian has said of history that "it devours the present." I do not
quite
understand what he means, but in science it is surely the other way about: the
present
devours the past. This does something to extenuate a scientist's misguided
indifference to the history of ideas.
(N.B.) the other way about = the other way around. devour: to eat up; swallow up;
consume or destroy. extenuate: to lessen the seriousness of(�߸��� �� ��'�� ���ſ�;
������ ���ִ�); forgive. does something to extenuate = somewhat extenuate -> The
return of
some market stability did nothing to calm fears of economic uncertainty to
come(���d��
������ ��d; ��ã���� �ٰ��� ��f���� ��Ȯ���Կ� ���� �η�: ���� ������� �ʾҴ�.
cf. His morning walks did much for his health. be indifferent to: -�� ������ϴ�:
She is
indifferent to what others think of her.(= She doesn't care what others think of
her)
4.Birds are particularly sensitive to weather changes, and rooks especially so.
When
they build their nests higher than usual in the trees, it has often been noticed
that a
warm, fairly dry summer follows. The same applies when they fly high, and the
opposite
is the case if they are seen flying low.
(N.B.) the opposite is the case = the opposite is true
5.A motor-vehicle survey has revealed that, in 1940, each car on the road
contained
an average of 3.2 persons. In 1950, the occupancy had declined to 2.1 persons per
car.
By 1960, the average was down to 1.4 persons. If we project the statistics to 1980,
every third car going by will have nobody in it.
6.In his innocence, man held his own special planet to be the center of the
starry
universe until Copernicus, 431 years ago, dared to challenge this dogma. The earth
moves around the sun, he said, not vice versa. It was a profound and troubling
idea.
Yet it was still far from the whole truth, for it kept the sun at the center of
things.
And that misconception persisted in the minds of most until the coming of
photography and the large telescopes of the 20th century.
(N.B.) In his innocence = Because of his innocence �����߱� �������
innocence: ignorance
hold: to believe. vice versa: in the opposite way form that just stated;
conversely.
persist: to continue to exist or prevail; remain.
7.First, Americans were told to trim the fats and cholesterol from their diets.
Then
they were warned about the hazards of sugar. The latest villain is the most common
condiment of all - salt. The National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration have advised everyone to cut down on salt to prevent high
blood pressure. Scary books like "Killer Salt" trumpet the danger lurking next to
the
pepper mill, and food manufacturers have joined the battle with low-sodium canned
goods and salt substitutes like No-Salt. But many experts in hypertension are
mounting
a counterattack. The frantic campaign against salt, they warned last week,
should be taken with more than a large grain of the same.
The experts agree that some of the nation's 40 million to 60 million
hypertensives
should reduce their salt intake. But they seriously doubt that this would do any
good
for the population at large. "We do not have the scientific data to recommend that
the general population go on a low-salt diet," says Dr. John H. Laragh of New York
Hospital-Cornell Medical center. At a scientific symposium in Arlington, Va.,
Laragh and his colleagues noted that a low-salt diet is hard to follow, and may
actually be harmful.
(N.B.) trim: to reduce. hazard: danger. villain: ����, ����. cut down on: to
reduce. scary:
causing alarm; frightening. hypertension = high blood pressure. mount a
counterattack:
�‫��� ;�ݰ‬ϴ�. hypertensive: a patient with high blood pressure. the population at
large=
the general population; ordinary people
8.Let us suppose you are interested in buying a pair of contact lenses. Be
prepared to
pay 175 dollars or more. Generally there are three main reasons why people want
contact lenses. You may need them because your cornea is misshaped and ordinary
glasses are not satisfactory. If so, you'll be in the group that comprises 1 to 2
per cent
of contact lens wearers. But you may want them for a sport, avocation, or vocation.
Perhaps you're a baseball player, a boxer, a swimmer, an aviator, an actor, or
perhaps you're engaged in an industry where flying particles amy endanger your
eyes. If you get your contact lenses for one of these reasons you are in the same
group
with about 20 per cent of the users. But if for some reasons you feel that
spectacles are
handicapping your appearance and you'd rather have invisible glasses, you'll have
lots of company. About 79 per cent of the users hope to improve their looks.
(N.B.) comprise: to make upl; form; constitute. avocation: hobby. company: a
group of
people
9.When I was very young and the urge to be someplace else was on me, I was
assured by mature people that maturity would cure this itch. When years described
me as mature, the remedy prescribed was middle age. In middle age I was assured
that
greater age would calm my fever and now that I am fifty-eight perhaps senility will
do the job. Nothing has worked. Four hoarse blasts of a ship's whistle still raise
the hair on my neck and set my feet to tapping. The sound of a jet, an engine
warming up, even the clopping of shod hooves on pavement brings on the ancient
shudderk, the dry mouth and vacant eye, the hot palms and the churn of stomach high
up under the rib cage. In other words, I don't improve; in further words, once a
bum
always a bum. I fear the disease is incurable.
(N.B.) the urge to be someplace else: ����� �� �� ������ �浿.
was on me = took possession of me. now that = since. do the job = calm my fever.
I don't improve = ���� ���: ���� �ʴ´�.
‫ڰ‬ ‫ڰ‬
Once a bum always a bum: �ѹ� ����‫� �ڰ‬Ǹ� ���� ����‫� �ڰ‬ȴ�.
-�‫ ���ۿ‬Four hoarse blasts ...under the rib cage �κ�: ����� ������ �浿;
�‫��ڱ‬ϴ� ���� �Ͼ��� ������� �;� �� �ߵ�� ������ ���¸� ������ ��� ��.
10.In my experience of the appreciation of poetry I have always found that the
less I knew about the poet and his work, before I began to read it, the better. A
quotation, a critical remark, an enthusiastic essay, may well be the accident that
sets one to reading a particular author; but an elaborate preparation of historical
and biographical knowledge has always been a barrier to me. I am not defending
poor scholarship; and I admit that such experience, solidified into a maxim, would
be very difficult to apply in the study of Latin and Greek. But with authors of
one's
own speech, and even with some of those of other modern languages, the procedure
is possible. At least, it is better to be spurred to acquire scholarship because
you
enjoy the poetry, than to suppose that you enjoy the poetry because you have
acquired
the scholarship. I was passionately fond of certain French poetry long before I
could
have translated two verses of it correctly. With Dante the discrepancy between
enjoyment and understanding was still wider. - T.S. Eliot, Dante
(N.B.) accident: chance. set one to reading = cause one to read.
elaborate: painstaking.
solidified into a maxim = if it were solidified into a maxim ���� �‫���װ‬
����n��
�‫� ���ݾ‬ȴ ‫�ٸ‬
spur: to stimulate. discrepancy: disagreement; difference. �� ���� ����;
�����ϴ� ���� T.S. Eliot�� ��=�귯갡갡�� ������ �� ����� : "Genuine poetry can
communicate before it is understood."
Employees on the complaint desk of our electric-power company have noted a
phenomenon which they say occurs every time there is a prolonged power outage
late on a winter night. They call it thye "day people-night people syndrome."
Within five minutes after the power goes off, angry calls start coming in from
television viewers, party hosts and other "night" people. Then, about 40 minutes
later, comes a flood of even angrier calls - from the "day" people whose electric
blankets have ceased to function.

3.CONTEXT ������ �ľ�


1.���� �4�
�� ���� ��(a paper)���� ���� ����ִ� ����; '��f����'(Thesis Sentence)�� �
�ϰ�, �� ����(a paragraph)�� ���� ����ִ� ����; '��f����'(Topic Sentence)�� ��
�ϸ�, �� ����(a sentence)���� �‫� ���ٽ‬Ǵ� � �ܾ '�‫ٽ‬ɴܾ�'(Key Words)��� � Ѵ�.
1.Thesis Sentence
������ ���ܿ� �����ϴ� ���鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 ª: ��; ���ٰ� ��d�‫���غ‬.
�� ���� �4�� ��=�� ��: ����� �� ��; ����
�.
TITLE(f��) The Similarity of Suburbanites
INTRODUCTION(����) 1.(thesis sentence)People who live in the suburbs are
alike in age, race, and police........
DISCUSSION(����) 2.(topic sentence)Suburbanites are alike in age. ...
3.(topic sentence)Suburbanites are also alike in race.
4.(topic sentence)A third similarity among people who live in the
suburbs is their political orientation. ...
CONCLUSION(���) 5.(conclusion)It is interesting that suburbanites are
similar in age, race, and political views. ...

2.Topic Sentence
Example 1
(topic sentence)To get the most out of your textbooks, you should follow several
steps very carefully. (discussion)First, you should make a preliminary survey of
each book to get a general idea of what the book contains. Second, you should read
for deeper understanding and formulate questions as you read. Next, make notes of
the
major points of each chapter. Then, test yourself to be sure that you can answer
questions likely to be raised in class and examinations. (conclusion)Finally,
review
your notes and reread any parts of the book that are unclear to you.
(�ǹ�)(��f����)���翡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡: ��; ��� '�‫ܰ������ �� ���ؼ‬踦 �ſ� �����‫�ؼ‬
���� � Ѵ�. (����)ù°, ���� �� ���縦 �Ⱦ�� �� å�� ������� 1��; �ľ��‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
��°, ���� ��: ���‫� ��' �ظ‬о�� �ϸ�, �о���鼭 ��; ������ � Ѵ�. ��=����,��
���� ���� ���� ���Ʈ�� �����. � �;�‫ �ڽڽ‬,���� ����Ʈ�‫��� �ؼ‬ǰ� ���迡鿡鿡 f���
���ɼ��� �ִ� �� �‫ ���ֵ� �� ���ش‬Ȯ�����‫ص‬ξ�� � Ѵ�. (���)����8��, ��Ʈ��
������ϰ� �� ������ �и��� ���‫�� ���ص‬: �κ�: �‫� �ٽ‬о� ����.
(N.B.) questions likely to raised in class and examinations: questions that are
likely to be raised in class and examinations. raise: f���ϴ�

Example 2
(topic sentence)Thinking depends upon knowledge. (discussion)It is true
that the person who has much knowledge is not necessarily a good thinker.
But it is also true that the person who is developing good techniques for thinking
will do a better job with much knowledge than he would with little.
(conclusion)What is more, improving your knowledge often tempts you to do
more thinking by rousing your curiosity and by making you more aware of
the areas where thought is necessary.
(�ǹ�)(��f����)���ϴ� ��: �ƴ� �Ϳ��¿�ȴ�. (����)���� �ƴ� ����� � ‫��ݵ‬
�Ǹ��ϰ� ���ϴ� ���� �ƴ϶�� ��: ����� �. ���� ���ϱ� ' � � � � : � � � ;
�����ϴ� ���: ���� �˰� �ִ� ��쿡 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡ϴ� ��캸캸캸�� �� ��
���ϸ���� ��: ���� �����
�. (���)���, ���; ����Ű�� �Ǹ� ���� �‫;�ڱ‬
�Ƽ� �� ��: ��; �ϰ� �Ǵµ�, �ǹ �: ����� ����� ȣ���; �ҷ�
ְ � ���� �ʿ��� ������ ���‫� ���� �� �ؼ‬ǽ��ϰ� ����� �ֱ� �������.
��8���
(����)��f ������ �‫��� ��ݵ‬ο� �4� ��: �ƴϴ�, �밳 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡 8�� ��;
�ᳪ���� ����: ���ο� f������, �ͳ����� ���; ���ϴ� ��쿡 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡f����:
���� ���� �´�.

Example 3
I do not deny that the feeling of success makes it easier to enjoy life. A
painter, let us say, who has veen obscure throughout his youth, is likely to
become happier if he wins recognition. Nor do I deny that money, up to a certain
point, is very capable of increasing happiness; beyond that point, I do not think
it does so. (topic sentence)What I do maintain is that success can only be one
ingredient in happiness, and is too dearly purchased if all the other ingredients
have been sacrificed to obtain it.
(�ǹ�)���� �����‫�� ;��� �ߴٴ� ���� ��; ���� ��; �� ���� ������شٴ‬d����
�ʴ´�. (�ֳ��ϸ�)���� ���, �: ���� �繵 ���� ��� ȭ�����‫�� ;��� ���ڽڽ‬d�ް�
�������� ɼ��� ��8�ϱ�. ���� ���� ���� ��� d������� �
�Ǹ� �� �ູ �ູ; �������

���ɼ��� �ſ� ũ�‫�� �ٴ‬ǵ� ��d���� �ʴ´�. �  ����� d���� �Ѿ�� ���� ���ٰ�
������ �ʴ´�. ���� �����ϴ� ��: ������� �ູ����� �� ҿ� �Ұ ��ϸ �, ���� ‫� ;�װ‬
��� '�� ��� �‫��� �ٸ‬� ��ҵ��� ���Ǿ�‫���� �ٸ‬: �ʹ��� ��ΰ� �� ���� �� a��
�.
‫ڰ‬
(���)'�� �������� ���‫�� �ڰ‬v�ϴ� �κ��� �ѷ��� ��Ÿ���ִ�. �켱 "I do not
‫ڰ‬
deny that ..."���� ���� ���Ƽ� �� �κ�: ���‫�� �ڰ� �ٸ� ������ ���ظ‬d��
�ִ� ������ ���� �‫�� ������� ;���� ���� ���ڽڽ‬: �ƴ϶�� ��; �� �� �ִ�.
���: "Nor do I deny that..."�� ���‫��� ���ؼ‬ȴ�. ���� "What I do maintain..."
������ ��d���� ���� "do not deny"�� "maintain"(�����ϴ�)��
�� ��d���� ����
�‫��ٲ‬n �ְ�, �� �� �տ��� �� ��; ��v�ϴ� ���� �ִ� ��8�� ���� �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡 鿡κп�
��f�� ����ִ‫�ִ� �� �� ���� ;�� �ٴ‬.
� ��8�� ����n�ִ� ��: �ƴ���, ���� �4 븦
��� ���� �� 鿡8 ��� �д� �0�;
�⸣�� ��: ����� ���ϴ�. �ֳ��ϸ� �  �� � ߸ �
��� �κ�; ���� �˾� �� �� �ְ�,
�� ������� �����ӵ��� ���� �� �ֱ� �������.

Example 4
There are three common errors which help to account for the weaknesses of
contemporary education.
The first is the mistaken idea that schools exist principally to train boys and
girls to be sociable, "integrated with their group," "equipped with the skills of
social living,""adjusted to family and community cooperation."Obviously that is one
of the aims of schooling.
But another aim, even more important, is to train the individual mind as
intensely and to encourage it as variously as possible, since much of our better
and more essential life is lived by us as individuals and since, in the advancing
age of mass culture, it is vital for us to maintain personal independence.
The second error is the belief that education is a process which stops completely
as soon as adult life begins. Too many young graduates drop their languages, forget
their science, abandon their economic and political thinking. It is like learning
music and then never going to a concert or playing a single note.
The third error is the notion that learning and teaching always ought to
have immediate results, show a profit, lead to success. It is true that education
is
intended to benefit the entire personality. But it is not possible, not even
desirable, to show that many of the important subjects which are taught as part
of education will make the learner rich, fit him for social life or find him
a job.
(����)�� ����: �� ������ �6��� �� �����‫�ش‬.
(�ǹ�)��뱳 0�� ��a��; �������ִ� ���� ������ �Ǵ� ������ ���� �7� �ִ�.
�� ù��° �7�� ��� ���� ���� �-��, �б��� �ֵ� x�����: �л��; �‫�ٸ‬
����� ���⸦ �~�ϰ� ,"�‫��� ������ ����ڱ‬յǰ�,""��ȸ��Ȱ�� ���; ���߰� �� ϸ�,"
"��d�� ���ȸ�� ��v�� ������" �Ʒý�Ű�� ������ ����
�. ��� ����� ���0��
��ǥ ��� �ϳ����� �ϴ�. ���� �� �ϳ��� ��ǥ-�ǹ �: ��� ���ѵ�-�� ���� �л����
�γ� �� �� �ִ´�� ������8�� �‫��� �پ‬��ϰ� �Ʒý�Ű�� ���� �. �ֳ��ϸ�, �츮 鿡 鿡
���� �Ǹ��ϰ� �������� ���� ��: �κ�: ����8�μ��� �츮 鿡 鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡'�ǰ�, ���߹�ȭ��
� ǰ�
ߴ �ִ� �ô 뿡鿡鿡 鿡츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡 ‫ ;�ڼ‬/���ϴ� ���� �ſ� ���ϱ� ������ �.
�ι�° �߸�: ��0�� ���λ�Ȱ�� ���۵��� ���� ������ d��Ǵ� ��d�� �� �ϴ� ����
�.
�ʹ��� ��: �б��� y���� �:����� �� ���� ���(�Ǵ� ���)�� � ��ΰ�, ����;
�‫���ؾ‬, ��f�� dġ�� ���� ��; ���. �� �: ��ġ =��; ���� ���� �ѹ�
=��ȸ�� ���� �ʰų� �� �� ��v�� �������� �ʴ� �Ͱ� ����ϴ�.
����° �7�� ���� �Ͱ� ����ġ�� ���� ��f�� ���� ��� ��n�8�, �������� ����;
�����ָ�, ����8�� �����‫� ��־‬Ѵ ٰ� ���ϴ� ���� �. ��� ��0�� ����: ��ü�� �ΰ ‫�ݿ‬
����; �ִ � �����. �0�� ����� �Ϻη� �б����� ����ġ�� �ִ� ���� ��� ��� ��:
�͵��� ���� ���; ��/�ϰ� ����ų� ��ȸ��Ȱ�� �����ϰ� ������ְų� ���‫��� ���ڸ‬
���ָ���� ��; �����
ִ � ��: �������� �ʰ� �‫�������ٶ‬v�� �ʴ�.

Success Story
I was interviewing applicants for the position of junior sales manager and had
narrowed
the list to four people. As a final test I gave the applicants a barometer and told
them to determine the height of a particular building using their barometers. The
person who used the most initiative would get the job.
A couple hours later they returned and each told me how he did it. The fourth
applicant said,"I knew that you were looking for someone who knew how to handle
people,
not a mathematician. So I introduced myself to the building manager and said that
if
he told me how tall his building was, "I'd give him a barometer."
He got the job.

Tact
A woman walked into the shoe store, tried on dozen pairs of shoes, without
finding a
proper fit. Finally, the bored assistant told her, "Madam, whe can't fit you
because
one of your feet is larger that the other."
The woman walked out of the store without buying anything.
In the next store, the fitting proved equally difficult. At last, the smiling
assistant explained, "Madam, do you know that one of your feet smaller than other?"
The woman left the store happily with two new pairs of shoes under her arm.

EXERCISE 28
Underline the topic sentence in each of the following passages.
1.Oysters like warm waters. They grow best in temperatures between 66 and 70F. In
southern waters they grow to full size in two or three years. In the north it takes
about four years for them to grow.
2.The yak is an animal about the size of a small ox. It lives in Tibet, a
province on
a high plateau in China. The inhabitants use the yak for transportation. They also
drink the yak's milk, eat its meat for food, and weave its fur into cloth. The yak
is the
most useful animal in Tibet.
(N.B.) (of)about the size of = about as large as.
He is (of) about my age = He is about
as old as I am.(����)size,age��8�� ��
���� ���籸鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡ġ�� of�� ��ȴ�.
weave - into cloth: -; ¥�� �ʰ�8�� �����.
3.Although Einstein felt no need for religious ritual and belonged to no formal
religious group, he was the most deeply religious man I have known. He once said to
me,
"Ideas come from God,"and one could hear the capital "G" in the reverence with
which he
pronounced the word. On the marble fireplace in the mathematics building at
Princeton
University is carved, in the original German, what one might call his scientific
credo:
"God is subtle, but he is not malicious."By this Einstein meant that scientists
could
expect to find their task difficult, but not hopeless: the Universe was a Universe
of law
and God was not confusing us with deliberate paradoxes and contradictions.
(N.B.) ritual: ceremony; rite �ǽ�,�Ƿ�
capital: �뿡밡츮��. reverence: feeling or attituce of
deep respect, love and awe, as for something sacrecd: veneration.
credo: ��v. malicious: having ill will, spiteful.
deliberate: �ǵ�����,��������
4.Although most honey bees are industrious, some are like humans and take a
lackadaisical attitude toward work. They leave the hive late and return early,
making
as few trips as possible. Some bees go to extremes to get out of work and even
follow
a life of crime by becoming "robber" bees. These honey "hoodlums" have all the
cunning
of the infamous Black Bart when they raid the honey stores of other hives. Usually
the
raids are foiled by alert guard bees assigned to protect the rich stores of honey.
But
the successful robbers return to their hives to boast about their exploits. By
unusual dances they communicate to others in the hive that they have found "The
Soft Touch." Other bees, too lazy to work, are dazzled and go off to try their
luck at stealing.
(N.B.) industrious: hard-working; diligent.
human: a human being. lackadaisical: lack in interest or effect; listless.
go to extremes = go to extreme lengths ����� �ָ� ����
cunning: skill in deception; slyness; craftiness ������
infamous: having a very bad successful; notorious.
Black Bart: ��
��� ������ ������ ��
�.
foil: to keep from being successful; thwart; frustrate �������
boast: to brag �˳���,�‫��ڶ‬ϴ�
exploit: an act remarkable for brilliance or daring; bold deed; feat.
dazzle: to cause wonder to; captivate ��Ȥ��Ű��
try one's luck at: -�� �‫���� ������ ;�� ���ڽڽ‬.
5."Why should I study English?" objected a rebellious youth. "I know English I am
English."
But not everyone who is studying English really knows English, nor is knowing all
of the same kind. A professional ball player may know how to pitch a curve. A
physicist
may know the same thing, but he will know it in quite a different way. His way of
knowing
will be better, if he spent as much time in practice as the professional player, in
all
likelihood he could pitch a better curve. In other words, analytic knowledge is an
aid
and support to experimental knowledge.
(N.B.) nor is knowing all of the same kind = and knowing is not all of the same
kind,
either �ƴ� ���� ���� ��� ��: ~�� ���ϴ� ��: �ƴϴ�.
other things being equal = if other things are equal ���� �‫ �ٸ‬v�ǵ��� ���‫�ٸ‬.
in all likelihood: most probably �����ȱ�.
experimental: experiential; empirical ��������
6.To a certain extent, doubt is good for the mind. People who doubt are not in
danger
of being ruled by emotion. But a man who completely lacks any positive beliefs is
often
a useless man, and a life without a belief in something positive is unbearable.
Instead
of doubting everything, we should be ready to believe when there is sufficient
evidence,
and we should try not judge a case while evidence is lacking. In other words, our
mental
attitudes should be "critical" but not "negative".
(N.B.)- �‫����� ;���� ���� ���� ���ۿ����� �־��� ������ �־‬ ִ �
��(���� ���, "To
a certain extent"��� ��: �� ������ ������ ũ�� �ʴ ‫� ������ ���)�ٴ� ��; �����ش‬帧;
�����ִ� ��(���� ���,"In other words"��� ��: � ;��� ���� �‫� ���� �ٷ‬4��� �‫ڿ‬
‫��ٲپ‬
�� ������ ��; �����‫����� ��)�ش‬ϱ� �‫��ٶ‬.
be in danger of: -�� '�� �ӿ� ���ִ�. positive: affirmative(��d����). critical:
��������. negative: ��d����
7. A few years ago I met a man who was running a freight elevator in one of the
downtown office buildings in New York. I noticed that his left hand had been cut
off at
the wrist. I asked him if the loss of that hand bothered him. He said,"Oh, no. I
hardly
ever think about it. I am not married; and the only time I ever think about it is
when
I try to thread a needle." It is astonishing how quickly we can accept almost any
situation-if we have to-and adjust ourselves to it and forget about it.
(N.B.) run: to operate �����ϴ�.
bother: to trouble; annoy
8.Investigators who have studied very young children in school overwhelmingly
present
a grim picture. The child too often stumbles insecurely through kindergarten and
the
early grades. His friends who were delayed a year or so quickly catch up and pass
him -
usually become most stable and highly motivated. His learning retention frequently
remains lower than that if his later-starting peers, regardless of how bright he
is. In
other words, it is hard to escape the conclusion that early schooling is little
short
of crippling.
(N.B.) grim: frightful; ghastly; horrible(������).
stumble: to proceed in a confused, blundering manner ���Ǹ� ���� ���ϰ� �߸�;
����� ���ư���.
highly motivated: "��: ���⸦ ���� �ִ�", �� ��ô ���p� �ϴ�(=very eager to
learn.)
little short of = almost.
crippling: disabling
9.A work if literature may be studied in relation to its author, the culture from
which it springs, and the text itself. One may study a writer's work for the
information
it gives about the character of the writer or his world view. A reader must be
careful,
however, in judging a man from his writings: the attitudes and values of the hero
of a
novel do not necessarily reflect those of the author. Because a literary work is a
product of an age, a knowledge of the political and economic conditions and the
philosophic and religious ideas of that age is useful. But however interesting and
helpful, concern for the author or his background is essentially secondary. The
study
of the work itself is primary. If one is to get at the heart of a novel, a play, or
a
poem, he must focus on its content and structure. He must concern himself with the
experience the author communicates and the form in which he communicates it.
(N.B.) in relation to: -�� ����‫�ؼ‬
spring from: -�� ���� ���4�
world view: �����
be careful in -ing: �ϴµ��� �����ϴ�
not necessarily = not always.
get at = to grasp; understand
focus on = to concentrate on
concern oneself with: -�� ���; ����.
10.As individuals, we find that our development depends upon the people whom we
meet in the course of our lives. (These people include the authors whose books we
read, and characters in works of fiction and history.) The benefit of these
meetings
is due as much to the differences as to the resemblances; to the conflict, as well
as
the sympathy, between persons. Fortunate the man who, at the right moment, meets
the right friend; fortunate also the man who at the right moment meets the right
enemy. I do not approve the extermination of the enemy: the policy of exterminating
or, as is barbarously said, liquidating enemies, is one of the most alarming
developments of modern war and peace, from the point of view of those who desire
the survival of culture. One needs the enemy. So, within limits, the friction, not
only between individuals but between groups, seems to me quite necessary for
civilisation. The university of irritation is the best assurance of peace. A
country
within which the divisions have gone too far is a danger to itself; a country which
is too well united - whether by nature or by device, by honest purpose or by fraud
and oppression - is a menace to others. In Italy and in Germany, we have seen that
a unity with politico-economic aims, imposed violently and too rapidly, had
unfortunate effects upon both nations. Their cultures had developed in the course
of
a history of extreme, and extremely sub-divided regionalism: the attempt to teach
Germans to think of themselves as Germans first, and the attempt to teach Italians
to think of themselves as Italians first, rather than as natives of a particular
small principality or city, was to disturb the traditional culture from which alone
any future culture could grow. -T.S.Eliot,'Notes towards the Definition of Culture'
(N.B.) be due to = result from.
"Fortunate"�� "fortunate"�‫"���� �ٷ� �ڿ‬is"�� ����
��8�� ���϶�.
exterminate: to destroy or get rid of entirely, wipe out; annihilate.
liquidate: to dispose of or get rid of, as by killing.
friction: disagreement or conflict because of differences of opinion,
temperament, etc.
irritation = threat.
regionalism: devotion to one'e own geographical region.
principality: a country; a state
(����)'as much x as y'�� 'x as well as y'���� x�� y���� �� �õȴ�. ���Ƿ� , � 츮鿡
-�‫"���ۿ‬resemblances, sympathy, friend, unity"��'�� ���麸鿡鿡 "differences,
conflict,
enemy, friction"��'�� �� �õȴ ‫�ִ� �� �� ;�� �ٴ‬.
A ragged-looking man had posted himself in front of a large midtown office
building
with a tray of shoelaces. One executive who worked in the skyscraper made it a
daily
habit to give the unfortunate fellow a quarter, but he never took the laces.
One day the peddler, on receiving the quarter, walked after the executive and
tapped
his departing benefactor on the back: "I don't like to complain, sir, but the laces
are
now 30 cents."
Our Company hired a recent high-school graduate for a temporary position. One
day
she looked bored, so I went to talk to her. "What are you doing?" I asked.
"Nothing,"
she replied. That's when I told her this story, hoping she'd learn from it:
Three men were breaking rocks, and a contractor was going to hire one of them. He
went up to the first man and asked him what he was doing. "I'm breaking rocks," was
the reply. The contractor went to the second man and asked the same question. "I'm
breaking rocks that will be used in a building," was the answer. Then the
contractor
questioned the third man, who said, "I'm building a cathedral."
Hoping I'd made my point, I asked the employee which of the three men she would
hire. "I don't know," she replied. "The cute one, I guess."

3.Key Words
Example 1
I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided,and that is the lamp of
experience.
I know of no way of judging the future but by the past.
(�ǹ�)�����Դ� �� �߱� �; �ȳ��� �ִ� �‫� �ٸ‬ϳ��� ����� �ִµ�, �‫�װ‬: �� ������
��� �����
�. ���� ���(����)�� ��x���� �ʰ� ��
��� �Ǵ��ϴ� ��;  
� .�
Example 2
Men are not equal in physical strength, intelligence, attractiveness, or health.
In these characteristics the law of nature is diversity.
(�ǹ�)����: ü�����, ���, �ŷ�, �Ǵ� �ǰ� �鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡ʴ ��
�.
� �¡�� Ư
�‫־‬ �‫�� ���ڿ‬Ģ: �‫پ‬缺�� �.
Example 3
Descartes insisted that, if we are to discover truth, it is necessary that we
question everything at some time in our lives. To him the beginning of
wisdom lay in doubt.
(�ǹ�)��ī��Ʈ�� ���忡 鿡鿡鿡ϸ�, �� �߰� ��Ϸx� �츮鿡鿡 鿡λ� ��� ���� ���
��; �ǽ��ϴ� ���� �ʿ��ϴٰ� �Ѵ � . � ��� ������ ����: �� ȸ�ǿ� �� �‫��־‬.
Two London cockneys were drinking tea. One of them said, "Alfie, I've known
you for 55 years now, and I hate to tell you this - but you are pretentious.
Everything you do from the time you get up in the morning until you go to bed at
night is pretentious."
Alfie seemed a little hurt. He looked at his friend and said,
"Pretentious...moi?"
(N.B.) cockney: a native of the East End of London.
pretentious: ostentatious �߳� �ô�ϴ�
moi(French): me
Patient to doctor: "After one checkup you made me quit smoking because I smoked
too much. Next you made me quit drinking beacause I drank too much. Now I'm just
back from my honeymoon, so this checkup really scares the hell out of me!"

EXERCISE 29
(1)��= �� ���� Key words�� ã�Ƴ��� ��ĭ�� �� ����� ��; ����.
1.We have no way to judge the future except by the past. Our vision into the
future
is dim but we have some light from the lamp of ( ).
(A) hope (B) truth (C) future (D) experience
2.The average person expresses himself differently in writing and in speaking.
With
proper practice the difference can be overcome, and one's writing will become more
( ).
(A) clear and precise (B) like his talk (C) interesting to read (D) widely known
3.Beethoven believed that music should be a medium for the expression of the
composer's ideas and that all other considerations were of secondary importance.
For him, the primary emphasis was upon ( ).
(A) style (B) form (C) content (D) popular appeal
4.Air resists the motion of objects passing through it. Airplanes and automobiles
are
streamlined so that they can pass through the air with ( ).
(A) no resistance (B) less resistance (C) less speed (D) full speed
5.It has always been dangerous to teach men new ideas contrary to those which are
generally accepted. The first men who taught that the earth is round were ( ).
(A) persecuted (B) rewarded (C) right (D) conformists
(N.B.) persecute: to oppress cruelly �����ϴ�.
conformist: ��xüf�� ����, ��� ��'�� ��� ���.
6.We cannot assume that the educated persons of a community are its only clear-
thinking inhabitants, for it has been shown that good judgment is not necessarily
proportional to ( ).
(A) experience (B) wisdom (C) heredity (D) education
(N.B.) not necessarily = not always. proportional to: ����ϴ�
7.Rice requires a great deal of water in order to grow. In most rice-growing
regions
the rainfall does not provide sufficient moisture for the crop. The rice fields
must be
( ).
(A) dug (B) irrigated (C) cultivated (D) fertilized
8.Mountain-climbing involves many risks, and the climber must be alert at all
times. Reckless climbers soon meet with an accident. The job is really one for a
man
who is ( ).
(A) bold (B) strong (C) frightened (D) prudent
(N.B.) involve: to include by necessity; entail; require.
alert: on one's guard against danger; watchful and ready to meet danger.
reckless: not caring about danger; careless;
heedless; rash; too hasty.
meet with: to experience; come upon; come across; encouter.
prudent: cautious; discreet; circumspect; not rash
9.Books almost inevitably suffer in the process of being made into movies. There
may be scenes in a book that seem to be made for filming, but the preliminary
preparation that gives the scenes their significance is not readily transferable to
( ).
(A) mass production (B) paper (C) celluloid (D) the imagination
(N.B.) suffer: to experience loss ���‫���� �ظ‬.
preliminary: introductory �����ϴ�,��������
readily: without difficulty; easily.
celluloid: film; movies
10.Man is one of the most formidable of all animals and the only one who
persistently
chooses to attack his own species. Throughout history, he has never, except for
short
periods of time, dispensed with ( ).
(A)community (B)vigorous outdoor sports (C)biological perpetuation (D)fierce
warfare
(N.B.) formidable: fearful; dreadful; frightful.
persistently: continually; stubbornly.
choose: to decide; prefer.
dispense with: to get rid of; do away with; do without; manage without
11.The great incentive to learning a new skill or supporting discipline is an
urgent
need to use it. For this reason many scientists do not learn new skills or master
new
disciplines until the ( ) is upon them to do so.
(A) evidence (B) information (C) opportunity (D) pressure
(N.B.) incentive: stimulus; motive; encouragement.
discipline: a branch of learning �й��� �� �о�.
urgent: pressing; calling for immediate action
12.It can be said that any scientist of any age who wants to make important
discoveries must study important problems. Dull problems yield dull answers. It is
not
enough that a problem should be interesting. A problem must be such that it ( )
what
the answer is - whether to science generally or to mankind.
(A) chances (B) happens (C) matters (D) seems
(N.B.) dull: not interesting; unexciting; boring; tedious.
yield: to produce. matter = be important
13.The view of a knowledge of physical science as a means of 'getting on' is
unquestionable. There is no occupation whose pursuer will not find some knowledge
of
science to be ( ).
(A) absorbing (B) acceptable (C) profitable (D) interesting
(N.B.) physical science: �‫�����ڿ‬.
get on: to succeed. absorbing: very interesting; engrossing
14.Men require the opportunity to do challenging work. I don't include in this
category the many tasks which are merely repetitive drudgery. I am not interested
in
( ).
(A) necessary work (B) creative work (C) monotonous work (D) artistic work
(N.B.) challenging: causing competitive interest, action, or thought, especially
because
new, unusual, or difficult; fascinating.
category: ����.
drudgery: uninteresting work.
monotonous: ��v�ο�
15.A writer must be very careful to say only things that are true. He must not
make
any statements or implications which are false. He must be ( ).
(A) imaginative (B) clever (C) educated (D) accurate
(N.B.) be careful to (do): v���‫ �ؼ‬-; �ϴ�.
implication: something implied, from which an
inference may be drawn. accurate: free from mistakes or errors; correct
16.The term "culture shoch" has been coined to describe the effect that immersion
in
a strange culture has on the unprepared visitor. It is what happens when the
familiar
psychological clues that help an individual to function in society are suddenly
replaced by ( ).
(A) new ones that are alien and incomprehensible
(B) better ones that are hard to unerstand
(C) new ones with which he is very familiar
(D) inferior ones that he has already experienced
(N.B.) coin: to make up; devise; invent.
have an effect on: -�� ����; ��ġ��.
immersion: ����.
clue: hint; suggestion �Ǹ���,�Ͻ�
function: to act in a required or expected manner
17.Love of truth is the core of this man's philosophy. He is always ready to
revise
his views when presented with adequate evidence of their lack of ( ).
(A) validity (B) interest (C) importance (D) popularity
(N.B.) core: �‫�ٽ‬.
revise: to correct; change or amend.
when presented -> when he is presented.
adequate: enough; sufficient.
validity: Ÿ�缺
18.Modern criticism, through its exacting scrutiny of literary texts, has
demonstrated
with finality that in art beauty and truth are indivisible ( ).
(A) and one (B) and two (C) and never expressed (D) and forever separated
(N.B.) criticism: ����.
exacting: demanding great care, patience, effort, etc; arduous;
onerous ����
scrutiny: a close examination d���� v��
with finality: conclusive ��d��8��, �����8��
19.The self-made man tends to emphasize the worth of material success and to ( )
seemingly nonproductive activities.
(A) support (B) approve of (C) eliminate (D) disapprove of
(N.B.) "nonprodutive activities"�� "material success"�� ��‫ݵ‬ȴ�.
self-made man: �‫��� ����ڼ‬.
seemingly: ��8�� ���
20.Little Indian girls learned from their mothers to cook and to make clothing.
Boys learned from their fathers how to fish, hunt, and fight. They did not have
schools where they learned to read and write, but we cannot say that they had no
( ).
(A) recreation (B) religion (C) books (D) education
(2)Choose the title that best expresses the main idea of each of the following
passages.
1.George Willard, the Ohio village boy, was fast growing into manhood, and new
thoughts had been coming into his mind. All that day, amid the jam of people at the
Fair, he had gone about feeling lonely. He was about to leave Winesburg to go away
to some city where he hoped to get work on a city newspaper and he felt grown up.
The mood that thad taken possession of him was a thing known to men and unknown
to boys. He felt old and a little tired. Memories awoke in him. To his mind his new
sense of maturity set him apart, made of him a half-tragic figure.
(A) Boyhood (B) Coming to Maturity (C) Winesburg (D) Tragedy of a Village Boy
(N.B.) grow into manhood = grow into a man.
cf.come of age: reach the age when one is qualified for full legal rights ���
��
���.
amid: in the middle of; among.
jam: crowd; crush.
fair: d����8�� ������ ��, �‫(���ڼ‬bazzar).
go about: to move from place to place.
take possesion of = to possess ������; seize; take hold of.
set him apart(from others): to separate him from others.
He made a great statesman of his son = He made his son a great statesman
2.The child whose parents are fond of him accepts their affection as a law of
nature.
He does not think very much about it, although it is of importance to his
happiness.
He thinks about the world, about the adventures that come his way and the more
marvelous adventures that will come his way when he is grown up. But behind all
these external interests there is the feeling that he will be protected from
disaster by
parental; affection. On the other hand, the child from whon for any reason parental
affection is withdrawn is likely to become timid and unadventurous, filled with
fear and self-pity, and no longer able to meet the world in a mood of gay
exploration.
(A) The Adventurous (B) The Timid Child
(C) The Absence of Parental Affection (D) The Importance of Parental Affection
(N.B.) disaster: any serious or sudden misfortune; calamity; catastrophe.
withdraw: to take back; remove.
meet the world: �����Ͽ� ��ó�ϴ�.
gay: joyous; merry; happy
Notice the difference between what happens when a man says to himself, "I have
failed
three times," and what happens when he says, "I am a failure." - S.I. Hayakawa
A child needs your love the most when he deserves it the least. - Erma Bombeck

2.�4�� ����
������, ����8�� ����, �Ϲ����� ���(generalization) �Ǵ� ����(argument); ����
�κа� � � ;�‫�װ‬ħ�� �ִ� ����(illustration)�κ��� �ִ�. ��; ��; ���� ���úκ�;
��ȣ�� ��8�� �4� ���� ���‫־‬븦 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡 �ִ�.
Example 1
The Assiniboins were thrifty people who utilized all of their dead prey: (the
meat
was their food; their clothing came from the hides; their tools and weapons came
from
the bones and horns. Once the other parts had been diposed of, the children used
the
buffalo's ribs as sleds.)
(�ǹ�)�ƽôϺ���w(��� ����� �����ߴ� �� �ε�� ��w): �˶��� ����� �‫����ڱ‬
��: ����(���)�� ��� �κ�; ����ߴ�: ��, ���� �ķ�8��, ����: ��8��, �?� ��:
������ ����� ����ߴ�. ������ �κе�; ó���ϰ� ����, ��� ��� ����� ����8�
��ŷ� ����ߴ�.
(���)���úκ�: ��� �տ� �ѹ� ���� ���� ���� ����8�Ƿ� ��κ��� ��쿡 鿡ӵ�(rapid
reading)�� �����ϴ�. ����, ��ҿ� �� � �κ�: �� �� �ִ´�� ���� �о� ��������
����‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
Example 2
Mark Twain was an angry prophet who saw his republic choked by the corporate
state.
But he never did arrive at a consistently view of his world. His feeling toward the
technological society was widely ambivalent. (He admired technology; hedespised it.
The
U.S. was corrupted; it was the hope of the world. Man was a splendid fellow; man
was
changelessly evil.) His own life reflected these inconsitences. (He delivered a
fine
speech lampooning accident insurance at a time when he himself was a director of an
accident company.) The most consistent product of such inconsistency was humor.
(�ǹ�)��ũ Ʈ����: ���� �����‫�� ���ڷ� �ڱ‬ȭ����������������ĵǴ� ��8��
���Ҵ�. �‫��� �״� ���� �ڽڽ‬��� ���迡 鿡鿡鿡‫� �ؼ‬ϰ��ִ� ���ߴ��� ���� �‫�ظ‬.
����ȸ��
���� ���� ��: �θ� ������� ������. �8���� �‫��� ��״‬б��; ����ߴ°� �ϸ�
�� ����8�δ� �‫� �߰���� ;�װ‬, ���� ���ٰ � ����鼭�� �‫�װ‬: ������ �������
����8��, ���; ���� x��� ���ϸ 鼭�� ���Ծ��� ���� x���� ���ߴ�. ��
�‫ �״‬.��‫���� ������� ���; �ݿ��� �־‬ � �� ���� ���‫������ ���� �ڽڽ‬
�����;
v���ߴµ�, �� �� �� �‫����� ���ڽڽ‬ȸ���� �� 翴��. �� ��� �ϰ��� ��� ����
���� �ϰ��ִ� �깰갡깰�� ��������.
(N.B.) choke: to suffocate; stifle ��Ľ�Ű��.
a corporate state: ����(������
�ϳ��� ������8�� ���� ���‫���� ���� ���ؿ‬-��� "��ȭ���� ������ ���‫�� �ؼ‬ĵȴ�"��
������ dġ���� ������ ������ ��f���θ� ������ �� ��ִ‫)����� �ٴ‬.
ambivalent = inconsistent.
deliver/make a speech: �����ϴ�.
lampoon: to attack or ridicule by means of a piece of strongly satirical writing
�����ϰ� dz � ����� �۷� ����ϰų� v���ϴ�.

A Good Example
Course listed in a bulletin of Bristol Community College in Fall River, Mass:
"Decisions, Decisions, Decisions - The course is for people who have a tough time
making decisions day in and day out. This is not a stuffy, stifling approach to
problem-solving. So don't register if you think you have all of the answers. If you
don't know whether you want to sign up for this course, you are eligible."
(N.B.)have a tough time -ing: -�ϴµ��� ���; ��. day in and day out: every day;
continuously. sign up: to sign an agreement to take part in something;
enroll(����ϴ�)
‫ڰ‬
eligible: qualified(�‫)�ִ� � �߰��� ;�ڰ‬

�������3

EXERCISE 30
��= �� ���� �����ϴ� �κ�; ��ȣ�� �����.
1.Eisenhower's major virtue, which appeared less important in 1962 than it does
now, was a sense of proportion; he had an instinctive knowledge of what could be
done and, more important, what could not be done. As far back as 1951, for example,
when the French were fighting in Viet Nam, he forsaw nothing but swamps. "I'm
convinced that no military victory is possible in that kind of theater," he noted.
In
1955 members of his Cabinet predicted imminent war with Red China in the Formosa
Strait. Ike knew better: "I have so often been through these periods of strain
that I have become accustomed to the fact that most of the calamities that we
anticipate really never occur."
(N.B.) a sense of proportion: � ��õǾ� �ִ� ��� ������ ��迡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡ľ�(���⼭
鿡鿡
"�� �� �ִ � ���� ������, ���� ���� ��:, �� �� ��� ���� �������� �ƴ� ��"�� �
�ǹ�� ����=).
As far back as 1951: �ָ� 1951��8�α��� �Ž��� �ö�
�,
ö 
ööö ��� �ξ�
������ 1951� ���.
swamp: marsh; bog; morass ��.
note: to mention ����ϴ�.
imminent: impending �ӹ���.
the Formosa Strait: �븦븸븸 ����.
Ike knew better: ����h �Ͽ�� �‫׵‬麸鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡˰� �‫�� �״‬.��‫� ������ �־‬Ͼ ��
��8����� ��; �˰� �‫)��־‬.
strain: great tension Ŀ�‫���� �ٶ‬.
calamity: disaster; catastrophe �糭
2.Admirals and generals do not win war. Presidents do. Consider: Washington(the
nearest thing we had to a President during the Revolution), Lincoln, Wilson and
Franklin Roosevelt.
Admirals and generals do not lose wars. Presidents do, or at least they fail to
win
them. Consider: Truman in Korea and Lyndon Johnson in Viet Nam.
In conflict, everything rests on grand strategy, a President's concept of how the
threats, purposes and realities of power should be used. No vision, no victory.
Washington wisely employed young America's guerrilla instincts, honed in skirmishes
on the frontier, to beat the massed British armies. Lincoln, whose first
commanders were bested by field tacticians of the Confederacy, turned to big
armies,
superior firepower and generals like Grant, who knew how to use them. Wilson and
Roosevelt marshaled American industrial capacity to win World Wars. Johnson and
Truman never figured out what they wanted, so they never made up their minds
how to fight.
(N.B.) the nearest thing we had to a President the Revolution: ����� ��� �Ⱓ
�� ���ɿ� ���� ����� x��(�� ��ÿ��� ������� ���8�ϱ�).
conflict = war rest on: to depend on.
grand: magnificent.
strategy: ��.
use = employ = turn to = marshal ���⼭�� �� � �� �ܾ����� : �ǹ� �
���Ǿ�=.
instinct: talent; knack ����
hone: to sharpen ����, �����ϴ�.
skirmish: a brief fight or encounter between small groups; brush.
beat: to defeat.
massed: �� �� ���� ����ִ�.
best: to outdo; surpass �ɰ��ϴ�.
Confederacy: (�������� ����)�����.
firepower: ȭ��.
figure out: to understand; reason out ���ϴ�
3.Franklin's vision also was the source of many of the paradoxes of his
character.
He was deeply involved in numerous causes, yet remained strangely aloof. He was a
revolutionary with a sense of humor. He was earnest because he knew that we really
do make our own world, and so we must make it the best world we can. Yet he was
skeptical because he realized that the result of human effort is often a sorry and
ludicrous botch. Some of these paradoxes have passed from Franklin into the
American character - that mixture of conviction and skepticism, zeal and humor,
liberalism and consevatism.
(N.B.) be involved in: -�� ���ϰ� �ִ�.
cause: any objective or movement, especially one involving social reform.
aloof: apart; detached; distant in sympathy, interest, etc; reserved and
cool �ʿ���.
He was a revolutionary with a sense of humor = He was a
revolutionary but he had a sense of humor.
skeptical: incredulous; doubting; distrustful; not easily persuaded or convinced.
sorry: miserable; wretched.
ludicrous: ridiculous; laughably absurd; preposterous.
botch: a bungling or unskillful piece of work ���8�� �‫�س‬: ��.
zeal: intense enthusiasm; ardor; fervor
4.Sincere people recognize the direction in which their lives are meant to go.
When
Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary doctor, was a boy, a friend proposed that
they go up in the hills and kill birds. Albert was reluctant, but, afraid of being
laughed at, he went along. They arrived at a tree in which a flock of birds were
singing; the boys put stones in their catapults. Then the church bells began to
ring,
mingling music with the birdsong. For Albert, it was a voice from heaven. He
shooed the birds away and went home. From that day on, reverence for life was
more important than the fear of being laughed at. His priorities were clear.
(N.B.) mean to (do) = intend to (do).
reverence: respect; veneration x��
One night a man had a dream. He dreamed he was walking along the beach with
the Lord. Across the sky flashed scenes from his life. In each scene he noticed two
sets of footprints in the sand - one belonging to him and the other to the Lord.
When the last scene flashed before him, he looked back at the footprints and
noticed
that many times along the path there was only one set of footprints in the sand.
He also noted that this happened during the lowest and saddest times in his life.
This bothered him and he questioned the Lord: "Lord, you said once I decided to
follow you, you would walk beside me all the way. But I noticed that during the
most troublesome tiems of my life, there was only one set of footprints. I don't
understand why, when I needed you most, you deserted me. "The Lord replied, "My
precious child, I love you and would never leave you. During your times of trial
and
suffering when you saw only one set of footprints, it was then that I carried you."

3.������ ��踦 �����ִ� ��ġ


�� ������ �‫� �����ۿ‬ϳ��� ����: �� ��� �� �‫�� ����� �ִ� �ڿ‬d�� ������
���; ���´�. ���⼭�� �� ��� ��ʸ� �����ִ� �� ���� ��ġ�� ���‫��� �ؼ‬캸캸캸���
����.
Example 1
One of the most difficult lessons to learn in painting is when to stop. In
overworking, not only will your painting lose its spontaneity and freshness, but
you
may very well find that you ( ) the painting altogether.
(A)lose (B)like (C)begin (D)bring
(���)not only x but (also) y ��v���� x�� y�� ����: ���ų� ����‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
(d��)A
(�ǹ�)� �; � � ���� ���� �� ���� ��� �� ��� �ϳ��� ��f �3 ���  � Ĵ�
�����. (� ֳ ��ϸ�) ��ġ�� ���� ���� �Ǹ�, � ‫��� �ڿ‬�������� �ż���;
��; �Ӿƴ϶�, ��; ��°�� �ϰ� �� ���ɼ��� �ſ� ��� ������ �.
Example 2
The English Reformation was prompted less by religious than by economic
motives - that is, by concern ( ).
(A)more for peace than for war
(B)more for war than for peace
(C)less for money than for truth
(D)less for truth than for money
(���)that is (to say)��� �ο���ġ�� ���� by concern = less by religious
than by economic motives��� ��İ�谡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡Ǿ�� � Ѵ�.
(d��)D
(�ǹ�)������ ~������; ������ ��: ~������ ���⺸�‫�� �ٴ‬f���� ���⿴�� -�‫�ٽ‬
���‫�ؼ‬, �� ���� ��ɺ��‫������ ���� ���� �ٴ‬.
-�� � �ο� ��ġ : comma, colon, dash, or, i.e.(id est), that is(to say),
in other words, put another way, etc.
Example 3
Emerson's faith was not in machinery but in man thinking, whereas we today
are ( ) machines that think, and suspicious of any man who tries to.
(A)aware fo (B)ashamed of (C)indepenent of (D)proud of
(���)whereas�� ��v(contrast)��踦 ��Ÿ����.
(d��)D
(�ǹ�)���ӽ��� ��=: ��谡 鿡ƴ϶� ���ϴ� �ΰ����� �‫ �ݸ‬,��8�‫־‬鿡 鿡 츮 鿡 鿡
�4ó� ���ϴ� ��迡 鿡鿡鿡‫����� ���ؼ� �ڶ‬, ���Ϸt� ��� ���‫���ؼ‬
�ǽ�� Ѵ�.
-� � � ��v ��ġ : but, although/though, while, whereas, meanwhile, on the other
hand, on the contrary, conversely, rather than, not, instead of, as opposed to,
in contrast with, as compared with, as against, etc.
Example 4
Much recent housing and city planning has been ( ) because those
who have undertaken the work have had no clear notion of the social functions
of the city.
(A) improved (B) bettered (C) established (D) handicapped
(���)because�� ��/(reason)�Ǵ� ����(cause); ��Ÿ����.
(d��)D
(�ǹ�)��: �ֱ� ���ð� ���� ��ȹ: ����; �ƿԴµ�, �� ��/�� �‫�� ��; ����ؿ‬ 
������ ������ ��ȸ���� ��ɿ� ���‫���� ���� �ؼ‬ϰ� ���‫ظ� ���� ���ؿ‬Ա� ������ �.
Example 5
Many writers seem to believe that man is an exception to the order of nature,
for they picture his actions as being determined only by himself. But they are in
error, for man is a part of nature and hence must ( ).
(A) determine his own actions (B) exist in a separate
(C) follow nature's laws (D) conquer nature's laws
(���)hence�� ������ �Ͱ�(corollary); ��Ÿ����.
(d��)C
(�ǹ�)��: �‫ ����� �ڿ‬:���� ���‫ �������� �� ���۾‬x���� �ϰ��ִ� ��
����. � ֳ ��ϸ� �‫�׵‬: ����� �ൿ�� �7��� �‫ڱ��ڽڽ‬ſ� ���‫�� �ؼ‬d�Ǵ� ��8��
�����ϴϱ�. � �: �߸� �ӿ� ��n�ִ�. � ֳ ��ϸ� ���: �‫� ���ڿ‬Ϻ����,
��� �‫�� ���ڿ‬Ģ; ���� �ϱ� ������ �.
-�Ͱ� �Ǵ� ��� ��Ÿ���� �� : therefore, accordingly, consequently,
as a result, etc.
Example 6
Corn is the most important of all American crops, and annually the corn crop
is greater than the combined production of wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice and
buchwheat. Used mainly as feed for livestock, corn is as basic to the American
agricultural economy as iron is to ( ).
(A)commerce (B)industry (C)agriculture (D)production
(���)- ������ ���� ������ �4�� A is to B as/what C is to D�� /��(analogy)
��踦 ��Ÿ����. ������ ���‫�ؼ‬, analogy�� �� �繰 ������ �����8�� ����� a�� �.
��=�� ��: ��ʰ�谡 鿡ϳ��� ��: ����.
2:5::6:15
(d��)B
(�ǹ�)�|��� ��� �� ��� ���۹� ����� � ��� ���ϸ�, �� ���� �|�� ��귮:
��, ��, ��� , ȣ��, ��, ��; ��ģ ��귮鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡. ��� ����; '�� �����
���Ǵµ�, �|��� �� ��� ����f�� �ʿ�Ұ����ϴ�. ö�� ��� �ʿ�
�Ұ����ϵ���.
-/�߰ � 踦 �����ִ� �� : like, as, similarly, likewise, etc.
Example 7
Wealth is not merely banknotes or even gold and silver and precious stones.
Ultimately it is things - the food in the stores, the minerals from the ground, the
ships on the oceans, etc. It is also having clever artists, musicians, writes,
technicians, and so on. In short, a country's wealth lies in the richness of its
soil and in the skill of its ( ).
(A)people (B)engineers (C)statesmen (D)leadership
(���)In short�� �տ� ���� ��; ����� �‫�ش‬.
(d��)A
(�ǹ�)�ζ�� ��: �ܼ���� :������ ����� �‫ �ݰ‬:�� ������; ����Ű�� ����
�ƴ϶�, �ñ���8�� �‫�װ‬: ������� - ���Կ� �ִ� ��ǰ� ������, ������ �ij� ����,
�‫ �װ‬,:�� ��'�� �� ��' �‫�ٴ‬: ���� ����� ȭ��, =�ǰ�, ���ʰ�, ����� ��'��
���� ���� �. ���t�, �ζ�� ��: �� ������ ����� ����� � ���� ������ ���
���ִ�.
-����ϴ� ���� ���Ǵ� �� : to sum up, to conclude, in conclusion, in brief,
in a mutshell, etc.
The late actress Dame Madge Kendal was asked, when well along in years, how she
managed to look so well. Her reply: "I try to fill up my wrinkles with
intelligence."

EXERCISE 31
��= ��ĭ�� ���� �˸�: ��; ����.
1.As we shall see, the two subjects are closely connected, and might, indeed,
be regarded as different aspects of a ( ) topic.
(A) double (B) dual (C) identical (D) single
(N.B.) dual: double: twofold ��������
identical: same; exactly alike or equal
2.The forces of socialization that lead the individual to accept social
institutions in their present from are not easily broken and ( ).
(A) valued (B) emphasized (C) transformed (D) mended
(���) ���� "and"�հ� �‫ � �;� ���� ������ ����� ���ڿ‬Ѵ�.
3.Both content and style are essential to good poetry. A good subject does
not insure a good poem, and an elaborate form is ridiculous in the absence of (
).
(A)something to say (B)elaborate style
(C)a complex purpose (D)insignificant content
(N.B.) subject = content. form = style. in the absence of = without
4. Ideas can sometimes be communicated better by gestures than by words. It
is much less effective to tell a person to leave the room than to ( ).
(A) ask him to go (B) point to the door
(C)say nothing at all (D) get up and go out
5. It has been said that knowledge is power, but great power lies in the
ability to utilize knowledge. A trained and powerful mind surely contains
something, but its chief value consists in what it ( ).
(A) contains (B) retains (C) forgets (D) can do
(N.B.) untilize: to put to use or make practical use of. consist in=to lie in
6. The existence of evil is a proof of the existence of God. If the world
consisted wholly and uniquely of goodness and righteousness, there would be
no need for God, for the world itself would be God is, because ( ) is.
(A) proof (B) God (C) goodness (D) evil
(N.B.) uniquely: only; solely.
righteous: morally right; fair and just; virtuous
7. In order to enjoy the detachment and to exercise the reason of a Hume or
a Gibbon, two things, besides intelligence, are required: self-knowledge and a
sense of humor. One must neither ( ) oneself nor take oneself too seriously.
(A) receive (B) expand (C) deceive (D) destroy
(N.B.) ���� ����: "self-knowledge and a sense of humor"�� ���� ����.
exercise the reason of a Hume or a Gibbon: ��� ��: ö���‫�� ���� �ڳ‬:
�������� ���; �����ϴ�.
David Hume (1711-76): Scottish philosopher and historian. Edward Gibbon
(1737-94): English historian.
8. Any patient who participates in a medical experiment must sign an
"informed consent" document. This form has two purposes;to ensure that
human subjects fully understand the experimental nature of the treatment and
to guarantee that their decision was made ( ).
(A) deliberately (B) accidentally (C) altruistically (D) without pressure
(N.B.) "informed consent": �‫����� Ⱑڱ‬ϴ� ����; ����� �˰� �� ����.
form = document. altruistically: ����; '�‫�ؼ‬
9. Though many of the teachings of Socrates are generally accepted today, in
his time they disagreed with the prevalent ideas and were considered to be
very ( ).
(A) radical (B) conventional (C) conservative (D) philosophical
(N.B.) prevalent = generally accepted.
radical: extreme; favoring fundamental or extreme change.
conventional: traditional. conservative: ��������
10. As rational beings, we can, to some extent, control our surroundings. We
may ( ) of social or economic forces, but we, as citizens, can work to change
our society.
(A) be at the mercy (B) be at the cost
(C) follow the lead (D) take the lead
(N.B.) rational beings: ��
�; ���� x��.
at the mercy of: under the control of;
powerless against. take the lead in: --�� ���弭鿡鿡.
11. At first, each star appears separated from all the others;but, as one looks
a little longer, ( ), pairings appear, and groupings emerge.
(A) many stars come into view (B) constellations dissolve
(C) clusters begin to take shape (D) every star becomes distinct
(N.B.) pairing: a group of pairs.
emerge: to come forth into view; become visible. constellation: ���‫�ڸ‬,����.
cluster: ���,��,����.
take shape: ����� ��Ǵ�.
12. There are certain things that the world quite obviously needs:
tentativeness, as opposed to dogmatism, in our beliefs; an expectation of
cooperation, rather than ( ), in social relations; a lessening of envy and
collective hatred. These are things which education could produce without much
difficulty.
(A) despair (B) rejection (C) operation (D) competition
(N.B.) tentativeness: Ȯ������Ű���; �������Ǵ������=; d���ϴ���.
dogmatism: �������� ����� ����.
as opposed to=rather than; instead of.
lessen: to decrease. collective: �������
13. People who scorn the study of the past and its works usually assume that
the past is entirely different from the present, and that hence we can learn ( ).
(A) something worthwhile from the past
(B)something worthwhile from the present
(C)nothing worthwhile from the past
(D)nothing worthwhile from the present
(N.B.) scorn: to view or treat with contempt; despise. assume: to suppose;
take for granted
14. During the Middle Ages, singers wandered from place to place. Wherever
they went they were welcomed. They often narrated tales of happenings near
and far in their songs. They were ( ) of their time.
(A) preachers (B) news commentators (C) minstrels (D) poets
(N.B.) narrate: to tell; give an account of.
preacher: a person who preaches; especially, a clergyman ���.
minstrel: ����
� / � ���� �Ǵ� ����
15. If we are to improve the quality of a piece of writing, we must do more
than merely criticize it. We must explain why we criticize it. Inferior work is
most effectively remedied when we know ( ).
(A) exactly how poor it is (B) what good writing is
(C) why it is poor (D)who wrote it
16. Just why sleep is necessary still baffles researchers. It doesn't seem to be
essential for health. Long periods of sleep deprivation may cause transient
disorientation, but the effects aren't ( ).
(A) permanent (B) mysterious (C) apparent (D) abnormal
(N.B.) baffle: to confuse so as to keep from understanding or solving; puzzle;
confound.
deprivation: ��Ż < deprive ��� Ѵ�.
transient: not parmanent; temporary.
disorientation: confusion, especially with respect to time, place, and
the identity of persons and objects
17. The male suicide rate is about four times as high as the female rate. But
women attempt suicide nearly three times as often as men;they succeed less
often because they use less ( ) methods, such as taking pills, while men tend
to favor guns.
(A) terrific (B)scientific (C) lethal (D) mortal
(N.B.) lethal: causing or capable of causing death; deadly; fatal. mortal: that
must eventually die �‫������ �װ‬
18. To understand something thoroughly, we must know its parts. For
example, we know a house when we are familiar with its rooms and with the
various details of its construction. Words are built much like houses;we shall
understand words better by familiarizing ourselves with ( ).
(A) the best modern writers (B) the laws of syntax
(C)available reference sources (D) the elements of which they are made
19. When recombinant DNA ignited the genetic revolution in 1973, scientists
and businessmen were attracted by its near miraculous medical potential. But
today, with impending food shortages and vanishing arable land, gene splicing
is moving down to the ( ).
(A) village (B) school (C) church (D) farm
(N.B.) recombinant DNA: DNA ��v��; �� ��: "/���� ����"(gene splicing)
�Ǵ� "/�����"(genetic engineering)�� ���Ǿ�� ���ȴ�. medical potential:
��� �� �ִ� ���ɼ�. impending: imminent �ӹ���. vanish: to pass
���п� ��
gradually out of existence; come to an end. arable: ���۰�����
20. Although the aim of a is the acquisition of information, the information
must of course be reliable. Hence there is a necessity in the sciences for a
systematized way of amassing knowledge. It is this ( ) that marks the
essential difference between a science and any other discipline.
(A) reliability (B) reliable information
(C) scientific exactitude (D) systematization
(N.B.) ������ �帧; ���϶�.
acquisition: ȹ�� < acquire ȹ���ϴ� amass: to collect; gather.
exactitude: accuracy dȮ��
21. Contemporary composers have been showing a strong reaction to this kind
of realism. In fact, ( ) began as far back as the beginning of our century.
(A) the revolt (B) the show (C) the ideal (D) the realism
22.Americans have never been known for snobbishness. They are
characterized by their belief in equality of the individual and their ( ), born out
of frontier neighborliness and suspicion of putting on airs.
(A) incurable audacity (B) impatience with pretense
(C)preference for authoritarianism (D) inferiority complex
(N.B.) snobbish: �ӹ�����.
frontier neighborliness: ��ô�ô��� ģ��.
put on airs: to pretend that one is more important than one really is.
audacity: daring; shameless or brazen boldness; insolence; impudence.
inferiority complex: ���
23. Exile, says de Tocqueville, is the most cruel of all punishments, for while
it inflicts suffering, it teaches ( ). It crystalize the minds of its victims,
fixes in
them the notions acquired in youth.
(A) something (B) nothing (C) anything (D) much
(N.B.) exile: �;�,/��.
Alexis de Tocqueville(1805-59): French author and statesman.
crystalize: ������� �����.
24. Some writers are only of historical interest. Their message may have
stirred men in their own time, but they do not move us today. Truly great
authors are those whose message speaks not only to their contemporaries but
also to ( ).
(A) popular taste (B) succeeding generations
(C) various nationalities (D)literary critics
(N.B.) stir = to move ��������.
contemporary: ����,�����
25. It is the characteristics of a good detective story that one vital clue
should
reveal the solution to the mystery, but that the clue and its significance should
be far from ( ).
(A) suggestive (B) obvious (C) logical (D) constructive
(N.B.) detective story: �߸��Ҽ�
vital: of crucial importance ��d��8�� �
���
26. Two basic and interrelated aims of Western civilization are to preserve
human life and to provide economic security. There is a concurrent striving for
health and for ( ).
(A) happiness (B) art (C) freedom (D) wealth
(N.B.)�ι�° ����: ù° ���忡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡ο��� �.
interrelated: ���� ��õǾ� �ִ�.
preserve: ��x�ϴ�.
security: ��d. concurrent: simultaneous ��������.
strive: to make great efforts; try very hard.
27. When she discovered a worthy cause, Mrs.Saunders contributed freely her
time and talents, but her monetary gifts were of necessity ( ).
(A) limited (B) generous (C) charitable (D) wasted
(N.B.) cause: (��ȸ���� ����; '��) ����
� ��� .
gift = contribution(���).
of necessity: necessarily; inevitably ��¿ �� ����. charitable: kind and
generous in giving money or other help to those in need; lenient
28. Why is life worth living? What do you like most about it or want most
from it? From what do you get your most through satisfactions? Are you
substantially like others in your wants, or do your life desire add up to a ( )
pattern?
(A) usual (B) common (C) distinctive (D) universal
(N.B.) ���� ������ b�ӻ� "or"�� �����϶�. through: complete. substantially:
really; actually.
add up to: ���ļ� --�� �Ǵ�.
do your life desires add up to a ( ) patton? = are you ( ) in your wants?
��f�� �‫ �ٲپ� ��ٴ‬a; ���϶�
29.That anthropologist has become so ( ) with the diversity of ways in
which different people behave in similar situations that he is not apt to be
surprised by even the most exotic customs.
(A)indifferent (B) varied (C) unaware (D) familiar
(N.B.) anthropologist: �����.
diversity: difference; variety.
be apt to (do): be inclined or likely to (do); tend to (do).
exotic: strange.
indifferent: uninterested
30. Despite your imagined freedom, you are chained always by the laws of
cause and effect. You may be free to leap from a skyscraper or to refrain from
eating for a week, but you are not free to ( ).
(A) commit murder (B) perform these actions twice
(C) escape the consequences (D) compel others to do likewise
(N.B.) the laws of cause and effect: �ΰ��Ģ.
refrain from: to hold oneself back from; avoid.
31. The facts of metropolitan congestion are ( );they are visible in every
phase of the city's life. One encounters congestion in the constant stopping of
traffic, or in the even more tightly packed subway train.
(A) encouraging (B) imaginary (C) negligent (D) undeniable
(N.B.) "visible"�� ����� �ִ���ܾ ã�ƶ�.
congestion: ȥ��.
phase: aspect; side; part. encounter: to meet with; face.
packed: congested; crowded.
32. A central belief of the middle class in which I grew up was that the son
of a ditichdigger could become a college president, whereas the careless son of
the top family in town could easily make mistakes from which he would not
recover. These twin beliefs were not ( );each year they were illustrated by
specific lives in our community, and are still being illustrated.
(A) legendary (B) legitimate (C) different (D) conspicuous
(N.B.) "illustrated"(����Ǵ�)�� ��õǴ� �ܾ���?
ditchdigger: ���� �Ĵ� �뵿 鿡 鿡 . specific: particular; certain. legendary:
�� �ӿ� ��Ÿ��. legitimate: lawful �չ�����. conspicuous: noticeable; striking;
outstanding.
33. The heterodox opinions of one age frequently become the orthodox views
of its successor. Flaws in existing views are pointed out, and eventually these
views are altered or discarded. Dogmatisms are ( ).
(A) unpopular (B) rational (C) transitory (D) eternal
(N.B.) heterodox = not orthodox; unorthodox �������.
orthodox: approved or conventional ���ε�,��������.
its successor = its succeeding age �� ��= �ô�.
flaw: defect; fault; error.
eventually: in the end. alter: to change.
discard: to throw away; abandon. dogmatism = dogmatic view �������� ����.
transitory: not enduring or permanent; transient; ephemeral.
34. When I first read the bood, I accepted its ideas only tentatively; but since
then they have become so entrenched in my philosophy that I can no longer
( ).
(A) think any other way (B) read any other book
(C) believe them to be true (D)express them otherwise
(N.B.)� ����� ö�� � �
ӿ�ܴ����� Ѹ���: "ideas"( ���) �� ����ϴ � ��:
������
‫ڴ‬°�?
tentatively: not finally; provisionally ��d��8��. entrenched: established;
settled; rooted; embedded. otherwise: in another way; differently.
35. Of professor Baker's latest book I can say only that his and my views
remain worlds apart, and though I yield to no one in my admiration for his
smooth-flowing literary style, my opinions of what he has to say are ( ).
(A) quite another matter (B) just the same
(C) different from each other (D) far from being just
(N.B.) late: recent. worlds apart: õ��������. yield: �纸鿡ϴ�,�����,
���. smooth-flowing literary style: /â�� ��ü. what he has to say = what he
says(in the book). another matter: ������ ��f(��, �‫�� �ٸ‬f).
36. Cancer of the pancreas has spread with baffling and deadly results: U.S.
cases have doubled in two decades and the disease now kills 20,000 Americans
annually. It's is also one of the hardest cancers to treat:( ) of its victims
survive more than three years.
(A) almost all (B) hardly any (C) none (D) not all
(N.B.) pancreas: ����. baffle: to confuse; puzzle; confound.
(���)���ó�� "����ϰ�" ���϶�.
37. Nothing in the characteristics of any of the standard dialects of
English-British, Canadian, American, South African, and others-creates any
serious difficulties in understanding. We have, among English-speaking people,
( ).
(A) no difficulties at all in understanding each other
(B) not flat sameness, but unity in diversity
(C) difficulties in understanding each other
(D) complete unity without variety
(N.B.) flat: complete; absolute. diversity: difference; variety
38. Though faulty hypotheses are excusable on the grounds that they will be
superseded in due course by acceptable ones, they can do grave harm to those
who hold them because scientists who fall deeply on love with their hypotheses
are proportionately ( ) to take "no" as an experimental answer.
(A) indifferent (B) ready (C) susceptible (D) unwilling
(N.B.) hypothesis: ����. on the grounds that --: --��� �ٰ� '����. supersede: to
replace ��ġ�ϴ�. in due course: ���� �Ǹ�. grave: serious; ominous. proportionately:
�����8��(��,�‫���� ���� ;���� ���ڽڽ‬ϰ� �Ǹ� �ɼ��). "no": �� ������ ���� ��d.
experimental: for the sake of experiment; designed to test; tentative ��d����.
susceptible to: easily influenced by or affected with --�� ���� ����; �ްų� �ɸ���.
39. Until the accident Pennsylvania, unclear reactors had a remarkable record of
safety. Opposition to nuclear energy is, however, essentially based on the ( ) that
more serious accidents will occur at some unpredictable time in the future.
(A) anticipation (B) improbability (C) inevitability (D) generalization
(N.B.) nuclear reactor: ���‫�ڷ‬. anticipation: expectation; presentiment.
inevitability:
�Ұ�����. generalization: �Ϲ�ȭ���Ѽ� �ϴ� ���(����: "�����: ��f����
�".)
40. Changes in a developing science are not to be compared to the tearing down of
old buildings to make way for new ones, but rather to the gradual evolution of a
zoological type. We must not believe that discarded theories have been ( ).
(A) of any purpose in present research (B) seriously considered
(C) used in molding new ideas (D) either sterile or in vain
(N.B.) are not to=should not. compare A to B: regard A as similar to B; liken A
to
B. tear down: demolish; raze �㹰�� �߸���. gradual: a������. evolution of a
zoological type: ������ ��ȭ�� ��: /���� ��ȭ. mold: to shape ���ϴ�. sterile:
unfruitful
41. The function of "truth" drugs is to tear down inhibitions that keep the
individual
from expressing emotions freely. Put a stopper into the spout of a kettle, bring
the
water in the kettle to a boil, and the steam will force out the stopper. Similarly,
inhibitions function as a stopper, and the drugs ( ).
(A) alleviate painful symptoms (B) tend to remove them
(C) jam down the stopper (D) keep the patient tense
(N.B.) inhibition: ��f���ִ� ��. stopper: ������. spout: �ֵ���. bring -- to a
boil:
��� �����. force out: ��8�� �о��. alleviate: to make less hard to bear; lighten
or relieve. symptom: ��. jam down: �� ������ ����.
42. Thanks to the natural resources of the country, every American, until quite
recently, could reasonably look forward to making more money than his father, so
that, if he made less, the ( ) must be his; he was either lazy or inefficient.
(A) wealth (B) possession (C) expense (D) fault
43.A bottle-feed baby is often encouraged to finish off the last drop of his
formula,
whether he wants it or not. Mothers who bottle-feed also tend to switch their
babies
to solid foods, with their high calorie content, earlier than do breast-feeders.
Such
habits in infancy may set a later pattern of ( ).
(A) overeating (B) indulgence (C) malnutrition (D) sickness
(N.B.) "whether he wants it or not"��
� ���� ���� "indulgence"(Ž��)�� d���� �� ��
���.
bottle-feed: ��/�� ����
�.
formula: �ѹ� ���� ���� ����
�� d�‫�س‬: ��/�� �з�.
solid food: �ܴ���� =��(��,�þ �Դ� =��).
with their high calorie content = which has a high calorie content (or
which contains high calorie).
in infancy = in babyhood. set: to establish. malnutrition: ������ �ҷ�, �����v.
44. Research team scientists are products of this century. And the involvement of
the entire citizenry of a country is a development of the past few decades. Every
educated person nowadays is ( ) some of the achievements and characteristics of
science.
(A) beside himself with (B) familiar with (C) friendly to (D) puzzled over
(N.B.)���п� ���� �ùε��� �µ�(�‫��" ���װ‬ȣ��"���� �ƴ���)�� ���‫� ���ؼ‬ƹ���
����� ��8�Ƿ� C�� d���� �� �� ���.
is a development of the past few decades=is a phenomenon that has developed in
the past few decades(or has developed in the past few decades). beside oneself
with:
--������ fd���� �ƴ�
45. Most histories in totalitarian countries are nationalistic, patriotic,
sentimental, and
preoccupied with the national ego and the delusion of the particular country's
complete ( ).
(A) peacefulness (B) superiority (C) prosperity (D) dependence
(N.B.) ��ü���� ������ "��ȭ"�� �߱� ������ ƴ��ϰ� �‫��" ���� �ٸ‬x"�Ϸp�
���� �ʴ´�.
the particular country's: " Ư d ����"�� ���� �ƴ϶� "�‫����� �� "��⳪ڱ‬.
46. A research study revealed that the white-collar worker was extremely
concerned
about the impression his clothing made on his superiors. Although blue-collar
workers were less aware that they might be judged by their clothing, they
recognized
that any deviation from the accepted pattern of dress would draw ( ) from their
fellow workers.
(A) indifference (B) indignation (C) ridicule (D) sympathy
(N.B.) white-collar worker: d��(�繫��)�뵿 鿡 鿡 . blue-collar worker: manual(or
physical) laborer. concerned(about): worried; anxious. superior: ���. recognize=be
aware. deviation: ��Ż, ���. indifference: �����. indignation: anger.
47. Humans, computers and animals could be said in some sense to think. Yet the
thought processes of each of these would be ( ):each would have its own strengths
and its own weaknesses. The merit of a particular combination of strengths and
weaknesses would depend on the job to be done.
(A) complex (B) different (C) mysterious (D) similar
(N.B.) in some sense: � �ǹ�
���, � ��a���� �� ��. the job to be done:
ó���‫�� �� �ؾ‬.
48. Efforts of the theorists to account for the universal appeal of music and to
explain its effects have, since the 19th century, been various, contradictory and
highly
( ).
(A) in tune (B) controversial (C) harmonious (D) uniform
(N.B.) ���� ���, "harmonious"��� ��: ������ �‫�־‬n�ִ� "various,"
"contradictory"�� "vȭ"�� ����� �ʴ´�(������, �����ε�: �� � ����ִ� ��⸦
�ϸ� ����‫ݴ‬ϴ�!). account for = explain
49. Scientists have found both good and had uses for nuclear energy. Our main
source of power when oil is exhausted will probably be atomic power plants. There
is, on the other hand, the danger of thermonuclear weapons almost certain to be
used
future wars. There are a few people who blame scientists for the possibility of
world
destruction and who feel that the discovery of nuclear energy has been ( ).
(A) morally wrong (B) scientifically important (C) understood by few (D) subject
to
international control
(N.B.) exhaust: to use up; expend completely. power plant: �����. on the other
hand: from the opposed point of view. thermonuclear weapon: �‫���ٹ‬. subject to:
--��
��� �‫�ִ��� �ؿ‬
50. Law gave birth to the concept of freedom. It is true that you can have no
security in a situation in which every person and everything around you acts
capriciously, unpredictably, or, in other words, lawlessly; but the point I wish to
make
is that while you would have no security in such an environment, it is more
important that you would have no ( ) in such an environment. The reason you could
not be free in such a situation is that you could not get anywhere you wanted to go
or successfully do anything you wanted to do.
(A) obligation (B) freedom (C) expectation (D) prospect
(N.B.) Topic sentence�� ���϶�. give birth: to originate; create. concept: ����.
capriciously: whimsically �������.
During a strike by British firemen in January 1978, the British army assumed
firefighting duties. Thus, when the cat of an elderly lady in South London became
trapped up a tree, she summoned an army unit. So grateful was the lady when they
discharged their duty that she invited them all in tea. Driving off later, they ran
over
the cat and killed it.
"You will have exactly two hours," said the professor as he handed out
examination papers to a roomful of students. "Under no circumstances will accept a
paper given to me after the deadline has passed." Two hours later he broke the
silence. "Time is up," he said. But one student continued to work furiously.
The professor was glaring out from behind the pile of exams when the tardy
student approached him, almost 15 minutes later, with his exam clutched behind his
back. When the professor refused to accept it, the student drew himself up tp full
stature and asked, "Professor, do you know who I am?"
"No," said the professor.
"Terrific," replied the student, and he stuffed his paper into the middle of the
pile.

� �‫�ۺ‬
Three absent-minded professors were sitting in a railroad station waiting for a
train. They were so absorbed in thought that failed to notice the arrival of the
train.
Suddenly one of them noticed it as it started to pull out, and they all rushed for
it.
Two of them caught the train. A bystander consoled the third who missed it.
"You shouldn't feel bad," he said, "At least two of you made it."
"Yes, I know," replied the professor, "but those two came to see me off."

A Fatber's Advice
"Integrity and wisdom-these are the keys to business success," the old man was
telling his son. "By integrity I mean that when you promise the delivery of
merchandise on a certain day you must do so event if it bankrupts you."
"Well," asked the son, "What is wisdom?"
"Don't make such promises."

����� �ɸ�
When the "Mona Lisa" was stolen from the Louvre in Paris in 1911 and was
missing for two years, more people went to stare at the blank space than had gone
to look at the masterpiece in the 12 previous years.

on love
Love is friendship that has caught fire. It is quiet understanding, mutual
confidence,
sharing and forgiving. It is loyalty through good times and bad. It settles for
less
than perfection and makes allowances for human weaknesses.
Love is content with the present; it hopes for the future and it doesn't brood
over
the past. It's the day-in-and-out chronicles of irritations, problems, compromises,
small disappointments, big victories and common goals.
If you have love in your life, it can make up for a great many things you lack.
If
you don't have it, no matter what else there is, it's not enough.
Ann Landers

4.���ư� �ǹ�
�츮� � � � � � � �⸦ � � ų� ��; �д� ��: �� ����� ����Ϸt� ��; �ù ‫���ٸ‬
�ľ��Ϸt� ���� �������� ������ �ִ�. ���� � Ư d �� �ܾ � ������"��ü����
�ǹ�"�� �‫� ���� ���־‬ӿ��� ��d�ǹǷ�, ������ �ľ�: �ǹ� ��� �ľǿ� ����v����
�.
1.������
� ������
WEBSTER'S NEW WORLD DICTIONARY�� ����; ��
��� ��d�ϰ� �ִ�:
the parts a sentence, paragraph, discourse, etc. immediately next to or
surrounding
a specific word or passage and determining its exact meaning
(� Ưd�� �ܾ � ����� ‫ְ� ������� �ٷ‬ų� �ѷ��ΰ� �ְ� �‫ ���װ‬dȮ���ǹǹ�
��d���ִ� ����, ����, ��� ��'�� �Ϻ�)
������ ���‫�ؼ‬, �������� ��: � Ưd�� �ܾ � ������ � ǹ�
� ��d���ִ�
����� ȯ��(�Ǵ� ���)��
�� �� �� �ִ�.
��= �� �������� ���� ���� �
ܾ ��� � ǹ�� ��d���ִ� ���� �������� ���‫���غ‬.

1) Threes are large plants.(��)


2) This is the largest power plant in the country.(�ü�, ����)
3) In the spring he plants some flowers in the garden.(�ɴ�)
2.�ǹ�
� ���� �ӿ��� ã�ƾ� �ϴ� �‫�� �����ٺ‬/
��ü���� �繰; ����Ű�� ��: ������ Ǯ�� � � ������ �� ���� ���‫�ִ� ���� �ؼ‬
������ ��ġ����, ������
� �: " �����ϱ�"������ ������ d�ǿ� ������ �Ӹ� �ӿ�
����ִ� ������ �‫�� ��ݵ‬ġ����� �ʴ´�. ���� ���, �й��� �� �о߷μ�
�� �ܾ � ���
"ö��"�� ‫���ؼ� ���غ‬. �� �ܾ � ��� ‫ �ؼ‬Aristotle�� �����ִ� ���
����� � ö������ ��� ��f �� �� �ܾ����� ǹ� � ����ϰ� ��‫� ������ �ݱ‬ѱ���
��� ����л��� �����ִ� ��: ��ġ���� ��; ���� �. �
‫��ٸ‬� ��� �� �����
�ǹ��ϴ� "ö��"��
�� ���� ��; �����Ϸx� ����� �ű ���‫��� �� ����� �� �ؼ‬
�ӿ��� ã�Ƴ��� �� �‫� �ۿ‬ƹ��� ����� ��; ���� �. ��� ��a���� �� �� ����:
"������ �Ϲ����� �ǹ��� �ȳ���"�� �Ұ��ϴ�.
3.��d�� ������ �ľ��� �ǹ��ϴ� ��
�и���, ���� ���� �������� ����, �‫�װ‬: ������ �ϳ��� ������ ����
�ʱ� ������ "�繰 ��ü"�� �Ϻ��ϰ� �s� ��� ���. ���Ƿ� � ‫�� Ⱑڱ‬Ÿ���p�
�ϴ� ��; ���� "�Ϻ��ϰ�" ��Ÿ�� �� �ִ� ���: �� ���� �ƹ��� ���. ���Ƿ�
��� ��⳪ ��: �ʿ���8�� "�ҿ����ϰ�" ������ �. ��
� �ҿ����� �‫ ���ۿ‬ǥ���8��
�巯鿡鿡 �ִ� �ǹ� � ����� �þ�n ������ ���� �� ��; �� ����� ��Ÿ���p� �� ��;
f��� �ľ��� �� ��; �����. �‫��� �ٷ‬ "�� ���� � ��: ��; ��8��"(Read
between the lines)�� ���� ��d�� ���� ���ִ�. �‫ �ٷ‬,�‫��� �ٽ� ���ؼ‬ ��d��
�����ľ��� ���� �ִ�.
��ü��8��, ����; �ľ��Ѵ ‫� ���� �ٴ‬ ������ �˾ƺ��� '�‫�ؼ‬, ����; f���
�ľ����� ���� ���� ������ �߸�; ���� ��� ���캸캸캸��� ����.

Example 1
Real life is, to most men, a long second best, a perpetual compromise between the
ideal and the possible. --Bertrand Russell
(���� Ǯ��) ��κ��� ���� �ǻ�Ȱ�� �� ��⳪�� �����, ������� �Ͱ� ������
�� ������ �������� Ÿ���� �. (THE KOREA HERALD �24 ��3 ��1984 ,���‫����ؼ‬,
1��)
���‫�� �ڴ‬ʿ� ��� ��7� ����‫�� ���ݱ‬ó�� ������ �ʾ�8��, �츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 0
� � � � ; ' � � � � � � � � � � ⸦ � � � � � ϱ � ' � � � � ‫�� �ʹ��ݺ‬ó�� ���� ��d�� �.
( � � � � ) � ‫�������־‬ ; � � � � � � � : "a perpetual compromise between the ideal and
the possible" � � "a long second" � � � ‫�������� �ٸ‬ó � � �˰ � � � 8 � � , � � � � 8 � �
� � � � ( the former) � � � � � � ( the latter) � � � � ����������� � � � ; � � � � �ִ�.
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� ‫ �ٸ‬Russell:, � � � � � ȱ � , � � � � ; comma � � ſ � b �ӻ �
'and' � � � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
( � ù ‫ �ٸ‬Ǯ��) ��f ��Ȱ� �� ����:, ��κ��� ���鿡鿡鿡, �ϳ� � � � � � � , � �
��� � � � � � Ͱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⳪ � � Ÿ � � ��� .

Example 2
Economic expansion continued in May. Government reports showed gains in
industrial production, personal income, and housing starts. Housing construction,
however, remained sluggish, mainly because the costs of new homes has risen faster
than average incomes, but housing starts did show a small increase over those of
April.
(� ��� Ǯ��) ��f����: 5�� ����ߴ�. d � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � μ ҵ � �
� � � ðǼ � � � ȹ � � � ‫־‬� ��������
��.��‫������ ־‬ ð � � � : � ߴ����� ��‫״‬µ � ,
��� � � � ������������������ Ժ��� �� ���� �ö�� ������ �. � ������ ðǼ�

� � ȹ : 4 � � � � � ‫װ‬ͺ��� � � ��� =; � � � � � ‫��־‬. ( � � ī � � � � TOEFL, p.573 1985. 2.


25.)
( � � � � ) � � � � � 7 � � "Housing construction"; "housing starts" � � � ���� �‫ٸ‬
� � ��� . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� � "did show" � � � � � ; � � � � � � � � � � .
� 4��� �‫" � � � � �ٷ� �ڿ‬show" � � � � v � ϴ � � � � � ; � Ѵ � . ��� : " � � � � �ֱ�� �
� 츮 � � � �� � � � � � � ; � � � � ‫���غ‬ �ִ�. �;���� �� =�� ,�‫��ٸ‬���:
1)� (�‫ )�״‬,��8�� �����8�� �‫ � � � � � ״‬鿡 � հ�: � ߴ�.
2)� 8�� �����8�� �‫ � �״‬, � � � � �Ƶ � : � � � � � 鿡 � հ�: �ߴ�.
� � � � 2 � � � � � � 8 � � � � � � � � � � �ʴ´‫�� �ٴ‬: �ƹ� � � � � d � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ƿ x � , � պ κ � � � �  � �� ‫־‬κ � � � � ‫־‬ � �ƾ�
� �Ѵ ‫;�� �ٴ‬
� 츮 � �� � � � �ִ�. � ��Ƿ�, Housing construction=housing starts
( � ù ‫ �ٸ‬Ǯ��) ��f������ 5�� ��ӵǾ��. d�� ������ ���ϸ� �����,
� � � μ ҵ � � � � � � ðǼ � � � � � � � � � � �  �.��‫��� ���־‬ðǼ � � � � � � � � � � � � ¿ �
� � � � � ֱ�� ��8 � � - � ‫�װ‬: �
� � �� ������ ������ ��� ���Ժ��� �ξ� �� ���� �ö��

� � � � ��� µ � - 4 � � � � � � � ðǼ � � � � � � � ���� �����ֱ�� �ߴ�.


( � � � ) � � 뿵� 鿡 � � � � ġ � ų � � ‫ � � � � ;�װ‬ġ � � ' � � å; � � � � � � � � ��� � housing
starts � � housing construction � � � � : � � 8 � � � � �ȴ ‫ �� �ٴ‬d � � � � �˾ƾ� � �

Example 3
Embodying the bad as well as the good of America, Theodore Roosevelt was
admired by his countrymen almost as much for his failings as for his "finer
qualities." If he gave voice to the nobler aspirations of the nation, his defects
were
those of a majority of the people. Harry Thurston Peck noted that "the
self-consciousness, the touch of the swagger, the love of applause and of
publicity,
the occasional lapse of official dignity, even the reckless speech, the unnecessary
frankness, and the disregard of form" which characterized Roosevelt were in reality
"traits that...were national."
(� ��� Ǯ��) �5� � � � � � �  Ʈ � � ��� � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � Ͽ � � � � � � � � �
� � � ε � κ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫پ‬ � � � � � � � � ʰ� �
���� �Ǽ� ��� � ��� �� � � ���‫ؼ‬Ҵ�.
� ‫ ;���� ������ ���� ������ �װ‬ǥ����;������������a: ������ ‫��� ڰټ‬
� � a ��� � . � 츮 � ; � � � � ũ � � , � � � �  Ʈ
dz� � Ư ¡ ��� � " � � � ǽ � , � �  , � � ä � �
� � � ǿ � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � '� � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � " � � � � f � δ � � � � � � � � � Ư � � ��� � � � ; �ָ��ߴ�.
( � � � � ) � � � � � � � � � 7 � � ѵ � � � � � �ƴϴ � .
1) � ű � ��� � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � � � � � �ʾ Ҵ � . � � � ‫���� �����ۿ‬Ʈ� �
a � � � � " � � a" � � � � � � � � �ִ‫ �ٴ‬a; �˾ƾ� � Ѵ � .
2)"� ‫ ;���� ������ ���� ������ �װ‬ǥ����;������������a: ������ ‫��� ڰټ‬

� � a ��� � . " � � � � ü ��� � � � � � � � � � ΰ � ? ��� : � � � � ; � ľ � � � � � � � � ѵ � � �


� � � � .
3)" � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ' � � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
4)' � � � � � � = � ܾ �� : � � � � � � : �ǹ�� � � � Ǿ � ‫˾� ;��� �ٴ‬ƾ� � Ѵ � .
the bad = failings = defects
the good = "finger qualities" = nobler aspirations
America = his countrymen = the nation = a majority of the people
embody = give voice to
5)� 8(���� �4 ��� �‫��� ���� )�ڿ‬� � � � � � "If he gave voice to the nobler
aspirations of the nation" ��� � � � : � 8���‫" � �ٺ‬If his merits were those of the
nation" ��� � � � ; � � ü � � � � � ‫ � � � ;�ݺ‬ϱ � '� � ��� �‫�� ���ؼ‬Ÿ � � � � ��� � a; � ˾ ƾ�
�Ѵ �.
( � ù ‫ �ٸ‬Ǯ��) ��� ���� Ʈ �� �� ����� ��: a�Ӹ� �� ϶� ���� a�� ���� ƴ
� ‫�־‬µ � , � ‫ � � � � � � � " ���� �״ � �װ‬Ǹ � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � �ʰ�
��� � ε � κ � � � � � � ; � Ҵ� �. ���� ��: a�� �� ����� ��: a; �뺯 � �ִ� �
� � ��� ‫�ٸ‬, � � � � � � a: � � ��� � � � � ‫�� ��� ڰټ‬a ��� � . � ‫� �ظ‬ὺư ���� ����
� � � ϸ � , " � ‫� ���� �ٸ‬տ����� ��� ‫� �������ڿ‬ൿ��� � � � , � 8 �‫ � ڰټ‬ô � �
� � ä � � � � � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � μ � ü � ſ � � � � � �ʴ� � ൿ; �ϴ � � � , � � � � �
� Ժ η � � � ⸦ � ϴ � � Ͱ � � � �ʿ � � � d � � � � � � � � �  �  ‫ � � � � � ;�ݽ‬ϴ � � � ":
� � � �  Ʈ � � Ư ¡ ��� µ � , ��� : � � f � � ��� � � � � Ư ¡ ���ٰ� �Ѵ�.
( � � � ) ��� � � � 7 � � , � � � � � � �  � � � � � � � � � � , � 8���‫ � � � � � �ٺ‬Ƿ � � �
� � � ƿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � w � � � � � � � � � � ; ã; � � � � ; � � ��� . � � � ƿ � � � � �
� � w ��� � � � :, � ‫��� �ٲپ‬ϸ� � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � w ��� � � � � � � � � � . ��� � ߸�;
� � � � � � � � 8 � x � , ö � � � � � � � � ϴ � � � ; � 鿡� � �Ѵ�. ���� Ž������ "�����
� Ѿ  � � � � ": � � ; � � � � � .

EXAMPLE 4
But democracy is usually a tumultuous and unseemly affair, especially when men
feel strongly about vital issues. Probably since the first popular assembly
convened
there have been presiding officers who turned a deaf ear to delegates they did not
like. Rival factions have always tried to pack the galleries and to shout down
their
opponents. To take note of these historical facts is not to condone them. An
unending
effort has to be made to create procedural sefeguards strong enough to curb the
ineradicable human impulse to unfairness. But critics should not pretend they were
born yesterday and are innocent of any knowledge of pressure tactics in politics.
(� ��� Ǯ��) �������Ǵ� Ư�� �ΰ��� �ߴ빮 f � � � � � � ū � � � ; � � � � � �
� � � � � � ϰ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ȴ� . �Ƹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � � � � Ǿ � ;
� � ǥ � 鿡� Դ� �� ������ �ʴ� ��ȸ� ‫ � ��� � ;�ڵ��� �־‬. � � � � � � � Ǵ �
� � f � � � � û � � ; � � ä� � � �  � � � � �
���� �����‫ � � < � ;�ݴ‬Ϸ p � � ߴ�. � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � ѵ � �  �;=�� ���‫ ����� ���� ����׵‬. � δ 缺 � � � � � �
�ΰ � � � � Ѹ � � � : � � � ; � � f � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � å ; � � � � � Ϸ t �
� � � � � � ‫� �߸�־‬Ѵ�. ���� ��� �
  : � ‫�������� ���ڱ�׵‬
� � � � � � dġ � �
� ‫־‬ � ��з¼ � å; � � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � ô � ‫� ���ؼ‬ȵȴ�.
( � � � � ) � 켱, � � � � � � � � � � : � ‫� ���� ���־‬ӿ � � � � � ��� � � ǹǹ

� � � � , �� ͵ � � � � � ; � ľ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 7 � � . � ��� ���⼭
"� ‫ � � � � ��� "�׵‬ü � � � � � � � � � � Ű � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � . � � ° � � , � � � � � 8 � �
"dȮ��"����w�ϴ�.�������,��° �������° ����:����Ϸ��� f ��Ǿ�
� ִµ � � � �ұ � � ϰ � , � � ġ � ‫������ ������ ���װ‬ȸ � � � � � � � � � � ó � �
�ܼ���Ž � f � �
� Ű ܳ � Ҵ�. ���� ��������� �ι � ° � � � � � � "impulse" � � " � � � " ��� � � ű � � � :
( � � � � ��� � � � = � � � �ƴ϶� � ) � � � � � � � � �ʴ� . ��� � � 쿡 �� ��� � � � "�
� � � � � ֱ� �������.
( � ù ‫ �ٸ‬Ǯ��) ���� �������Ǵ� �밳 � Ҷ���� ���� ���ϴ �. Ư�� ������ �
� � f � � � � � ‫�� ���� �ؼ‬d; � � � � � � � � � � � � , �Ƹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȸ � �
� ‫� � � � � � ~� ����ڱ‬ʴ� � � ǥ � 鿡� Դ� �� ������ �ʴ� ��ȸ�‫;�� �ڵ��� �־‬
� � ��� . � � � � � ‫��ݴ‬ϴ � � ĵ � � � � � f � � � � û � � ; � �� ��� ��ǥ������ ;
� < � � Ϸ p � � � � Դ � . � 츮� � ���� � � � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � Ǹ � � � � ��� � � � � � � �
�뼭 � ϴ � � � : � ƴ ϴ � . � 츮� � � � � Ӿ � � � � � � �‫� �ؼ‬δ � � � � ൿ; �Ϸ t � � ΰ � � �
��� � � � � � � � � 浿; � � f � � � � ŭ ưư� � ( � � � � � � � � � � � � ) � � � � � � � � � � � å ;
� � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�. ���� ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � ϴ � � � � � : � � ġ �
� � � f � ¾ � � dġ � � � ‫־‬� ��з¼ � å; � � � �   � �ô � ‫����� �� �� ���ؼ‬.

4. � � � � � � �ʿ 伺
� � � � ��� � � � :, � � � � � � � � � 8��" ,�‫ � � �ؼ‬巯 � � �ְų � � ‫�־‬n � � � � � � : � � ;
� � � ‫� ���س‬ɷ�"���� �� �� ��; ���� �. ���� �츮� � � � ; � � ; � � � � � � � � � �
�ʿ� � � � � / � � � � = � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � .
‫ڰ‬
ù°, � տ � � � � � � � ߵ��� ��� � �ҿ � � � � Ϲ Ƿ � � � � ‫�� ����� �ڰ‬Ÿ � � � � � � � �
� 츮 � � � � � ΰ� ã� Ƴ � � � � Ѵ � .
� � ° � � , � � �� � � � � � � Դ µ � , � ‫ � � � � � ;�װ‬ϴ � � � � � � � � � ; � �
� ‫� ����� ��ִ � ˰� ;�װ‬츮 � � ' � � � � � � � 쿡 � 츮 � � � ‫ � � � ¿��� ���ڽڽ‬x � ϴ �
� � ‫ � ��� � ;�� ����� �ۿ� �ٸ‬.
� � � � 8 � � , � ‫�� �ٸ‬ ������ å; � � ; � � � � � ‫ ���ڽڽ‬  �� δ� � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � ; �ϱ � � �ư ų � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � 쿡 � 츮 � � � 츮 � � � �
� � � � � � � � � ܱ ����� ��� ü � � � � 8 � � � �  � � � � � � Ϸ p � � � � � � � � � ‫�ۿ‬
ܰ 鿡 � ‫־‬� ��ʿ� �Ұ����ϴ�.)
( ��� � � a � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � : , Ư � � � � 
 � ��  ܾ ���1Ⱑ ������ ����8�� �p � � � � � � � � � �ִ�. � ‫�װ‬: � � ; � д �
� ‫� �����ٶ‬µ � � � �ƴ � � Ӹ � �ƴ϶� � 츮� � � � � ¿ � � ‫� �ذ‬ȴ�. ���� ���� �ӿ��� ��
� ܾ��� �ǹ� � � � � ‫ ���� ���� ���غ‬Ȯ�������������‫����ٶ‬ϴ � . � � � � �� �,
�� � � � � ��; �� � � �� � � .
Azure sweaters pick up the blue in her eyes.
"Azure" � � " �ϴ � û � � � � " ��� � � � ; � � � � �ִµ � , "blue" � � � � � Ǿ � � . � � � � � � �
鿡�
� � ��� � � � � � � : "û � � � � � � � � " � � " � ‫ ���� ���׳‬Ǫ�� ���"���� ��鿡 � � � � �
��� � ��� � �  ܾ �� ��鿡 � � � ��ִ� ������ � � � � � ִ �. "Ǫ�� ������"�� ���� �ִ�
� � � � � "û � � " � � ; � Դ ´ ‫� �ٸ‬�� �  ǰ 3 ‫ � � � � Ͱ � � � � � ? �ڴ‬Ǫ � � � � � � � δ ٰ�
� � � � ; � � ��� . �‫��� �־‬��� ���忡 � � � � � � � � � � � 鿡 � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � ִ��� �и � � � � � Ÿ � � �ִ�. � � � , � � = � � � � � � � 츮 � � � � � ű � � � �
û � � � � � � �ʹ � � ‫ ���� �׳‬Ǫ�� ���; ��� Ǫ���� ���ǹ � �Ѵ�.
(N.B.) lull: a short period of lessened activity. beat[slang]: tired out;
exhausted.
double-cross: to betray � � � � ϴ � . save up: to preserve for future use � 巡 � � � �
��� � � ϴ �, � � � � � ϴ �

Party Line
The story goes that while at a cocktail party, T.E. Lawrence was approached by a
woman of uncertain age who had a reputation for trying to add celebrities to her
list
of social acquaintances. Using the heat wave as a means of engaging him in
conversation, she assailed Lawrence with: "Ninety-two, Colonel Lawrence!
Ninety-two!
"Many happy returns, madam," he replied.

� � � � �
The ardent honeymooning of her 75-year-old groom was exhausting the young
bride. During a momentary lull while he was shaving, she staggered down to the
coffee shop.
"What's the matter with you, dearie?" asked the waitress. "Here you are a young
bride with an older husband, and you're the one who looks beat."
Said the bride, "That man double-crossed me. He told me he saved up for sixty
years, and I thought he was talking about money."

on age:
It's a mistake to think that once you're done with school you need never learn
anything new. Today, women are doing things that their mothers wouldn't have
dreamed of. I consider myself very fortunate to be living in a time when there's
always a future for a woman, no matter what her age.
So if you put on a little weight, find that you need glasses, get a little pain
in
your knee, notice a few brown spots on your hands, don't despair. There is a
fountain of youth: it is your mind, your talents, the creativity you bring to your
life
and the lives of people you love. When you learn to tap this source, you will truly
have defeated age.
Sophia Loren

EXERCISE 32
( ) � � � ѷ � � � � � � κ � � � � � � � � ӿ � � � � � � � �ǹ�� � � ü � � 8 � � �‫��� �ٸ‬�
� � � � � � � � � ִ� ���� �����϶�.
1. Complete freedom is, of course, (out of the question), but a reduction of
pressure
might be possible.
2. You once told me you were not (a natural writer). My God! You have plainly
mastered the craft, of course; but you needed far more than craftsmanship for this.
3. The problem is to learn to read these scientific records accurately. There are
pitfalls in any such endeavor. The more (independent) approaches that can be
brought
to bear on a given problem, the greater are the chances that the pitfalls will be
overcome and a meaningful solution achieved.
( � � � ) ' � � � � 8 � κ � � � � � � � � � ( � � �  )' b � ‫���� ���� ������ٹ‬.
pitfall: an unsuspected error that one may fall into; trap( � � d). endeavor: an
attempt
of effort. approach: a method. bring-to bear on/upon: to cause-to have an effect
on.
chance: a possibility or probability. overcome: to get over; surmount(� ‫��غ‬ϴ � )
4.Pity is often a perception of our own misfortunes in those of others; it is
shrewd
foresight of the (evils) into which we may fall. We help others in order to engage
them to help us in similar circumstances; and the services we render them are, to
speak properly, a good we do ourselves by anticipation.
(N.B.) pity: sympathy; compassion. shrewd: clever. engage: to hire; employ.
render:
to do; give.
5. All of us should be able to agree that we need air, water, and land of
sufficient
quantity to sustain life. We must also recognize air and water and land as finite
resources. They can be used up. When we consume them, (there is a planetary cost.)
(N.B.) must recognize = should be able to agree ("also" � � � � � �ƾ � � � � � � ) .
sustain: to provide sustenance or nourishment for (--� � � � � � � � ; � � � � ϴ � ) .
finite: limited.
resources: � ‫�ڿ‬. use up: to exhaust.
6. It is true that the work of the peasant who cultivates his own land is varied;
he
ploughs, he sows, he reaps. But (he is at the mercy of the elements), and is very
conscious of his dependence, whereas the man who works a modern mechanism is
conscious of power, and acquires the sense that man is the master, not the slave,
of
natural forces.
(N.B.) peasant: a small farmer; farm laborer.
cultivate: � � � � � ϴ � . plough(plow): � � � � .
sow: � � � � � Ѹ � � � . reap: to harvest � � Ȯ � ϴ � . work: to operate.
7. A University of North Carolina English instructor introduced to his class what
he
termed "one of the finest, most elegant lines of poetry in the English language."
He
had duly recorded it in all of his notebooks as a constant reminder of its beauty.
("Walk with light!") he quoted, and then repeated softly and blissfully to himself,
"Walk with light...now isn't that a wonderful thing to say to someone?" The class
agreed, of course, and wished to know the author.
"I suppose it's anonymous," said the instructor. "It's written on a sign at an
intersection of Franklin Street."
(N.B.) term: to call. duly: rightfully; properly. bliss: great joy or happiness.
anonymous: with no name known( � � � � � � � ��� � � �˷ � n � � � � � � :)
8. In Britain at least, this was generally held to establish that light was a
passage
of electric and magnetic forces through the ether. (The Continent, however,
remained
comparatively unconvinced). In 1879 the Berlin Academy offered a prize for a
subject
which had some bearing on the question "What is light?"
(N.B.) � � � � � � 8 � δ � ù° � � � 忡 � � � 4 � "this" � � � � � � : � � � � � � . hold: to
believe; consider. establish: to prove; demonstrate. ether: a hypothetical
invisible
substance postulated(in older theory) as pervading space and serving as the medium
for the transmission of light waves and other forms of radiant energy (� � � � � � � �
��� �
� � � � � � �ʴ� � � � � � � � d � � � � � ϸ � - ~ � � � � ��
п � � � - � � � � n � � � � � � �ĵ� � �
� � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ' � � � � ü � � � � ; � � ). have bearing on: to
related to.
9. Moscow's tough talk was backed up by extensive Warsaw Pact maneuvers in
and around Poland. The war games, originally scheduled to end last week, were
prolonged indefinitely. Lengthy nightly television reports gave Poles a chilling
view of
amphibious landings, mock tank battles and simulated aerial assaults. Warsaw Pact
maneuvers had preceded the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia; (the message was not
lost on the Poles.)
(N.B.) tough talk: � � � � � � �  � .
back up: to support. extensive: � � � � ' � � .
Warsaw Pact: �  � � � � � � ( � � ) .
maneuver = war game   �� Ʒ�.
prolong: extend; protract � � � � � ϴ � .
indefinitely: � � � � � � 8 � � .
chilling: � � � � � = � � ϰ � � � � � � , � � � ġ � � � � � � � .
mock = simulated( � � � � � � ) . precede: � � � � � ϴ � .
10. Mauriac provided his own eulogy in a recording he made 20 years ago to be
released after his death. It reflected a lifelong preoccupation with the
possibilities of
grace that he had explored in his essays, if not in his other work. "I believe," he
said, "as I did as a child, that life has meaning, a direction, a value; that (no
suffering is lost), that every tear counts, each drop of blood, that the secret of
the
world is to be found in St. John's God is love."
(N.B.) eulogy: � ߵ����. release: � � ǥ � ϴ � . count: to be of importance.
11. Heart attacks, which take about 550,000 lives each year, occur when the
coronary
arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become obstructed. Without oxygen
and other nutrients carried in the blood, heart tissue dies or is damaged. If too
much
damage can kill by disrupting the electrical impulses that govern the heart's
rhythmic
beating. (Stroke claims another 170,000 lives, and is also caused by impeded blood
flow, this time to the brain.)
(N.B.) eart attack: � � � 鿡� � . coronary artery: ( � � � � � � ) � � � . nutrient:
disrupt: to disturb. stroke: � � � � � � . impede = to obstruct
12. (The number of physical phenomena amenable to scientific explanation
increases
with each passing decade), whereas our scientific knowledge of human conduct
remains relatively insignificant. The teachings of Aristotle concerning astronomy
and
physics have long since been superseded, but we yet to replace his doctrines on
ethics.
( � � � ) � � �ƾ � "whereas" � � � � � � � ϶ � .
amenable: responsive; submissive. supersede=to replace. we have yet to replace
his
doctrines on ethic = his teachings concerning human conduct have yet been
superseded.
13. Across the Channel, French President Francois Mitterrand is following
policies
diametrically opposed to those of Thatcher. She seeks obsessively to lower
Britain's
inflation; he would risk increasing France's 14.5% rate in an all-out drive to
create
new jobs. She has clamped down on government spending: (he has thrown open the
national coffers). She accepts high interest rates as necessary medication; he
damns
them as a cruel impediment. She refuses to reflate the British economy; he is
committed to expanding the French. The two philosophies could not be farther apart
or, in many eyes, their chances of success more evenly matched.
(N.B.) diametrically: completely; directly.
obsessively: persistently.
all-out: wholehearted. clamp down on: to restrict � � f � ϴ � . coffers: a treasury;
funds. damn: to condemn; curse; criticize adversely. reflate = expand. cf.
reflation: a
type of inflation designed to restore a former price structure, accomplished by
decreasing the purchasing power of currency by the use of governmental monetary
powers. commit: to bind by a promise; pledge; engage. in many eyes: � � : � � � � � �
� � � � � � ( � � : � � � � � � � � � ). evenly matched = similar.
14. It has been remarked that life is an almost continuous experience of having
to
draw conclusions from insufficient evidence. There are varying degrees of
plausibility
for many (alternatives).
15. Throughout Western Europe, Begin's reputation fell to an all-time low. Lord
Carrington, the British Foreign Secretary, called in the Israeli Ambassador to warn
him that pre-emptive strikes, "with their horrible trail of human destruction,
cannot
conceivably advance the cause of peace." In Paris and Bonn, top officials (were
equally scathing in private).
( � � � ) � � �ƾ � "equally" � � � � � Ǹ � � � 鿡� .�
all-time low: � � ‫ ���ݱ‬/ � � � � � � � � : � � � � . pre-emptive strike: first strike
� � � ). cannot conceivably--: --� � � � � � 8 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � . cause: any
movement that a person or group is interested in and support. scathing: harsh;
caustic � Ŷ � � � .
16. Beyond the fear of a new war and the squeeze of a chaotic economy, social
problems old and new are tearing at the fabric of Israeli society. Ethnic
differences,
exacerbated by social inequalities, strain relations between the Ashkenazi Jews of
Northern Europe and the Sephardi Jew of the Mediterranean and the Muslim world.
Religious quarrels set observant Orthodox Jews against the secular values of (less
pious) Israelis. Lawlessness in general has risen sharply in a nation unused to it,
and
a small but flourishing Israeli "Mafia" has become an embarrassing new entry in
international organized crime. A restive younger generation has shown growing
dissatisfaction with the lack of job opportunities, the disruptive effects of
compulsory
military service, housing shortages and the political process.
( � � � ) ( ) � � � � � � � κа � � � v � Ǵ � �  � � � � ‫���غ‬.
squeeze: a difficult situation. chaotic: in a completely confused or disordered
condition. tear at: -; � � 8 � p � � ‫��ݷ‬ϰ� ��ƴ���.
fabric: the framework or basic structure.
ethnic: � � ~ � � � � exacerbate: to make more intense or sharp; aggravate.
observant: � � � � ϰ � ~ � � � � 2 � � ; � � Ű � � .
cf. practicing. secular: not religious; worldly � � � � � � � � .
pious: devout. restive: nervous or impatient; restless. compulsory: required;
obligatory �ǹ � � � � � .
17. Novelist Gunter Grass calls it the city closest to the realities of the age.
A
186-sq-mi. Western outpost perched 110 miles inside East Germany, West Berlin, one
of West Germany's eleven states, has always seemed (a kind of metaphor of the
times). At the height of the cold war, cheerful, wisecracking West Berliners turned
the old German capital into a symbol of courageous resistance against Soviet
encroachment. Twenty years ago last week, Moscow and its East German minions
suddenly threw up the infamous 28-mile-long Wall across the city to halt a
hemorrhage of people from the Communist empire, and West Berlin became a
monument to the division of Europe. With detente, the heroic role faded. The
outpost
turned inward, and today the city is (a harsh reflection of another kind of
reality):the
social crosscurrents that are churning through West Germany. It is in West Berlin
that political protest is the shrillest, that the drug problem is the worst, the
squatter
movement the most militant.
(N.B.) perch: to place or set.
wisecracking: joking.
encroach: to trespass or intrude; make inroads.
throw up: to raise suddenly or rapidly < � � ǥ � � : put up. infamous:
notorious � Ǹ � � : .
hemorrhage=escape.
a monument to: -� � � � � � � � � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � : x � � .
churn ( � Ǽ � � � ) : to move or stir. shrill: unrestrained and
irritatingly insistent.
‫ڰ‬
squat: � � � � � � ( Ư � � � � / � � � � � � � ‫ � � � � � � )�� ��� �ڰ‬8� � � � � � � ϴ � .
militant: vigorous; aggressive � ‫�������ؼ‬.
18. It was characteristic, too, that when she met me, a young woman living alone
in
her country, Saura insisted on "adopting" me. It didn't matter to her that I am an
American. "What you need," she told me, "is a good set of parents and lots of good
brothers and sisters." Family, tradition and hospitality are the most important
things
in Saura's life; the material benefits and values of the West-or, more precisely,
of
Soviet society-are real enough, but emphatically secondary in her (scheme of
things).
How Saura Abdullaeva and the 30 million other Muslim Central Asians (look at the
world) is a subject that preoccupies the Kremlin these days. The basic reason: The
Central Asian Muslim population of the Soviet Union is growing give times as fast
as the country's ethnic Russian population. This means that ethnic Russians soon
will be a minority and there may be as many Central Asians as Russians entering
the labor force and the military.
(N.B.) adopt: � � � � � � � .
matter: to be importance or consequence; have
significance.
hospitality: (�մԵ 鿡 � � � �) ģ � � , ȯ� � .
emphatically: very strikingly; definitely; certainly.
scheme: a plan; system. ethnic: � � ~ � � � � .
19. Here are a couple of generalizations about England that would be accepted by
almost all observers. One is that the English are not gifted artistically. They are
not
as musical as the Germans or Italians; painting and sculpture have never flourished
in England as they have in France. Another is that, (as Europeans go, the English
are not intellectual). They have a horror of abstract thought; they feel no need
for
any philosophy or systematic "world-view." Nor is this because they are
"practical,"
as they are so fond of claiming for themselves. One has only to look at their
methods of town planning and water supply, their obstinate clinging to everything
that is out of date and a nuisance, a spelling system that defies analysis, and a
system of weights and measures that is intelligible only to the compilers of
arithmetic books, to see how little they care about mere efficiency. But they have
a
certain power of acting without taking thought. In moments of supreme crisis the
whole nation can suddenly draw together and act upon a species of instinct, really
a
code of conduct which is understood by almost everyone, though never formulated.
The phrase that Hitler coined for the Germans, "a sleep-walking people," would have
been better applied to the English.
(N.B.) a couple of: two; a few; several.
generalization: a general idea or statement �Ϲ � � � � � � � � .
gifted: talented.
flourish: to prosper; thrive.
world-view: � � � � � .
have only to-to...: -; �ϱ⸸ �ϸ � ... � � � � �ִ�. -> You have only to do it to see
how
easy it is = If only you do it, you will see how easy it is.
obstinate: stubborn; dogged � � � � � .
cling to: -� � � Ŵ ���.
defy: to resist completely; foil; baffle � � � � � Ű � � .
care about: to feel concern or interest about.
draw together: to pull together; unite.
act upon: -� � � � � � ൿ�ϴ � .
species: sort; kind.
code of conduct: � ൿ�Թ�.
formulate: to express in a systematic way.
coin: to make up; devise; invent.
"a sleep-walking people": "� ‫ڸ‬鿡 � ȴ� ����"-�� �: �‫��� ���־‬ƿ����� '�‫ڴ‬ٰ ���
�ʿ� �ϸ � �Ͼ  � � �ִ� ����,' � ‫�ٽ� ���ؼ‬, '' �  � ‫�� ﰢ‬ó � � � � �ִ� ����'����
�ǹ�� � � � � = . be applied to: -� � � � � Ǵ � .
20. Plato's vision of the Republic was that poets must be exiled lest they should
lead men astray. But was it not also Plato's wisdom to complement his reasoning
with myths, which evidence man's poetic thinking? Surely (Plato was a man who at
odds with himself).
(N.B.) evidence: to make evident; indicate; show; bear witness to.

"Give me a sentence about a public servant," said the teacher. The small boy
wrote: "The fireman came down the ladder pregnant." The teacher took the lad aside
to correct him. "Don't you know what pregnant means?" she asked.
"Sure," said the young student confidently. "Means carrying a child."

Jim Bouton, sportscaster and author of Ball Four, on the reception to his book:
"Pete would scream at me from the dugout because I revealed too much. Now he's
posing in magazine ads in his underwear."

To the Letter
Author James Thurber depended on words for entertainment. He told me once
about a trick he played on a nurse during one of his hospital stays. He asked her
what seven-letter word had three U's in it. She thought and then said, "I don't
know, but it must be unusual."

"Things are really rough," remarked one businessman to another. "This morning
opportunity knocked at my door, but by the time I pushed back the bolt, turned the
two locks, unlatched the chain and shut off the burglar alarm, it was gone."

4. ENGLISH WAY OF THINKING.. � � � � � ��� � �

1. � � � � � � � � ġ � �
� � � � � � � �ġ � � ( � Ǵ � � �ġ � 翡� � ��� �鿡 Ż� � � � �) � � � � � ѱ � � � �ã  ƺ� ��
Ư � � � � �ִ�.
1. � � ġ � � � ��� � � � � �
� ѱ � � � �"-;
��   ��δ � " � � � � ; � � �  � � � � "--� � � � �  � �
"ó � � � � � ;
�8� � � ' ��� � ϴ � ' � � 8 � � � � Ÿ � � � � ǥ�� � � � � � ſ � �  Ǿ�ߴ �ִ�.
(1). (a) She has grown into a beautiful woman.
(b) She argued him into taking the job.
(c) They sweet-talked him back to his job.
(d) He helped her to her feet.
(2). (a) The boy grew out of his earlier interests. = The boy outgrew his earlier
interests. = The boy grew bigger than his earlier interests.
(b) She argued him out of his decision.
(c) He talked her out of leaving her job.
( �ǹ� ) 1.(a) � ‫� �׳�� �ڶ‬Ƹ��‫� ������ �ٿ‬Ǿ � � .
(b)�  ����‫�� �����ؼ� �� ���ڸ‬ � �‫ ׳‬Ƶ��ǹ � ������.
(c)�‫�� �����ؼ� �ٽ� �ڱ� ���ڸ‬ � ��� ������ : � ��� ���ư��� ������.

(d)� ‫״� �׳‬ฦ ���ͼ � �Ͼ �� �  ߴ�. get to one's feet: �Ͼ  �


�
2.(a) � � �ҳ � : � ‫ � � � � � � ~ �ڶ‬ɰ Ÿ � � � � ��ξ � � .
(b)� ‫�� �����ؼ‬ � �‫�� ���� � ׳‬d; � ��ΰ � � ߴ�.
(c)� ‫״� �׳‬ฦ ����� � ��� ;�� ������ ;���� �‫��ؼ‬ΰ � � ߴ�.
2. � � ġ � � � � �
(1). (a) He helped her into the car.(He helped her to get into the car.)
(b) He helped her out of the car.
(He helped her to get out of the car.)
(2). (a) He helped me out of my financial difficulty. (He helped me to get out of
my
financial difficulty.)
(b) Please help me out.
(3). (a) I asked some friends over for drinks. (I asked some friends to come over
to
my home for drinks.)
(b) I had some friends over for drinks.
(4). I had an acquaintance in for a cup of tea. (I had an acquaintance in my home
for a cup of tea.)
(5). The next day we were all snowed in. (The next day we were all snowed in
our home.)
cf. 1) She locked her husband out of her room.
2) They were locked out of the house.
3) He was locked in his room all day long.
( �ǹ� ) 1.(a) � ‫״� �׳‬ � ����� � ��� �����‫��־‬.
(b) � ‫״� �׳‬ � �����4 � � � � � � � � � � ‫��־‬.
2.(a) � ‫��� ���� �״‬ ͼ� ���� ��d���� �� � ���� �� �� ‫��־‬.
( � � � � ) � � � 鿡 � �"I" � � � � �ִ� " � �  � "; � � � � � � � � ˰� 8 � � Ƿ ߴ��� ;�‫�װ‬.
3.(a) � � � � ģ � � � � � � � ; � � � � � Ϸ � � 츮� � � ʴ�� ߴ�.
(b) ģ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϸ � � 츮� � � � � ‫��־‬.
4. � � � � �ƴ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϸ � � 츮� � � � � ‫��־‬.
5. � � � � = � � � 츮 � � � � � � � � � � ͼ� ��ȿ� ���� �‫��־‬.
cf. 1) � ‫��� ������ ������ �׳�� �ڱ� ��; ��װ‬ϰ� �ߴ�.
2) � �: �ȿ� � � � � � � ‫־‬ � ����� � �� ߴ�.
3) � ‫״� �ۿ��� ���� ��� �־‬ �Ϸ� ~ � � � ‫� �ڱ‬濡 � � � � � ‫��־‬.

EXERCISES 33
1. He means to (cheat) me (out of) my inheritance.
2. I attempted to (reason) him (out of) his absurdities.
3. The crux of Thatcher's argument is that British goods have (priced) themselves
(out of) international markets.
4. There are grounds, though, for taking a hopeful view. By far one of the most
important of these is the fairly steady, though irregular, drop in the inflation
eventually undermined every economic upswing and led to new slumps, which
brought about only temporary slowdowns in price rises. But many economists believe
that the length and depth of the present recession have (wrung) inflation (out of)
the
economy more throughly than the preceding busts.
(N.B.) by far: considerably; to a great degree; very much; far and away.
surge: any sudden, strong increase.
bust: a financial collapse; economic crash
5. Gently, he (pushed) me (to) my feet.
6. The book (bored) me (to) distraction.
7. She (argued) her husband (into) doing what she wanted.
8. His impudence (provoked) her (into) slapping him on the face.
9. The Nixon Administration, of course, is not the first to give undue priority
to
detente at the expense of Atlantic alliance. At least three administrations in
succession, mesmerized by the threat of a mushroom cloud, have concluded that
relations with the Soviet Union must take priority over those with Europe. But the
best way to avoid (blundering into) a (nuclear war with Russia) is to maintain a
healthy balance of power. And the indispensable ingredient in such a balance is a
strong and united Europe. Thus Europe, not Russia, must take priority in our
policy-making.
(N.B.) give priority to: -� � � 켱� � ; � ο � � ϴ � .
mesmerize: to surprise very much, especially so as to make speechless and
unable to move.
mushroom cloud = a nuclear war.
10. He never passes a mirror without stopping to (pat) his hair (into) place.
11. To visitors, the only time the Kennedy children ever seemed to rest was when
they were sleeping. And they never seemed to do that. Whenever they gathered
together, they were ready to play.
The Kennedys have always liked touch football. Even in later life, those who
(married into) the family had to be good players. Friends remember the time that
Bobby Kennedy, in the middle of a game, ran into a fence. His face was covered
with blood, but he did not stop playing. Many years later, Jack Kennedy would say
to a friend about Bobby's new wife, Ethel: "She's really good. You ought to see her
run and throw."
12. At 7:30 on a Sunday night, David Stockman sits alone at a conference table in
the cavernous, ornate sanctum of the director of the Office of Management and
Budget, poring with total concentration over computer printouts and tables of
figures.
When a visitor arrives to keep a dinner date, Stockman appears disappointed. "Is it
that time already? I need five more minutes." Before the words are out, his gaze
has
returned to the papers.
Finally, the OMB director (struggles into) his jacket and overcoat and starts
down
the corridor. "We've got just two more weeks," he says over his shoulder. The
deadline he is referring to is Feb. 18, when Ronald Reagan plans to announce the
details of his fiscal program, including radical surgery on the federal budget.
(N.B.) cavernous: very large and deep.
ornate: heavily ornamented or adorned, often
to excess. sanctum: a study or private room where one is not to be disturbed.
pore over: to read or study carefully.
table: � � ǥ . figure: � � � � . radical: extreme; thorough
ö � � � � . federal budget: � � � � d � � � � � � � � .
13.(a) The acid has (eaten through) the metal.
(b) Our holiday has (eaten into) the money we saved.
(c) What both Taiwan and South Korea have encountered is a rude lesson in the
limits of growth. Even in the boom years, planners in both countries acknowledged
that they would one day have to rationalize and modernize their economies if they
were ever to make the great leap into the ranks of the rich. But the day of
reckoning came sooner than was expected. Protectionism, inspired by the global
recession and the 1979 oil crisis, (bit into) foreign sales at just the time that
other,
less developed countries like China and the Philippines began producing and
exporting
products of their own at even lower labor costs. Explains Young Yoo, a south
Korean economist, "We find ourselves sandwiched between the powerful developed
countries and the Third World."
(N.B.) encounter: to meet with; face. rude: rough, violent, or harsh.
leap: � � � � . the ranks of the rich: � α � � � � � � 뿭.
the day of reckoning: the time when one must
suffer for a mistake. protectionism: � ‫ � � ;���� ������ �ڱ‬ȣ � ϴ � då.
inspire: to cause.
recession: �Ͻ � � � � � � � � � � � � .
the Third World = underdeveloped countries.
14.Women can move proudly into the security of their new bodies-they can (jog
into shape), life weights for body tone, wear themselves out in the disco bliss of
Jazzercise. But what about men? "Jazzercise is a blowout," one Atlanta woman says.
"Remember the first dances you went to, where all the girls ended up dancing with
other girls because the boys couldn't dance? So this gives me a chance to dance,
which my husband hasn't done since our wedding. But my husband still won't
dance. Come to think of it, I'm back to dancing with the girls. Haven't made much
progress in the past 25 years, have I?" Wendy May, 34, who teaches aerobics in
Atlanta, might argue that progress comes first, then the education of the
recalcitrant
male: "The discovery is not that it's sexy to be healthy but that it feels good. I
think most men are frightened by muscles, maybe even by fitness. Now though, I
don't think they have a choice. They may as well decide it's sexy, because it's
here."
(N.B.) lift weights: � � � ⸦ � � � .
wear oneself out: ( � � � � ��� : " � ‫ � � ;�ڽڽ‬ġ � �
� � � � � " � � � � � � � � , � � � 鿡 � �� � = �ǹ�� � � � � = ) � ‫ � � � � ;�� ���ڽڽ‬.
bliss: great joy or happiness; any cause of bliss.
Jazzercise = Jazz+exercise. cf. workaholic( � � � ߵ���).
blowout[slang]: a party, banquet, or celebration.
end up -ing: � � � � � � � � -�ϰ � �Ǵ � .
come to think of it: � ű � � � ‫���� ���� �ؼ‬.
recalcitrant: hard to handle or deal with; unruly.
fit: in good physical condition; healthy.
may as well: to be very likely to.
15. Nearly all of the proposals would be subject to Congressional approval. And
even if they are (voted in), most would not take effect until 1984.
(N.B.) subject to: dependent on; contingent or conditional upon.
take effect: ȿ��; �����ϴ�.
( � � )The bill was voted into law last month.
16. About twice a week my wife gets stinking drunk. Her outrageous behavior
terrifies me and our teenage son. She becomes abusive and uses obscene language.
The only way we can protect ourselves is by (locking her out of our rooms).
After several hours of yelling she passes out on the floor. I let her sleep there
because she is too heavy to move. It is not a pleasant sight for a child to find
his
drunken mother sprawled out in the corridor when he leaves for school in the
morning.
(N.B.) stinking[slang]; to an excessive of offensive degree; very outrageous:
very
offensive or shocking; unrestrained � � � � f � � .
abusive: coarse and insulting in language � � ĥ � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � .
pass out: to become unconscious; faint.
sprawl out: � � Ȱ � � � � � � � � � � .
17. (a) Your article was (crowded out of) the magazine.
(b) In an epoch when colorful volumes (crowd) each other (out) in bookshops, the
black-and white book is more than refreshing; it is a revelation.
( � � � ) "out" � ‫ � � � � � � � � ;�� ��� �ڿ‬.
18. DEAR ABBY : I am going crazy with this problem. I have two kids, 7 and 1
1/2. Both of them were breast-fed and given lots of love, but we ended up with a
couple of thumb-suckers. Where have we failed? Is it hereditary, or what? The older
one has outgrown the habit, but I still find her with her thumb in her mouth when
she sleeps. It's the younger one I'm worried about.
He keeps his thumb in his mouth all the time, expect when he eats or cries, It is
really maddening to see him with his thumb constantly in his mouth. I tried
applying
bitter-tasting medicine on his thumb, but he got accustomed to it and sucks his
thumb anyway. I even made a pair of gloves, but his hands are so small and
flexible, it's only a matter of time before he frees his thumb and sucks it.
If I scold him, he goes and hides so he can suck his thumb. I am sick and tried
of
this tug of war with him. My pediatrician is no help. He says leave him alone. I
have no one to turn to but you, Abby. If you can't find a solution, ask your
readers
if they know of a foolproof, tamperproof device to keep a child's thumb out of his
mouth. GOING CRAZY
(N.B.) hereditary: / � � � � � � . apply: � ‫���ٸ‬.
it is only a matter of time before-: � ð � � � �Ұ � � � � � � � �ʾƼ� .
tug of war: � ‫���ٴٸ‬. pediatrician: � Ҿ ư � � ǻ � .
foolproof: very simple to use. tamperproof: � � ; � 뼭 � ջ��� ��
� � � [tamper with: to interfere
with or meddle with, especially so as to damage( � � ; � � � , Ư � � �ջ� �ϱ � ' � ‫)�ؼ‬.
device: a thing devised; plan; a mechanical invention or contrivance.
19. "My policies often change, sometimes radically. But so do circumstances. I
like
to think of myself as one of those people who adapt themselves to changing
circumstances, who react to the changes, and who sometimes help to create them."
Moshe Dayan
For millions of people around the world, he was, quite simply, the living symbol
of
Israel. With his distinctive black eye patch and round boyish face, he was
instantly
recognizable in any country, in any kind of uniform, even in disguise, which he
donned from time to time in the service of his nation's diplomacy. Soldier,
statesman
and swashbuckling hero of Israel's wars with its Arab neighbors, Moshe Dayan
occupied center stage in Israel for more than 30 years. By the time he died last
week
of a heart attack at 66, Dayan had largely (outgrown his image as a warrior) and
become an impassioned advocate of peace.
(N.B.) radical:fundamental; extreme; thorough.
adapt: to adjust � � � = � Ű � � .
eye patch: �ȴ� . disguise: ' � � � ϱ � ' � � � � � � . don: to put on � Դ � .
swashbuckling: loudly boasting or bullying.
heart attack: � � � 鿡� � .
warrior: a soldier. impassioned:
passionate; ardent. advocate: a person who speaks for or support something;
supporter.
20. But if Reagan has (grown bigger than) supply-side economics, if he has
grasped
the meaning of presidential leadership and felt the exhilaration of achieving
rather
than preaching, he is more likely to succeed in the challenges ahead.
There is another hope held tenderly by some of Reagan's supporters and even a
few of his adversaries. It is that he has also escaped his obsession with being
consistent. Reagan believes inconsistency discredited Jimmy Carter. That bit of
history has some truth, but, as always, one bit is an imperfect guide for other
times.
Carter was perceived to change positions not for the nation's good but for his
personal political fortunes. If Ronald Reagan understood what he said last week
about
acting for all Americans, it could be the most important declaration of his
presidency.
That is true consistency.
(N.B.) supply-side economics :� � 鿡 � �a; � δ � � � f ö � � � Ǵ � då.
exhilaration: excitement.
preach: � � � � � ϴ � .
tender: sympathetic; compassionate.
adversary: an opponent � ‫��ݴ‬ϴ � � � � .
obsession: great preoccupation � � � � .
consistent: �ϰ � �ִ�.
discredit: to damage the credit or reputation of; disgrace.
21. DEAR ABBY : I'm glad you advised that 15-year-old girl against dating boys
of a different religion if she had no intentions of (marrying out of her faith).
I was raised in a strict Baptist home, but dated boys I knew I could not marry. I
fell deeply in love with a Jewish boy, but I married someone else. That was over 30
years ago, and I still dream of my first love. Now I wish I had either married him
or not set myself up to fall in love with a man I could not marry.
I REMEMBER MOREY
(N.B.) advise - against...: -� � � � ... � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � .
have no intention of -ing: -� � �ǵ � � � � � � .
faith = religion.
raise: to bring up or rear �⸣� � . � � 0 � ϴ � .
22. (a) How can we (get around) the new taxes and keep some more money for
ourselves? cf. get around a problem
(b) Not since 1966, when Gemini 9 was delayed by an electrical malfunction, had a
launch been scrubbed with the astronauts already in the cockpit. But it flew off
triumphantly two days later- and so did Columbia. Working through the night,
computer experts in Houston eliminated the hitch by (working around) it. Saturday,
he experts switched the computers on early, many hours before the second launch
attempt. This time the machines worked in full harmony, and controllers knew they
had those electronic gremlins licked. And so, an hour after dawn on Sunday, the go
signal was given, the engines thundered and, as the grassy meadows and sandy
beaches of Florida'a coast trembled, Columbia was finally on its way.
(N.B.) launch: �  � . scrub: to cancel or call off. cockpit: v~ � .
astronaut: cosmonaut � � � � � � � � � .
hitch � Ǽ � � � = malfunction; hindrance; obstacle; entanglement. switch
-on: � � 'ġ � � � ‫־‬ -; � ۵��ϰ� �����.
gremlin = hitch; � � � � � � �ǹ � an imaginary
small creature humorously blamed for the faulty operation of airplanes or the
disruption of any procedure.
lick: to overcome; vanquish; or control
(c) His lawyers (found) a way (around) a California law that prohibits graves on
private land.

A man I know got a promotion at work, and as a result enjoys a new status at
home. After a hard days work, he goes home just as beat as before, but his family
no longer calls him "grouchy." "Now they say I'm under 'executive tensions,'" he
reports.

I was called from bed in the early hours by a policeman who explained that my
office, a local employment bureau, had mistakenly been left unlocked during the
night.
What I checked, I was relieved to find nothing missing.
"You were lucky," said the policeman with a grin. "Someone could have walked in
and helped himself to a good job."

One morning while my husband was getting dressed for work and I was fixing
breakfast, he found there was only one pair of clean socks left in his drawer.
Instead
of nagging me about doing the laundry, he called into the kitchen, "Honey, if I had
one more foot, I'd be out of socks."

DEAR ABBY : My college-educated23-year-old daughter is ruining her life, and


I am helpless to stop her.
She says she is in love with a married man who plans to divorce his wife and
marry her.
Abby, the man has three grown children and a grandchild. And he's 54--that's 10
years older than her father! I didn't know what to do so I rang up this man's wife.
She was shocked and said she had no idea her husband was planning a divorce.
I'm so afraid my daughter will get mixed up in an ugly scandal. I can't talk any
sense into her head. I tried to teach her right from wrong, but I must have failed.
She lives in an apartment with two other girls and thinks that just because she
supports herself, she can live her own life without any interference from me. What
can I do? A MOTHER WHO FAILED

2. � ѱ � � � � � ‫ � � � � � � � � ( ��� �ٸ‬ǥ � � )
� ѱ � � � � � � � � � ��  �
'A � � B � � � ɰ � � ϴ � ' � � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � ; � � � � �'A
� � � ‫� �ؼ‬ɰ��Ǵ�'�� ��Ÿ���� ��찡 � ϴ�� .�
(1).Dinner was followed by dancing. -> After dinner there was dancing.
(2).The deceased is survived by his wife alone. cf. He survived his wife by ten
years.=He outlived his wife by ten years. = He lived longer than his wife by ten
years.
(3).(a) We were outnumbered by the enemy.
(b) The incumbent was outvoted by his opponent.
(4).(a) The ship was undermanned.
(b) When discount houses tried to undersell department stores, the latter reduced
prices, too, and adopted the slogan "We will not be undersold."
(N.B.) We will not be undersold.=We will not let others undersell us.
( �ǹ� ) 1. � � � Ļ � � ‫��ڿ� ���� �־‬.
2. � � � � � � /w8 � δ � � Ƴ � � � ��� .
3. (a) �Ʊ � � � � �ȿ � � � � � � � � � � .
(b)� � � � � ‫���� ���� �ڴ‬ĺ � � � � � ǥ � � � � � � � � � .
4. (a) � � � 鿡 � � � � � � � � w� ߴ�.
(b) � � � λ � a � � � � � �ȭ a � � � � � � � ΰ � � � � � ; �ȷ� � � � � , � �ȭ a � � � � ; � � � � �
"� 츮 � � � � � � � ΰ � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� " � � � ǥ�  ä � � � ߴ�.
鼭,

EXERCISE 34
1.As a performer of Chopin, Arthur Rubinstein (was rivaled) in the second half of
the century only (by) Vladimir Horowitz. He was noted also for his performance of
Brahms, Schumann, Schubert, Beethoven, Liszt, Ravel and Debussy, Falla and Albeniz
and his Polish compatriot Symanowski.
(N.B.) noted: famous; well-known; renowned.
compatriot: a fellow countryman.
2. In times of trouble, it has been Harlow's observation, there are no absolutely
correct answers to problems, only approximate ones. As he sees it, a President in
command must hold his course, tell the dissenters to go to hell--if possible,
making
them like it-and inject a bit of fear into his adversaries. "World peace and
economic
health are the two issues before Reagan now," says Harlow. "(The rest are dwarfed
by) them. The President is the whale and he cannot let himself be eaten by the
guppies."
(N.B.) approximate: more or less correct.
dissent: to differ in belief or opinion; disagree.
inject: � Ҿ �ִ�. adversary: an opponent.
dwarf: to make small or insignificant.
guppy: a tiny freshwater fish.
As one sees it = In one's opinion
3.To be sure, Argentina has certain economic advantages that both Britain and
Israel lack. The country is a major grain and beef exporter and, like the U.K., is
selfsufficient in oil. Even so, poor economic management over the years has
regularly
squandered these advantages, unleashing devastating bouts of inflation as weak
governments have sought to bolster their popularity by providing easy credit and
generous wages for workers. The defeat in the Falklands could mean more of the
same. Sums up a Western diplomat in Buenos Aires: "The new government will be
forced into a 25% to 30% wage increase in the public sector, (followed by)
hyperinflation, (followed by) more economic problems, (followed by) bank failures
and
business collapses, followed by foreign dept payment problems, (followed by) a fall
in
government again. Then they'll start all over."
(N.B.) grain: � . squander: to spend or use wastefully or extravagantly.
unleash: release Ǯ����.
devastating: completely destructive; ravaging; ruining.
bout: a period; spell �Ⱓ .
bolster: prop up; support; strengthen; reinforce.
hyper: over, above, or more than the normal; excessive.
collapse; failure or breakdown.
4.Fortunately, things have improved somewhat since Hillary made that assessment.
While the Khumbu Valley is something less than Shangri-la today, it remains one of
those rare places where reality cannot be contained in postcards, where nature can
still overwhelm, where refugees from more earth-bound regions can begin to
understand Messner's own reason for climbing. "In the high mountains," he wrote,
"the desperate business of living can (be transcended by) the sheer joy of being
alive."
(N.B.) somewhat: to some extent or degree; a little; rather.
assess: to evaluate; appraise.
While = Though. Shangri-la: any imaginary, idyllic utopia or hidden paradise.
transcend: to exceed; surpass; excel. sheer: pure.
5. Thus Peking's oft-repeated condemnation of the Soviet Union as "the superpower
that possesses the greatest threat to world peace" has (been superseded by)
criticism
of both superpowers. Chinese spokesmen lately blame international upheavals from
the
Middle East to the Falkland Islands on "superpower contention." Moreover, such old
anti-American slogans as "running dogs of U.S. imperialism" and "the U.S. is a
paper
tiger" that were buried when Richard Nixon visited China a decade ago have crept
into the political vocabulary again.
(N.B.) oft: (��� �ÿ � � � � � � � ) often. condemn: to pass an adverse judgment on;
disapprove of strongly; censure. supersede: to replace.
both superpowers = the Soviet Union and the U.S.
spokesman: � 뺯 � � . lately: recently. upheaval: a sudden, violent
change or disturbance in affairs.
blame - on...: -� � ſ;... � � � � � � � � � � .
contention: struggle; strife; dispute. creep: � � � .
6. El Salvador is clearly not another Viet Nam. (The superficial parallels are
outweighed by some very real differences). Among them: El Salvador is not a
sprawling jungle 8,000 miles from American shores, the junta is conscientiously
trying
to carry out an agrarian reform program, and there 4,000 leftist guerrillas are not
backed by a force the size of the North Vietnamese army. Nonetheless, President
Ronald Reagan and Secretary of State Alexander Haig have invested high stakes in a
guerrilla war in a republic the size of Massachusetts. By waging a campaign against
"indirect armed aggression" of foreign Communists who are smuggling arms to El
Salvador's leftist guerrillas, the Reagan Administration is signaling to the world
that
a line is being drawn against Soviet expansionism. "The terrorists aren't just
aiming
at El Salvador," explained Reagan in a White House press conference last week.
"They are aiming at the whole of Central and possibly later South America and, I'm
sure, eventually North America. What we're doing is trying to stop this
destabilizing
force of guerrilla warfare and revolution from being exported in here."
(N.B.) parallel: a similarity; likeness; resemblance.
outweigh: to be more important than.
sprawling: � � � � � � � � �ִ�.
agrarian: � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � / � � � Ǵ � � й � � � � õ � .
back: to support. stakes: money.
wage: to engage in or carry on.
armed aggression: � � � � ħ � � . smuggle: � м � � ϴ � .
draw a line against: to set a limit to; restrain( � � f � ϴ � ).
press conference: � � � � ȸ � � . possibly: perhaps. destabilize: to upset the
stability of
-� � � � d; � � �ʶ ߸���, � Ҿ � d � ϰ � � � � � � .
7.(a) I can (top) your story with an even funnier one.
(b) He lost his job and (on top of that) his wife left him.
(c) His house burnt down and his car was stolen and (to crown it all) he lost his
job.
(d) Alexander the Drunk?
Was Alexander the Great also Alexander the Drunk? The short, turbulent life of
the man who conquered a world has long baffled scholars. Even as Alexander pushed
Greek civilization all the way to the frontiers of India, he seemed to sink into a
spiral
of blackouts, binges, raging paranoia and morningafter remorse. Prof. John Maxwell
O'Brien of Queens College in New York has a theory that is outraging the hero's
legion of supporters. Alexander lived his last years, O'Brien contends, with "the
classic symptoms of acute alcoholism."
Revel: O'Brien, whose study has just been published in the Annals of Scholarship,
sees the influence of alcohol at many of the crucial junctures in the last seven
years
of Alexander's life. In 330 B.C., after a wine-soaked victory revel, he pointlessly
torched Persia's ancient capital, Persepolis. Two years later, in a drunken rage,
he
killed his old friend Cleitus, and then, overcome with grief, tried to kill
himself. But it
was the death of his apparent lover and most trusted commander, Hephaestion, that
sent Alexander over the edge. The 32-year-old conqueror slipped into a grim final
year of massacres, purges and end-to-end binges, (capped by) what O'Brien
identifies as a fatal alcoholic withdrawal aggravated by malaria.
Such claims predictably do not go down well in Athens -or with some other
scholars who have studied Alexander's life. "Within only ten years, Alexander
achieved more in conquest and the spreading of civilization than any other man,"
said
Nikos Yalouris, supervisor of antiquities in the Greek Culture Ministry. "The minor
evidence as to whether he was an alcoholic is, by comparison, petty." Biographer
Mary Renault, who has written several books about Alexander, weighed in with a
stout letter defending the hero's image that was printed in The Times of London
-and prominently featured in Athen's mass-circulation press. None of O'Brien's
detractors deny that Alexander, like all Macedonians of his time, drank heavily.
But
few are willing to slur the great conqueror by association with modern stereotypes
of
a hapless, debilitated drunkard. Says French scholar Maurice Druon: "An alcoholic?
No. A good drinker, yes. But for heaven's sake after so many victories the man
deserved a drink."
(N.B.) turbulent: violent; stormy; disorderly; tumultuous.
baffle: to make understanding impossible by confusing; puzzle; confound.
spiral: �ҿ 뵹 � � . blackout: a temporary loss of consciousness.
binge: a drunken celebration or spree � � =, � � � � .
raging: violent. paranoia: d � � ��� .
morning-after remorse: ( � � ; � � � � � � � ) � � = � � � � ħ � � � � ȸ .
outrage: to cause great anger in.
legion: a large number; multitude.
contend: to assert; argue; maintain.
symptom: a sign � � . acute: severe � � � � .
crucial: of supreme importance; decisive; critical � � d � � � � .
juncture: a point of time; moment.
wine-soaked: � � � � � � n �ִ�.
revel: boisterous festivity; merrymaking; celebration.
torch: to set fire to -� � � � ; � � � .
overcome: to make helpless, overpower or overwhelm � е � � ϴ � .
grief: deep sadness; acute sorrow.
send - over the edge: -; � � d � � � � 8 � � � � � � � .
grim: fierce; cruel; savage; ghastly.
massacre: � 뷮 � � � . Purge: � � û.
identify: -� � dü � � � � � � � .
‫ڰ‬
a fatal alcoholic withdrawal aggravated by malaria: � � � ‫� ;�� �ߵ��ڰ‬Կ �
� � � � �ʾ� ; � � � � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ��  �ư� �ģ ��� �.
go down: � � � � n � � � p � � � . weigh in: ( � ο � ) � � � 4 � .
stout: powerful, detract: ( � � � � ' � � ) � � Ƴ � � � � � .
slur: to disparage or discredit.
hapless: unfortunate; unlucky.
debilitate: to weaken; enfeeble, enervate.

It's really amazing what you see on the beaches these days. Thirty-year-old
women, and they're still growing out of their bathing suits!

��� ��
Like every other President, William Howard Taft had to endure his share of abuse.
One night at the dinner table, his youngest boy made a disrespectful remark to him.
There was a sudden hush. Taft looked thoughtful.
"Well," said Mrs. Taft, "aren't you going to punish him?"
"If the remark was addressed to me as his father, he certainly will be punished,"
said Taft." However, if he addressed it to the President of the United States, that
is
his constitutional privilege."

Dear Ann Landers: When I was growing up, books were my dearest friends. I
read everything I could get my hands on. The woman who worked at the public
library said I was her "best customer." I cannot imagine life without books.
I am writing to ask what to do about my children, ages eight and 12. They are
bright and make fairly good grades in school, but the world of books, so vital to
my
growing-up years, holds no interest for them. I am sure one of the big drawbacks is
TV. I monitor and limit their viewing, but it makes them want it monster if I would
permit it. Reading a book would never occur to them.
What can I do about this problem? I feel they are missing so much.--Frustrated
Mother In Conn.
Dear Mother: The late Mrs. Robert S. McNamara started an organization that
speaks to your needs perfectly. It is called RIF (Reading Is Fundamental). There
are
now 3,227 local RIF projects.
RIF operated on the theory that once children learn books can be fun, they WILL
read. Also, children need to have the privilege of selecting their own books and
keeping them. RIF distributes books without charge. (Each local community raises
its
own funds.) Since 1966, RIF has distributed more than 52 million books.
I urge you to acquaint yourself with this splendid group. It will teach you how
to
motivate your children to read and enable you to help other mothers who are faced
with the same problem.
Write to RIF Inc, 600 Maryland Ave. SW, Suite 500, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington D.C. 20560.
Mrs, Elliot Richardson is chairman of the board. And as you must know, anything
connected with the Smithsonian has got to be first class.

3. ' � � ' Ÿ � � � �
� � �  � � � � � ܾ� �ȿ� '��'�� �ǹ� � ����ִ� ������� � ִ µ � , ��� � � �  � � � �
� � � � � � � Ǵ � � � � � 'out-� � � � ' � � .
(1).(a) He (outeats) people twice his size. (=eats more than )
(b) He long (outlived) doctors' predictions.=He lived far longer than doctors
predicted.
(c) Soccer games (outdraw) presidential speeches.
(d) The prisoner (outwitted) his guards and escaped.
(2).(a) A house guest should be careful not to (outstay) his welcome.
(b) The idea was good once, but it has (outlived) its usefulness.
3. The gains (overbalanced) the losses. (=outweighed)
4. His accomplishment (surpassed) expectations. (=excelled)
5. John (excelled) his class in English. (=was better than)
( �ǹ� ) 1.(a) � ‫״� �ڱ‬鿡 � �� � ū � � � 麸 � � � � � � � � � Դ´�.
(b) � ‫� �״‬ǻ � � � � � � � � � � �ͺ� � � � ξ � � � � 7 � � � Ҵ � .
(c) � ౸���� : �� � � � � � �� � � � � � � �� ��: �� � � ; �� �.
(d) � � �˼ � � � Ҹ � � Ἥ � � � � � ; � � � � ġ � � � � � � � ƴ � .
2.(a) � � � � � � �մ � 8 � � � � � � � � � : � � � Ǹ � � ‫ �ؼ‬ȯ������ ��; d���� �7�
�ӹ � � � � � � � �ƾ � � Ѵ � .
(b) � � � � ��� � � � Ѷ � � � � Ǹ � � � 8 � � , � � � : �ʹ� � 7 � � ż � ȿ� 밡 ġ � � � Ҿ � � ȴ � .
3. ��� : �ս Ǻ � � � � � � � � Ҵ� .
� 4. � � � � � � � � : � � � � � � � � � �� �� � Ǹ � � ߴ�.
5. � � : � ‫� ��ڱ‬л� 麸 � � � � � � Ƿ��� �� �~Ҵ�.

EXERCISE 35
1. The advantages of living in a city (outweigh) the disadvantages.
2. People never (outgrow) their need for love.
3. The child has (outgrown) his earlier interests.
4. Since I couldn't (outrun) him, I had to outfox him.
5. The football games (outdrew) all the other college sports combined.
6. They still cling to some mummified customs that have long (outlasted) their
use-
fulness.
7. Their marriage (outlasted) their differences.
8. The Bolsheviks brought out a paper called Pravda(Truth) in April, and its
circulation (outdistanced) the Menshevik paper.
9. He (outvied) them all by the reach and freshness of his imagination and the
variety and inventiveness of his resource.
10. Unfortunately, he was (outmatched) in the competition.
11. He was no small man, but (outtowered) by his companion.
12. Though his clothes were a little (outgrown), there was something attractive
about the boy.
13. Hart would try to change military thinking by rewarding and advancing
officers
who are expert in tactics and innovation, not program managers. "We've got to
(outsmart) the enemy," says the Senator, who was shocked to discover that the
academies have virtually squeezed out the required study of military history and
tactics in favor of the social and political sciences.
(N.B.) advance: to raise in rank; promote � � � � � Ű � � .
outsmart: to overcome by cleverness; outwit.
academy: ( � � � � ) � � � � б � . virtually: in effect; practically; almost.
squeeze out: ¥ � � � � . � �ִ�.
14. This was demagogy (outsmarting itself).
(N.B.) outsmart oneself : to have one's efforts at cunning or cleverness result
in
one's own disadvantages; lose by acting too cleverly � ‫� �ڱ‬ҿ� �‫� ���ڽڽ‬� �ϰ�
�Ǵ �
15. Singapore's precocious development is unparalleled in so young a nation. In
1960,
when U. S. Economic Historian Walt W. Rostow published The Stages Economic
Growth, his classic yardstick of national economies, Singapore was still a British
Crown Colony, with a freshly minted home-rule
government under Lee Kuan Yew, then just into his second year as Prime Minister.
Since then the country has marched swiftly through Rostow's "take-off" period, on
through a concerted "drive to maturity," and today stands at the door of the "age
of
high mass consumption." Rostow, who is now teaching at the University of Texas at
Austin, says that Singapore is "right on the edge of what you would call a First
World economy." At present growth rates, he predicts, it should surely move up to
that rank within the next few years.
Singapore in any case is quickly becoming an industrial market economy. Final
figures for 1981 may well show that its per capita gross national product passed
$5,000, putting Singapore ahead of most of Latin America, Asia, Africa and Eastern
Europe, on a par with Ireland and poised to (outstrip) Spain. That is not enough
for
Lee, however. By 1990 he wants his country to have reached the level of Japan
today, to become a nation of high-technology manufacturing and computerized
services in industries such as banking and communications. Lee himself says he will
step down as Prime Minister before he turns 65 in 1988. To that end he is not only
trying to groom successors, but is pushing his nation to achieve as many of his
goals as possible before turning over the helm.
(N.B.) precocious: v � � � � .
unparalleled: unequaled; unequaled; unmatched; unrivaled � � � � � � � � .
classic: excellent; standard; authoritative; established.
yardstick: any standard of measurement or comparison ô � � .
crown colony: � � � ҽ Ĺ � � � .
mint: to create. home-rule: � � � � � � f � � � � � ‫�� ���ؼ‬ġ �ϴ � .
concerted: combined � � �յ � .
on a par with: on an equal footing with -� � � � : � � � � � � .
poised: ready. step down: ( � � � � � ) � � � � � � � � .
end: an aim or purpose.
groom: to train for a particular purpose.
turn over the helm: � � ġ � � � Ǵ � � � � � � ‫� ���ڸ‬Ѱ��ִ�
16. Much has been said about the need for love. Yet love means different things
to
different people at different times in each of their lives. With proper care and
guidance, a person grows in his ability to love in much the same way he grows in
size and weight. To a helpless baby, love means prompt attention to his needs. Love
is shown in the way he is held and cared for. Even a small baby knows when he is
wanted. Through love, he develops his sense of trust. Kind attention tells him that
he
is cannot form the framework into which the pieces of his personality must fit. The
young child needs love, too. So do teenagers. And how about your parents? (Do
people outgrow their need for love)?
(N.B.) helpless: unable to look after oneself or to act without help(� ‫;�ڽڽ‬
��� � �ų �
� � � � ; � � � � �ʰ� � ൿ�� �ɷ��� ���).
care for = to take care of; look after.
framework: the basic structure � � Ʋ , � � � .

Don't try to awaken a sleepwalker. Better to lead him gently back to bed. The
most hopeful note about sleepwalking is that most children outgrow it as they
outgrow bedwetting and nightmares.

It was midnight in the ornate law offices. The guard, as the foot of the
stairs,
saw a shadowy figure. He drew his gun. Shadowy figure did likewise. Guard fired,
destroying a valuable antique mirror.
"But I'll tell you one thing," said the guard to his boss the next morning. "I
out-drew him!"

Two hikers were walking through the woods when they suddenly confronted a
giant bear. Immediately, one of the men took off his boots, pulled out a pair of
track
shoes and began putting them on. "What are you doing?" cried his companion. "We
can't outrun that bear, even with jogging shoes."
"Who cares about the bear?" the first hiker replied. All I have to worry about is
outrunning you."

Three men were disappointed to learn there were no more seats for the Los
Angeles Olympic Games. Undaunted, the first picked up a manhole cover, and went
to a stadium guard. "The name is Smith, he said. "Discus thrower." He was
admitted.
The second man found a long sewer pipe and carried it to the gate. "The name is
Brown," he said. "People vaulter." He, too, was admitted.
Not to be outdone, the third fellow found a roll of barbed wire. With great
confidence, he walked to an entrance. "The name is Jones," he said. "Fencing!"

4. � � d � � � �
1) � � b � � d( �ϰ � � d )
(1). He was the last person I had expected to see in such an odd place.
= Never did I expect to see him in such an odd place.
(2).(a) He is above deceit.=He is the last person to deceive.
(b) She is above doing such a mean thing.
(3).(a) The dying man was beyond help.
(b) The meaning of the sentence was beyond him.=He couldn't grasp the meaning
of the sentence.
(4). These goals are far from being realized yet.
(5). He is anything but a scholar.=You may call him anything but not a scholar.
(6). But for his help, I would have been drowned.=If it had not been for his
help, I
would have been drowned.
(7). He was at a loss for words.=He didn't know what to say.
( �ǹ� )1. � � � � � � � � � ���� ����� �
� �������� ������� �ʾҴ�.
2.(a)� ‫� ����� ���� ���� �״‬ƴϴ � .
(b)�  ����� ��‫� � � � � � � � ;� ���� �׳‬ƴϴ � .
3.(a) � � � � ���� ���: � � ¿(ġ � � � � ) � � � � � � .
(b)� ‫� ������ �� �״‬ǹ� � ��� � � � �� ��� �.
4. ��� � � � � ǥ� � � ��� � DZ � � ��� �ϴ �.
‫ڰ‬
5.� ‫� �״� ���� ���ڰ‬ƴϴ � .
6. � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � ͻ � � � ; � � ��� .
7.� ‫���� ���� �״� ���� ��; �ؾ‬.
2)� � � ߺ�d
(1).(a) There is no rule but has exceptions.
= There is no rule that does not have exceptions.
= There is no rule without exceptions.
= Every rule has exceptions.
(b) Who is there but commits errors?
= There is no one but commits errors.
= There is no one that does not commit errors.
= Everyone commits errors.
(c) Scarcely a week passes but a prophet of doom raises his voice in that
country.
= Scarcely a week passes without a prophet of doom raising his voice in that
country.
= Almost every week a prophet of doom raises his voice in that country.
(2) They never meet but they quarrel.=They never meet without quarreling.=Every
time they meet, they quarrel.
(3) You cannot read this book but you will be the better for it.
= You cannot read this book without being the better for it.
= If you read this book, you will surely be the better for it.
( �ǹ� )1.(a) � � � � � � � � � Ģ: � � � .
(b)� ߸�; � � � � � � �ʴ� � � � � � � � � � �ִ3 � ?
‫ڰ‬
(c) � � � � �ָ��� �� ���  ��� ���� ‫�� �ڰ‬Ÿ � � � � � ĸ � � � � ´ ٰ� ��ģ � � .

‫ڰ‬
(� � � � � ָ ��� �� ���  ���
�  ĸ � � � � � � � � ‫�� �ڰ‬Ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � . )
2.� �: � � � � � ⸸ �ϸ � � � � � � � ; � Ѵ � .
3. � � å; � � 8 � � Ʋ � � � � � � ��� ; � � ; � � ��� .
3) � ѱ � � � � � ‫�� �ٸ‬d � � � �
(1)(a) He was not, like his father, optimistic about his future.
(He was not optimistic about his future + His father was optimistic about his
future)
= His father was optimistic about his future, but he was not.
(b) Boredom saps one's energy like nothing else.
(Boredom saps one's energy+Nothing else does so)
= Nothing saps one's energy so much as does boredom.
(2) A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.
(3) He was not so stupid but he could see the seriousness of the matter.
= He was not so stupid that he could not see the seriousness of the matter.
cf. He was so stupid that he could not see the seriousness of the matter.=He was
too stupid to see the seriousness of the matter.
( �ǹ� )1.(a) � ‫ �ڱ‬,�‫� �״‬ƹ���ʹ� �‫ �ڽڽ‬, � ��� �巡 � � � � � ‫� �������� �ؼ‬ʾҴ�.
(� ‫�״‬,
� ‫� �ڱ‬ƹ���� ����, �‫� ���ڽڽ‬巡 � � � � � ‫� �������� �ؼ‬ʾҴ�.)
( � � � � ) � � ȣ �ȿ� �ִ� ��ó � � � ű � � , ' � � � � �ƹ� � � � � � � � 巡 � � � � � ‫�ؼ‬
�ʾ Ҵ � .' � � � � � � � � � 9 Ƿ � � � � � � ϱ � � ‫��ٶ‬.
(b) � � � � ó � � � � � � � d � � ; �  � �
Ű � ��: �� �.
2. � � � � � � � � Ⱑ �ƴ � � � : � � � � � � � � Ⱑ �ƴ � � � ��� � � � � � � � .
( � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � Ⱑ �ƴϴ � .)
3.� ‫�� �� �״‬f � � � ɰ � � ϴ ‫ � � ; � � � � � � ;�� �ٴ‬ŭ �  � � � � � �ʾ � .Ҵ
( � � � � ) � � � � � � : 'that' � � � Ϻ � � � � � � � � ű � � � � � � � t � .
cf. � ‫� ��� ʹ� �״‬��� �� ��f�� �ɰ��ϴ ‫ � � � � � � � � ;�� �ٴ‬.
� � d � � � � � � � � � d � � � � � � � � � � �յ Ǿ � � � ; � � � � � � � 츮� � � � � ű � � � � �
� � � � � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�.
EXERCISE 36
(1) Fill the blanks with suitable words:
1. If you want to learn, you must not be ( ) asking questions.
2. Your pronunciation is far from perfect.=Your pronunciation leaves ( ) to be
desired.
3. It's quite a surprise to see you here.=You're the ( ) man I expected to see
here.
4. There can be no man ( ) has some faults.
5. I cannot look at this photograph ( ) being reminded of my childhood.
6. Everything becomes easy by practice.=Nothing is ( ) hard ( ) becomes easy by
practice.
7. He is never too busy to answer letter=No business can ( ) him from answering
letters.
8. I've got to go at all costs.=( ) can stop me ( ) going.
9. He is strong in subjects other ( ) mathematics.
10. I cannot make myself understood well even in English, much ( ) in French.
11. The clearer a business letter is made, the better it is.=a business letter can
never be made ( ) clear.
(2) � � ȣ ģ � κ � ; Ư � � � � � � � Ͽ � , � � = � � � � � � � ; � 츮 � � � � � � � Ͻÿ�.
1. In their dusty work clothes they looked (anything but) affluent.
2. He is out on an errand but he will be back (in no time).
3.(a) You (cannot) be (too) careful of your health.
(b) Accuracy can (never) be (overdone).
(c) The danger of vitamin deficiency (cannot) be (overemphasized).
(d) It's (impossible) to treat a child too well. Children are spoiled by being
ignored
too much or by harshness, not by kindness. Rich kids are often spoiled not by their
toys and automobiles, but by parents who are too busy to pay much attention to
them.
4.(a) We can (no more) explain a passion to a person who has never experienced it
than we can explain light to the blind.
(b) Up until some four decades ago fashionable ladies would (no more) have
thought of exposing themselves to sunshine than they would today to rain. For to
be pale was then the sign of social distinction.
5.(a) There is (nothing) on the earth (but) is affected by the sun.
(b) I could (not) spend an hour in anyone's company (without) getting the
material
to write at least a readable story about him.
(c) No one is (so) occupied with the business of his calling (but) he finds time
to
read the newspaper.
(d) There is (none so) wise (but) he is foolish at some time.
6.(a) It is (not) true, (as) sometimes claimed, that "health is wealth."
(b) He was (not) guilty of the murder, (as) many people thought him to be.
(c) In the United States institutions of higher learning supported by public
funds
are (not) absolutely free, (as) are the elementary and secondary schools.
(d) Reverie is the groundwork of creative imagination; it is the privilege of the
artist that with him it is (not, as) with other men, an escape from reality, but
the
means by which he accedes to it.
(e) The writers of the Bible were (not) learned men, as we use that term today.
But their great works have lived and been read (as) have (no) others.
(f) Though his book covers little new ground, he tells the Hitler story (as no)
non-German could: dispassionately, but from the inside. When he blames the
German people for Hitler, as he does, the charge rings true.
7.(a) You can't expect to have seen (the last) of him; he'll turn up again like a
bad penny.
(b) A cut in exports is about (the last thing) that the Korean economy, already
groaning under a heavy load of foreign debt, can afford.
8. Yasser Arafat is (nothing if not) a practical man; he is unlikely now to do
anything that will undermine growing sympathy in the West for the Palestinians.
9. There (never) was a child (so) lovely (but) his mother was glad to get him
asleep.
10. Oil is a buyer's market these days-with prices dropping despite a slump in
production. Oil contracts dipped below $30 per barrel on the Rotterdam spot market
last week, $2 less than the standard OPEC price. In turn, the availability of large
quantities of crude at such steep discounts is putting stiff pressure on the
world's
large oil companies to roll back some prices at the pump. Already, independent
refiners and marketers have aggressively begun to reduce gasoline prices in Britain
and some European countries-and more cuts are likely soon.
Oil production is dropping too. worldwide crude output fell during the first six
months of 1980, after five years of steady increases. OPEC output was off most
steeply-by more than 5 per cent-while North Sea producers bucked the trend and
posted a 13 per cent gain.
Slack consumer demand in the United States is a major reason behind the supply
glut. For the week ending Aug.15 U.S.oil imports average 4.2 million barrels per
day, down nearly 40 per cent from the 1979 figure. Few experts, however, think the
present buyer's market for oil will last long. Oil companies seem eager to spend
record sums on exploration, and despite falling crude prices, drilling rigs are in
strong demand as offshore development picks up. Last week a Norwegian firm
chartered one seven-year-old unit for a record $84,000 per day-hardly an indication
that the price of oil, in the long run, is going (anywhere but) up.
(N.B.) dip: to drop slightly, usually temporarily.
spot market: � � � � � .
crude = crude oil � � /
steep: unreasonably high or great; exorbitant; excessive.
stiff: powerful; high or excessive.
roll back: to reduce(prices)to a previous or standard level.
at the pump: � � / � � � � � � .
buck: to resist stubbornly.
post: to register � � � � ϴ � .
glut: oversupply �ʰ� � � .
record(adj.): � � � � � � � .
drilling rig: � � /ä � � � � � .
pick up: to improve.
in the long run: in the end; ultimately.
cf. in the short run: for the moment; in the immediate present.

At a church-council dinner, my mother and father were seated at the same


table as the pastor. Near the end of the meeting, the latter stood to offer
someclosing remarks, which became quite long-winded. As he rambled on, he lost
his place in his notes for the third time. "Now where was I?" he asked, scratching
his beard.
To the delight of audience and speaker alike, my mother spoke up and said, "In
conclusion!"

The husband confided to his wife."My boss suddenly lost his temper today and
told me to go to hell."
"Then what did you do?" asked the wife.
"I came home immediately," the husband meekly replied.

A kindergarten teacher was preparing the members of her class to take home
their first report cards. As she finished her instructions, one little boy turned
to his
neighbor and said, "Golly, I can't wait to see what I got."
Suddenly his enthusiasm dimmed. "Gosh," he said, "I can't read."
In her newspaper column, "At Wit's End," Erma Bombeck replied as follows to
an invitation from a California group:
"Yesterday, I received your colorful brochure and special invitation to be a
guest
at your nudist ranch. I hope you will understand when I tell you that I must
decline, as I don't have anything not to wear."

A young boy and his doting grandmother were walking along the shore in
Miami Beach when a huge wave appeared out of nowhere, sweeping the child out to
sea. The horrified woman fell to her knees, raised her eyes to the heavens and
begged the Lord to return her beloved grandson. And, lo, another wave reared up
and deposited the stunned child on the sand before her. The grandmother looked the
boy over carefully. He was fine. But still she started up angrily toward the
heavens.
"When we came," she snapped indignantly, "he had a hat!"

Speaking on philosophy at a Creighton University symposium, sister Martinez


found that her small stature was completely obscured by the large lectern. "I don't
suppose any of you out there can see me, "she commented. "However, since this is
a metaphysical subject, perhaps it's just as well if the voice seems to come from
nowhere."

Life is not so short but that there is always time for courtesy.(Ralph Waldo
Emerson)
Nothing is so outrageous or bizarre that somebody somewhere won't do it.(Ann
Landers)

5. � ѱ � � � � � ‫��� �ٸ‬
1) � � � � � � � � 鿡 � ~ � � Ѵ � .
(1) Slow tears rose to her eyes.( � � � � � ǥ � � )
Tears slowly rose to her eyes.( � ѱ � � � � ǥ � � )
(2) He doesn't speak much English.
He doesn't speak English much.
(3) The Smiths spend an occasional night in a cheap hotel.
The Smiths occasionally spend a night in a cheap hotel.
(4) Bill was a casual visitor to the museum while in college.
Bill casually visited the museum while (he was) in college.
(5) Often, while Pierre worked at some chemical experiment, she prepared hasty
meals which they ate as they continued their task.(=meals in haste)
(6) As columbia landed safely on the hard-packed dirt of the dried lake bed at
California's Edwards Air Force Base, the watching world, even the cool hands at
Mission Control Center in Houston, breathed a collective sigh of relief.(=all
breathed
a sigh of relief)
( �ǹ� )1. � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫׳��� ���� �ھ‬ƿö��.
2.� ‫��� ���� ���� ⸦�� ����� �״‬Ѵ�.
3. � � ��� � � � κδ � � � � � �Ϸ � � ; � � � � ȣ� ‫������ ���ڿ‬.
4. � � : � � � п � � ‫ ;���ٴ� ���� ����� �� �ڹ‬ã �ư � � � .
5. � � � � , � � � � � � �  ȭ� � � � � � ; �ϰ � �ִ� ����, � ‫׳‬ � �� ѷ� �Ļ��‫�غ� �ؼ‬
� ‫ � � � � ;�۾‬ϸ 鿡 � Ļ 鿡 � ߴ�.
6. � ÷ � � � � � � �� պ����� Ķ����Ͼ��� ������� ����� �ִ� ���� ȣ����
� ‫ ����� ���� ����������ܴ� ���ٴ‬ϰ� � � � � � � � , � � � Ѻ � � � � � � � � � � : ,
��� � �
� �ư� � �ִ� ������f � � � � � � � � ö � � � � � � � � , � � � �ȵ � � � � Ѽ � ; � � � � � .

2) � � ľ � � � Ǽ � ľ � � � � � � � ���
� � � ‫�� �ڴ‬h � � � � �  � � �ƴ � � � � � "educated guesses" � � � � � � � Ǵ 3İ �
‫ڰ‬
� � ; � � � � � 8 � � � � ô � � � � � � � � ‫ ���ڰ‬.��‫�˱� �־‬δ� ��� ��� ǥ���� ����
� ֱ� �������. � � � � ' � � � � � � 8 � � ' � � n � � � � , "educated guesses" � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � δ � . �ֳ��ϸ� � , ' � � � � ' ��� � � � � ' � � 0; � � :' ��� � � � � ' � � ü' � � � �
� � � � ��� . � ��� ��� � � 쿡 "educated � � � � � : "based on knowledge or
experience"( � � � ��� � � � 鿡 � ‫ � ´ � � � ; � � � � � ) � � ;���ع‬.
� � = � � � � ; � � � 鼭 v � � � � � � � ‫���� ����غ‬.
There was a satisfied look on his face.
� տ � � � ó � � � � � � ‫�ٸ‬, "a satisfied look" � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ʴ´ � .
'ǥd'�� ��w; ��:' ������ '��ü'�� �� �� ��� �������. �  �������
� ǻ � � � � � � � � � ��� . �ֳ��ϸ� , � 8���� ������ =�� :���� ���‫� � � � � �־‬
� � � � ��� .
He looked satisfied.
��� � � � ‫���� ���ٲپ‬, ù° � � � � � � � � "satisfied" � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � �
"He" � � � � � ; � � � � �ִ�.
1. She shook an astonished head. -> She shook her head in astonishment.
2. It took mankind untold ages to get out of its barbarous state.
3. I am on speaking terms with her.
4. The actual speaking vocabulary of most people is small.
5. He has a reading knowledge of English. -> He knows enough English to read it.
6. He shook his head and raised an emphatic finger indicating that he would not
pat more than a pound.
7. They killed an estimated 60 villagers. -> It is estimated that they killed 60
villagers.
8. His beat had been a frenetic 140 when he finished the operation.
( �ǹ� )1. � ‫� ��� ��׳‬Ӹ � � � � � � � � .
2. � η � � ߸����¿ � � � � � �  � � � � � � � � � û � � � � � � : � � � � � � �ʿ� � ߴ�.
3. � � � � �  ��� ְ ⸧�� ��‫ ����� �׳‬.
4. � � κ � � � � � � � � � � � f � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � � � �ּ�� ���.
5.� ‫��� �״‬ ��; � � � � ; d � � � � �˰ � �ִ�.
6.� ‫� �״‬Ӹ � � � � � � � � � � � � �հ � � �ѵ; ġ � � Ŀ � � ���
1�� : � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڴٴ‬
� � ; ǥ � � � ߴ�.
7.� 꿡 � ϸ�� �� ߴߴ ٰ �����;����;�� ����60 : � � �Ѵ�.
8. � ‫� � � � � � � ; � � � � ;��� �� �װ‬ƹ� : � � � � 8 � � � � : 140 ��� � .

EXERCISE 37
1. She took a draw on her cigarette and blew (a healthy beam of smoke) toward
my face.
2. He does not smoke, (drinks an occasional Scotch), worries about his waistline
and his men, to whom he is a father figure.
3. Nearby islands were reflected in the water, and on them we could see (an
occasional human figure) moving about.
4. A recent opinion poll found that (a startling 69%) of the French population
worry that "things were getting worse".
5. Although most workers returned to their jobs after the Gdansk accords promised
free unions and other political concessions, strikes broke out (in scattered areas)
last
week.
(N.B.) accord: � � � � , � � d . concession: � 纸
6. Perhaps stymied by her spirited defense, the court went into (an unexplained
recess), leaving the debate phase to be finished later, possibly next week.
(N.B.) stymie: to hinder or obstruct; block; impede. go into recess: � � d � ϴ � .
debate
phase: � � � � � � d
7. Americans do not use silverware for eating bread. They hold it in their
fingers,
usually breaking it first. A person is considered peculiar if he anchors a slice of
bread firmly on his plate with his fork, butters the whole thing with his knife,
and
then cuts it up and eats it with his knife and fork, thus (avoiding greasy
fingers).
(N.B.) silverware = forks and knives.
peculiar: out of the ordinary; strange; odd; queer.
anchor: to keep fixed.
8. Despite its (studied frivolity), the novel is concerned with a very
interesting
subject. It is true that one may read half the book, with pleasure and some
impatience, before this becomes clear, but on page 158 precisely, the author drops
her enigmatic allusions for long enough to tell us, plainly, that she is writing
about
money.
(N.B.) studied: deliberate.
frivolous: not properly serious.
enigmatic: perplexing; baffling.
allusion: an indirect reference; casual mention.
plainly: clearly; frankly
9.Serious dissension within the troika, in turn, could be paralyzing to the
Reagan
Administration. Below the top group, talent is disquietingly thin, even though the
staff is (deceptively large). There are about 350 people on the White House staff;
about 40 report to Deaver and 25 to Meese. That most of the others are in Baker's
jurisdiction is no accurate guide to his influence.
(N.B.) dissension: a difference of opinion; discord; disagreement or, expecially,
violent quarreling or wrangling.
troika: � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ° � � � Edwin
Meese, Michael Deaver, James Baker � � � � � � Ŵ .
disquiet: to make uneasy; disturb.
deceptively: misleadingly.
jurisdiction: the range or sphere of authority � � � � � � � �
10. The president's initiation of a crusade recently brought to light the plight
of
uncounted numbers of citizens who, at a time of unprecedented prosperity, are
unable to keep their heads above the financial disaster lever. This spring the
nation
is in for another shock, when the subject of military pat increases comes before
Congress. The American people will then (get a good hard look at) a situation that
must fill all but the thickest-skinned citizen with a sense of shame: the financial
plight of the men who protect out country.
(N.B.) initiation: start � � � �
crusade: vigorous, concerted action for some cause or
idea, or against some abuse.
bring to light: to make known to the public; reveal; disclose; unveil.
plight: a sad situation.
unprecedented: unexampled: unheard.
in for: certain to have or get(usually an unpleasant experience)
11. Congress has been a major stumbling block in the year-long fight for (higher
judicial pay). The lawmakers refuse to let judges get a pay raise unless they also
give themselves one. Congress has been miserly with the judicial branch. It
repeatedly has blocked presidential recommendations for increases under a law
designed to make federal pay scales comparable to those in private industry.
(N.B.) stumbling block: an obstacle � �ֹ�
judicial: of judges � ǻ � � � �
miserly: stingy � λ � � �
designed to (do): -� ϴ � � � ; � � � � 8 � � �ϴ �
12.(a) It is (a rare writer) who is his own best critic.
(b) We spend our lives in motor cars, yet most of us do not know enough about
a car to look in the gas tank when the motor fails. Our lives today would not move
smoothly without electricity, but it is (a rare man or woman) who, when the power
goes off, knows how to look for a burned-out fuse and replace it.
13. Before leaving Warsaw, the Pope (paid unannounced visits to) monuments
commemorating his homeland's tragic ordeal in World War II.

While my car was being fixed I took the bus to the supermarket. Halfway
hrough my shopping I realized that in my condition-8.5 months pregnant-I wouldn't
be able to carry the groceries home. When I asked the young store manager if he
delivered, he looked me over and said, "Only groceries, madam."

An employer, interviewing an applicant, remarked, "You ask high wages for a


man with no experience."
"Well, "the prospect replied, "it's so much harder work when you don't know
anything about it."

Two Russian workers, Ivan and Boris, were discussing the possibility of going
to work in Siberia. They had been told that wages and living conditions were
excellent. However, rather than both taking the risk of finding matters less than
desirable, it was agreed that Ivan would go and then write to Boris. If the letter
was written in blue ink, it meant the claims were true. If the letter was in red
ink,
the claims were to be taken with reserve.
After some weeks, the letter arrived. It was written in blue ink and Boris read
it
with interest: "The living accommodations are excellent. The supermarket has
everything. In fact, I can buy many more things here than in Moscow. There seems
to be only one shortage. I cannot buy red ink."

Anyway
People are unreasonable, illogical and self-centered.
Love them anyway.
If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish ulterior motives.
Do good anyway.
If you are successful, you will win false friends and true enemies.
Succeed anyway.
Honesty and frankness make you vulnerable.
Be honest and frank anyway.
The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow.
Do good anyway.
The biggest people with the biggest ideas can be shot down by the smallest
people with the smallest minds.
Think big anyway.
People favor underdogs but follow only top dogs.
Fight for some underdogs anyway.
What you spent years building may be destroyed overnight.
Build anyway.
Give the world the best you have and you'll get kicked in the teeth.
Give the world the best you've got anyway.

3) � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ܾ� � � ; � � � � � ‫���� ���� �ؼ‬ų � � � 鿡 � � � � � ��ִ� ����;
� � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � : � � 鿡 � � � � � � � � � ų � � � �ܾ��
� � � ļ � � � � 鿡 � � � � � � � ��� .
(1) � � � � � � � � : give-and-take
(2) � � � � � � � � �
The modern citizen worker consumer voter demands two things: steady
employment and reasonably stable prices.
(3)� � 鿡 � � � � � � � ȯ
(a) middle class( � � � )
(b) middle-class( � � � � )
(4) � � � � � � � � �
(a) � � � � + � � ź л �
a deep-rooted evil � Ѹ � � � : � � , a far-sighted politician � � � � � � � � ȸ � ;
dġ � � , an open-minded man � � � � � � � � � ǽ � ; � � � � � � � ,
a solar-heated house � ¾ 鿡 � �� � � � Ǵ � � �
(b) � � � � � Ǵ � � λ � + � � � � л �
a good-looking girl ��� � � � � � � , a strange-looking animal ��� � ϰ � � � � � � � � ,
hard-working student � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � � л �
(c) � � � + � � ź л �
a man-made satellite � ΰ � ' � � , a money-oriented society � � � � � � � � � � � �
Seoul-born pianist � � � £ � � � ¾ � Ǿ ƴϽ �Ʈ , a bone-tired official � ļӱ� � �
� � � � � ִ� ��
(d) � � � + � � � � л �
a self-effacing man � ‫� � � � � � � � � ;�ڽڽ‬ʴ� � � �
(e) � � � + � � � �
a color-blind man � � � � � � � � , a world-famous artist � � � � � � 8 � � / � � � �
duty-free goods( � � � � f � Ǵ � � �ǰ ), a tone-deaf man=d; � � � � � � � ϴ � � � � ,

(f) � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � �
a live-in housekeeper � � � � � � d � � � � , a keep-out-of war position � � � £
� �  � � ʰ ‫���� �ڴٴ‬, a forget-me-not look � � � � � � � � � � � � � �� ǥd, She
wore her usual don't-worry-everything-will-be-fine look. � ‫��� Ⱑ׳�� ���� �ڱ‬
" � � d � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ž � " � ϴ � ǥd; � � � � ‫��־‬.
She's the daredevil type of hostess. The kind who'll invite newlyweds to a
come-as-you-are party.

EXERCISE 38
1. They're (short-handed) at the gate. (=short of hands)
(N.B.) � � � � � � : � � : � � � � ; � � � � � � � � f � � 8 � � � � Ÿ � � � � �ִ‫ �ٴ‬a � �
2. She looked at herself in the tall mirror, (wonder-struck),(=struck with
wonder)
3. He is a (philosopher-turned) poet.
(N.B.) � � κ � � � � � � � : � � � � "turned" �տ � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � � � 8 � � ,
� � � � � � ; � � � � ϴ � � � � � � ‫����ٶ‬ϴ ٰ� ���‫� �ڴ‬ϴ ´ � .
4. A lot of (achievement-oriented) people worry about being left behind.
5. The (Korean-born) American novelist won his recognition as a writer in his
early thirties.
6. Korean hospitality is (world-famous).(= famous the world over)
7. Some blacks, however, are taking a (wait-and-see) attitude toward the New
Administration.
8. It was a (once-in-a-lifetime) chance for a student of politics like Jack
Kennedy.
9. One fellow say he's going to observe Thanksgiving with a (broad-breasted)
turkey and (narrow-minded) relatives.
10. Supporters see the Carter Administration's efforts to create a Rapid
Deployment Force as a (better-late-than-never) remedy for the perceived decline of
American military might.
(N.B.) Rapid Deployment Force: � � �ġ � � . might: power; strength
11. Ever since the early 1920's federal budget directors have been complaining
about the ("use it or lose it") syndrome: a curious disease that causes government
agencies worried about the implications of a surplus at year-end to go to enormous
and creative lengths to make sure that every nickel of the taxpayers' money is
spent.
(N.B.) � ο � � ȣ � � � � � � � � ó � � � � � 鿡 � � � � � � � � � ; � Ѵ ‫ �ٴ‬a � � � � � � � ϶ � .
federal budget director: � � � � d � � � � � � � � û � � ( director of the office of
Management and
Budget).
syndrome: � � , � � . go to enormous and creative lengths: � � ô � ���
â � � � � 8 � � ( � � ο � � � � ; � � � � ‫���� �ָ�)�ؼ‬.
every nickel of the taxpayers' money: � ‫� ��ڱ‬μ � � � � Ҵ � � : � � � � � � �
12. She studied welding at a vocational school, but when she applied for a job
with
an aluminium company, she was greeted with the predictable ("Are you serious?")
look. She talked her way into a job, for which she had to commute 110 miles a day.
That forced her to quit after a year, but she remembers with pride, "When I left,
the company vice president said I was probably the best aluminium welder he had
ever employed."
(N.B.) welding: � � b. commute: � � � � ϴ � . vice president: � λ � � �
13. The fail-safe, error-checking computer even did its own trouble-shooting.
When
something went wrong, it would examine itself and flash a message that would tell
the operator what was amiss and how to fix it.
(N.B.) fail-safe: � � � � ; � � � � � � ġ � � � � �߰� � �ִ�.
error-checking: � ߸�; a � � � ϴ � .
trouble-shoot: (� � 谡)� � � 峭 � � ; ã �Ƴ � � � � � � ϴ � .
amiss = wrong. fix: to repair � � � ϴ �

Lines of Resistance
One Sunday morning after services, my husband told our priest that he felt there
was a lack of friendliness among members of the congregation and that people were
reluctant to greet one another in church. Agreeing, our priest said that he had
devised a plan to change things.
During services the next Sunday, the priest described the situation to the
congregation and said that the following Sunday we would have a brief pause to
allow parishioners to turn to those seated behind them and greet them with a
friendly hello. After the service, my husband turned around to the woman behind us
and said, "Good morning." She looked at him in shocked indignation. "That doesn't
start until next Sunday!" she snapped.
A woman wearily laid her purse on the counter in the jewelry department where I
was working. I asked if I could help her. "No, dear, "she said. "I only want to
look
around to get my mind off the exasperating hour I just spent with my psychiatrist.
He is to stubborn that I suppose I'll never get him around to my way of thinking!"

� Ѱ � �ƹ� � �
One day a bachelor who was a poor tipper walked into his favorite restaurant and
ordered lunch. A new waitress served his meal and received a three cent tip. When
he came in the next day, she thanked him for his "generosity,"and she said she
could tell the character of a diner by the way he tipped.
"Well, what could you tell about me?" he asked.
"You put three pennies in a neat row," said the waitress, "and that shows you're
a very tidy person. The first penny tells me you're frugal, and the second tells me
you're a bachelor."
"That's true, "he agreed. "But what does the third penny tell you?"
"The third penny tells me your father was a bachelor, too."

We were watching an old film of TV when my wife's mother said to her,


"Isn't that what do you call him?" Replied my wife, "I don't think so." "Well,"
said
her mother, "it sure looks like him."

5. EXPRESSION(ǥ���� ����)
1. �ǹ� � � � � � �
� � � � � � ü � � � � � � ; � � � � Ű � � � � (1 � �ܰ��) � � � � � � �)�� �����
ȿ�� ���� � '�� ������� ��(3��ܰ��)8 � � � � � � � Ѵ ٰ� �� �� �ִ�. � � = � � � � ;
� � � ‫ � � � � � � ���� �ؼ‬d ; � � � � � ϰ � , � ⺻ǥ��; ����3 ��2 �‫ � � � � � �ؼ‬ǥ�� ;
� � � ; �͵� �ϵ� � � � � � �϶ � .
(1)(a) She's grown out of her shoes.
(b) She's grown out of her silly love.
(2)(a) Her debts amount to over $50,000
(b) Her words amount to a refusal.
(3)(a) These shoes wear out quickly.
(b) All this talking wears me out.
(4)(a) He cut useless branches off the tree.(1 � � � � � � � � � � �ܰ��)
(b) He fasted his illness off.(2 � � � � � � � � �ܰ��)
(c) She screamed her head off.(3 � � � � � � � � � �ܰ��)
( �ǹ� )1.(a) � ‫� ���׳�� �ڶ� �ڽڽ‬Ź � ; � � � � � � � ϰ � � Ǿ � � .
(b) � ‫(�׳�� �ڶ‬ö � � � � ) �  � � : � ‫��� ��� ���ڽڽ‬�� �  Ǿ� �.
2.(a) � ‫�� ���׳‬: � � � ļ � 5 � � � � ��� � � �ȴ� .
(b) � ‫�� ���׳‬: � � � � � ϴ � � � ��� � � � � � � � .
3.(a) � � � Ź � : � � � � � � Ƽ � � � ; � � � � � �ȴ� .
(b) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ʰ � �ǰ� � � � � � .
4.(a) � ‫�� �߶ � � � � � � � � � � � ;����� ������ �״‬ ȴ�.
(b) � ‫״�� �ܽ�; �ؼ� �ڽڽ‬ ��� ��; � � � � � �ȴ � .
(c) � ‫� ��׳‬Ӹ � � � � � � � n � � � � � � � � � ; � � � .
( � � � � ) ' � � � � � � � � � � � ‫(�� ������ ���־‬nucleus); ���� � � : � � � � � �
� � ġ � � � Ǵ � � � ġ � 鿡 � � �‫ � � ' � � ���� �ؼ‬ġ � � � � � � ' � � � a � � �ָ��ϱ� � ‫��ٶ‬.

EXERCISE 39
1. She (dieted off) 20 pounds.
2. He usually (sleeps off) his fatigue.
3. He'd annoy me, and I went down the stairs to my mailbox, simply to (walk off)
my annoyance. I wasn't eager to see the mail.
4. The ability to (laugh) things (off) will save you many an awkward situation in
social life.
5. At 38, after two decades of heavy drinking, O'Neil (swore off) liquor. Except
for
isolated lapses, he abstained for his remaining 29 years.
(N.B.) lapse: a small mistake; a failure in correct behavior, belief, duty, etc.
6. She was in her limousine, (talking her silly head off) with two women.
7. When boys get to the age of fifteen or sixteen, they (eat their heads off).
8. Our guide was so anxious for us to see everything of interest that he (walked
us off our feet).
9. It would be foolish to (stand upon one's dignity) in a place where there is
hardly room to (stand upon one's feet).
10. During semester bread out neighbor's daughter invited her boyfriend to a
homecooked meal, an invitation he eagerly accepted. At dinner he was soon into his
third large helping, while everyone watched in amazement.
After the fourth plateful he complimented the hostess on her cooking. Then,
noticing the dessert fork next to his plate, he asked, "What's this fork for?"
Without
hesitation his girlfriend answered, "That's in case the first one (wears out)."
(N.B.) break: a pause for rest. compliment: to praise. in case: for fear that

2. � � ǥ � � � � �߰� �: ǥ���� ��äȭ


�  �ϳ� � � ǥ � � � ‫־‬ � ����鿡 � �� Ǵ � � � ' � � � � � ‫ � � ' �ڴ‬ǥ � � '(Nuclear
Expression) ��� � � θ � � � . � � � ǥ � � : � ‫�� ���װ‬ǥ��� �Ļ�� ����� �� ��
� � 8 � Ƿ � , � � ǥ � � � � � � � � � ‫� ������ �ش‬鿡� � v � � � ľǰ� � � �ȴ � .
1. get to one's feet=stand up( �Ͼ  � � ) [ �ǥ � �]
(a) leap to one's feet( � � ½ � ‫� �پ‬Ͼ � �
)
(b) spring to one's feet( � � � ö � � Ƣ � � � � � � � � � �Ͼ  � � )
(c) run to one's feet(� ����� �� �Ͼ � �
)
(d) shoot to one's feet( � Ѿ˰ � � � �Ͼ  � �)
(e) stagger to one's feet( � � Ʋ � Ÿ � � � �Ͼ  � � )
(f) stumble to one's feet( � Ѿ � � � � � ϸ � �Ͼ  ��)
(g) struggle to one's feet(�ָ� �Ἥ ����� �Ͼ) ��
2. put to death: -; � � ���
(a) beat to death( � � � | � � � ��� )
(b) burn to death( � ¿ � � � ��� )
(c) club to death( � � � 8 � � ġ � ų � � � � | � � � ��� )
(d) freeze to death( � � | � � � ��� )
(e) starve to death(� � �ܼ���� � � )
(f) stone to death( � � � � � ļ � � � ��� )
(g) shoot to death( � � 8 � � � � � � ��� )
3. make one's way: go( � � � � )
(a) He felt his way toward the door in the dark.
(b) She pushed her way through the crowd.
(c) He elbowed his way through the crowd.
(d) They shot their way through the crowd.
(e) The Han River winds its way into the Yellow Sea.
(f) They wormed their way up the rock.
(g) He worked his way through college.
(h) He earned part of his way through college by selling books.
(i) He could eat his way to better health.
(j) He tried to explain his way out of the difficult situation.
(k) Americans admire the self made man the man who, with neither money nor
family influence, fights his way to the top.
( �ǹ� )3.(a) � ‫� ��� �״‬ӿ� � � � � � 8 � � � � � � 8 � � � � � � .
(b)� ‫� ��׳‬и 鿡 � � � � � � ; �հ � � � � � .
(c)� ‫� �״‬Ȳ�ġ�� �и� ���� ��; �հ� ����.
(d)� �: � � ; � � � � � � � � � ; �հ � � � � � .
(e) � Ѱ � : � � � ұ � � � � 귯 � � Ȳ�‫�� �ط‬ ��
.
(f)� �: � � ó � � � �  � � � � ' ' � � �ö �ö . �
(g)� ‫� �״� ��; �ؼ‬к � � �  � � � � ; � � � Դ � .
(h)� ‫ �״‬å; �ȾƼ � � к � � � � Ϻ θ � � �  � � � � ; � � � Դ � .
(i)� ‫� �״‬Ļ � � �ǰ� � � � � � ~ � � � � � � ‫��־‬.
(j)� ‫ � � � ��� �� �״� �ظ�; �ؼ‬忡 � � � � n � � � 7 p � � ߴ�.
(k) ��� � ε � : � ‫ � � � � ;��� ����ڼ‬Ѵ � � ‫�ٽ� ���ؼ‬, � � � � � � w � � � � � � µ �
� � � � ‫ �ؼ‬d � � � 8 � � � � � � ; � � ��� .

MIGRATORY BIRDS in the United States were tagged by the Department of


the Interior with metal strips reading "Wash. Biol. Surv."- for Washington
Biological
Survey. The code was changed, so the story goes, after a farmer from Arkansas
wrote to the department: "Dear Sirs, I shot one of your crows. My wife followed
the cooking instructions attached she washed it, boiled it and served it. It was
the
worst thing we ever ate."

Asked whether she would prefer coffee or cocoa as a nightcap, our young
French guest chose cocoa. She explained: "Coffee makes me too exciting as
bedtime."

� � �һ �!
Four men of the cloth, taking a short breather from their heavy schedules, were
on a park bench, chatting and enjoying an early spring day.
"You know, since all of us are such good friends," said one, "this might be a
good time to discuss the problems that are disturbing us. "They all nodded in
agreement.
"Well, I would like to share with you the fact that I drink to excess," said one.
There was gasp from the other three. Then another spoke up. "Since you were so
honest, I'd like to say that my big problem is gambling. It's terrible, I know, but
I
can't quit. I've even been tempted to take money from the collection plate."
Another gasp was heard, and the third clergyman spoke. "I'm really troubled,
brothers, because I'm growing fond of a woman in my church-a married woman."
More gasps. But the fourth man remained silent. After a few minutes the others
coaxed him to open up. "The fact is," he said, "I just don't know how to tell you
about my problem."
"It's all right, brother. Your secret is safe with us."
"Well, it's this way," he said. "You see, I'm an incurable gossip."

��� � � � � 4

EXERCISE 40
1.� ‫� ����� ���־‬ǹ� � � � � � � � � � ĭ � � � � � � � �ܾ � �� ‫��־‬.
(a) She expressed her thanks with a smile.
-> She ( ) her thanks.
(b) He approved with a nod.
-> He ( ) his approval.
2.(a) I (played away) a month on account of illness.
(b) They used to (sing away) their weariness at the day's end.
(N.B.) weariness: fatigue � Ƿ �
(c) He once (drank and talked away) an entire night with Ernest Hemingway.
(d) There is no pleasanter way of (idling away) an hour or two than by reading
an interesting story.
(e) For the third time in four months my husband has (gambled away) his entire
two week's paycheck. I don't want to leave him. We have three swell kinds. Tell
me what to do before I go crazy.
(N.B.) swell[slang]: first-rate; excellent
3. (a) No one (expects an early end to) the controversy.
(b) Most economists (see no quick end to) the inflationary pressures.
(c) The exasperated chairman (gaveled) the meeting (to a temporary close).
(N.B.) exasperate: to annoy very much; make angry; vex. bring - to a close: -;
d� � � Ű � � .
(d) Khomeini has avoided comment on the hostage issue since February, when he
turned the matter ever to Parliament. He may have decided to intervene again in a
effort to eliminate a divisive and paralyzing issue between Iran's secular
moderates,
who (favor a quick end to) the crisis, and the religious hard-liners.
(N.B.) hostage: � � � � turn - over: -; � Ѱ � �ִ�. secular moderate:
�ƴ � ) � ° � � � � � � . religious hard-liner: ~ � � � � � ϴ � ( ȸ � � � � ) � � � � � � � � �
(e) At precisely 11 a.m. one day last week, air raid sirens across Israel sounded
a
single, high-pitched "all clear" blast for two minutes, and the country came to a
standstill. On Jaffa Road in the heart of Jerusalem, pedestrians froze in their
tracks.
Lounging border troops (sprang to attention). Vehicles (braked to a halt) in the
middle of intersection. Bus passengers (rose to their feet)-as did people all
across
the nation. In stores, restaurants and offices, conversations stopped, forks were
put
down, typewriters and business machines hushed. It was Israel's Memorial Day. In
the silent vigil, sraelis remembered the dead of the five wars they have fought
since
the creation of the state in 1948.
Then, at sunset, the next day's observance began, this one in joy rather than
sorrow. The day of mourning was followed by the festive Independence Day, this
year marking the 33rd year of Israel's existence as a state. Jerusalem's King
George Street was closed to traffic as young people linked arms to dance the hora
and began the celebration. Some of the merriment lasted through the night with
springtime abandon.
(N.B.) come to a standstill: d� � � ϴ �
pedestrian : walker � � � � � �
spring to attention: � � � � � � � ‫��� ���ڼ‬ϴ � < come to attention: � � � �
‫��� ���ڼ‬ϴ � .
brake to halt: � 극 � � ũ � � � � Ƽ � d � � � ϴ � < come to a halt: d � � � ϴ � .
rise to one's feet: to rise; stand up < get to one's feet. the five wars: the
1948-49
war following independence, the 1956 Suez War, the Six-Day War of 1967, the
1969-70 war of attrition, and the 1973 October War.
abandon: unrestrained freedom of actions or emotions; freedom from control.
4.(a) I wish they'd invent a washing machine that always (turned out) an even
number of socks.
(N.B.) wish � 8� ���� �‫ � � � � � � � �ڿ‬d � � � � � � Ǵ � � � ſ Ϸ � � � f � � � � �ȴ � .
turn out: � � � � � . even number: ¦ � � cf. odd number(Ȧ� � )
(b) India has one of the largest film industries in the world. Its producers
(crank
out) more than 400 feature films each year. Demand is so insatiable that the
industry is run on a shift basis and there is never a day when it is completely
shut
down. Movie theaters open as early as 9 a.m.
(N.B.) crank out < turn out: to produce.
insatiable: that cannot be satisfied � � w � � ų � � � � � < satiate: to satisfy to
the full.
shift: � � � � � ‫� ���ٹ‬Ǵ� � � � � � ‫��ٹ‬ð � -> I work on the night shift at the
factory. shut down: to cease operating � � � � ; � � � � � ϴ � .
(c) The rush to use the chips has propelled the nation's automakers into headlong
competition to come up with new applications. When Toyota last year introduced the
world's first chip operated voice synthesizer to warn drivers of low fuel and fluid
levels in their cars, Nissan Motor (hustled out) its competing versions within
weeks.
(N.B.) headlong: uncontrollable � � � � ; � � � � � .
come up with: to produce hustle out = to turn out hurriedly
�� �ѷ � � � �� � �  �
� . versions = cars
(d) Young Cheever maintained family traditions by attending Thayer Academy, but
then managed at age 17 to get himself kicked out for smoking and laziness. Within
a year, his short story Expelled appeared in the New Republic. He spent some time
in Boston with his older brother Fred, then took a cheap room in Manhattan and
(pounded out) short stories to pay the rent. At 22, he sold a piece to The New
Yorker, and he and the magazine grew up together.
(N.B.) kick out = to expel.
pound out = to turn out by pounding on a typewriter
Ÿ� ‫� ⸦ڱ‬ļ � � � � �  ��

(e) A comedian on Warsaw radio told the story of a teacher trying to explain that
glass is made from sand. The children burst into laughter at the very thought-glass
from sand! Asked why he was giggling, one boy replied: "Oh, we know they make
you tell us those things."

Polish authorities have made teachers tell students many things-and now Poles
want to set matters straight. After months of negotiations, the independent
teacher's
union persuaded officials to make major changes in teachers say, "the subject
matter
must be based on truth."
Work has already begun. Some textbooks are being revised under the guidance
of a "didactic committee,"headed by Marian Marek Drozdowski, one of the country's
most respected historians. Authors are also (cranking out) new works, and
publishers plan to market a bigger, more modern set of schoolbooks. In particular,
the changes will do away with some of the interpretive excesses of the existing
curriculum. Instead, children will be given the facts-and encouraged to arrive at
their own conclusions. "The truth is difficult for everybody," says one expert.
"But
it is the only way of educating our children."
(N.B.) giggle: � � � � � � � .
set straight: to put right; correct � ‫����ٷ‬.
subject matter: the thing or things considered in a book, course of instruction,
discussion, etc. � � � � � .
do away with: to get rid of; eliminate; remove f � � � ϴ � .
5. The venerable Oxford English Dictionary certifies 414,825 words of the Queen's
English. The 13-volume work (trickled out) between 1884 and 1928, and in 1957
Robert Burchfield was offered the chance to edit the first updated supplement. So
far, his labor has yielded only two volumes; the third is in the works and he hopes
the fourth and final will be on sale by 1985. He is already looking forward to
completing his "bloody war with words" and to his retirement.
What is Burchfield's favorite of the 414,825 words? "Finished," he declares with
a
smile. "As in 'I've finished the dictionary.'"
(N.B.) venerable: worthy of respect; impressive trickle out: � � � � � � � Ǵ � � 幮
� � � 4 � . < come out.> so far: thus far; till now.
yield: to produce. in the works: in the process of being planned or done.
bloody(British slang): cursed; damned
6. Right now there are almost 2 million personal and home computers in the U.S.,
and manufacturers will ship nearly 2 million more this year. One company alone,
Times, is (turning out) copies of its $99.95 computer at the rate of one machine
every ten seconds. As a rule of thumb, Columnist Art Buchwald has suggested,
"For every home computer sold in America, there is a computer widow somewhere."
"Sports widow, computer widow, you name it that's me," says Actress Elaine
Grand, 25. Three months ago, her husband brought home a $250 Commodore VIC
20. "I have to laugh sometimes," she says. "When friends come, Jerry immediately
drags them over to show them the computer. Some may actually understand what's
going on, but most just stand there and smile and can't wait to get away." Jerry,
42,a violinist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and his son David, 9, now while
away the hours playing games, composing music and deciphering complex programs.
"Jerry has begged me to show some interest," Elaine confesses, "but I can't. It's
ugly. It makes obnoxious noises. It has about 80 zillion things stuck to the back
of
the TV. Hair dryers self-destruct in my hands, so why should I touch the
computer?"
Many women, rather than join the computer revolution, have (hammered out)
peace pacts with their mates. In Palo Alto, Calif., a woman who spent five years
with an Atari programmer finally imposed a 15-minute limit on uninterrupted talk
about his work. In Atlanta the wife of a former camera bug who switched to home
computers uses travel to protect their relationship. Says she: "I insist that we go
to
our place at the lake every weekend to get him away from the computer."
(N.B.) ship: to send out. as a rule of thumb: �ָԱ�����.
you name it: ��� ; � �  � � .
can't wait to get away = are impatient to get away �  � � � ‫������ ���ڸ‬
�; � � Ѵ � .
while away: to spend (time) in a pleasant or idle way. decipher: to make
out the meaning of � ‫��ص‬ϴ � .
obnoxious: very unpleasant; offensive. zillion: a very large, indefinite number
� �û � � � � � � .
self-destruct: to be automatically destroyed.
hammer out: to work out by careful thought or repeated effort � ‫ظ‬ӷ�
ġ � � � � � � � � � ϰ ų � � ‫ � � � � � � � � � ¿�� �����ݺ‬ �
�.
peace pact: � �ȭ � � d. mate: spouse � � � � � .
imposed a 15-minute limit on uninterrupted talk about his work: � ‫) � � ( �װ‬
� ‫� ���ع � � � ( � � � =�� �ڽڽ��� ��� ���ؼ‬ʰ�) ����� �� �ִ� �ð � ; 15 � а � 8 � �
f� � � ߴ�. bug(slang): an enthusiast or devotee. -> He's a shutterbug � ‫������� �״‬.
7.(a) Correspondent Barry Kalb happened to be reading about terrorism in Italy
when word reached him at the TIME Rome bureau that Pope John Paul had been
shot in St. Peter's Square. He (pieced together) the grim sequence of events and
then rushed to Gemelli Hospital to pursue reports on the Pope's condition.
(N.B.) piece together: v � � ; � ‫ ���ٿ‬v � � � ϴ � . < put together: v � � � ϴ � .
grim: frightful: ghastly: horrible � � � � � � .
(b) The new Prime Minister decided early on to retain many of his predecessor's
domestic programs, such as literacy lessons and unemployment relief, and, as a
consequence, found himself committed to programs that will cost at least $2.5
billion
over the next three years. To foot the bill and to (whittle down) Jamaica's balance
of payments deficit ($700 million last year), the Prime Minister, a Harvard-
educated
sociologist before he turned to politics, (put together) a complicated financial
package.
(N.B.) early on: �ʱ. cf. later on � � �  � .
literacy lessons: � � � � � ‫ � � � ' �ڸ‬б � � � � � � � � 0.
commit: to bind as by a promise � � � � � ' � � � � � � .
foot: to pay.
whittle down: to cut down gradually, as if by whittling away with � � ġ
Į � � � �ƹ � � � � a � � � � Ƴ � � � � � . � � ��� .
balance of payments deficit: � � � � � � � �
(c) And the people's affection for Washington shows in more indirect
circumstances
still-in those quiet, unguarded moments visitors and residents as well set aside
words like access and power and amble among the monuments as subconscious
patriots. Children are more demonstrative. They shout up at Lincoln's capacious
ears, or take the Capitol three steps at a clip, acting as if they owned the place.
They cannot take the Capitol these days. Piles of wood lie on the steps, where
workmen are (hammering together) the viewing stands for the Inauguration.
(N.B.) unguarded: � ‫ڽڽ‬ſ � � � � ‫� ������� �ؼ‬ʴ�, � � � ź ȸ � � .
A and B as well = both A and B. set aside: � � 8 � � f � ij � � .
access: � � � � � ‫�״‬δ � 'b � � '; �ǹ � � ϴ µ � , � � � 鿡 � �"� ‫����� ���� �װ‬
"� �" � � � � : � � ; � � � � � ִ �.
amble: to walk in a leisurely manner capacious: spacious( � � � � � � ) .
clip: a rapid pace � � � � =.
hammer together: � ‫ظ‬ӷ� �ļ� v���ϴ�.
the Inauguration: � � � � � � � � ӽ �
(d) The man who (pulled together) the agreement on the P.L.O.'s evacuation of
Lebanon, a triumph of delicate diplomacy, worked so secretly and with such an
abhorrence of publicity that many of his top colleagues in the Middle East
literally
did not know he was faring.
For more than eleven weeks, Philip Charles Habib shuttled back and forth across
the Middle East, following an itinerary that would have been arduous for a young
man, let alone a 62-year-old official who has suffered four heart attacks and
undergone bypass surgery. Habib carried all his medical records with him, as well
as his medications. He likes to rest for a while in the afternoon, but there was
little
time for that during the talks.
(N.B.) pull together: to put together by pulling. agreement: � � d
evacuation: withdrawal ö � � .
abhorrence: loathing; detestation; aversion �Ⱦ � � � .
publicity: � � �  � � � � ��� � ˷�
fare: to get on � � ô � ‫�����س‬.
shuttle back and forth: �շ� � ϴ � .
itinerary: � � � � � � d . arduous: laborious; onerous; strenuous
��� �.
let alone: not to mention -� � � � � � � � � � ' � � � � � .
bypass surgery: a surgical operation to provide passage for a fluid, as blood,
around a diseased or blocked part or organ. medication: a medicine
8.(a) The principal industrial economies see little prospect of (exporting their
way
out of) the current downturn as long as the United States is also in trouble.
(N.B.) industrial economy: � � � � f � � � � . downturn: � � � � � � � �  �

(b) No longer can the poor count on (working their way steadily toward) a better
life. And no longer do Americans share the great expectations of generations past.
For the first time, public-opinion polls show that the average U.S. citizen is not
at
all sure that his children's lot will be better than or even as good as his own.
(N.B.) the poor = poor people. count on: to rely on; expect.
public-opinion poll: � � �  � �
v � � . lot = life
(c) Ever notice how the nose has (poked its way into) our language? If you're
angry, your nose is out of joint; if you're inquisitive, you're nosy; if you nose
out
an opponent, you're a winner; if you keep your nose to the grindstone, you're a
hard worker; if you can be led by the nose, you're submissive; if your nose is in
the air, you're snobbish.
(N.B.) poke: to push or jab. inquisitive: curious; prying snobbish: �ӹ � � � � �
(d) One of Kennedy's first acts in the White House was to order 200 books on the
presidency put on his shelves for easy access. "Roosevelt got most of his ideas
from
talking to people," Kennedy told Historian James MacGregor Burns. "I get most
mine from reading."
Of Kennedy's ten favorite books, eight was history and biography. He devoured
the 407-page Sir Robert Walpole: The Marking of a Statesman in one evening.
Eyeing China, J.F.K. called for two of Mao's books. Seeking insights into world
trouble spots, he dug into Che Guevara's accounts of guerrilla war.
All of this makes a forceful point in these days because both Jimmy Carter and
Ronald Reagan seemed to view the world as having been created at the same time
they were born. Carter's repeated failures to understand the Soviets and be
prepared
for their actions can be blamed at least in part on his ignorance of the history of
U.S. Soviet relations. His big success, the Camp David accords, surely rested on
his
determined study of the history of the Middle East conflict. Reagan's convulsive
acts both domestically and internationally come too often from nothing more than
prejudice inspired by ideology. Reagan and his advisers would do well to consider
how the young Kennedy (read and thought his way safely through) a time fraught
with peril.
(N.B.) access: approach; a way or means of approaching, getting, using, etc.
devour: to consume; take in greedily.
eye: to watch carefully.
call for: to demand.
account: an explanation; description.
point: an impressive or telling argument; a helpful hint or suggestion.
accord: an agreement � � d.
rest on: to be based on.
convulsive: violently disturbing � � � � ; � � � � � � .
will do well to(do): -� ϴ � � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
fraught: filled, charged, or loaded(with)
(e) When forester Robert Perschel walks through the Connecticut woods these
days, the leaves look as if marksmen had used them for target practice. And as
woodpeckers (tap out) their staccato counterpoint, Perschel hears the ominous sound
of less benign critters. "It's eerie to actually hear insects devouring the
forest," he
says.
The gypsy moth has returned to the Northeast. For the second year in a row,
billions of caterpillars are draping oaks in fuzzy brown tinsel and turning the
spring
finery of birch and hawthorn into winterscapes of bare branches. In 1980 the
insects
(munched their devastating way) through 5.1 million acres in a dozen states from
Maine to Maryland. Many states had record damage-the 2.5 million acres defoliated
in New York was five times the previous high-and this year seems to be even
worse. Entomologists in Massachusetts have counted enough egg masses
(caterpillars-in-waiting) to defoliate some areas ten times over. Weakened by last
year's plague and by the continuing drought, many trees will die because they
aren't strong enough to replace leaves eaten by the caterpillars. "All of New
England will have serious problems," warns Charles Schwalbe of the Department of
Agriculture's gypsy-moth laboratory on Cape Cod. "In some states, the damage will
be unprecedented."
Man does not get much help from nature in fighting the gypsy moth because the
insect, a European immigrant, has few effective natural enemies in the United
States. The plague was born when a French naturalist in Massachusetts tried to
crossbreed silkworms and gypsy moths and lost about a dozen of the creatures to a
gust of wind in 1869. The moth hitchhiked on breezes and people to reach
Connecticut in 1905, New York in 1922, Pennsylvania in 1934 and Michigan in 1954.
Researchers have tried controlling it with imported parasites like wasps and flies-
so
far without notable success-but they habitually return to pesticides.
The gypsy moth rides a boom-and-bust cycle as unsettled as the stock market.
"If we leave it alone the population will crash," says Charles Hood, chief of the
bureau of insect pest control in Massachusetts. "It has always happened before."
When it will happen is another question, but ultimately nature always stems her
own plagues by balancing predators and prey. Scientists feel certain that most
forests can bounce back from even the worst infestations. That, of course, is
little
comfort to gardeners watching the insects reduce their maples' greenery to
paupers' rags.
(N.B.) woodpecker: � � � . tap out: " � � � " � ε � � ( � � � ) � � � � .
counterpoint: � � ' � � � ��� �.� benign: favorable; beneficial.
critter(dialect):creature.
less benign critters: � � � � � � � � � �� ο� ��� � � � ( � �, � 긲 � � � ‫�� �ظ‬ġ� �
eerie: uneasy; frightening.
for the second year in a row = for two consecutive years 2 � �� ���� ‫�ؼ‬.
caterpillar: �ֹ�. drape: to cover.
fuzzy: � � � � � � :.
tinsel: thin sheets. turn the spring finery of birch and hawthorn
into winterscapes of bare branches: � � � � � � � : � � ó � � �Ƹ � � ۳��� �‫�����ٿ‬
� � 鿡 � � � � � ľƶ � ���; �ӻ ��� ���� ���� �ִ� �ܿ��ö � � � � � 8 � � � ‫���ٲپ‬.
munch: to chew steadily, often with a crunching sound( ��� : � � ; � � � � � �
� 鿡 � �� Ǽ � � � � � ) .
record: � � � � � � � . entomologist: � � � � � � � � . defoliate: to strip(trees,
etc.) of leaves. crossbreed: � � ~ � � � � � Ű � � , � � ~; � � � � � .
hitchhike on: to get a ride; ride on. bust: a financial collapse; economic crash
� � � � � . stem: to stop or check.
predator: � ‫� � ;���� �ٸ‬Ƹ Դ � � � � � . prey: � ‫�� �������� �ٸ‬Ƹ���� ����.
bounce back from: to recover from. infestation = plague; trouble reduce their
maples'
greenery to paupers' rags: � ‫ ����ڱ‬Ǫ�� ��dz���� ��; ���������� ����� ��ó��
��� � � ���
9. After the war MacArthur returned to West Point as one of its innovative
superintendents. At the age of 42 he married; seven years later he divorced. He did
a tour of duty in the Philippines, and then, in 1930 he became Army Chief of Staff
in Washington. It was a post his father had sought but never received. Two years
later, MacArthur ordered the forcible eviction of hungry veterans, the "bonus
marchers,"from their Washington encampment, a totally unnecessary action that only
left anger and bitterness. He also began to speak of himself with such third person
grandiloquence as, "MacArthur has decided to go into active command in the field.
There is incipient revolution in the air."
In fact, the only revolution turned out to be the New Deal, and Roosevelt's brain
trusters regarded MacArthur with as much suspicion as he did them. After leaving
the office of Chief of Staff in 1935, he retired from the U.S. Army and took on the
job of (whipping into shape) the largely nonexistent army in the Philippines, which
were being prepared for independence form the U.S. So far as anyone, including
himself, could see, the job was a dead end.
(N.B.) innovative: � � � � � � � . superintendent = principal � � � � .
do a tour of duty in: -� � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � .
forcible: done or effected by force � � f � � � � . eviction: ejection � ߹�.
encampment: a camp. bitterness: strong feelings of hated, resentment, cynicism,
etc.
third person( � � � � ) : 3 � � Ī � � .
grandiloquence: � � â �ϰ � � � � ϴ � � � .
incipient: just beginning to exist; inchoate �ʱ� �ܰ����.
in the air: current or prevalent � � � �ǰ ų � � θ � � � n �ִ�.
brain truster: � � d � � � 븩; � ϴ � � � .
take on: to accept; undertake.
whip into shape: to put into the proper or desired condition by vigorous action
ä � � � � ; �ϵ� � � � � � � � � � 8 � � � � � ϰ ų � � ‫ � � � ·��� �����ٶ‬n � 4 � .
dead end: � � � ‫��� �ٸ‬.
10.Another approach will be to scrap certain government regulations. Today, for
example, firms that produce new drugs or pesticides ofter must (struggle) for as
long as 13 years (through) a regulatory labyrinth before getting a product on the
market.
(N.B.) scrap: to get rid of or abandon as useless; discard.
regulation: � � f.
firm: a business company � � � ü.
pesticide: any chemical used for killing insects, weeds,
etc. � � � � f , f � � f.
a regulatory labyrinth: ��� ó � � � � � � � � � � � p � � � � � f(= a
labyrinth of regulations).
get a product on the market: � � �ǰ ; � � � � � � � � � � � .
11. It's Swiss joke that the nation's warplanes need good brakes because a Mach 2
jetfighter can scorch across Switzerland in 4.73 minutes flat. One of our planet's
tiniest countries, it is smaller than West Virginia; but Europe's oldest republic
wields power and influence far beyond its size. Strictly a have naught nation in
natural resources no oil, no coal, no gold, no uranium Switzerland nevertheless
became he richest nation on earth in 1978: its per capita income streaked to a
matchless $13,853 a year, elbowing oil gorged Kuwait to second place($13,000)and
the United States to a humble eighth($9,646)
(N.B.) scorch across: � � 찰 � � ��� � � .
wield: to exercise � � � � ϴ � .
naught: nothing.
streak: to move at high speed; go fast.
matchless: peerless � ¸ � ; � � 밡 � � � .
12.While recuperating from surgery, my neighbor became cantankerous and refused
to follow the doctor's orders to take a ten minute walk three a day. His wife
coaxed and cajoled, then nagged. Nothing moved him.
In desperation, she lit upon a solution. Three times a day she turned on every
light in the house. Her husband cringed at the waste, and it took him ten minutes
three times a day to walk around and turn the lights off.
(N.B.) recuperate: to recover ȸ � � � ϴ � . get well again
cantankerous: bad tempered � � � � � � � � � �
quarrelsome; perverse �ϰ � � ϰ � � � ; � � � � � � � .
coax: � 8���� ,���� � � Ҵ � .
cajole: to coax with flattery and insincere talk( � � ÷ � � � 鿡� Ͷ��� ����
� Ҵ � ).
nag: ��ܼ � � ϴ �
. �ٰ��� �ܾ��������� .
light upon a solution: � � ½ � ‫�ذ‬å � � � � � 8 � � � < come upon, hit upon -� �
cringe: to cower � � � � � � � . waster: � � � �

The English people in particular love to make jokes against themselves, to


laughat themselves. I believe this can only happen in a nation which is completely
self confident and spiritually healthy. Here is a way the English laugh at
themselves:
An English businessman went to the bank to ask for a loan, as his business, like
some English businesses these days, was doing very badly.
After making some notes about the man's requirements, the bank manger said, "I
should really refuse your request, but I'll give you a sporting chance. Now, one of
my eyes is an artificial eye. If you can tell me which is the glass eye, I shall
grant
you the loan."
The customer looked carefully at the manager's eyes for a few moments, and
then said, "It's your left eye."
"That's absolutely correct," said the manager.
"You shall have your loan. But tell me, how on earth did you guess which is my
glass eye? It's a perfect match for the other eye."
"Well," said the customer, "the glass eye appeared to me more sympathetic than
the real eye."

It was near Christmas and the 92-year-old man was looking forward to seeing
his three sons. When the first arrived, he said, "Merry Christmas, Dad. Sorry I
couldn't bring you a present, but I just bought a snowmobile."
The father said that was all right.
The second son came in a few minutes later and said, "Merry Christmas, Dad.
Sorry I couldn't buy you something, but I just got a new car."
The father said he understood.
The third son walked in and said, "Merry Christmas, Dad. Sorry I didn't bring
you a present, but I had big losses at the card table."
The father nodded. "Boys," he finally said, "there's something I want you to know
before I leave this world. Your mother and I were never married."
"You mean we're..." they gasped in unison.
"Yep, you sure are," the old man said. "And cheap ones too."

During his campaign for Congress, a candidate received a call from one of his
campaign managers. "Look, Jim," he said. "You've got to go to Dallas and make a
speech. The opposition is telling some lies about you over there."
"I'd like to," Jim said. "But I've got to go to Houston."
"But, Jim," his manager said, "they're telling lies about you in Dallas."
"Yeah," Jim said. "But they're telling the truth about me in Houston."

A drunk was walking down the street with both his ears blistered, and he met
a friend who asked what happened. "My wife left her hot iron out by the phone
when she left the room," said the drunk. "The phone rang and I picked up the iron
by mistake."
"But what about the other ear?"
"The s.o.b. called back!"

Penalty for Clipping


During a long illness, my brother grew a luxuriant beard and mustache. Then,
while convalescing at a country hotel with his wife, he decided to shave, taking
off
his beard one day and his bushy mustache the next. Leaving the dining room one
morning, my sister in law heard one elderly lady say to another, "I don't know who
that woman is, but that's the third man she's had breakfast with this week."

� � �һ �!
The attractive woman invited the handsome salesman into her apartment. Soon,
however, she heard her husband's familiar footsteps in the hall. "There's only one
door into the apartment," she whispered to the salesman. "You'll have to go out the
window."
She pushed him to the bedroom window and commanded, "Jump!"
"But lady," the salesman said hoarsely, "we're on the 13th floor."
"Jump!" repeated the woman. "This is no time to be superstitious."

3. � � � � / � � : Pun
�Ϲ � � � 8 � � � � � � � ε � : � 츮� � � � � � � 麸 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �� ���
� . � ���
� � �  � � Pun � � � ſ � �  Ǿ� ߴ �ִµ � , � � : � � : �ܾ � �Ǵ� � � = � � � � � ų � � � � � �
�ܾ �ΰ � � � ��� � � �ǹ�� � � � � � � � � � � � � 8 � � � � � � ϴ � � � ; � � � Ѵ � .
1. For years, I was proud when my boss called me his right-hand man. Then it
occurred to me-he's left handed.
�Ϲ � � � 8 � � one's right hand man ��� � �ϸ � � 8� ���‫ � � �ڽڽ‬ó � � " � ‫ڱ‬� �
� ſ � � � � � � � �ǰų � � � ; � � � � � � � "(One's most helpful or reliable man);
�ǹ � � ϴ µ � , � � � 鿡 � �� � � � � � � � � ��븦 � ʶ߸�8
� � � ν � � � � � � � � � � Ѵ � .
2. Did you hear about the snake charmer who married the undertaker? They have
towels marked "Hiss" and "Hearse."
"Hiss" � � � � � � � � � � �  � �� 鿡 � �� � � � ("the snake charmer" � � � � õ Ǹ � )
� � � �ϰ � , "Hearse" � � � � � � � � �ǹ � � ϴ µ � ( ��� : "the undertake" � � � � � � Ǹ � ) ,
"Hers" � � � � � � � 8 � ν � � ‫־��� ���� ��=; �ھ‬Ƴ��� ���‫�ش‬.
3. Said the Northern girl: "Men are all alike."
Agreed the Southern girl: "Men are all Ah like, too."
4. One day, after my kindergarten class sand "The Old Gray Mare," I asked, "What
is an old gray mare?" One little boy piped up, "He's the guy that runs the city."

EXERCISE 41
1. "I understand the bank is (looking for) a cashier."
"I thought they hired one a month ago."
"He's the one they're (looking for)."
2. A husband and wife sat in front of their fireplace. She asked, "Can you see
(figures) in the fire?"
"Yes, dear," replied her spouse.
"What kinds of (figures)?" the wife persisted.
"Forty dollars a cord for the wood," he sighed.
(N.B.) cord: � � � 鿡 � � � � � ' � � 128 �Թ � � � Ʈ ( � � � � 8feet x � � � � 4 feet x
feet).
( � � � � ) Humor � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � �ֽ4 ϴ � . � Ƹ � � ‫� �������� �ٿ‬Ҳ �
�Ƹ � � ‫ � � � � � � � ;��� �ٿ‬t � � Ƴ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ʹ� ��Ͱװ‬
� � � � � � � � Ǽ � � 谡 " � � � � � � vȭ" � � ��� � �ֱ���. � 鿡 � �; � � �ִ� ��= � � � � / �
� � ‫� �ٸ‬λ � :  � �� � � � � � � ϰ � � 2 � � � � � ?
3.The congressman's wife shook him vigorously in the middle of the night.
"Wake up, Adam!" she whispered frantically. "There's a thief in (the house)!"
"No way," came the sleep reply. "In the Senate, maybe. In (the House) never."
(N.B.) vigorously: forcefully � � � � � ; energetically.
whisper frantically: � � ģ � � � � �ӻ � ��� ( ��� : " � Ҹ � � � � �ƿ 켺" � � � � : � � � � � �
ǥ���ε�, ������� ���� ����:
��� � Ϳ ��Ƹ � � 3� ;�‫� ���ֵ� � � �ٿ‬Ʒ��� �Ǿ� �ֽ4 ϴ � ).
no way[slang]: no.House(the House of Representatives): �Ͽ �
4.Three men were driving to London in a noisy old car, and hearing was difficult.
As they neared the city one asked, "Is this (Wembley)?"
"No. It's (Thursday)."
"Me, too, Let's stop and have a drink."
(N.B.) near: to come or draw near to; approach
5.If my husband has to leave his music shop unattended during business hours, he
puts a note on the door. I visited the shop one day to find two waiting customers
chuckling about the message: "(Bach) in five (minuets)."
(N.B.) "Bach" � � "Back" � � ſ � "minuets": "minutes" � � ſ � � � � Ǿ � =.
6.It was a typical family evening Father sat in his favorite chair reading the
paper; the baby say at his feet playing with a toy; Mother sat in her favorite
chair
knitting. Father happened to glance down at the baby. "Baby's (nose is running)."
he said.
Mother dropped the knitting on her lap in disgust. "Don't you ever think of
anything but (horse racing)?"
( �ǹ� ) One's nose is running: -� � � � ��귯 � � � 0 � �ִ�. in disgust: �ʹ� �
��� �
7. A friend who had worn glasses since she was a child decided to but a pair of
contact lenses. She hoped they would put an end to her "wallflower" days.
The next week, we went to a local dance, where her new appearance made her
much in demand. On the way home, she said excitedly, "Now I know why they call
them (contact lenses)."
( �ǹ� ) wallflower [Colloq.]: a person, especially a girl, who merely looks on a
dance,
etc. as from shyness or from lack of partner( � � � � = � � � � ��� � � Ʈ �ʰ � � � �
� � � � ȸ � �' � � � � � � � 游 � ϴ � � � � , Ư � � � � � � )
8. Little Johnny's father found him holding his pet rabbit demanding, "Five, plus
five, how much is that?".
"What are you doing?" Johnny's perplexed father asked. "My teacher says that
rabbits (multiply quickly)," Johnny replied indignantly, "but this dumb bunny can't
even add."
(N.B.) � � � � : multiply � � " � � � � ϴ � " � � � � � 8 � � � � � � � 8 � � , � � ϴ � � ‫;�װ‬
" � � � ϴ � " � � � � � 8 � � � � � � � ߴ�.
9. A mayoral candidate, standing in front of a San Diego office building at eight
o'clock one morning during the last election, stuck out his hand as a pretty girl
dashed toward the entrance. "Hi," he said. "I'm Lee Hubbard. "I'm (running for)
mayor."
She smiled but didn't slow down. "Hi," she said. "I'm Tania Smith and "I'm
(running for) work."
( �ǹ� ) stick out: -; � � � д � . run for mayor: � � � � � � � DZ � ' � � � � ϴ ⸶
�
10.The hospital emergency room where I worked received word that a child named
Billy Cash was en route with his mother. A new orderly was asked to watch for
their arrival.
The orderly stood his post at the entrance like a soldier. When the door finally
swung open, revealing a small boy and a woman, the orderly lurched forward,
shouting, "Is this (Cash)?"
Although something taken aback, the woman managed to answer calmly, "Well, I
have insurance. Will that do?"
( �ǹ� ) emergency room: � 1 �. word=a message. en route=on the way (to the
hospital). orderly: a male hospital attendant, usually without special professional
training. lurch forward: � � 찰 � � � � 8 � � � � � � � � . somewhat: a little;
taken aback: startled and confused � � � � �  � � � � � � ; surprised. do: to be
enough � Ǵ � , � � � � ϴ �
11. Following a lot of dull, long winded speakers at a sports dinner, a well-
known
athlete, noticing some guests who had dozed off, started his speech: "Friends and
(nodding) acquaintances."
( �ǹ� ) long-winded: speaking or writing at great, often tiresome length � � Ȳ � ϰ �
� � � � ϴ � . doze off (=drop off, nod off): to fall asleep unintentionally y � � .
acquaintance � � � � � � �ǹ � : � � � � � � � �ʷ � � λ � � � d � � � � �ƴ � � � �
12. Last year, as a young cellist, I was working hard at the Bowdoin College
Summer Music Festival. In her letters, my mother occasionally included clippings on
subjects that interested me. One such enclosure was an inspiring article on (Yo Yo
Ma), a 23 year old Indonesian American cellist. In the top margin my mother had
writter: "Enjoy this article on (Yo Yo Ma)... Love from (Yo Ma Ma)!"
13. The Military Affiliate Radio System is commonly called (MARS) by the civilian
and military radio operators who belong to it. Part of their job is to make
telephone
"patches" via radio to enable overseas servicemen to talk with their families and
friends at home. Recently, one of the members called a woman and identified himself
by saying, "Hello, this is the (MARS) radio station calling." There was a moment of
silence; then her excited voice came back: "Hello, (Mars). Hello, (Mars). This is
Earth."
( �ǹ� )"patches": " � � � " cf. dispatch: a message. identify oneself: � ‫���ڽڽ‬
� ź � ( � ſ � ); � � � � � . Mars: ȭ� �
14. A horse breeder showed us one of his prize mares and then pointed to her
filly.
"This little beauty was born on the first day of the fourth month," he said. "We
named her (April Foal)."
( �ǹ� )breeder: � � 0 � � . prize: worthy of a prize; first rate. mare: a fully
female. horse; specifically, a female horse that has reached the age of five.
filly: a
young female horse, specifically one under five years of age. foal: a young horse
15. Overheard next to the very tightly fitting designer blue jeans counter of
department store: "Is it all right if I try this one of for (thighs)?"
( �ǹ� )try on for size: -; ũ � Ⱑ � ´ � � � � Ծ � 
�
16. A man was talking to his neighbor. "Guess what! I got a nice new Cadillac for
my wife."
The other man patted his friend on the shoulder. "Say," he said, "sounds like you
made a pretty good trade."
( �ǹ� ) say: � � � � , � � ź � � ' � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � ź � �
17. For many years I was a university theater director. My wife was once asked
by one of her clients about her plans for the upcoming weekend. "I think I'm going
to watch my (husband's) play," she replied. "Oh," the client said. "How many do
you have?"
18. A sailor had been shipwrecked on a small island for several months with a
crew of 12 men and one woman. When he was finally rescued and returned home,
an elderly aunt was very interested in the situation of so many men and one
woman alone on a deserted island. "About this woman," said the aunt, "was she
(chaste)?"
Replied the sailor, "Oh, yes Auntie all over the island!"
( �ǹ� ) chaste: d � � � � cf. chased

Father: Do you know what happens to liars when they die?


Son: They lie still.

Pun is Fun!
Wilton Lackaye was on the program for a speech at a gathering in Chicago. It
was late in the evening, and everyone had been bored by the other speakers.
When the toastmaster announced, "Wilton Lackaye, the famous actor, will now
give you his address, "Lackaye arose and said, "Toastmaster and gentleman, my
address is the Lambs Club, New York." He sat down to tremendous applause.
(N.B.) He sat down to tremendous applause:As he sat down, there was tremendous
applause(� ‫ �ڼ‬:�� �‫�װ� �ڸ��� ��; �� ��ڿ‬ä � � � ‫)��־‬.

During a flood in California, a TV writer whose home was washed away


discovered he had musical talent. "My wife held on to a bed and floated down the
canyon," he said to a friend.
"How does that prove you have musical ability?"
"I accompanied her on the piano."

My freshman year I took a difficult chemistry course that required a lot of


studying. I realized I had been overdoing it when I reviewed the noted I had taken
for a religion class and found they were on Atom and Eve.

A woman had been very faithful in attending all her church's services for many
years, and the minister wanted to reward her. At the next Sunday evening service
he announced, "For her loyalty to the church, we shall reward Miss Jones by letting
her pick three hymns for the evening."
"Oh, goody!" exclaimed Miss Jones. And, pointing to various members in the
congregation, she said, "I'll take him and him and him."

� � � 9 � f � �Ǯ � �
EXERCISE 1
1. � � ( � � ) � � � � � � � ϴ � .
2. � � � � � � � Ǵ � � � ; � � � ‫� �ؼ‬о� � � ‫�� �����ٻ‬õ: � � �ȵȴ� ( � ‫�ٽ‬
� � � ‫�ؼ‬, � � � � � � � Ǵ � ��� � � 8 � δ � � Ǹ � � � � � � ‫ � � ;�װ‬õ � ϴ � � � : � � � �
�ʴ� ).
3. ȭ�� ���� ��: ���� ���; ��n���� �ʴ´�.
4. 11 � � � ε � �ҳ  � �������� � � � Ҵ µ � , � � � � � � � � � ϸ � � � � � �Ʊ � �
� Ѵ � �ǰ� �ϰ � � � � � � �ִٰ� �ߴ�.
cf. (a) � ‫� �״‬б � � � � � � � θ � � � �ϰ � �ִ�.
(b) � ‫ � � � � � ;���� �� �״‬Ҵ � .
(c) � � � � 1 : �ܼ����� ‫׳‬ �϶�� � ‫��� �ؼ� ��; ���ٴ‬ΰ � ?
� � � � 2 : � ‫�� ٳ‬�.
� � � � 1 : � ��� ��: � � / � � � � 鿡 � � �° � ?
� � � � 2 : � ���.
� � � � 1 : � ‫���� �ܼ��� �׳‬ ฦ ' � � � � � � ; � ��ξ � ° � ?
� � � � 2 : � ���.
� � � � 1 : � �,�‫��ٸ‬���, � � ° � � � ‫�� ��׳‬ȥ ���� �ʾ ҳ�?
� � � � 2 :=, � � � � � � � � � � ϰ � � � � � � � � � � ‫� ����� ���ٶ‬Ǿ �  � � � � :
� � � � � � � �ȥ � � � � � � ; � Ŷ � � � � � ߴ‫�ٳ‬.
5. (a) � ‫ � ´�� �� ���� ���� �״‬.
(b) � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � Ҵ ٰ� ���Ѵ�.
(c) � � v � � : � � d � � � � � � ȹ � � � � � � fd �Ǹ � � �  � ; �ް� �� ��� � .
(d) � � � � ( � � � � � � ) - � � � � � � � � � ü � � : � ۳ ������� �‫� � � � ;�ݾ‬
�Һ � � ߴµ � , � � : � � � � � � � � f � � Ȱ � � � � �Ͼ  � �¡v ��� �� ��� � � � � �
� λ � � : � � � � �ִ�.
"� ‫���ڷ‬o � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � � � � ü � � � � � 밳 � �f � � � � � � � �  �
�� �� � ϴ� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � Ѵ � " � � � � � ͽ � : � � � ߴ�.
1983 �  � �,  ‫���ڷ‬o � � � � �Ƹ � � � � � � � � � 8 � � ( � � ȭ � � â � � ; f � � � ϰ � )
� � � 9 �‫ٽ‬% � � � � � ϸ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϰ � �ִ�.
� � � ͽ � � � � � � � � � � ϸ � , � Ź � � � � � ���� �� �� �� ���ȿ���
� � � � � � � � ���� �ʾҴµ � � � � � � ~ � � � � ‫�װ‬, � � � � � � � 谡 � ��� �Ǹ�
d� � � � � � � � � ϸ � � � � � Ѵ � .
6. (a) � � � � : ȣ � � ��� � � � � ; � � 쿡 � � � � ´ � .
(b) �  � � � � � � �ո � ð 谡 � ۵����� �ʾƼ� fv � � � ‫ � ´��� ���� ���ڿ‬.
ȸ � � � � � � � � � ‫ �� ��׳‬ȸ � 翡 � � � ƴµ � , � � � � � � � � � � : � � = � �
� � � Ҵ � : " � � � � ͻ � � � �ո � ð � �ϳ� � � � � > � ϴ � . � � � � � � ? " � ‫ ���װ‬ȿ��;
� � � � � ߴ�-� � ȸ � 翡 � � � ‫׳‬ � ��� �ո� ð � �ϳ� � � � � � � � ‫��־‬.
7. (a) A: � � : � � � � � � � � � � п � 8 � κ � �͵ � � � � н¶ � ; � � � � � � � ߴ�.
B: � � � � � � � � � Ŷ � � � � � � Ȯ � � � Ѵ � .
(b) �  � : � � � 22 � � � � , � � Դ � � � � � ��� �ִµ � � ��� �
 ֺ翡�
3 � � � 4 � � � Դ ϴ � . � � � � ι � � �ȥ ; � � > � ϴ � . � � � 52 � � � � � � � ‫���� �ڿ‬Ʈ� �
� ‫ؿ‬Դµ�, �� ��: ��d��8�� �ſ� ��/�ϸ� ��� ��ȥ�ϱ⸦ � ‫�ٶ‬ϴ � . � �
� � : � � � ſ � � � � � � � � �ָ� f � � ��� ; � ~ � �մ ϴ � .
� ֺ� �����, 52 � � � � � � � 22 �‫� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ڿ‬ȥ � � �  � Ե � �
� Ǹ � � � � � � ϼ � � � ? � � � � �; � � ô � ~ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�� �ڸ‬ġ � � � � � � ϰ �
� � � � � �ʾƿ� . � � � ù � γ � � � � : � � ġ � � � � � � � � � , � �: � � � � � � � �
��� � � � ó � � ��� �� �.
� � � � � � � �ƹ� � � � � � ; � � � � �ʾҰ� , � � � е � � � � � з � ; � � � � � � �
� � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � �ʿ� �մϴ � . � �ȥ � � � � � � � Ϸ x � � � � � � �
�ʿ� � ϴ ٰ� ���ϼ���?
ģ � � � ϴ � � � � � � � � л � � : � � � � � � � � � � � d � � � � � | � ��� � �
� � � � �͵ � � �ȥ � � � � � � � � � � . � �ȥ � � � � � � � ϱ � ' � � �ʿ� � � � � ��� � � � �
� � � � � d � � � � � � � θ � �ʿ� � � ϴ � � � � � ��� ϴ � .
8. � � � � Ű � � 5 � �Ʈ 10 � � ġ � � .
9. � � � � � � � � � ѷ � � � 12 � �Ʈ � � .
10. � � � � � ֱ � 2 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ť� � ��� ���� � �� �‫ٴ‬s� � �
d � � � � � η � � � � � �ұ � � � ' � � � � � � x � 翡 �� �� ġ � � �ʴ´ � (x � 簡
�ƴϾ � � ).

EXERCISE 2
1. (a) � ‫� ���� �״‬Ȱ� � ‫��� �ؼ‬ʰ� �ǰ� ������.
(b) � ‫� �״‬ɾ  ���ʰ� �Ǿ��.
(c) � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � . � � � � � � � � ּ � � � ��� . � � � � � ű
� � ǥ � � � � ��� , � 츮 � �� � � � � � � � � ¾ � � ó= � � � � � � � � � � �ɾ  
��� � � � 8 � � ��� �.
2. (a) ���� �� �� 踦 ��� �۵���Ű���� �.�
(b) �� ��: ����; ���´�.
3. (a) � � f � � � � � � Ÿ � ӽ � � � � � � � � ��� ��� � � � � ��� �� ��� �
� Ƿȴµ � , � � � � � � : � � � � �‫ �ڽڽ‬,������ ������ / � � � � �  � : � Ը �
� � ��� � � ��� µ � , � � ��� Ʈ � � � ϴ ٰ� �‫�ٴ‬� ��鿡� � .
(b) �ܼ������ ä � � � Ҹ � � � � � � � ��: �� � � � � "� � �  � ɸ � � � � � � ⸦ !"
��� � � λ 鿡 � � � �, � � � � � ��� ��ħ; � ‫���� ��ش‬: � � �
� � �ʸ � � � � ‫ ����� �ٶ‬.
��� �: �� ��� �: ��� � � � � � ��� �ü ��� � � � � � � n �ִ�. � � � �
��� ��� � �ϱ � � ‫��ٶ‬.
4. (a) � 츮 � �� � � ; � � �  d � 鿡 � �� � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ִ‫;��� �ٴ‬
�� � � Ͻÿ �.
��� �: ��� � v � � � � "could" � � � � d � � � � Ž � f � � � � Ÿ � � � � .
(b) � ‫� �״‬ɰ��ϰ� �8��������� � ;� ���‫ � �ڻ‬, � 鿡 � �� � n � � � � � ‫;�ڽڽ‬

� � � � � ���� ;�‫��ؼ� �ڻ‬ξ � � .
(c) �  �;�� ����' �� �‫�� �����ؼ‬ � �‫�� ׳‬ΰ � � � � � � � � � ,
�‫ش‬�����
��� � ‫ﷱ‬ �� ��Ź � ߴ�.
��������������
(d) � � � � � u � � ‫ �״� �ٸ‬ť� ‫� �ٿ� ���; �ؼ‬Ӱ �  � ������� �ϴ�
��� � ��� � �x �ī� � ��� � �Ҽ� �w� � � � � ; � ‫ �ؼ‬d � ǿ � � � � � � � � � � �
�ͺ � � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � ‫��� ��ڱ‬Ѵ ‫ � � � � ;�� �ٴ‬d ��� 8 � � , � ‫���װ‬
� � f � � � ‫�� �� �װ‬: � ƴ Ͼ � � ( � ‫�� �װ‬f � � � � � � : � ‫� ���װ‬ƴϾ��).
5. (a) � � � � : � : � � � ‫� � � � ����ھ‬ � � �ϸ � � � � � �Ͽ � � � � � � � ���
� ִٰ� ���ߴ�. � � � �  � � г � �߰� ����鿡 � �Ȳ�‫ � � � � =�� �ؼ� �״‬:
��� �; ��� � � � ǥ� � � � � : " � 7 � � � � ϴ 4 Ը � � ‫� � � ˰ � ;�ش‬ʴ ϴ � .
� � ſ � � � ź � � ; � � � � � ʽÿ � !"
� ‫� ����� �װ‬ǵ��� ��; � � � � � ű � � � � = � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��־‬:
"�ϴ4Բ � � � � � A � � a ; � � 8 � Ŵ � . �ʴ � F � � a; �ް�, � � ſ � � � � ‫�ظ‬
�� � � � ϱ � !"
(b) � � � � ��� � � � � 츮 � �� � � � � � , � � ģ � � � � � � ǥ � � � � � ΰ �
� Դ ‫ ˾ � ;��� �ٴ‬Ҵ � . � � � 8 � � � � � � ó � � � � � 忡�� ���鿡鿡 �p � , � � ģ � � � �
� � � 忡�� ���ߴ�, " � � d � � � � � � ��: �� � � � �ƴϿ � � � . � � � � � � , f
� �ǥ � � � ."
� � � � : � ϰ � ; � � ġ � � �ʾ Ҵ � . " � ��� ���� �ӹ��� ��� ��ǥ�� ����;
�մ � � � � � � � " � � � � ߴ��� �‫�װ‬.

EXERCISE 3
1. � ‫׳‬డ ȭ�� �����ൿ�ϴ � � � � � � � � � � �� �ƶ �.
2. (a) �ǰ � ; / � � � Ϸ x � � ; � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�.
(b) � Ӹ � � � ��� �8� � ��� � � � � � � � . � � � ‫װ� ݹ ߷� �����ֱ⸧ �ٶ‬ � ��.
3. (a) � ‫� ��׳‬ǰ � � � ȭ � � ó � � � � � � � � .
(b) � ‫�� ������� ��׳‬v � � � ��� ���� ����� � � � � � .
" ��� � ָ ��� ���� ���� �˴ϴ�"��� � ߴ��� �‫�װ‬.
" � �?������ ������ �ʾƿ�."
4. � Ͻ � � � � � ���; �� � � ��� � � � ��� � ��� �� ������ ,��8�‫־‬
õ � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬: � � � ; � � � � �Ǿ � � .
5. � ‫� ������ �״‬ϱ⸦ � � � � � � � � � � ߴ�, � � � � � � � ��� � � � ��� � �.
6. � Ż � � � � � � ˾ƺ � � � Ʋ � � � � � � � � : � Ļ 鿡 � � � � � ʰ� ��� � ��� �‫�ڱ‬
ã �ư � � � � ‫� �װ‬ű � � � ‫� �ؼ‬�� �  ϴ� � � � � � � � � ��� .
7. � � � � �� ��� � � � � � � ‫����� ���� �� ���� ⸦�� �� �ؾ‬Ѵٰ� �ϴ ´ � .
� ��� �츮 � �� � � � : � ��� ��⸦ ����ϴ � � � ; � � � � �ִ� ����� .
8. ��� � � � � ��� � � � : � � ħ � � � Ͼ; � � � � Ȱ�⸦ � � ã � Ƽ � � � � � � �
� � ħ; � � � � � � � � �ְ� ���� �� � ִ � d� � � � .
�� : � ����� �ƹ� Ż�� ����. �4���� ���� г � � � � �
9. � ��‫����ڶ‬

� �8 � � � � � � � � ��� � �ұ � Ģ � � � � � DZ � � � � � � ߴ�. � � ȭ � � � � ;
� Ͽ � d � � � � � � n �ִ� �� ���� ������.
10. � 4ó � � � : ��� � ε � : ȣ � � � � � ȯ ; � ΰ � �ִ�. � � : � � � ۸��R
� � � 뿡 � �� � ; � � �߰� �( � � � � v ��� ) � � �ִ� ���� ���4 � � � �� � .
11. � � � � � ; � � � � ‫�� �غ‬, � 츮 � �� � ������ �ż � � � � � � � �ʰ �
�λ �; � � ư � � � � � � : �ƹ � � � � � � . � 츮 � �� � � � � � � � ΰ � � �
� ż � � � � �ִ�. � ��� �ִ� �� ���� ���� ������ ����� �ǹ����� ��n�4�
� � � ƴ ϴ � . � ‫ �ڽڽ‬:�‫ ;�װ‬ � �� � � � � � � � � 췯 � � �´ � .
12. 1929 �  � � � � � � � � � � � ¾ � � , � w � � � � � ��� � � � =� � � б � � � � �
�� � ��; �� � � ��� � � � w: /� � � ο � � � � � � � ����� ��8�� � �‫ظ� ���ؼ‬Ƴ���
� Ǿ � � . � ‫ ���׵‬Ķ � � � � Ͼ ƿ � � � � � � � ; � � " � � � � Ǭ �� ", � w � � � : � � �
�8 � � � � � � ֽ ù � ; � � � � �ִ� �Ϸκ � � � � � � 뱳 � �; ' � � � � ��� ��� � � � � �
� ° � � � ; � ‫�� �ؼ� �ڱ‬d 
� � � � d � � � � � � � ��� ��� � � � ���Դ �.
13. � 200 �� �� �‫ � �ٴ‬Ʈ � � � � �� ��� �: ��� ��� � �Ӹ � � � ���Ͱ�,
d� � � � � � � � � � ó � � � � � � 8 � � , �0 � �ø � � � � � � � � � � �ұ � � ϰ � � 㿡
�ῡ � � � �  � � � � � � ��� � ��� � � � � � � ; � ߴ�.
14. � � � ν � � � i � � � � � � � ‫� ���������� �ڴ‬ȿ�� � � � � � �  � � Ͼ � � � ⸦
� ‫� �ؼ� �ٸ‬° � � � � � �  � � � � ; � � ��� � � � ˾ƺ � � � . � � � � � ‫ �״‬ģ� � � � � �
��� � � ⸦ � ϰ � � ‫��־‬. " � � � � � � � � ���ī� � �� � � 38 � � � � � Ÿ � �
� ‫�־‬µ � � � � ư � � � � � ��� � � � � � ü � � � � � � ö � � Դ � . .." � ��� ü � � � �
� � : � � � � � İ � � ‫���� ⸦�� �װ‬ġ � � � � � � � � �  ��� � � � � � ߴ�,
"38 � � � � � � � � � ���ī� � �� � � �ʾƿ � ."
� � � � : ��� � � ⸦ � � � ; � � � � � � ���ϴ � ���: ��� � � � ���п�
��� � � ��� � �� �� ��>� ϴ �. �� � � ��� � � � /� ӿ � � � � � ó � � '� � � � � �
� � > � ϴ � . � Ѳ � � � Ǯ � � � ö � �ִ� ��밨 � � �� ; �� � � � � � - ��� � � � � � � �
�ʽ4ϱ � ? � � = � � ⸦ � �  � � � � .
"You know, sweetheart," the dreamy-eyed young man said, "Since I met
you, I can't sleep, I can't drink..."
"Why not?"
"I'm broke."
15. � � � � � �ִ � ������ ���ϸ � � � � � ; � ´ ‫ � � ;�� � ٴ‬ġ � � � � � � �ִ�
�� ��� Ҵ �.
16. � � � � � � 8 � � ��� � � � â � � � ‫ֵ��� �ڷ‬Ǵ� ��� � ��� ���� ��� �‫���ڴ‬
"� � � � ϰ � � � � � " � � � � � �� �ٰ� �Ѵ�. �8���� ����/ �‫ � � � � �״‬µ Ǿ � 8 � � ,
� ¾ � � � � 70 � � � � � � , � Ӹ � � � �Ͼ � � � � � 8 � � , � � � � � ��� � � � � ‫�־‬ٰ �
�Ѵ �.

EXERCISE 4
1. � � � � � � : � � � Դ � � � � 8 � � � 鿡� � .
2. (a) � � � � ' �ֻ�� ���� ��: � � � � � � �� �ü� � � � � θ � � � n �ִ�.
(b) � � � : � 칰 � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ;   � .�
(c) � 4ó � � � � � � � � � � = � � � � d: � � � � � � � � �й � : � � � � .
(d) � � � � f � � � � Ź ' � � � � �ܸ��ŭ � � � � � � � � � � , �ʹ � � � � � � �
��� � � � ��� � ��� � � � �ʱ � � � � � � � � f � � � ߴ뼺; � � � � � ���Ѵ �.
3. (a) � ‫ �׳‬,������ ���� ���‫�� ���׳‬: � � � � � �г �, � � � � � Ŀs � � .
(b) � � � � � � � � : û� � 8 � κ � � � ��� � � � � � ��� �; ��� � � � � ‫ �װ‬. �ߴ�:
�ƹ � � � � � � � ; � ҷ � � � 8 Ű � � �ʾ Ҵ � .
4. � � κ � � � � � f � � � ‫��� �ڵ��� ����� ���ؿ‬ϸ � , � � Ⱓ � � � � ģ ' � � � �
��� � � � � � � ��� � � � ��� � � ��� � � � ��� � � � ų � � � d � � � � � ‫�ؿ‬
� ñ b � � � � � ‫־‬, � � � � � � � � � f då � � ; � � � � � � � ‫���� �ٲٴ‬
� Ұ � � � � ϴ ٰ� �Ѵ�.
5. (a) �ҳ � � � � � � 8�� ���� �‫ �״‬鿡 � �´ � .
(b) � 30 �‫� � � �״‬ ��Ӹ � � � �Ǿ � � .
(c) " � � ǽ � � � : � � � � � ϰ � ��� � ϴ � ��� � � v � � � ‫ܰ���� �ؾ‬迡
‫ڰ‬
��� � � � � " � � �� � ߰ ��� ‫���� �ڰ‬ϰ � �ִ�. � ��� ����μ � � � � � � � � �
� ��� ��� ���Ǹ� ������� �ʰ��ִ�.
(d) � � : � � � � � � ��� � � � � � ‫��� ���ڸ‬ϰ � �ִ�. �‫��� �� ���ڸ‬���
� � � � ‫�� ����� ���� �ؼ‬µ � - � ‫�װ‬: �  � �� � ‫� �ڹ‬ ����� �߰� �
� � � � ��� . � � � � 20 � � � � � � � ۳ �� ���‫ �׵‬,��8�� ;�� �����‫�� �ڸ‬ΰ�
��� � � � � � � � � � ȴ � . � ‫�׵‬: � 㿡 ���; � � � � ��� � � � �� ��� �.
6. � Ӽ � / � � � � ��� � : � � f � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � Ÿ � /� � � ϴ � � � ;
� � � � � ư � � � � � � �ִ�. � ��� �츮 � �� Ļ � � ϴ � � � ; � � � � � ‫�ؼ‬
��� � �ϰ �- � 8 ����� ���� � � � � � ��Ը � �� � � � � �ִ�.
7. � � � � � � �� � ��� � � � � � � � � � � �ҷ � � � � � � � ȸ � 㿡��
Ȯ�����‫��� �ٿ‬ϸ� �� , ��� : � � � � 23,000,000 � � � � � � ��� � � � û � � � � � �
� ; � � ȸ � 鿡 � � � � � ҷÿ� �� �‫� �غ‬Ǿ� �ִٰ� �Ѵ�. �ҷ�: 1982
ȸ � 鿡 � � � � 13,700,000 � � ; � 鿡� � .
8. � : � � � � � ‫� �״‬ſ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8�‫ � �ڿ‬, f2 � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � δ 븦 � � �1950
�� �����  . ߴ� � 뿡 �� ũ � � � � 0 � � � � � � б �
��� � ��� � � � � � � ÿ � a � � � ҷ � � � üf � � � � � ‫ �ؼ‬ȯ��; ���� �Ǿ��,
1960 � � �ʱ  � � � � � � ��� � � � 8 � � ��� �ȭ � � ' � � �  � � � � �� Ƿ� � 뿡
� ‫��ݴ‬ϴ � � ; � � � .

EXERCISE 5
1. � � � � � � d� � ; d� � � ϴ � � � � � � 7 � � ð � � � � ɷȴ � .
2. � ‫�װ‬-� 츮 � ‫� � � � � � � � � ;�ڽڽ‬ � � - � � � 츮 � �� � � � �ִ� �� ��δ � .
� ް��� ���� �� ��� ��� � ( � � , � 츮 � �� � � � 8 � δ � �  � Դ � �Ϳ �
��� � � � � , ް���� ���‫�� �ٴ‬: � � ; � � � � � � � �� � � � � ) .
3. � ‫���� �״‬Ϸ � � �  � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� 8 � � , � � � � ��� � � �
� Ⱑ � ��.
4. � ‫� ��� �װ� ���ؿ‬Ƿ � ; ' � � � � � £��, � ‫ ���״� ��ݱ‬f1 � � � ‫�ڷ‬
� � � � ‫ؿ‬Դ�.
5. (a) � � � � � д � � � ����� ������‫ ���ڿ‬ó � � Ǿ � � .
(b) � 츮 � �� � ��� � � � � � ( N ew York City � � Rockefeller Center � � �ִ�
�6 � � 8 ����� ���� ��(���� � , �  ������ �⸮�㿡 �ִ� ��: � � � � Ʈ
Ŭ� � � � � � � � �Ǿ � � .
(c) ' � � � � � � � � � ȸ � � ��: ��: �� � � x� � � � � � �ʴ ´ � . � � � � � �
��� � � � 8 � � � ù ‫�� �ٸ‬Ȱ���� '��: ���-��=�� ��: �Ӵ 㿡 ��Ÿ� � �ֵ���:
"� � �ʸ � � � � � Ϸ p � � � � � � � � ‫� ��� ���ڸ‬κδ � �ֵ���� � � � � �ȴ � ."
(d) 1982 � � � � � � � � � � � � ȭ � � â 2 : � � 3% � � �  �Ѿ � �������
� � � � Ǵ µ � , ��� : 23 � Ⱓ � � � � � � : � � � � ��� . � ��� �Ϻ� ����
� �ȭ � � â2 � � � �¼ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ٰ�, � Ϻ � d � ΰ � ȭ� � � Ͽ �
� � ǥ � ߴ�.
1982 �  � � � � �� ��� � ��� � ~ �յ� � � �ʾ � � � , � � f � � � ‫�ڵ‬:
��� �8 �ε� ��� � � � � � � � � � � � Ŷ � � � � � � � ߴ�.
6. � � � � � ƴ 鿡 � �� � ȥ ��d�����Ͼ�� � �� ż��; ��ġ �ʴ´ٰ�
��� � ϴ � ��� � � � ��� � � � ⸦ � � �ٰ� �Ѵ�. �ߴ��� ��‫�׳‬, "f � � � ‫��ٶ‬
� � ��� � � ��� � � � � � ó= � � � � ; � � � � �� �· � �� �� � � uδ� ��
� � � Դ ϴ � ."
" �‫��� �װ‬� � ���¿ � > � ϱ � ? " � � � � ǻ 鿡 � � � � �.
"� � � � � ο � > � ϴ � . "

EXERCISE 6
1. (a) � � � ϶ � .
(b) � ‫�׵‬: � � � ϰ � � ϶ � .
cf. � � � � � ‫� ��׵‬Ͽ � � � � ٰ ‫� � ) � � � � � � (�� �ڽڽ��� ��)��=(; �ٲ‬
�� �.
2. (a) � � � � � � '� � Ű � � � � � ð � � � � � � � �� �ƶ �.
(b) � � � � � ‫� ��׵‬Ͽ � � � � � ' � � Ű � � � � � ð � � ‫��� �ؼ‬ϰ � � � � � � �
3. (a) � � � � � � = ��� �� ��б� �⸻f ; � ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�.
(b) � � � � �ʿ � �ǰ � � � � � � � - � ‫�װ� �� �� ���� ���; � ߸� �˰��ִٴ‬
� � � ; f� � � ϸ � .
(c) � � � � , � � � � � � � ; �߰� ��ּ�?
(d) " � � � � � 츮 鿡鿡 鿡ѹ� �� �� ���� �Բ� �Ⱦ  �ƾ � �Ѵ�. "
"� � � � � � � � ? � � � � � � � � � ‫� �װ‬ϱ� � � � � 8 � � �˰ � �ִµ � ."
(e) � 츮 鿡鿡 鿡鿡 ; � ϰ � � � ; � � � � ġ � � ; � � � � � � � ó � � � � � � � � � �
� � � ʸӷ � � ‫ٶ‬� ��: � � ó � � � � ��� .
(f) � 츮 �� ��쿡 ��䰡 1 �  � � 12%, � � � � � 1 �  � � 2% � �
� � � � � ϰ � � ‫־‬, 10% � � � � ȭ � � â � � � � � Ѵ � .
4. (a) � 8�� ���� � .϶����� ����� ���� ;�� �‫� � � � � �װ‬ /� � â;
�հ � � � � � � � ��� .
(b) � � v � � � � � � � � 8 � � � � � � /� � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڴ‬.
(c) ģ � � � � � � � � � �4 � � � ῡ � � � � �Ϸ � � 츮 鿡鿡 鿡´ � .
(d) � ۷� ;���� ���� �‫��� �״‬ξ � � � Ѵ ٰ� �����ߴ�.
5. (a) � � � � � � � � ; � ǵ � � � �ް� �ʹ�(�� ��; �ǵ��� �‫)�־‬.
(b) � ‫�� �װ‬f � � � ƿ 8 � � � ��� � � ϴ3�?
(c) � � � � Ȱ : � � � � ‫� � � � ;=�� �ؼ‬ �Ǹ � � � �Ǿ � � . � � � � � ‫;�ڽڽ‬
1� � � � � � � ܼ � 10 � � � � 12 � Ŀ � 带 鿡鿡鿡δ � . � ‫���� � � ߱ �; �ؼ‬ ���� ����
��� � � � ��� � � ; � � v � � � Ծ � ġ � � � . 10 � � ��� � � � � � � � ‫�� ���ٿ‬Ը�
� � � � � ã � � �ȴ � .
6. (a) � � � � : � ſ � � � � � �ʴ � .
(b) � � � � � � � � : � ž � � : � � ; Ǯ � � � � � � ; � � � � � � ȴ � .
(c) � � � � � � � (� � d � � � � � � : � � � ) � � n � � � 0 � � ‫־‬ � �������
� � ��� .
(d) � � � � � � /� � ä� � ; '� � � � � '� � � � � � � � : ä� � � � � � � x � � � �
��� � � � � � � � ֳ��� ����� ȣ � � � 8�� �� �ִ� �‫ � � �ؿ‬о � �ְ��‫��־‬. � �
1,240 � � Ʈ � � � � � � � � � � � t � , 39 � � � � � � � � ��ö ��8� � �� � � � n � ‫־‬
� ӿ � �‫� � پ‬  �‫ �װ‬: � ‫ � � � ;�׵‬ � � � � � � .
(e) � � ȭ � � , � � � � , � � � � � ü � � �ʿ �Ұ � � � � ϴ � . �ֳ��ϸ � � 츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡 ü� �
� �~ � � �Ҳ � � � ��� ��� � � ӿ � � � � � Ҹ � = � Ĺ � � � � � � ‫� �ؼ‬ʿ���������
� � � � � � � ��� . � ��� ��ȭ�� �� f �� �� � ��� �ʴ ٰ� �ֱ��� ���� ��� :
� � � � � ϰ � �ִ�. � � Ұ � � � � ‫�ڿ� ������ ���� �װ‬: � � � δ � � � � ‫����� �ڸ‬
‫ڰ‬
� � n � � � 0 � � Ѵ � . � � � ‫�� �ڰ‬w � � � � � ‫�ڴ‬, � � : "/ � � � � � � " � � �
� ˷ � n �ִµ � , � ‫�� �ٸ� ���ڸ‬8���‫��� �ڵ‬ϰ � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � ; � � 8 Ű � µ � ,
�� ��� � � � � � � ��� � �ջ � ; � � ĥ � � �ִ�.
��� �: ��� � � � f� � � � � � � � � � ; �  � � 츮 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡 ű � � � � � � f � �
�� � � � � . Ư� � �� � � � � � � � ; � � � � �ִ� ��( � � � � � � � , ' � � � ι � °
�ֳ � ��
"� � 忡鿡鿡
ϸ � "); � � � � � ϴ � � Ͱ � � ‫ � ;���� ���־‬츮 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡 Űܳ ����� ��
��� � �ϱ � � ‫�ٶ‬ϴ � .
7. (a) � ‫��� �˸��� �״‬ ٰ � ���忡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡‫ ) � � � � � � � (�״‬.

(b) � ‫�� ��׳‬ȭa ���� ���� ð ��� ���� ; �� ġ �ٰ� ���‫�״‬.
(c) � � � � � � ��� � � ��� � 1� � � � � � ü � � � � � � � � ‫���� ����� �ٷ‬
��� � � � � Ƿ � � Һ � � ‫ �״‬. �ߴ� �� �л � � � d � � � � � � � � � � � ó � � � ‫ٶ‬� ��;
��� � �� �; �� ��� � � � � d � ߴ�.
"Ž � � � � , � ‫�� �� �ڳ״‬ ����� ��� ����� � ‫ � � � � �ڳ״‬鿡
� � � ‫�� �ؼ‬û � � � � � � � � � ˰ � �ִٰ� ���μ � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � ‫��� �ۿ‬.
� ‫ � � ;���� ����� �� ���ڳ‬Ŭ � � � � � � � ‫� �ٸ‬л � � � � � � ; � � �ֵ��� ��
� ۰� ���� �ܾ�� ������ �ְԳ�."
ǥd���‫� ���ٲ‬ʰ�, �� �л�: ����ߴ�. " � � � � ϼ � � � . "
(d) � � ��� � � � � � ‫���ݸ‬, Ű � � 5 � � Ʈ 2 � � ġ � � , � и � � � � � � � �ִ� �츮
� Ҵ 뿡鿡鿡 Ű � � � � � � � ‫۾‬Ұ� ���� �; ���� �‫(�� � ر‬  � Ǵ � � ‫)���غ‬
� ź � ��� � . � ‫ �װ� �۾‬ȣ�ָӴϿ� ��; �ְ��ִ ٰ� ��Ų � � , � Ʒ ð � :
���� ȣ �ָӴϿ� ��; ä�� �‫־‬ � � ; � ‫������ ��� ���� �ۿ‬. ��= ��
��ħ v ȸ�� �Ҵ���� ��� ��� � ‫��� ���� ;���� ���ڼ‬ � � ������ ǥ d;
��� �Ʒ ð ��� ��� ‫� �ڱ‬鿡 � �� � � � � � � � � .
� 뿭; ��� � 골 � � ����Ҵ��, ��� ‫ ���ݸ‬ȣ�ָӴϸ��� ��ȭ��
t�
��� ��� Ƣ �
�� �ִ� ��; ���� ���Ҵ�. " ��� � ‫� >�ڶ‬ϴ�. " ��� � ‫�װ‬
����ϰ � �Ʒ ð �� ��� ߴ�.
8. ����8 ��, �ǰ ��� ������ ��ſ � ���� ���� �� ���� �ſ � ��;
�ϵ ��� �ִ� �����‫�� �ۿ‬8���� ����� �‫��ڿ‬ϰ � �ִ� �� �и ��ϴ �.
��� 庴:, ���ε ��� f �ϰ ��� �ǰ ���f �ε �, 1967 �� ����� 20% � ‫��پ‬.
���������ȸ �� ���ϸ �, �������� 3 ���� 1 ����s �ٰ� �Ѵ�. ��ռ ��:
������� 73 ���� ���  � ���‫�ݷ‬. �� ߴ ��� ������ ����ε ��� �Ұ��
�Һ �: 10 ���� ���� 6 �Ŀ �� ����s ��. ���� ������� �� �Һ ��� 4%
‫ڰ‬
� ‫��پ‬. ��� �: �, Ư�� ������ ���� ��� �� ��� ‫��� �ڰ� � ڰټ‬ϰ �
����, ���Ƚʸ � ���� � 鿡 � � � � � � � � � � 鿡 � � � � . ���� �ֱ‫���ٱ‬
���� � ‫�ڱ‬ǥ�� �����ϰ��ִٰ� ��Ǵ� � � �   �� ǹ � : � � � � � :
������ ���� �.

EXERCISE 7
1. � ۳� �‫״‬ � � � � � � � � n �8�‫��־‬, ���: ���� �� ����ִ�.
���� � ‫� ����� �� �װ� ����ؼ� ������ ���ؼ� �ٽ‬ʱ⸦ ����Ѵ� .
2. ���� ���ϱ� �� ����� � � � �ʹ � �� � 㿡 鿡鿡 鿡۵�� ��� ����  � . 
������ ��� ִٰ� �ϴ µ � , � � � � � � � ߸�Ǿ��ִ3�? ���� �� ° �� � ‫����� �װ‬
����� ���� ����� � ����� � ����� � �� ��� . �Ƒ��� , � ‫;�װ� �װ‬
���� ����Ѿ� �Ѵ� .
3. �� / Ʈ���� ����� �� ����� � ���� � ‫��� ���ڿ‬Ѻ� �� 18�� û����
��  ���ϸ� , ����� � � � "�� ġ ����� � � � ����� � ��� ó ��
� ‫� >�־‬ϴ� . ��� ߵ��� ���; �ϸ� , �� �Ϻ� ����� � � � ���� s> �ϴ� .
� ‫�װ‬: � 뷮 鿡 鿡 0 �� �> �ϴ� ." �� �Ѵ� . � 3 �ܿ� ����� 28 �‫� ���ְ�ݳ‬Ÿ �( ���� )
���� ; ���� � ִ � ����� ������ ����: � � ��� ȸ�� � �:"����
�� ; ��� ¾ � > �ϴ� . � ��� �� �ϳ ��� ����; �°� ���� �ǽ�;
�Ҿ� > �ϴ� . ���� � ǽ � ; ȸ�� � � ���� �� f�� '�� ���� ��� ‫���ڿ‬
� ‫� >�־‬ϴ� . �� �ֵ��� d �� � 츮 鿡鿡 鿡鿡 ĥ �� d �� � > �ϴ� ."
4. ���� � γε � ���� ��� �ҷ ÿ ��� 9����� ���� �� � ; ����� � �
��� 谭鿡鿡8 �� � ‫��� ���ָ������ �ٽ‬Ѵ ‫ �״‬,�‫ �ٸ‬Ʋ������ ũ�� �Ǹ���
���� � . �� � �� '�� ; �Ҿ�� �� ���� å���� �ҷ ÿ ��� �ִٰ� �ϴ � � � :
/ġ�ϰ� �� ġ �� ��� ; �ܼ��ȭ � 8�� ���� �‫ ��ؼ‬, � � � : ���� ���� ;
�� : ���� ���� ��� 8 �� �����  ���ϴ� ����� �ܼ�������� Ŀ�
������ � � ���� � . �� � : ���� ��� �� �� ‫ ���� ���˷� ���ݱ‬Ŀ�‫���� �ٶ‬
���  �ϳ� - �� , �� � � ‫� ������ �����ٹ‬ı ��� ; �ֵθ��� �  ‫�ٴ‬
���ɼ� ; ���� ‫ �� �غ‬Ư� � '� � � ϴ� .
5. �ҷ��� ��� ���ϸ � , �� ö, �� /, �� Ÿ �� ���� � 鿡 � � � � � � ǰ� �
� ‫־‬ � ����� �� f ī ������ ��ǰ� �ְų� ȿ���� 8 �� �� Ǿ � �ִٰ�
�Ѵ� . �� � ī���� : ���� ; ������ �ְ� � ְ �, ��ȭ�� â �� �⸧;
� 8���‫ ��װ‬, ���� ; �� f �ϰ� , ���� ; f���ϰ� �ִ�. � � � : ����
� ‫� �������ں‬ � ��� ���� � � ο � ; �ְų �, ����� � v���� � � ī������
�� ; ������ �ִ� ���� d�ε ��� � ŷ ‫� ���� ;���� �ڿ‬ʴ ´ � .
6. ���� ��  � � þ � ������ � � ���� �Ʈ�� ��  �‫ڴ‬ٰ � �ͼ���8 ��,
���Դ� ����� � � �� w � �. ��  � d � 20 �Ŀ �� �� ������ ��Ը�
���� � '�� �ʻ��� � � ��� 8 �� , ���� 14�� ���� �Ƶ 鿡 � �� � � � �� � Ʈ��
å �� ; ��� � �. ��Ƽ��� � ⻵ 鿡�. ����� � � � �ʴ���� ��� ‫���ں‬
� 8�� �� �‫ �� ���� ��״‬n ���� ���� �� ; �� �߰� �� ϰ � � ‫ "�װ‬. � � ���
���� . f� ‫"��� �״‬.����8�� ���‫�� �ڸ‬ȣ�ϰ� ���ϰ� ��. �б �����
���ƿ 8 � � 4�" �‫�״‬: ���� ; ����� ?" ��� ���� �� : ��� ; ����
���� ; ���� 鿡 � �� � 信 � � ����.
���� =�Ĺ � ��� 뷮; ���� � ‫���ٿ‬. �� �ִ� ��; ���� ; �� ���� ��
���� ���� �ʾƵ� � Ǿ �� . � ‫ٸ� �� �ڽڽ‬ſ ��� �� � �� ���ϸ � � Ǿ �� .
"��Ƽ� 갡 � �� �� ����� � � �� ; � ž � ." � ��Ͽ � a� � � � � � 20� Ŀ � �
�� θ � ���� � � Ǿ �� , ���� ���� ¿ � ���Ծ� ���� .
��Ƽ�� μ ��� , � ſ � �� ſ � ���� ; � �. ��� ���� "�� f � ���� "!�‫���ض‬
"����� ‫ �״‬,�4ٰ��� ⸧�� ��'�� "!�‫�� �ض‬ħ �� �  ����� ��� ; �϶��
�� ø � �ϰ� , ��� ÿ � � ű ��� 3� ���‫�� �ִ� �� �ؼ� �ڶ‬ȸ � � � � � �
�Ǿ �� .

EXERCISE 8
1. (a) �‫�� �� ��׳‬f �� ���� ������ � � ��� �.
(b) �‫�� �� ��׳‬f �� ������ ������ � � � ��� �.
2. ���Դ� ���ƾ� �� ��� ���� ���� ó �� � ��ִ�.
3. �λ � � ‫־‬ � ִ������ ���� �ϳ��� õ� 簰: ����� � �� ° � :
��� ‫�� �ڿ‬ȥ�‫��� ��� �ؼ‬ � �.
4. � ��� ����� �� d �δ � (��� Ŀ�� ) �� ����� �� v �� /���ϴ�
���� � ָ� � � �ִ�.
5. ���� �� ⸦ ߱ �� ��� ������ ��� : �ִ� �8���� ����‫��״‬
� ּ�; ��� ‫ ��=�ؿ� ������ �� �~��� ������ ��ٷ‬,���‫ؿ‬ � �� �ʾ Ҵ�.
6. ��� ��ȭ ( �� ��� �� � ���� � � � 밳 "movies" ��� �Ҹ����� � ) �� ��� 簡
���� 50�� ; �  �Ѿ���, ��ȭ�� �����‫��� �ؼ‬鿡 � �� � � � � α� �ְ� �θ�
�� n �ִ� �6��� ����� � Ǿ �� .
7. ���� ȣ�ҷ��� dȮ�� � ‫����� ���ٿ‬ � ��� ���� , īġ(����
�γε � ���� ��� � ������ � , � ùε � ; �����ϴ� ���� ����� ‫ؿ‬Դ � -� � �
�� û ���� �� : � ‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� � � Ű � � � � � � � � � � : � � � � � � � � � ‫ �ٽ‬ã�ƿԴ ‫�ٴ‬
�� ;.
8. �� " � 簡 ź �� �� : ����� ‫ �� ;�ڵ‬ġ �� v� ‫��� �ݾ‬ư� � � , � Ϻ �
�� ġ �� ������ �ҵ� : �� � ��� ������ ���ø������ � �. �� " � 簡
ź ���� �� /�� â �� � ‫�� �ִ��پ‬ƼĿ �ϳ��� �� ���� ��'�⸦ �������ִ�
�� ���Ҵ� :" ����� � �� �� �� : � ų ��� ���� � ."
9. 1875� ����� � ����� � � ( �� �� � : ���‫�� �ٿ‬s  �� ); �߰� ���.
10. ��ϽǸ� ( �� �� � : ���‫�� �ٿ‬s  �� ) �� �߰� �:, �� õ b ���� ������
' ���� , 1928� �Ͼ��.
11. �� � ‫������ �ݶ‬, �� � 屺: ��� ����� � ���� ����� � � � � � �
��� ð � � Ǿ �� .
12. �� �õ ��� ��� : � ° �� Ŀ � ����� ���� � ������� � � ı �����
�� �Ƿ���� � ; '�� ��� 븦 � � ��.
��
13. ��� �Ƿ��� � �� κ ��� � � � � � � � �� ; d������ , � �� � :,
������ ���� , ��� ‫� ���������ڸ‬ð��� ���� ���� �ʰ� �ϴ� �� ( ��
���� ������ �� � ���� ) �� �ɷ� �ִ� �� ���� .
14. ��� ε � : ����� �  ��� ; ���� �� 8 �� , � ö �� � Ű � ü ��
�� � � ‫� �ؼ‬ λ � ���� � ‫� ����� ���� ����ڱ���� ���ؿ� �ڱ‬λ ��� ��� ;
����Ѵ� . � ‫�"�� "���� �ؿ‬3� ������" : � ‫ � ;"���� �ִ� �� �׵‬츮鿡鿡鿡鿡
����Ϸ p � �Ѵ� . � ‫�׵‬: �� �� w �� , �� ���� , �� ����� � ���� ��� 鿡
�� ִ d �� ; Ǯ���Ѵ� . �ֳ��ϸ� � ô � � λ � ; � λ ��� �  � �� 鿡鿡鿡
� 巯鿡鿡 �ְų � Ǯ���� �ִ� ��� � � ����� � � . ���� ����� �� d �� �˷� n �ִ�
����� � λ �� ε � , �� d: ����� � �� � ����� �� � . ��� , ���� : � λ �
�� ü �� � 鿡� ������� 2 �� ; ���Ѵ� .
15. ��� л ��� ������ � � , � 7 �� , ũ�� � ۵� ����, �� f �� � ��ϸ� ,
���� �� f �� ġ������ � � � �ʴ�� � ‫ط‬ο � ��� �� n � ´ � .
16. ���� ��� 4 � ��  ���ϸ� ��� x ��� ����� �Ѷ� ����� �
�� :��� ٰ � �Ѵ� . ����� � ����� �Ƴ��� ���� � ź � ;   � � �‫־‬
�� 8 �� ���  �ƹ��͵� ���� �ʴ� �� ��� ; '�� ���� � ð � ; ������
�ʾҴ� . �ֳ��ϸ� ��� x ��� � � ‫� ���ڽڽ‬ð �; ��� κ � ; � ‫ٶ‬鿡 � ��� ũ�� ;
���� ĥ �߰� ���ȹ� � � � � ‫��� �ؼ‬ϸ 鿡 � �� ± � ������ �� . �  ������
����� , �� ����� � �Ƴ��� ��� κ � �տ ��� � p � �ִ� �� ��� � ���
ȯ���Ű��, �‫��� ��� Ⱑڱ‬ȿ� �����‫��� �ؼ‬캸�ƾ� � Ѵ ٰ� � � ��� ���.
��ȣ�� � � � ! �� ����� � : �ʹ��� � ‫������ �� �ڽڽ��� �� ����ؼ‬
���ƿ� ���� �� �� : ���� �� Ÿ��� �� v�� � ‫� �������� �ۿ‬ʾ Ҵ�.
� ���, ȭ� � � � � � � � � � : � � � � �Ӹ �ä � � �� � � � � � ȣ�ǰ� ��¢���.
����� ���� : �� � �� . �� � �� ����� � � ������ � Ȯ���� �� ��
17. ���� 6�� 30���� � µ � , ���� ����� � �� � 纹; �� : �� ������
����� ����� � ���� ��⸦ �ϰ� � ‫ �״‬.��‫�� � ־‬å; �Ϸp � �� 8 �� ,
����� ����� � � ‫� ���� �� �ۿ‬ϰ���� � ��� � ‫־‬ � � ; � �  ‫ �ٽ‬ȣ�‫�ڷ‬
��  ��� . � 15 �‫״‬ȣ�Ƿ� ���ư��� �ʰ�(�� ��: �� 35�� ���� �‫���� �װ‬
���� �� ȸ � � � ű � � � � 湮�� ���� �鿡��
� � �� � � ), �� ȸ �ϴ ٰ� ȣ�� �Ĵ�
�ȿ� ��� ��� 8�� �ִ� ��� ���‫ ��� ��ڵ‬µ � , � � � : ǥ�� ��� ű �� κ ���
�ʱ� ��ǥ��� �ٰŸ� �� ��� Ű �� ���� ������ �� ‫��ٸ��� �־‬.
��� ‫ڵ‬鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡ʿ��� �µ��ʹ� ��v��8��, �v�ҿ � ����:
�� ð � ��� Ű �� �� ‫� ���� �� �� �ٷ‬ð��� � ‫���ٸ� ����� �ڸ‬
�����ϰ � � ; ��ϴ� �� ���Ҵ� . � 鿡 � ‫��� �� ���� ������ �״‬ϴ �
�����  �� � ���� - ���� �� f �� �� � ´ ‫������ ������ Ⱑ�� �ٴ‬
� ‫ � ����� ;�װ‬þ � s �� . ���� , � ‫��� ���� ��� ���� �� �״‬Ǹ�
������.
18. �: ���� ����� "�����ϴ� " �� �� : �ܾ������ . � � �� � Ŀ ���
�����ϰ � � ; �� �ҳ  ���� ��⸦ ����ϴ ° � ? �  � ���� � ó �� �� ;
���� ��� 忡鿡鿡Ʈ��� � ; ������ ����� �ʿ�� ‫�ؼ‬, �� �ҳ��� ä�� Ǿ �� .
� ‫� �������� ������ �� �װ‬ʾ� ; �� ���� ���ȿ � � � ��� 4 � ������
�Ҹ��� �� ��� İ � ���� ; �߰� ��� �� ������ � Ƴ��� � Ǿ �� . ���� :
����� :" �� � ‫ �װ‬Ʈ���� ; ����� � �� �� ‫� � ����� � ����� ;�� �ٴ‬
�ʾҴ3 � ?" � ��� �� �ҳ�: ����:" � ���f � �˾Ұ ‫�� ��� ?��ھ‬
�ѹ� � ‫��� ���� �غ‬µ ��� ."
���� �� ���� � ‫ ���� �ٷ‬,�‫� �� �ٸ‬ҳ�ó�� ��;��  � .���f ��
�Ҿƹ ��� � , ���Դ� �� : ����� � � � �Ӹ�� а � � ��� ��: ����� �
����� �� � θ � ���� ���� . �‫��� ��� ��� ����� �־‬� ���� ����,
���� d���� 8 �� ����� ��  ��� и � ���� � η ���� � �ʱ⸦ ����Ѵ� -
���� ����� ��  ��ȸ � � ��Ƽ� �� Ŀ ��� ������ �� �ֱ⸦ ��� � �.

EXERCISE 9
1. ������ x� 翡 鿡‫� ;�ٺ‬ � �� �ִ� ��: �ϴ��� Ȯ����
��ǵ� ( ��� ) � ε � , �� � �� ��� :, ����� ‫ �ڿ����� �״���� �ڿ‬,�‫���� ���ڸ‬
������ � ���� 8 � κ ��� ��� ´ � ( ��� � � � ).
2. ���� ��� ����� � ��ȭ�� ���� : ��� �ձ ۴ٰ� �ϰ� �ִ�. �7 ���
� ܺμ ��� κ ��� ��� Ǿ � �ִ� ������� ��w�� ���� ���� � � � ���
�����ϴ���� ���� �‫ٴ‬Ƶ鿡� �� �ִ�.
3. �Ǹ��� � ô � ������ � ���� � ű �� ���� �Ұ����ϴ� .
4. ���� ���� ��� �� �� � ���� � 2 ��� �� 0 � ; ���� ���� ����
�� � �� �� d: ���� ó=8�� ��� �� � ����� � �� �˷� n �ִ� "�ǵ� � ���,
�� ���� " ��� ���� � ο �Ǵ� �� ; ��� ; ���� � 2 ��� .
5. �� ȸ � �Ȱ� � ��ӵ� �� �ִ� / ���� �� : �� ������ � ‫���ڱ� �ڽڽ‬
������ � � �� x �� ; (� ‫�� ������ ������ �ٸ‬x �� �Ӹ� �ƴ ϶ � ) �ջ����
�ʰ� /���ϴ� ���� � . �� � : � ‫� ������ �ٸ‬Ǹ��� � �ູ; x���� �ָ�
��� ÿ � � 츮 鿡‫ູ�����ڽڽ‬ ; �߱� ��ϰ� � 츮 鿡‫� ���ڽڽ‬Ǹ��� ��ȣ��8�ν�
�� � ��� �� � ִ �.
6. dȮ�ϰ� ���
�  ‫������� �ڱ‬ �←���� ;��� ������� ��� �‫��� Ⱑؼ‬y�:
����ϰ� ����� ����� � �� f �� ; � ‫��ذ‬Ҵ � � � � � ƹ� � � � � � � � � � �
�и ��� � ‫�װ‬: ����� ��ư� �� ��� δ � ����� ��� 뽺� ������� � -
��ȭ�� â �� ���� , ����� ϰ � �ִ� �‫ �ڿ‬,'������ ,�‫�ڿ��ڿ‬ȯ��, �Ҹ���
ó �� �ִ� �Ҽ� ��� �Ǵ� ��~�鿡 � ó�Ѵ � ‫���ٵ‬, �ʿ�Ұ����� �ܱ������
���Ͱ � 鿡 � �ϴ� � � ��f �� ���� ���� �������Ǹ � �ı ��ϰ ‫ڴ‬ ٰ �
������ � ����� � ��ȭ� ο � �� 踦 ' �� ��ȹ ; ���ϴ� �� f �� ;
� ‫��ذ‬ϴ � � � f � � � � ��� .
� ��� �� �� ��� ���ε � ���� ��� �� û ���� �� : ��� ǿ � ����� ,
�Ⲩ�� ����ϰ���� �� �‫�ٸ‬-�ִ� ������=�� �‫� ����� �ڴٴ‬ʿ��ϸ�, ��
� ‫���� ����� �����ڿ‬ � .�� � �� �‫���� �����شٸ‬
ִ ���� ���‫� ���װ‬ � �:
��� ε � ; �� �  ��� ‫��� ;�� ���ڸ� ��ٸ‬ � �.

EXERCISE 10
1. (a) � ‫ ����� �ڿ� �ٽ‬: � ‫׵‬ô� ��� θ � ����� � ����.
(b) 1650�� �� � 3���� ���ȿ � , ������ � α ��� 5��� ��� 1950 �‫�ؼ‬
��
�հ� �� 25���� � Ǿ �� .
(c) ��� ‫�ٶ‬ũ �� ���� �� � �� ����� v�ɽ����� ���� ; �� � � �
�� � �� � 5 ϰ��� �� � �� ���� �ƹ��͵� �ƴ� x��� f��� ‫�� �ؼ‬f ��
��ǰ� �ִ� ����Ʈ ������ ���� ���; ' �鿡 � ߸��� � ��� ƾ� � Ѵ � .
(d) � ‫�� ���ظ‬: å�� ����Ǵ µ � , �� ���  �� : å: �Ͻ���� �
��� ; � �ٰ� a�� ������ ������ �� =8 � κ ��� ��� n �� ���� � , �Ҽ���
å ���� å�� ����� �� /��ȴ� . ����� "����Ʈ ���� " �  ���
�
�
������ � �� ġ �� ��� Ÿ ��� ���� �ִ�. � � � �Ҽ��� å�� �� ���� ;
��ȭ�� ����� . �� � : �� â ���� � , /���ϸ� , �����ϰ � � ‫ �ٸ‬å8 �� �� ġ ��
�� ��� �͵��� � .
(e) ������ ���� , � 츮�� ������ �Ǹ����������Ȯ��Ǿ� aa �� ��:
������ ���� 8 � μ � �Ǹ��� ���� � Ǿ �� , �� ħ �� ��� ������ � �
���� � Ǿ � ‫ ;�� �ٴ‬d���� ������ �� �ִ�. �v � ����� '���� ���Ǵ�
" �ΰ ��� �Ǹ� " ��� ����� � �ܼ����� ΰ��� � � �� / �� ��� � ΰ �����
������ , �Ϻ� Ư���� ����� a�� � '�� ����� � � ‫� �ٸ‬Ϻ � � � �鿡�Ը�
���Ǵ� ���� �ƴ ϶ � � ����� � ���� �� .
���� : �տ�� � � 8��� �‫ڷ‬鼭 �츮 ���� �ű�� ���� ó=���� � ‫� ڰټ‬
��ư� ��Ǵ�� , �� � �� �� ; ���� ��� ����ϼ�� � . � 8�� ���‫��ڿ‬
�Ž ��� � ö � 4 � �� : ���  ���ϴ� � ‫� �����ٶ‬µ ��� �ƴմϴ� .
2. (a) ���� 3�г � ���� ���� ; � ��ξ�µ �, � ��� �θ �Բ��� ũ��
�Ǹ��ϼ� � .
(b) �θ ��� ġ�Ȱ�� : �ʱ��� �  � ����� � � � ���� � ��� ; �� v � ‫�ؼ‬
������ � 鿡 �‫�� �ظ‬ģ�ٰ� � � ���; �‫׵‬ �.
(c) ���� � : ������ � � � �ϰ� ������ � ‫�ٽ� �����ؼ‬, ��� ��
��⸦ ���� å�� �ɾƼ� �� � ‫���غ‬, ���� ȸ � ǿ �� � �� Ÿ ��� µ � , � ���
������ � �Ͼ � �� � 7 ���� � ‫�ڼ‬ä �� ��� ´ � .
(d) �� � ��� �‫�� �״‬ǥ�� ���� �-���� �� � ��ǥ�� �ƹ��� ����� �� ;
���� � - � ‫ ������ ��ڱ‬f 105 �� ° ���� 8 �� 4�� �� ( � ��� �Ǹ� 8�� ����
���� 븩; �ϰ� �Ǵ� ���� � ) �ӹ� � � � � �ʹ ٰ� .
���� : ���� "read eight": ���� � 8" ��‫ � ��״‬о �� " �� ���� � . ��� ⼭
�� �� � ֵ���, � 츮�� �鿡 �ܱ���  ��� ���� ���� �� � �ܾ�������
� 鿡� ������� � . � ��Ƿ � � 츮�� ��f �� �� � �ܾ � ����� ‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ � .
� ֳ��ϸ� �� � �� �ܾ����� ܱ �
� 鿡� v��� Ư¡; ���� �� ���� �ֱ�
�����

������ � .
3. ���� ����� �� ��ǰ�� �� w ���� �� 8 �� , � ‫�� ;�װ‬ȯ� ‫�ؼ� �ٸ‬
��ȯ�ϰ ų � �� ; �ǵ��� � Ƶ� � ˴ϴ� .
4. �� å���� ���� �� ο � �� a �� ��� �ִµ �, � ‫�װ‬: ����� ��� 츦
��� л ��� �� İ � ����� ‫�� ������ �ؼ‬f �� ; � ‫��ذ‬Ϸt � � � a ��� .
5. (a) ���� �� �� f �� ��� ‫� �� �ؼ‬ð� �� � ���� ����� ��� ���‫غ‬
�ƹ��� ��� ��� µ � ,‫� ش‬ � � ‫� ���ڱ‬ ��� ����ó�� �� �Ӹ� �ӿ�
��� ö �� .
(b) �Ϸ� ����� � ¡ǥ�� , ���� ���� Ƕ ó ��� 鿡 � ��� ߵ���, �� ����
���Ǵ� ���� ; ����� � 8 � 鼭 ���ÿ � �Ӹ��� ���� �� ; �� �ִ� �ɷ��� �.
6. (a) ���� : �ϳ��� ���� ε � , � ű ���  � 츮�� �: ������
�7 � ��� ���� � ����� � � 7 � ���Ѵ� .
���� : �� � : ���� ��� /���Դϴ� . ���� ; � Ƶ� �ΰ�: �7�κ���
� ‫��� ����ع‬ϰ� �� ο � � 7 ��� � 뿹� ��ȴ ‫ ;�� �ٴ‬dz���� ���Դ ϴ�.
(b) �� �ִ���: ��� � ��� ���� : 3�Ⱓ�� �� ģ ����� � � �ҵ 漼 2��
� 谨��; �ź ��ϰ� �� � �� ���� � ξ � �� |: 1�Ⱓ�� ����� ;
�����ϰ � �ִ�.
(c) ���� :, �� v �ϰ� =���ѵ� , � κ ��� 318���� ���� n � û 鿡 � �
������ ������ ǥ�� �� ' '�� �� �ִ�. �α ��� 18��� ε � , 2�� 2õ �� :
�û 鿡 � ���л ���� � . �� � Ŭ �� 2���� � ‫��� �׵‬ �� ���8�� , 1973��
9 �� ����� � 鿡� ������� � � . � б ��� ���� ġ ��� �ʾ��� , �� = 7��
� ���� � Ŭ ���� �� �Ⱓ�� �� � �� ���� ��� 1977 . � �  �� � ��
� ‫� �״‬鿡� ;� ��� ����� � ; ��� ‫�� �ؼ‬ ��� B �� a; ��� µ � -
�� � : ������ � � ܿ � � 8 ��� ŭ �� : ������ �� . � ��� ��d; ������ ,
� ‫�� �״‬ȸ � � Ȱ ; � � � ϱ� '� � � ‫�� ��� ڰټ‬µ� ���� �ʾҴ� . � û 鿡 � ����
�� � 뺯� :� �� � �� ����Ѵ� :" � 츮�� �‫� �� ���� �װ‬Ѱ��� ���б�����
�� d �� Ȱ���� ã�ƺ� �� �� > �ϴ� ."
7. (a) ���� Ȳ��� ‫ڴ� �ݳ‬ � � κ ��� ��� ò ۵ 麸�� �� ��: ���� ;
�ŵξ ���� 5�ϰ��� ��� ÿ ��� ���� �� ������ ���Ҵ� .
��� ò ۵�: � ‫ݳ‬� �18 �ϵ� � � ����� � �  � � �ӿ��� ����� � � � ����
������ ��ƿ� ���� � .
(b) ����� ; � 缭 �Ĵ� ��� : 5�� � 30�ְ� ���� ;��� ����Ⱓ��
‫ڰ‬
������ ; ����� ; �� � ִ µ �, ��  6 �Ⱓ ��� � ��� ����� ����� �‫;�ڰ‬
�� ; �� � ִ �. � ���� ; �ŷ ��ϴ� ��� : �ְ� 10 �Ⱓ�� ����� � � 3��
‫ڰ‬
� ������ ; ����� �ϰ� , 4�� ; ���  ��� ����� � ����� � ‫�� ; �� ;�ڰ‬
�� ִ . � � ���û: ���� ΰ � � �����ŷ ��� ���� ��� ; �����ϰ �
����⸦ � ‫�ִ���ٶ‬.
���� : �� �� : � 츮�� ����� ��; �� �� ǥ��� ĸ 鿡� ���: ���� ;
� ֹǷ � � � � � � � � ‫� �غ‬ʿ 䰡 �ִ�.
(c) ��� 1 ��� ���� ���� � θ � �� n �ִ�. ���� ����
�����  � ��, ���� � �  ��ȯ : ���� � ÷ ��� Ÿ ���� �� ������ 鿡 � ;�
���� �� �� �� dȮ�ϰ� ����� ‫� �� �ؼ‬ð� ���� ���� ; �� � ‫��� �ڿ‬ 忡
����ϴ µ � , � ‫� �״‬Ѵ � 98 � 1�� �� � ���  4���� 1�� � ; �� � ���� ;
������ '�� �Һ��Ѵ� . ���� Ÿ � ÿ ����� , � м ��� �� 鿡 �Ÿ ����� ���ƴ
�Ĵ � � ‫�������ݷ‬: � � � : ���� ���  �� : � κ � ; ���� ���ӿ�
�����Ѵ� . � = �Ʈ���ϸ �� � � � ��� 1 ��� : Ŭ���� �����ϴ µ � , �� � Ŭ�� :
���� ���ӿ� ���� � û ��� Ź � ; f���� �ְ� �米���� ����; �Ŀ ���
� ִµ �, �� �� ��� ‫�ڵ‬: a��� �Ƿ� ; ���� ���� .
8. (a) �Ϻ� : ���� �� : ��ǰ�� � 뷮��꿡 ���‫�� �ؼ� �����ڿ‬d��
‫ڰ‬
���� f ǰ�� �� : �� x ��� 鿡� �����ġ �� ��  � ����� ‫� �ڰ‬Ǿ �� . � ���
�Ϻ� : ��� ü �� ���� ; ���ϸ� ����� � â�Ƿ� ; ����ϰ � �ִ�.
(b) � ‫���������پ‬ б����� ���ǰ� �ִ� ������������ȣ�ϰ� ȥ��;
� ָ�, ���� � л ���� ���ʻ� � � ; ����� ���ϰ� ����� �ִٰ� Ȯ���ϰ�
�Ǿ �� . � 8���� �‫ ��� ��״‬н ��� a �� ����� � d���� ����� � ����� �
�ʺ�� ‫ ���� ;�ڵ‬ġ �� �ʴ� "�8 ��ϰ� ����� � � ����� ‫�� ���ڵ‬ο�
������ �� �� � 8 �� ��� : ������ ��� 翡 �ִٰ� ����. ��� ǿ ���
��� ���� ġ �� �� : � ���� �‫ �״‬,������� ������ �‫����� �ٸ‬:
������ � � �� � ; �� v �ϰ� ���� : ����ϸ � (��Ȧ�� ����ϸ � ), � 밳
�л �� ; ��Ȳ�� �ϴ� ����� ���� n �ִ‫˾� ;�� �ٴ‬Ҵ� . � � �����
�л � 鿡� ����� ��: "�� f" �Ǵ� ��� ; �����ϴ� ���� �� a; � ΰ � �ִ�.
�л �� : �� ���� �� f �� � 5 ��� �� �ֱ� ��, � ‫��� ���� �����پ‬ϸ� ,
�� ο � �� f �� � Ű ܰ ��� � Ѵ ٰ� �Ѵ � . � � � � � � � 忡 ���ϸ� , � � ���簡
����� Ŀ� ���
��� ;��� �����������
� ,��� ;��� �������������
� �� ˴� �‫ ���� �ٶ‬ġ ��

���� �� �Ѵ� . �ֳ��ϸ� �� � : � л ���� ���� � н< �� � ‫�ݴ‬Ǵ� �����
������ � .
���� : �� f �� ǥ��� ĸ 鿡� ��ѱ���� �‫ �ٸ‬a �� �����ϼ� � � !
(c) �ι � ° �� ū ���� �� �ִ� ��d:-� ��� �� ��d: MX �� � ��
�� ȹ � � ��� ó � ���� ��ǥ�� ���ɼ��� ����� �ִ�-�� ������ � � � 
� ֳ��ϸ� �� � : ����� �� ��� ��� �� �ƹ��� � ‫�ڿ‬ȯ��� �� õ � �� f ��
�� n ���� �ʱ� ������ � . � ��� �� ��d: �� d ���� 4������ �� Ǿ �� .
��� ι �� ����� � � : ó=�� ���ư��� 316���� B-52 �� ‫���ݱ�)�� ��ݱ‬
�ӹ�� � �ٰ��; � 4 ‫ �� �ؿ‬쿡 �ҷÿ ��� �����ϴ� �����) �� ��ġ �ϱ� '��
�� � �� �  ~���� ��� /�� �� 3 ������ ⸧‫�� ��ݱ‬ǥ�ϸ � � �
�����  ���� :��� �� ⼭� ��
���� �. � ��ȹ ; � � ����� � � ��鿡� �
�� f �� � ε � ġ �� � Ǿ � µ � , � ‫�װ‬: �Ǹ��� �� ο � ����� ���� ; �� ‫���ٸ‬
���� ����� �� � ִ� ���⸦ ����ϴ 3 � , � 8 �� ����� ���� ����� ��
���⸦ � ֹ��ϰ� ��  � ���� � ���� ��� 鿡� ��� ȿ������ ���⸦
� Ƶ���3Ĵ� ��f����.

EXERCISE 11
1. dġ�� �� �� f ���� ������ � � � ‫ �״‬,�‫�� ���� �ڷ‬ȸ � � � � ���;
����� ‫�־‬µ �, � � ��� ��� : �� ��� ‫� �ٴ‬ൿ���� ��Ÿ ���� .
2. ��� л � ; '�� ������ å�� ��� ‫�ڷ‬, ��� ���� ���� ��� л � ; '��
õ ���� å; ���� �ִ�.
3. �ҷ� : ������ ���� �ܱ��������� ι �f �� ȸ��� �.
4. � 3 �� ��‫� �� ��׳‬ѱ�� � (6.25 � 纯) ��Ƶ� ; ����� t � Ưd ��
� � � � 8 � � � ѱ � � � � � � � � ߴ�.
5. � � � � � � � � � � � d8 � � , � � � ռ� : � � '� � �ִ� ���� ��� �����
� ñ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � õ ��� .
6. � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � p � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �  � � , � ‫��׳‬
� � d � � � Ƚ� ; � � � � � � � � � ϰ� �ִ�.
7. � � � � ο � � � 0f � � � � � � v � ϴ � � � : � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � �
� t  � �� ���
 .� � ��� ��,
 � � f � � � 鿡 � ��
‫���� ����� ������ �ؼ‬
� � � � � ‫ص‬ǰ� � � � � � 7 � � � � ȴ� ����� .
8. � � � ο � : � � � ; � � � � � ʴ� � � ���‫�� ���ڽڽ‬/� й � � � "� � � � � � � "
(� 뼳) � � � � � � ; � � � � � Ȱ � ° � � � : � � � � � ; � ο � �߰� �, � � � � �
� � ? � � � � � � � � � � � � ߴ�. � Ƹ� � Ͼ� � ��ֹ��� �Ƶ�� �¾��, �‫� �״‬б� � �
� ��ΰ � 15 � � � � � � ; � � 8 � � , 26� � � � ��� � � � � � � � ‫ ;�ڱ� �ڽڽ‬õ� � �
� � � � � ��.
9. �  � �ũ � � � Ƽ (/ � � � � � � � Ҽ���)�� ������‫�� �ڿ‬ȥ�‫;�� ��� �ؼ‬
�  � � � � � ϴ 3Ĵ � � � ; � Ҵ � .
"� � � � � � ‫� ���� �ִ� �� ���� ������ �ڴ‬Ǹ� � � � � ���Դϴ� "��� �
� � � � ‫ �״‬,�������� ������� �� � ��" .�ߴ � �Ƴ � � � � � � �ŭ � � � � :
� � � ; � � � � � Ǵ ϱ� � ."
� � � � : � � � � � � ��� � � ġ �ִ� ��⸦ ��8 � � � � ; � � � ˾ ƾ� � ϴ �
.

EXERCISE 12
1. � � � � � � � ; ��ܳ ��� , ť� � � � � � : � � � � � � � � � � � � � �߰� ����
� ϳ� � � � ߴµ� , � ‫�װ‬: � � � � � �߰� �� � � .
2. � � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � � � � � � � � � � ô 뿡 /� Ѱ � � � � � ‫�־‬µ� , � �
� � � � : � � � � 뵿 8� κ � � � � � f � Ǿ � � .
3. � ‫ � � � � � � � � � �������� �״‬ǥ� � � � � � � � � � � ε � , ��� � � � :
Ŀ� ‫ � � � � � � � � ; � �' �ٶ‬Ŀ� 8�� ;���� �‫ �ٶ‬p � � Ѵ � .
4. � � Ͻ � Ʈ � �ֿ���� � ֿ ��� �۰���. � ‫ �״� �ڽڽ‬,�‫�� ���ٽ� ���ؼ‬ǰ
� ӿ� � ‫� �ڱ‬ô � � � � � � ����� ����; � � � � � ϴ � � � � � � � � � � ߴ�.
5. � � � � � ‫�׵‬: � 幮 d� � � � � � � � �  � � � � � � � d � � ; � � � � �ִ�
� � � � � ε � , ��� � � � � � � � : � � � � � ô � ʿ� � � � ͵� ��� .
6. ģ� � � � � � � � � � � ü' � � � � � � � ' � ⸦ � � � ÿ � �ް�� �ִ�. � ‫Ⱑ״� �ڱ‬
�� � � � � � � � � ,� � ��� �ʹ� �ǰ��‫˾� �������� Ⱑؼ� �ڱ‬Ƴ� �� ���.

� � � � : � � � � � � , ��� : /� � � Դ ϴ � . � � = � � � � � � � � � � � � �
A: What's the difference between ignorance and indifference?
B: I don't konw and I don't care, either.
7. /� � � � "� � ȭ" �  � � � � � � � � � � � : � � ο � � � � � (~ � � ) � � � � f � �
��� � � ; 1983� � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�� �ؼ‬ġ� Ϸt � 1979� � � � � � � � � � d;
� � � � � � 8 � t � � � ��� . � ��� �Ϻ� �� ��� � �� ‫�ڵ‬: � � � : � �
� � � Ⱑ � � /� � � � � 8 � κ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �‫� �� ���ߴ ��ؼ‬ȴ � ���
� � � � � ϰ� �ִµ � , � � � � ��� � � � Ǹ � � � � � /� � � � � � � � : � 緡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡
� ‫־‬ �е � � � � � � ҷ� � � /� � � � � � � � � � � � ¿ � � � ��� � � � � ��� . � � � ;
� � � � � Ű � � �ִ� ��: / � � � ε � : � ‫� ���ڽڽ‬巡�� ���� ��f � � ; � � � � � 8 � � ,
� ‫��ڱ‬: � ʰ� � 뱹� �( ��� � � � ҷ� ) � � � � � � � � � � � ӿ� � � � � � � � � �
� � 8 � � � � � � � ��� . � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȣ� �
� � � � � � � � � � (� � ) � � � ְ ��ִ µ � , � � � � ȣ� � "� � � � � η ƴ� " � � � � ��� .
��� � � � � d: /� � � � � � � ļ � ��� � � � : � � � � � � � � � � ⼺���밡
� � � � ϰ� � � Ÿ � � � � �ִ�.
8. � � � � � � � � � � � � � � f � � � ‫�� ���� �ر‬Ʋ� ŷȴ� . � � �� � � �� � ��
� � ȭ� � � � 1930� � 뿡 �糭; � � : ��� � � � � � ��� � � � � �ȭ �ÿ � � � � � �
� 鿡� ����Ը��� ��f���� ���п� �ε�ģ ���� ����. ���� ��f��
��Ʋ �Ÿ � � � � � � , � ķ � � � � � , � ��� �鿡� ����ʼ�ǰ�� ��w8�� ��;
��� � � � ‫ �� ���ٸ‬: aa � � �ǰ � � ϰ � � � � � � ��� � �ϰ � ��� � �
� Ǿ � µ � , ��� � � � ÷ � : � � � 6 � � � � � Ȥ���� ���� �ܿ��� ���� 8 � �
� � � � � � ߵ�� ���s � � .
9. � Ƹ � � ÷θ � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � ��� � ��� � ��Ӵ �
�4 � � dz � � ε � � � � � � ��� � � . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 500 �� � � � � �
� � � � Ƽ � ε � ; � ÷θ � � � � � � ‫ؾ‬ȿ�� � ü � � � � � � , �Ƹ � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � �
��� �Ƽ �ε� � � ü� � � � � �ʰ � ��� � � � � ¦ � � � 0 � �ִ���   �� .
��� �Ƽ �κ� � � 600 � � � � � � ��� �: ��� � ��ô �� � � � � � ε � , ��� :   � �
�ʻ � � � 8 � � � � � � Ƽ � ε � � � � ‫ � � ;� ������ ���� �ڱ‬ϴ � � � � � � � � ‫�ش‬.
��� � � � � � � � � � ; � ȾƼ � � � � � � � � � м � � ; � � � � � � � , ��� : � � � �
� ‫ � � � � ;�׵‬ų � � � � � � � , � � � � � �� ��8� � ��n� � � � � � � Ѵ � . � � �
��� �: ��� � � � ; � � � � � Ƽ � � ӽú � � � 8 � � ��� � � 鿡 �缭 �� ��
� �θ � � � � �  � ‫� ؼ‬
) ��� ��� �� ��δ � � � � ‫� �ؿ� ���ؼ‬ƴ� ���� ���� ��;��
 � )� ��� 8 � � � � � t � � �� �Ѵ � . � � � � � � : � � � � ���8� � ��� � ��
� ִ�-�߲� ��Ÿ � � � � � � � 30 � � Ʈ � � � 4 ܹ� �� ô � � 63 � � � � � � � � Ƽ � ε � ; � ư �
� 4 ٰ� �� �� �÷θ � � � � � � ĵ � � ӿ � � � n � � 33 � � � � � � � ; � Ѿ ư � � � � �
�� �s� � � � .
��� �: ��� �Ƽ �ε� � � ��°� � �� � � � � ‫ � �;� ������ ���� �ڱ‬ϴ � � �
� Ƽ � � � ? � ‫�װ‬: � Ƕ � � � � � � � d ġ � � � � � Դ ϴ � . � � ��� , � ~ � � � Ǽ Ҽ � !
10. � ‫���� �ݳ‬: G.N.P. � � 1.5% � � � � � � � �  � � ε � � � �ִ�(1980 � 
G.N.P. � � � � � � 8,250 � � � �). � Ǿ � : � � � � 120 � � � � � � 1981 � � � � � �
��� � � 140 � � 8 � � � � � ϸ � � � � � � � ȴ � . � � ȭ � � â : 6% � � � � � ‫ �ؼ‬v � ‫�ݾ‬
��� � ϰ � �ִµ � , � � : / � � � � ü � � � � պ � � � �ξ � � � � � � � ��� � �
� �ȭ � � ; � � � � � �� ��� � � �ȭ � � â � � ��� � � � � ; � ‫��ڱ‬ϱ � � � � ϴ � .
��� � � � � f � � � � : , � 1981 ,�����‫��� � �ٵ‬ ‫ٸ‬ ⺸����� �  � � � � � ��� � ���
��� � � � 8 � � 3% � � � Ϸ � � � � � ξ � µ � , ��� � � � � � Ⱘ� � : � � � � ��� � �
� �n �Դ �.
11. � � � � � � 8 � � , � � ��� � � � �ǥ� � � � � � �: � � Ȯ� � � � � � � ε � ;,
� ƴ϶ � , ġ/ � ϴ � � � ��� . � � � � � � = � � � � � ϸ � , � � � � ‫����� ��ٹ��⸧ �ٶ‬
� ‫ � � � ;�װ‬ϱ � ' � � � � � ; ã � Ƴ � � � ��Ƿ � , �ּ��� ����å: � ��� ���;
� � ȭ � � � � �ִ� ����� � � ϴ µ � , � ‫�װ‬: � � � � � � � � � � ; � �ȭ � � Ű � � � 鿡� �
��� � �v � � f � � � ‫� �ִٰ� �� �� �ؼ‬Ѵ � . � � � ÿ � � � �ǹ � : � � ȭ � � � � ��
��� � � � � � ȹ ; �߱� ��ϴ � � � � � 鿡 � ������ � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � �
� � ȹ � ε � , � � � � ȹ : � Ƹ � ��� � � � � � � � � Ȯ � 꿡 ����ϰ � �ִ‫�ٴ� �ٸ‬
��� � � � � � �; � �ȭ � � Ű � � ��� � ��� � �ƹ � � � � � � � � � ��� � ��;� �
� � � � � �¸ � � � � � �ȭ � � Ű � � � �ʴ ´ ٰ� �ϴ � � .
12. � 7 � � � � � � � � � �Ʈ � � Ʈ � � � � ��� � � � � 4 � � � � � � ϸ � , � � � :
30 � � � � � � ù � 鸸 ���� ���� ϸ��� � ��� � � � �� ; � � � � � �ٰ���Ѵ � .
1776 �  � ƴ � � � ��� � � � ‫� �ٷ‬:��� � � ' � 輺; � � � � ϰ � � ‫ڽڽ‬Ÿ� � � � ϰ �
� � � � ; � � � � Ѵ ٰ� � ߴ���� �������� �‫ۿ‬µ � , � ‫� � � � � � � ��� �ٷ‬ ��ο� �� �ü � �
â� � � ϴ � � � � � �ʿ � � ϴ � . d � � � � � � , � � : � � � � ε � : � � � � � : � � ���
� � � � ; ��� � � . � � : � � � � �  �ϳ � � � , � � � � � � � � � ( 2 6 � � ) � � 1975 � �
2 �г � � � � � � Ϲ ‫ � � � � � ;���� �ٵ‬ϰ � ��� �ũ�μ� � �Ʈ � � � ȸ � 縦 â� � � ߴµ � ,
�� ȸ�� � � � � ο � � � ǻ �  � '� �� � �Ʈ � � �  �� � �µ �, �� ȸ� � � �
� Ż � : 1500 � � � �����.
13. � ‫���ظ‬, � � õ � � � � ( � Ǵ � � � : ) ��� � ε � � � ȭ� � � � � � � Ѵ � . � �
� � �  � � ʹ� � � � � � � : � � 쿡, � ҿ � ź � � � � � ��� � ϴ � � � : �ʹ � � � � � :
� Ǻΰ � Ÿ � � | � �ʿ �Ұ � � � � � � �ü � �ɵ � � � � ‫��ر‬DZ� ������ �. �ʼ�����
ü � � � � � 귯� �� 0�, � � ü � � Ÿ � � � � � � � ġ � � � � �ʹ � � � � � � � n � � ���
��� � � � � � ; � ο � � � � � ĥ � � � � � �ȴ � . ��� � � ȭ � � 8 � � � � ��� : � � ü
��� � � � �ȭ � � � � � � ' � � , � ǻ � � : � Ǻΰ � Ÿ � � � � ȯ � � � � � � ü �  � ��
�ջ � ; � � � � � � : �κ �8 � κ � � � � Ǻθ � ��� � Ϸ p � � � � � , � � � � ��� � �ִ�
� Ǻΰ � �ʹ � � �  � ǻ � � : � � � � � � � � ��� � ��: �� � � � � � ü � � � Ǻθ �
��� � ϰ � �ȴ � . � � � � � � � � v � � ��� � � � � � � , ��� � � ��ĵ � � Ǻδ � � 밳 3� �
��� � 25 � � � � � � � � � ü � � � ź � � Ѵ � ( � ź ι � � � ; � � ��� �ȴ � ). ��� � � � �
� ‫�ذ‬å: � � v � Ǻ ΰ � �ǰ � � � , ��� � � � � ǥ � � � � � � �  ���� ‫� � ��� ݱ‬: � ‫�����ڵ‬
� � �  �. ���� ߴ �� �ֿ� �������� �� ���� ���� ��ǥ�� ���ϸ �,
� � ü ( � � v ) � Ǻθ � � � � Ե � � 谡��, � � � � � � � � � ö � ƽ ��� � � � Ḧ
� � � � � ‫�¾����� �ؼ‬ ٰ � �Ѵ � .
� � � � : thousands of : 1. several thousand ( � � õ � � )
2. a large number of ( � ‫ ��� ڰټ‬: � � : )
14. 2500 � � � � 8 � � � � Ǵ � ��� � ε � � � � б � � �ָ� ���� � ִ µ�, � � � � �
��� ��� � ��� � � � � � � � � 鿡 � ����˾Ƴ � � � � ‫��־‬. � б � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬:, � � � �
� ����� ų � � � � � � ��� � ε � , � � � ‫���� �ڸ‬ �аų � (d � � b � � ) , �ܾ
� Ų ‫� �ٷ‬аų � (saw � � was � � ) , � � � ; ȥ� � � ϰ ų � ( please hurry up;
please up hurry � � ) , ( � � � � ) � � � � ; � � � ʿ � � � � 8 � � � 8 � � � ‫����س‬ų � ,
��� � � � ��n � � � � � � � � � � �  � ; � � ������ �ִ�. ��� � � � � f a � � � �
�ұ � � ϰ � , ��� : � � � � 8 � � � ‫پ‬� ,� � � � ϴ � � � �ְ� �ʹ � � � � � ø � ‫����� �ؼ‬
� � � � � ; � ‫��� �ؼ‬г � ; � � � ij � � � � � . � б � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬: � � : � � � � ; ��� � �
�� ִ -� � � � , � � � ν � Ÿ � � , � � ư � 屺, � ‫�� �ڽڽ‬Ŀ� 緯, � ��� ��罺
f � � ó � � . � ��� ��� : � � � � d� � � � � � � � 0 � � �ʰ ų � d � � � � 8 � � �Ҿ� � �
� � ��� � ߸� ���( � � d); � ´ � .
� � � � : � � � � � � , f� � � � � � ��� � � � "� � � � " � � � �ű � � � / � �
� � � 鿡 � ��� ϴ � "they" � � " �" � � � ƴ ϱ � � � � � � Դ ϴ� � . ��� " � � : " � 鿡� �
��� � � � � � � Ǹ � � � � ��� � � . � ��߸� �������� ��� dȮ�����, ��������
� � � " � � ‫("�ݼ‬rigor); � � � � �˴ϴ � .
15. � ‫״� �ڱ‬鿡� ������ � � � � : � � � � � � �ǰ � �  � � � � , � ° � � �
dġ � � � � � � � ‫��� �� �ִ����� �ظ‬Ҵµ �, ���: �: ����Դ � �鿡 � �� �� � .
16. � � � � � � ��� �( � �/ � �v � � ��� � � � /ȭ � � � � ; �ǹ � � � ) :
d � ο � � � � � � � � ‫ � ;���� ���� �� �ؼ‬ϰ � � � � � � � � � � 8 � � , � � d � ΰ �
��� � � d� � � � � � f � � ; � � � � ϰ � � Ǹ � � � f � � � � θ � � � � � � � � � p � �ִ�
� � ; � � � � � ‫��־‬. � � ü � � � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � � ( � � � � � � � ) ü f � � �Ͽ � � �
��� � å� � ; � � � � � � � �� ��8� � � � � ��� � ��/� �v � � ���:
� � ��� � ���� �Ǹ�Ǿ�µ�, �� �: ������� ��ȸ�� ������ �˷�n�ִ�
� � ��/ � � � 볳� ��� ��‫�ٴ� ��; �����ش‬. � � " � � � ��� � ��/� �v
� : � � � � � � � � � �� �ĵ�; �� � � � � � 鿡� �dz � � � � 8 � � � � � � � ‫��־‬.
��� � � � � ���� �����, � � � � � � � � � � � Ѵ � � , � Ͼ8 � � , � ‫�װ‬:
� �а � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ڵ� �ڽڽ‬ŵ � � � � � � � � � � е Ǿ � ; � � ��� . � � � �
� �/ � � v � � ��� � � �ñ � � � 8 � � �� � �� � �ǵ � � � � � � � , � � � :
� 鿡� ��ų � � � � � ο � �  � � � � ��; �� � � � ߴ�. � � � � � � � : , � � � �
� � � � � ٰ� �ϴ� � � , � � � � ��� � � � � � � ; � � ��� . � � � � ��� � ��� �:
� �: � � � � � 뵿�‫�� ���ڵ‬ũ � � " � � κ � � � ��⸦ �� � �� � � � � ��� � �
� � � Ƶ � ( � 밨� ��ൿ��); � � � � � � ; � � ��� .

EXERCISE 13
1. (a) � � � � � � ȭ� � � � � � � � � � ; �ƹ � �͵ � � � � � �ʾ Ҵ � .
(b) � � � � �ƹ � � � � � ��� � �ʾ Ҵµ � , �  ����‫ �װ‬ȭ � � � � � � � � � � .
2. �ƹ � � Ϳ �� � � Ŵ � �� ��� ���: � � � � � ϰ � � � � � ��� , � � � � ��;
�� �õ� � � ��� �.
3. � � � � ��� � � � : � � � � � ��� � ��� � � � � � , � ��� ��� � � � � ��� .
4. ȿ�� � � � � � � � : � ‫� ����� ���ڽڽ‬Ѱ 鿡 � �������� ���ԵǾ� �ִ�
� � � ��� ( � ‫�ٽ� ���ؼ‬, ȿ�� � � � � � � � : � ‫� ����� ���ڽڽ‬Ѱ 鿡 �˰ � �ִ�
� � � ��� ) .
5. � � � � ŷ � ; � � � � � � � � : � : ��� � Ͽ � � � ��� � � � � � � ��� � ���ϰ�
� � � � � , � � ��� : � � � : � � � , � � ‫ ������ �ڱ‬:��� ���� ߳���� � �� ‫�ؼ‬
� ‫ڽڽ‬Ű � ; � � � � ��� � � � �ִ� ������� .
6. � κ � Ʈ � � � � � � � �� �y�: �� � �� �� � � � � � � � � ġ � � : �ƴϴ � .
7. � � � � Ī � � � � �ִ� ���; � � � � �� �ƶ �.
8. ĭ Ʈ � � � � � � � � ��� � �ϰ� ��� � � � � � � � λ � ; � ‫�־‬µ � , � � � � ��
�Ŀ � � � � � � � : � ö� � � � � � � � � � � � ��: � λ � ; � � � � � � � � � � � ߴ�.
9. � � � Ǹ � � � � � � � � � � 縦 ��Ȳ�ϰ� ����� ���� � ͵� ��� �ϳ���
û � � � � � ð 鿡 � �������� . � � � � � � h � � � � �Ų � � � � � � �÷ � � � ȭ � � � �
� � ��� � � � � � � � �ʴ3İ � � � � � Ҵ  .
"�ƴϿ � � � , � � � � � � ���� � ��� � �ϱ � ��� � � � �ƴ � � � !" � � � � ‫�װ‬
� � � � ߴ�.
� � � � : � � � � � � , ��� � � = � � � � / � � � η � � � �ʽ 4ϱ � ? / � � � � � � � ǰ � �
� � �  � ְ���.
10. � � � : â � � � � � � � � 8 � � , � � ���� �ִ� ����� ��; � � � ũ � �
1� � � ϰ � � � � ‫ �װ‬. � ‫�ش‬: � � �  � ��/ � � ϰ � �ƹ � � � � � � � � ‫־‬ ��ġ�ٰ��
� � � � � � � � � ��� . � � d � � � � � � �ƹ � �͵ � � � � � � � � �� ��� ���
� �f � � � � � � 8 � Ƿ � , � ‫ ���� �ظ‬:�‫�� �װ‬ġ � ų � � � f � ϰ ų � � � ġ � � � � 8 � � ,
� � � � ; � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
11. � Ƹ � � � � � � � ��Ģ� �8 � � � ΰ � � � � � v � � � ൿ; � � � � � � � � � ‫���ڿ‬
��� � � � �� ��; � � � � . � � ��� �и � � � � ΰ � � � �‫��� �ؼ‬� ������
��� � � � � � �ʴ´ � . � � � � ��� � � � � � � , � � � � ( ��� ) � � � � d � � � � � �
�ΰ � � � � � � ǹ�� � ο � � ϴ � � � � � � � ��� � � � ��� � � � ��� � � � � � � ��� .
12. � 츮 鿡Ͽ � � б � � � � � � : � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � ߴ�. � 밳 ��� : � � = � � � � :
��� � � � � Ǹ � � � � ´ � : "� � , � � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � �
... � Դ ϴ � . "
� � 3 � , � ‫�� �ڱ‬ʰ � �� ���� ���� ��⸦ Ư���� �ų ��� ����� � ‫־‬,
�  ��� : � 鿡� .� ‫�� � � � ���� ھ‬�� � � � � � ��� � � � � �� ��� � ��� � � � � �
� � � � 3 İ � � � � � � . " � 츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡; � � ô � ~ � � ߴ����� �‫�����װ‬," ���� ‫�ؿ‬.
ֳ ��ϸ � � � � � � � Կ � � Դ �
"� �ƹ � � � � � � � � �8 �ϱ � � ."
� � � � : � � � � � � , ��� � � � � Դ ϴ � , { � � ġ � � � ��� � �.
13. � � � � � � ũ � � , � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � : � ‫� � � � =־‬ ִ � �����
�� �б� � � � � ��f � � �� � � � �ִµ � , � � � Ӿ � � � � � � ͺ 信 鿡鿡 ‫ش‬ 鿡��� �� ��Ź;
� � 8 � Ƿ � � � � � ‫� �� �غ‬Ǿ� �ִ�. � � � � � � 3 � , � � � � � б � � � � �Ʃ � � �
( � � � ⼭ �‫���ڷ‬o � � � � wθ � � � ȭ � ϱ � � � Ǿ � � ‫� � � � � � )��־‬ � � � � � ‫�ؼ‬,
� ‫ �ڿ‬:�� ���‫�� �״� ���� '�� �ڱ� �ڸ‬Ʈ � ‫ � ;�� �ؿ‬Ⱦ  � � � ‫�־‬µ � , � �
� � � ȿ � � � � � � � � ε � : � ‫����� �غ‬ƴ�. ���븦밡밨 ����5 � � � Ŀ � � � � � � Ѵ ٰ�
� �ǥ � � � � , � � � � ũ � � ȣ�ָӴϿ��� ����Ʈ�� ������ ��ø; ���� �‫���ڿ� �ڽڽ‬
��Ӹ � � � � ߶ � .� � 8�� ���� ���� � � ű � ����� ��� �Һ��� �‫��ݻ‬
�  �.��� � ���� � ‫���� ���� ���ױ‬Ʈ � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � ‫� �غ‬Ǿ�ٰ�
� � � ߴ�.
14. ��� � � � � � � ��� � � � � 1870 � � ��� � � � � ϻ � � ‫�� ���� ���־‬
� � ; � � � � � ϰ � �ִ�.
15. � � � � � � ��ô � ~ � � � 8 � � , �  � � 8 � � � � � Ƶ � � � � � ��� � � �
��� � ϴ � ��� � "� � � � � n " � � � � � �ʾ Ҵ � .
16. � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � : �ΰ � � � � � � � � � � � Կ � � � � � � ҵǵ � � �
� � ȹ � Ǿ � �ִ�.
� �κ � � � � � � � � � � : � � ο � �߰� ��� � � � � � ��� ��� �; � ߰ � � ϴ�
��� � �ʿ � � ϴ � . � ��� " � � � � � � � � � � � � " ( ��� : � � � к о � � � � ΰ � � �
 � �� � ; � � � � � � � � � ��� ) � � � � � � ��� � � � ��f�Ǿ� � � �. � Ѵ� ο �
� ߰ߵʿ� ���-���� ���,�  �� � ߷��� ‫��ۿ‬ � ϴ° � � � 簡�� , �  � � � ‫�ؼ‬
�Ĺ � � � � � ; � � � �  � 3 � , Ǵ � � � � � � � : � � ����ߵ����� ��� ‫��ݿ‬Ǵ3Ŀ �
� � � ‫ ����� �ؼ‬.
� � å: � � � � � � � ۰ Ÿ� �w � � � � � � � � � ǻ 翡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 Ǿ �µ � , � � �  � �
60 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��� �ڵ��� �ڱ‬о� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϴ � � Ϳ�
��� � � � ۵��� ����ִ�.
17. � � ¼ � � � � � � � ó=8 � � , � ౸������ =�� ��� � � � ��� ��� � � ‫��־‬.
5õ � � � � � � � ‫� �׳‬౸ �ҵ���,� ۳ �0 � ���� �߱� ��� �� � � � ù �
� � Ⱑ � � � ۵ DZ⸦ �� ‫��ٸ‬ ٰ �, �߱� ������� Ȯ����κ��� ��s��4� ��
�˰ � �Ͼ � � � � � ϰ � � � ; � ‫��ٹ��� �� �־‬. � � � � 忡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 �ִ� �߱� �
� � : , � ����ε � � � � � � � Ͼ �ִ� ��; � � � � , � � � � � � � � ߴ ��� � ��‫�ڼ‬,
� ��� ������ ���ֵǰ� �ִ� �� �˰�.
� ��� ������ ������ ��Ҹ� � � � � � � � � = � � ' � � � ‫ھ‬Ƴ��ͼ �, �� �� 濡鿡
� � � Ǵ � ġ � � � � � � : a � � ; Ī � � � � � ‫��־‬.
18. � ‫� ���ٸ‬λ � ; � Ծ � � � , Ŭ � � ũ(6 � � ) � � � � � � � � � � �ʰ � � б � � � � ‫��ٳ‬.
��� � � � � б � � Ĺ ‫ݿ� �ٴ‬ϴ � � � � ȿ � � ‫ ��Ⲩ� �״‬aa �� ��: �ð �; ��ӴϿ�
��� �n � � � � � � � p � � ‫ؿ‬Դ�. �θ���� ������ �б��� ���� ��⸦ �Ͻø�,
Ŭ � � ũ � � � ‫� ������� ���׵‬б � � � � Ƶ鿡� .�� � � � � � � � ��Դ� �θ����
� � � � 8 � � , � ‫�� ������� ��׵‬d; � � � ‫�� ���ؼ‬ſ � ;, � � � � ; � � � ‫���ؼ‬
��� �; �� �� � ִ � ��; � � � � � ִ � ��8 � � � � Ǿ � µ � , Ŭ � � ũ � � � Դ � � �
� � ſ � ��� � � � � � � �ߴ���. Ŭ � � ũ � � � � � � � � � f� � � ϴ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � ( � б � Ȱ � � � � ) � � � ‫ ���� �ڱ‬. �ߴ� v � � Ŀ � ‫� �ٶ‬ҹ 漭 鿡�;
� ��� �Ǹ�, Ŭ��ũ�� �‫ڱ‬� ��ð � � � � κ � ; � � � � � � � ȴ� . �‫��� �ڱ‬�
v � � � � � ҹ 漭 �湮�� ���� ��⸦ �ϰ � � Ǹ � , Ŭ � � ũ � � � ű � ° � �  � 
� � � � . Ŭ� �ũ � � , � � � � � � � � 跱�����, ϱ � �: � � � � ϴ � � �;
� � � � � ‫��־‬. ȥ�� ����uΰ� �Ǹ�, �‫� � � � ����� �״� �ٸ‬ �ξ � � � �7 � � � � �
� ‫�� �ڱ‬ο � � � � � � ߴµ � , ����� :�� � �� �‫�� �ٸ‬캸뿡쿡 �ʹ � � � � � � � ��θ�
� ‫�� ���ؾ‬ų � (ģ � � � � ) � � � � Ϸ � � � � � .
19. � 츮 ���鿡 �������� ~ � � � о ‫� �־‬  � �� � 8 � κ � � � � � �
d� � � � � � � 3ִ� �� ��‫ع‬Ĵ � � � f � � �ִ�( � � , � 츮鿡鿡 ~ � � � о � � � � � �
d� � � � � � �� ��8�κ� � � ‫� ����ִ� �� ��ع‬ǽɽ� � � � � � �f � � ).
‫ڰ‬
20. � ��� ������ ����vġ � ‫� ���ڿ‬ҷ� � � � 8 ��� ������' �‫��ڰ‬� �
� � Ÿ � � � � . d� � � � � � , � � � � � ߷�i � � Ű � 屺鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡ϴ � � � � � d �ΰ � �
� ܼ � vġ � � � � � � � � �ʾ Ҵ � � � , � ҷ � � � Ʋ � � � � � � � ��� ��; � � ��� .
� ܸ �� ҿ� ��' �ҷ� ���(���� ������ �屺; � � � � � ‫��ֵ� � � )�ؼ‬ϰ �
� ‫�� �־�ٴ‬: � 븮 ħ � � ��� � ‫ �� ����ٸ‬vġ � � � � � � �� ȹ; �� � � � ��� �
�ҷ � � � � � b � � � � 8 � � � � � � � ; � Ͻ � � � �ֱ���� �ߴ�. �ϳ � ��� � � � � ,
�ҷ � : �и � � � � � � � Ծ � � - �ҷ � : � � � � d 8 � � � � � � ��/� �v � � � ‫�ؿ‬
� �ó � � � �b � � 8 � � ��� � � � � d�ο � � � � � � � � � �ִ� ��v � ; � 븦볳볳 �� ��
�ʰ ‫;�� �ڴٴ‬-�ֳ��ϸ � � � � : � � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � ���ǿ� ��� � dġ ( � � ,
� � � � d ġ ) � � � 䱸�ϴ � � ų � � 8��� ���‫ �ٸ‬ϱ � .

EXERCISE 14
1. � � � � ���Կ � � � ��� � �ϳ � � � � � ġ �ٰ� ��Ų � � � � � ����ߴ�. "f � �
� � � � ; � θ � � � � � � � �ּ���. f � � � Ⲩ � � � � � � � � � �; � � � � ϰ � > � ϴ � ."
� � � 뿡뿡찡 �
��‫��ٹ‬ϴ � a � � � � � ��� û � � � � � � f � � � � � � , � ‫� � ��� �״‬
� � � ߴ�. " � � f � � � � � p � � � ȹ � ߴ� �ͺ��� v�� �� ��: ���. � � � �
� � � � � � � ֽ� �� ��> �ϱ � � ? " ( � � � � � d � � � β � � � � � . � ϱ � � , � � d � � � � ¿
� � � �  �ϰ � � � . )
2. � ˷ ��� � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � 븦뵵뵵 �
��
� �����ִ� ��: � ˷�� � � �
� Ӽ � � � � � � ε � , ��� � � � Ӽ � : �ʹ � � � � ‫�� �پ��ؼ‬ġ � � � � � � � ‫�ٸ‬
�Ӽ � � � � ƺ � � � d� � � � .
3. � � � � � � � , � ż � � � � � � � � � � ͵ g � � � � �ִ� ���� ��� ���Կ� �Ĵ�
â � � � � Ŀ � ‫ �ٶ‬ǥ�� �‫�ٿ‬n � ‫�־‬µ � , � ű � � � ǹ ߷� �‫ٴ‬ϴ � � � � � � �
� � � 4 � � � ; � � � � � Ѵ���� .��‫ܰ����� ��� ���� ���ٴ� ������ �����־‬ 
�  �.��‫־‬ɰ����� ����n�ִ� �� ��: � � � Կ � � � � � � � � � ϰ � " �ǹ � ȯ � � "
��� � ǥ � � � ‫���ٿ‬Ҵ�. �� ���Դ� ����� ���; ����� ���Կ���.
� � � : Massachusetts � � � � � � � � �ִ� � � � � New England � � � : , � � ��� � �
� Ͻ � � � �ֵ���, � � � � � � � � � � �� � .
4. � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � 濡 鿡Ұ� � � � � � � � ƴϴ � . � � : � � � � � � ��� �
� �ü � � . � � � � � � � ° � � � �; � � � � � � � � �ִ� ���‫������ ���ڴ� �ڽڽ‬
� � ' � � � � � 迡 �����������ν � ( � � � � ) � � �Ϻη � � � � � � � � � � �ִ�.
� ��Ƿ � ' � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � ‫ظ� �ڽڽ‬ſ � � � � � � Ѵ � � � � : � � � �
� 8��� �‫ � � � � � � ; � � � �ٸ‬ſ � � � � � � � � � ; � ‫ڽڽ‬ſ � � Լ � � � � Ѵ � � � ��� .
‫ڽ‬
å; � � � ‫�ؼ‬, � 츮鿡鿡 鿡츮 鿡‫� ���ڽ‬ô � � � � � � ô � � � � � � � �Ǹ � � �
�� �ε� � � ��� � � � � ��� � � � � � � � 翡 鿡鿡鿡‫���� �ؼ‬ϴ � � � ; � � ; � �
� �ִ .
5. � � ) :, � � � 踦 ���������‫ �ڽڽ‬,�‫�� ���� ���ڿ‬θ � � ‫�� �ڱ‬
� � � ´ � . � � � � � � , � � � � � � ; � ҷ � � � 8 Ų � ‫ �ڽڽ‬,�‫;���� ���ڿ‬
� 뿡뿵밡 �
‫���ڹ‬ ������� ��d � ߴ�. � � ü � � v � � � ϰ � � � ư � � � ��� � '� � � �
��� � � � Ư ¡ ��� , ��� � � � � ſ � : � � � � � � � � ��8� � �� � � �ų � � � � � � �
� � ~ � � � � � ϴ � � � � � � ƴ Ͼ � ‫ � �� � � ; � � � � � � ;�� �ٴ‬.
� '� � � � � � � � ��� � � ��� � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � �ʴ � - � ���
� � � : �ʹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � Ѿ ư � � � , � ��� �ʹ � � � � � Ʊ �
��� � � � ��� � �� ��� � ~� � � � � � � � � Ͽ � � � � � �ִ� d � � � � � � � �
�ʴ � � � ��� .
6. � � Ż � � � � � ε � : � ‫ڽڽ‬ŵ � � aa � � � � � � n � � � � ��ɷ � � � � � d � � � � ���
� �û � � � � � � � � ��� � � � x � ϰ � �ִ�. � ‫�׵‬: � � x � ϰ � �ִ�, � � � � ; � � � � �
� Ǿ � �ִ� ����f � � , � � � � � � �б � � � � � ȸ � � � � ���(� � �ü �)
ü � � , � ���, � Ƹ � � � � � ‫�� ���� ���� �ٵ‬:, �ʹ � � � � � â � Ǿ � �ְ�
  � � � ���w � � � � ð � ��� � v �չ � ���f � � � � � � �ұ � � ϰ � � � ��� .
� � 11 � � � Ϸ � � � � � � � ��� � � � ��� � � � Ż � � � ƿ � �‫��ؼ‬�, � � � � ;
�� �t� � � � � � � � 30 ,���� �‫���� ����ڸ‬3,000 ,�‫� � � � � �װ‬ � � ; �Ұ �
� � � � � � . � � ȣ � � � ձ � � � � 绡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡n � � � Դ µ � , � � �  � � �� � � ��v
5õ � � � ��� ���ԵǾ��‫ ��ݱ‬.��‫���־‬, � � � v � � � � � � ɷ � � � � � � � , ��� � �
� � v � ‫��� �ڱ‬���� �  Ұ� 420 � � � ��� �����; � � � � '� � � � � Ǿ � ;
� � ��� . � ‫�װ‬: � и � � � � � � � � ��� � � ƴ ϴ � , 13 � � � � � ý Ǹ � � � � � ��� �ü
� �; � � � � � � ��Ҵ� �� � � ��Ƴ�: �� � � � � ��� � �ӽ� � � � ÿ � � �
� � � � ִ‫ �ٴ‬a; � � � � � � � � � � � ��� .
EXERCISE 15
1. � 츮鿡鿡 鿡‫�� ������������ �ٷ‬ȸ � � � � � � � 8 � Ƿ � , � 츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡;
��� � � ��� � � � � : � 翬�ϴ � .
2. (a) � � ȸ � � � ‫ �ڱ‬:�‫� ׵‬,�‫� � � � � � ;�� ����־���ٸ‬ ��� � � ��;� �
�� . �
(b) � � � � � � � � ‫ �ٴ‬a; � � � � � � � � � , � ߴ� �� ;�� : � ‫�׵‬.
3. (a) � � � � � � ü � ‫� � � � � � � ;�ڽڽ‬ � � � ϱ , � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � ϰ �
� � � ; � ϴ3 � ?
(b) � � � � � � ü � ‫ � ;���� ���ڽڽ‬ϰ � �ִٰ� ���ϴ3 � ? � � � � � � ��;
� �ġ � � � � ϴ � � � ��� .
4. � ‫� �߰� ;�� ���� �״‬, Ŀư; ���‫� �ؼ‬óy � ó � � � 귯귯귯 �4��
� � �ħ
� ‫� ; �ٶ‬  � �‫��־‬.
5. � ‫ � � � � � � ;�ڽڽ‬ϰ � �ִ� ��8 � � � ˷ � n �ִ� ��������� �IJ � � ϰ �
� � � � � ϰ � �ִ� ���� ����ö � � � � � � � � � � ö ; ã8 � � � ϴ � � � , � � � � � 캸뿡캸�

Ŀ � ‫���� �ٶ‬ö �ϳ � � � �߰� ��ߴµ � , � ű � � " � Ǽ � � " ��� � f � � � �
� ‫��پ��־‬. ȣ��ɿ��е��Ǿ�, �����‫ � ;�װ‬캸캸캸 Ҵ��. �� ����ö �ȿ���
�ƹ � �͵ � � � � � .
� � � � : � � � � � � , � � 8 � � � � . ��� � � � � � Դ ϴ � .
6. � 츮 鿡鿡鿡鿡Ʈ � � �  �ҳ � � � � � ο � � � � � � � ; �ϳ � � � � � µ � , � ű � �
50 � � Ʈ � � � � � ľ � �ְ‫��ڴٴ� ������ �����־‬. � � � � � 绡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 f� Ǹ �
��� � ߴµ � , � � � � ��� � ù � � ��� � � � ; � ˰ � � ‫־‬, � ��� ��; � �
� 25 �ٰ � ߴߴ � Ʈ � � � � � ‫�� �ڿ‬10 �� .��‫� � � � � ;�� ������ ���� �ٿ� �־‬
��� �, ��� � ְ Ե� ��f �ű�� �� ��� �����75 .����":��‫ � �־‬Ʈ -
� � � � � � = ."
� � � � : �  ��� � � � � ſ � ! - � / � � � � ӿ� � � � � � �� ��� � �ʹ � � �
� � � � ϰ � � �n�ֱ���.
7. � � � � � � � � : � 츮 鿡ÿ � � � � � � ҹ 漭 鿡鿡��� � � � � � � 6�ÿ � �д � . � � 3 �
� � � � 15 ��7 ���� ���‫ �װ‬п � � � ȴ � . � � d � � � Ǿ � , � � � � � � � � � 츮
� ùε � � �  � �� � ҹ �� � � � � �
Ʈ ��� � ��� � � � � � � p � � ߴ�.
Ʈ� � � � � � � ҹ 漭鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡, � 츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡��İ � � � � � Ҵ  .
"ȭ � 簡 �Ͼ�� � ƴմϴ� ",��� ���; �츮鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡. " � ҹ � � � � � �
ȸ � Ǹ � � ϰ � � ‫�־‬µ � , � � � � � �ӿ � � � � � Ÿ � � � � �ʾ � > � ϴ � . "
8. � � 3 � � � � , � 츮 鿡ô� ��캸뿡쿡������� � ⸦ , Ư � � � � ��� � � � �� ��
� ƴ϶ � , � � � � � � � ‫�� ��ޱ‬d� ߴ�. � � � � = � � � � ħ � � � ‫�׵‬: � � � � d ;
� � õ � � � Ű � � . � � � �ִ� ��ħ � 鿡 � ⸦��: � ‫�� �ڿ‬, � � � � � � �
� �ũ �Ҹ � � � � � � � . � 츮 鿡ô � ��� � � � � � � ��� � � � � � , ��� � � � ΰ�
� � � ‫��־‬. � ⸦ � � � � Ű � 鼭, � 4� ��°��" ,����� �‫" ? � � � � � � � � � � Ⱑ � �״‬
� � � � ; � � : ������ ��� ,�‫ڿ‬δ � �ɾ  � � � � � 鼭 ��� ߴ�. " � � � � � մ ϴ � .
� ‫��� �ٸ‬Ͽ � f � � � ‫��ٹ‬ϰ � �ִ� �� �ƴ��� Ȯ���‫ � � � ; � ;� ���غ‬Դ ϴ � . "
9. ��� � � � � � � � � �˷ � � � � Ҽ � � � � � �  � � � � � 8 � μ � � � � �ָ�
� � � ‫�ؼ‬, � � � м � � � � � � ۰��� ���縦 ����� ������ � � ‫� �=�� ���ڽڽ‬
��� � � �Դ �. � � � � � � ��f� � ��ſ� �� � � ��� � � � ��� � � � � ‫��ذ‬
� ϰ � , � ‫���� �ڱ‬ ֵ �� ������ ���� ������� ���� � �‫� � � � � � � � '�� �״‬
� � 0 � �Ҹ � � � dȮ � ϰ � � � � � � ϴ � ��� � � ‫��� �ָ�� ���ڽڽ‬ĿԴ�. 20������
��� ; � � � � � � � �ǰ 8 � � , � � � м � � � � � �Ҽ�; �ɰ � � ϴ � �Ҽ�: �� �.
10. � �Ʈ � � � x � � � � � � � � , � � � � � � � � 濡鿡鿡 鿡鿡0� � � 鿡� ���� ;
� ϰ � � ‫�־‬µ � , � ‫��� ���� ��� ڰټ� �ڼ��� �ڱ� �ڽڽ‬迡 ��� 1 �‫; � �ؼ‬
� � � � ߴ�. � � � � ��� � � � � 迡��ª: � Ⱓ � � � � � � ���Ÿ � � � п � � � dġ � �
��� � � � ‫��� ��Ⱓ� ���ٹ‬ԵǾ� �ִ�. � � � x � � � ��� � � � � � ߴ�. "f � � � � � �
� � � � � 濡 鿡鿡鿡‫����� �ؼ‬帮鿡鿡 鿡鿡:, � � � � � � � Ҿ � d � � � 巡鿡鿡 鿡鿡鿡鿡,
��� � � � � � Ȥ � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � ;� ���غ‬Ͻ � � �  � � � � � � � Դ ϴ � . "
11. � � � � ‫� �ٸ‬Ͽ � � � � ‫������� ���ؼ‬, � � � � � � � � � � ĥ � � �ִ�.
� � ġ � � Ž � � � Ѵ ‫�ٸ‬, � � � � � � ��� � �ȴ � - � ��� �� ��: � Ϲ � � � 8 � �
� � ��� � � � d � � � � �ʱ � � � � � � � � �ŭ � � ' � � � ϴ � . � ��� ��ģ
� ‫ �ڱ‬Ž � � � � �  / � � � ϰ � � � � � � � � ƾ � � � � � ; � � � � �ʴ � � � � ´ � . � �
�� �: ��� � � � ��� . � ֳ ��ϸ � � � � � � � ��� � �ϰ � � ‫ڽڽ‬Ű � � ‫;���� �ٸ‬
� � � � � ‫�� ���غ‬ģ � � � � � � � ‫� ���ڽڽ‬ð � ; � � � � Ű � � , d � � ; � � � � � ϸ � ,
� � � � ; Ÿ� � � Ű � � , � � Ƿκ � � � � � � ; ( � 8�� �‫� � � � � � ) � �ٸ‬ �ܸ���ϰ �
� � � � ‫ � ;�� �ٴ‬и � � � �� �� �ֱ� ������� .

EXERCISE 16
1. � ‫������ ���Ͱ� ���� �״� �� �� � ڰټ‬. �ֳ��ϸ � � ‫�װ‬: � � � ǵǰ �
� �ִ ��f � � �ƹ � � � � � � ��� �� ��� � ��� � � � � � � � ��� � .
2. ó= � � � � � � � ɷ ¿ � � 8��� ���‫ � �ڽڽ‬, � � � � � � ħ � � � ‫� � � � ;�ڽڽ‬ ��;
�˰ � �Ǿ � � .
3. � � � � � Ÿ � � � � � � � � � � ‫� � � � � � |ٷ‬ȴ � . �ֳ��ϸ � ã � Ƴ � � � ġ � Ḧ
��� � � � 8 � � , � � � � � : ȯ� ‫���� �ڸ‬ϰ � � � � � � � � � � ��� . � ‫ ��ݻ‬:�‫��װ‬
�Ҹ � � � � � � � � ; � � ��� � � ��� .
� � � � : ��� : � � � � � � � � ��� �ü ��� � � ��� �n� �= � � ��� � �϶ �.
4. � ‫ �״‬Ȯ���� ������������ �����; �����‫���־‬, � � v � � � � ; � ƴ �
� � � ��� � .
5. � � � � � � ��� � �ÿ � � � � � ȭ � 簡 �幰��� ʾҴµ � , � ‫�װ‬: |: � Ÿ � � � � �
��� ó � � � � � � � ϰ � ��� � � ‫��־‬, � � � � � � ��� � ��� � � ��� � �ϰ � ���
� � � � ��� � .
6. ��� � ϰ Ե � � ����ε � ( � � � � � � � ����ε � ; � � � � Ŵ ) :, � ߶��ϰ �
��� � � � � γ � � � � � � ‫�ٴ‬ ִ �� ���� ;�� ��� � �� � � ,���‫;��� �־‬
�ѹ � �� � � � � � � ߴ�.
7. � � � � � �� �� � �� �� �ȿ � ��� � � � п � �� � � � ��� � � �
� ‫����־‬ , ��� � � �ʰ � � 츮鿡鿡" � � � � � : � � � � 8 � � � � õ Ǿ � � ‫��־‬
� Ѵ � " � � � � Ģ � � � �߳ � �������� ; ã � � � � � � �ִ � . � � v � � � � v � ϴ 6 � ,
��� � � � � � � ִ� û � � � � � � ��� � �: ��� � � � �� � � ǹ�� � � � � � ���Ǹ �
��� � � � � �ʾƼ � , � � � � � � ��: �� � � 9 � f � � � � , �� � � ü �� � � 8 � �
� � õ Ǿ � �ִ ٰ� � ϴ � � , � ‫ ���� �ٸ‬ϰ � � � õ Ǿ � �ִ � ����� � � ���� ִ �.
8. dġ � о � � � � � � � � � : � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � �  Ѵ�. ��ȸ � �
��� � � � � � ��� � �ʾҰ � , � � � 2 � � �� � ���� �� 簡 �‫ ���־‬, � ѹ � � � � �
� � � � � : � � � � . � ‫���ڷ‬/ :���� ���μ � �ʹ � � � � � � Ϲ Ƿ � � � � �
� ĺ � � ‫ � � � ������ ������ �ڴ‬µ � � � � ǽ � � � � � ��; �� �� �.
1920 � � � � � � ��ǥ � � ; �� � � ��� � � � , ��� � ��ǥ� �( � � � ǽ � ) :, � � :
��� �: ��� � � � � � ��� � � � � : �ʿ � � � ǥ � � � Ƿ � , � ‫ �� ���־‬f � � � �
� � n � � � � ǥ � � � Ѽ � �ܼ ����� ι � � � � � ų � � ��� � � � � � � � 8 � � ,
� � f � δ � � ��� � ʾҴ � . � ��� ���� � ʰ�, ������: � ‫ �� ���־‬fa � �
� ĺ � � ‫ڵ‬鿡 � �� ��
� �����‫ �� ������ �ؼ‬d; � � � � � � � � � � �߱ � ����� � � � .
� � � : He was not guilty of the murder, as many people thought him to be.
9. ǰ'�ְ � �� Ȧ¦Ȧ¦ ���ø 鼭, � 0 � � � ‫ � � � ���״‬: � � � �
� � ��� � � � � ߴ� .
10. � � � � ‫ � ������ ��ݴ‬ϰ � � � � � , � � � � : � � ; � � � � ��� � ���;
�~ � � Ѵ � .
11. � ‫ � � � �� �״‬౸��⸦ �������� , � ǻ 簡 ������������� ߴµ � � �
�ұ � � ϰ � .
12. � � 0 � � � � � � ��f � � �� � � � � � ǵȴ �, � � ġ � � ȸ f � � � � �ƹ � � �
� � � � � ó � � . � 0� � � ��: � � ȸ f � � �ȿ � � � ��� � � � � , � � � � ȸ f � � � �
' � 0 � ������
������ � . ������ � �‫ � � ؼ‬f � � � � � � � ‫ �� ����ش‬w � � � � � � ��:
��� � ��� � � � / � � � � �  �ϳ � � � .
� � � � : � ‫ � ������ ���� ���־‬ϳ� � � �� � � n �ִ ٰ� �‫; �ؼ� �ݵ�� �װ‬
� 츮 鿡鿡鿡鿡鿡ű � � � � � �ϳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � / � � � � � . �ֳ � � ϸ � , ù°,
��� � � �ѱ � � � � ��v� �8 � � � ‫ ���ٸ‬, � � ° , � � : � � � � ; � � � � � � � � θ �
� � Ÿ � � � � �ִ � ���� � ƴϱ� ������ �.
13. � �� Ͽ � � � � 簡 ����   ‫ �� �ٴ‬Ű � � � ��� �ִ � .
��� � � � � � � � �Ǿ � � � � � 4ó � � � � ⸦ � � � � � � � � ‫ڵ‬鿡� �ȾƼ � � � ; � � �
� ִ�. ��� � � � � � � � � � f2 � � � � � � � � � � � � ߹��� ������ �� Ʋ���� ��� �
� �; � � � � � � . � �: � � � � � ε � :, � � � � � � � ��� ������ ��� ƾ � � ϴ �
��� � �ұ � � ϰ � , � � � � � � � Ŀ � 8 � � ; ���� �‫ٶ‬Ű � � ' � � ; � � � � � � � � ��;
�Ŷ � � � � � 8� � � � � ϰ � �ִ � . ��� � � : ~ � � � � � ; � ( � ߸�� ��)� �
1930 � � � � � � � � ‫ ��־‬.
14. �  � � � � � � � � � �  � ö � Դ µ � , � ‫ʹ � ��׳‬͹ � � � : � ð � ; ���  �� ��
� 
� ִ� �����������и� � ߴ� . � � Ʃ � �  �� ,  ��� ���� � ʴ �
��� � ��
� � ; � Ŷ � � � Ǵ � � � � � , � � Ƽ � � � � � � ; � ‫�� �׳‬��� � 鿡� �
��� � ‫ �� �� �ڿ‬,��8 �‫ �� �� �� �־‬ä � � �� � 鿡� � � � �� ߴ� . � ſ � ȭ� �
� � � � � ° � : � ˾ ƾ ߰‫ڴ‬ٰ � � 鿡� ߴ� , " �ư � � � , ��� � � � � � � ? � ư � � � � �
� � � � � ϰ ‫ ��ھ‬." "f ��� � � ? " � � Ʃ � � �� � � ߴ� . " � и � � � , � ‫�װ� �ٷ‬
��� � � � � � . " � ‫ ���׳�� �ڽڽ‬f � � � � � ‫ �پ��ִ� ����; �����״‬. � ° � :
� � � � ; �վ � � � � � ‫ ��� �ٶ‬Ҵ�. ���� ���� �� ���� ; � � ; � � � � 
� ‫ ���׳�� �ٽ� �ڱ� �ڸ‬ǫ ���� �ɾҴ�. "�ư����� ��:�� ��", ���
�  ���‫ �׳‬ŷȴ� . " � ‫ � � � � � ; �� �װ‬. "

EXERCISE 17
1. � ‫ �� �� �״‬f � � � � � ‫ � �ؼ‬ƹ��͵� � �
ô�
� ߴ� .
2. " � � � � ΰ � � � � � � � ? " � � � ‫ ����� �װ‬, � � � � � � � � ô �ϸ 鼭.
‫ڰ‬
3. � � � � � ΰ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 濡 � � �‫; �� �ڰ� ����ִٴ‬
��� � � � ִ� � � � � � Ҵ�.
4. � �� Ͽ � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � : � ı � � Ǿ � � .
5. � ‫���װ‬ ֱ ��� � � � � �� �� ȹ�� 80�� ���� � ҿ���� ���ٰ�
��� ‫���� ���ڶ‬ � � 30 � � � ����  ߴ �� ��� ; f �ǹ � � � , � � � � � �
. 
��� � � ϴ � ô �Ͽ � , � � � � ; � Ƶ鿡� � � � �ȹ; �����ߴ� .
6. � � � Ļ � � � � � � � ��� �ɿ� � � ��� � � � � � ߴ� : � � κ � � � ��� � �
� � � ‫ � �ߵ� � � � � � � � � � � �ٽ‬Ͼ '�輺; " � � 60-70% � � � � " � � � � � � �ִ �
� � � ٰ�.
7. ��� � � � � � ī � ‫ �� �ױ�� ���ڷ� �״‬: � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � ϰ � ,
� 鸸� � �‫ � � ; ��� �ڴ� ������ ������ ����; '�ؼ� �ٸ‬Ź � � : � � � � �
� Ǿ � � � Ѵ ٰ� �����ߴ� .
8. � ÷θ � � � � � � � � � �ʴ �ҳ � � /Ÿ � � � � 30 � � � � � ߴ��‫ڰ� �ڻ‬µ � ,
��� � � � � � ܳ � : ��� � � ��� � � � ��= �� � � � � � � � � s � ‫� ����� �ٴ‬
� � � � � ‫ ��־‬.
9. ī �ʹ� � � ��� � � � 巡� � ��� � � � ‫ ��� ⸦��ٹ‬ϰ 8 � � ; �� ' �‫ �ڴٴ‬ν �
� ҷ ÿ � � � � � ; � ‫־‬ � x��� ���� ; �����������
� ������������� ⸧ ��‫ٹ‬Ƶ��ǹ � ���� ��
� ִٰ� ���Ѵٰ� � ���� �‫ � �ؼ‬ �� ; d � � � � �ܼ ��� ϴٰ� ���ϴµ � , ī � � � �
�� ��� � �Ǵ �.
10. � ‫�׳‬��� � � ����ִ � �
� ָ ��� � ϳ ��ϳ ���, � ‫ � ���׳‬ε 巴� � y� � � �
��� � ��Ҹ� � � =v �ϳ � �ϳ � � � � ‫׳‬ � ‫ � ���ڽڽ‬ ���� 8 � � � � w � ϰ �
� ִ‫ ��ٴ� ��; ������־‬.
11. � 뵿 ‫�ڵ‬ �: �� � � � � ù ‫ �� �ٸ‬d; � � � � � � 8 � � � ϴ ´ � . �ֳ � � ϸ �
� 뵿 ‫�ڿ‬ � � 鿡� ‫ � �ڴ‬Բ� ���Ѵ ‫� � � � ) � � � � � � ( �ٴ‬ � θ � � � n �ֱ � ���� ��� .
�Ϻ � � � � � � ü � � � � � � , � Ϲ � � � 8 � � , � 鿡� ‫ � �ڴ‬Ϲ� ���8�κ��� ö �ö ö �

� Ǵ µ � , ��� � � � 뵿�‫ � �ڿ‬鿡�‫ ������� ����� �ڴ‬Ѵ ‫; �� �ٴ‬
� � � � � ‫ �ش‬.
12. � � � � � ‫ ��� �ؿ‬ϸ � , � � � � � � � � � � � � 谨�� �ϳ Ⱓ�� ��ģ � � �� ҵ漼
���ϴ � ��� � � � � ‫ �� ���־‬f � � � � , � � � � ȭ � � â � � � � ��� � � � �
� � ��� . � ��� � Ϻ� ��f ����: ��ǰ�(��d��) ��� ��ü�� v��
� � ȹ ; ' � ‫ � ������ �ؼ‬ο � � � � � � � ϰ � �ִ µ � , � ‫�� � � ٷ‬� ��� �� ��
� � d � δ � � 뿭; � � � ‫ٵ�� ���ִ�)�ڽڽ‬ŵ � � � v � � � � ȹ ; � � � � Ű � p �
� � � � � ϴ � ) � � �ִ � �� ; � � f � ϴ 6 � �ָ � � � �ִ � . � � ȸ � � � � ��� � � � �
��� � � � � � � � ɻ Ӹ � � ƴ϶ � , � � d � γ � � � � � � � �ǰ � � � � п � � Ǹ � � � �� � �ȴ �.
� � � : "� � � � � � � � � � � � 谨�� �ϳⰣ�� �� ģ � � ��ҵ鿡 � ��� "� �
� � � ִ� �� ��� ��� .
13. Ȯ � � � � , � 4ó � � � - � � � � � � � ���¿� � � �ҷ � � � � � � � � � Ͼ � �
��� � � � � ��� � �ƹ � �͵ � � � � . � ��� ����� � ��� : � ҷ � � � då � �
� � � ‫ ��� �ڱ� �ٲ� �� �ִٴ‬ɼ�; ��f�� �� ���. ���‫ � �ڱ‬ҷ� � � � � � � � � 8 � �
' � � � ‫ ����� �װ‬,�‫ � � � ; � � ; �ؿ´ٸ‬ϰ � ( Ȯ � � � ϰ � ) � � � � � � � � � � ; � � ��� ,
��� � � � � � � ¼ � � ‫ �� �ذ‬: � � � � d �ε � � � � � � � � � � � f � � � � dġ � � � �
��� � � � , ��� � � � � 鿡� ��� ��, � 4ó � � ϴ 뼭� �v � � ⱸ � � � � � ¼ � ,
� ѱ � , � � ũ , � ��� ����  � ‫־‬ � ���� ( � ҷ � � � ) � � � � � � � � � � � . ��� :
� ַ� �ҷ� � � � � � � ��� � � � � �� � ��n� � �� � � .
14. � � κ � � � ��� � � � � ��ǥ� � �� �ϸ �, ��Ż� � � � � � ��f� � �ɰ � � �
� ӿ � � � �ִ � �� 8 � � � � Ÿ � � � � . � � ȭ � � â : � � � � 21% � � ġ � ��� �ִ � . � � �
� � � : � � 8 � � ��� � � 5.4% � � � � s � � , � Ǿ � � 150 �‫ � �� � � � �ڴ‬. � � � � Ÿ� � ;
� �: � �Ż � � � � � � ȭ � � � � � � � ‫ �� �ؼ‬ġ � � � � � � � � � �ְ � , d � � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � �  312 � � � 8� � � �� � ��� � � � � � ȴ � . � ж � ( � ж � � ) � ÿ � �ִ �
��� � � � � ߷θ � � � , � � Ż � � � ƿ � � � f� � � � � � � �ǰ ŷ � � � � ε � , � � � � 
3� � � � � � � � ; � ‫ݾ‬Ҵµ�, ���: �ް� �� ��� � Ű � 8 � � �ְ � �� �� � ð � � �
20% � � � � � � �Ŀ � � � � � Ȳ; � � � � ' � 1917 � ���
�� ������� ���� . ����‫� � ��� � � ؼ‬
��
�Ͼ � � � � � � � µ � , � � � ‫ �� ���ؿ‬Ż � � � ư � f1 � � � � � � � � � ��� �
ī � � � 信�� ������8 � � � й � � �� ����������
� ��
�����  �� �������� ������� ������� ��
���� ‫ �� ڿ‬.
15. � � ¼ � � TIME � � / � � � � f � � � � ' � � ȸ ' � � 鿡 � ������� ������
� � � � : � �ȭ � � â � � ��� � � � � � � � ��� . ��� � � � � � � � � � ϸ � , � ‫ �װ‬:
� ‫ݳ‬ � � 8.6% � � � � 2 � � ��� � � � � � � � ϴ µ � , ��� � � � 1980 �‫� � � � � �ؼ‬
� б � � 13.2% � � � � . � � � � � � / � � � 忡�� ��/ � � �  � �� Ƶ��ư��� ������
� �/ � � � � � � ��� � ܴ � �� ���� �ִ µ � , � � � � �
� ֱ ��� �� ȭ � � â � � �� � ��
� � � ε � � � �  �ϳ � � � f � � � � � � � � ��� . � � : � Һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ��
1; � � � � � ϴ µ � , 1 � � � � � � ö � � � , � Ǹ Ű � � � v � ϱ � � � � � � � ��� �
�λ �: a� � � ‫ �ݳ� ��ݱ‬.�ִ� ����‫ �����پ‬dz � ۰� �� : � � � � � � � � ���
� �8 � � � � � � � � ��� � �ķ � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � ��� , � � � �
� � � � ; � � f � ‫ � �� �ؾ‬з � ; � � ӹ ް� �� ��� � . � ɳ ‫�� � � ����� �׵‬
� � f � � ��� � ��� � � � �����п � � � � ϸ � , ��� : " � ‫ �� �ݳ‬κ � � � � Ⱓ
��� � � �ȭ � � â � � � � � Ҹ � � � ǻ � � � � � � : � ų � � ‫ � � � " ����ٸ‬Ѵ � .
16. � Ѿ � � � � ‫ ��� ���پ‬, f � � , � � 0 � � � � � � � �� ��� � � �
� ǽÿ � � � � � ; � � ġ � � �ִ � , � � � � Ϲ � � � 8 � � ��� � � ��� � � � � � ��� �;
� � ��� � � � � � .

EXERCISE 18
1. � 츮� ��� �� ���� ���� ����� ���; � � Դ�. ������ ������
� � .
* because my husband has been out of work
2. � � ��� � � � � � � : � ‫ ���ٻ‬. � � � � �� � � � � � � � ��� �, ��� � � �
�� �~� � ߱ � ������ .
* because she had three children, an invalid husband and an aged mother
to look after
3. � � � : � κο � � Դ � ��� � ‫¾ � ��� �� ��ڱ‬ � � ��� �ִ µ � , � � � �
� � ��� � ӽ � � � �ִ � .
* and another child is on its way
4. � � � � �� � ܿ � � ö�µ ö ,� � � �� �� = � ӿ � � � ( � � � � � ) �ƹ � � � � ‫�غ‬
�Ǿ � � � � � �ȾҴ � .
* when I had nothing ready in my mind
5. � � � � � � ��� � � ��' � � ��; �� � � � � �ƹ � �͵ � � � ; � � � � � .
* when children are around
6. � ‫ �� �� ���� ���� �׵‬,��8 � �� � ��� � � � �1 � ��� � � : �� : � ‫�׵‬
� � ��� � � � 0 � � � �ʾ Ҵ � .
* but not a single word was spoken between them
7. � � � � ; � Ҿ � � � � , � ø � � � � ���; ��� ��� � � � � � � ; � ‫�ٽ‬
� � � � � ߴ� .
* When the earth was cut away from his feet
8. � ‫ �״‬, � Ӹ � � � � � ��� �ɾƼ � , � � � � f � � � � � ‫ ��� �ؼ‬ϰ � � ‫ ��־‬.
9. � � � � � � � ‫ �ٴ‬,��‫ �־‬ó � � � Ʋ � � � , � � � � � ‫ �ڷ‬e � � � , � Ӹ � � � ��� �
� ĵ � � , � � � � : � ‫ � � � ; �� ���׳‬ϸ 鼭.
10. � � � � � � � � � � 4� � � � � ����� � ��ó � � � � Ӿ � � �
� � ӵǰ � � � 8 � Ƿ � , � � � � � � ��� � � � �� ��ǥ� � �� � � � � � �� ϱⰡ � � � �
��� � �� �δ�.
* As fightings in Vietnam and elsewhere in the world today are going
on incessantly
11. ��� � � � � � ߵ��� f � ‫ذ‬ῡ � � � ‫ � �ؼ‬ƶ��� ��bȸ��; ��� ‫ڴ‬ٰ �
��� � �ϰ � ��8�Ƿ �, �� � � � � � � � �ȭ � � d � � ü� � � � � � ɼ � : � � � � � ��
12. � � � ʿ � � ִ � ������ � d � � � � � � � � � ° � � ; � � � ‫; ���� �ؼ‬
� � � � Ϸ p � �ϹǷ �, �ѱ � � � ��� � � � : ��� � � � ��� � � �� ��� � ���δ�.
13. � � � � , � � � � � � � � � ϸ � � � ȸ � Ǹ � '� � � � � � /� � � � � � Ҵ �
‫ڰ‬
� λ � � ε � , � � � ‫ ��� �ڰ‬ɼ��� �� ��ٰ � � Ѵ�.
* and that the latter is a stronger possibility
14. � � � � � � : ��� 鿡� �� µ � , � λ � ; � � � � 90 � ��� . �ߴ� � � � ;
� � � ߴ��� ����� �‫ �״‬. " � � � � � Ⲩ � � � Ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � , � տ � � � � ‫�ڸ‬
�� �, ��� � � � � � 鿡� ��‫ �� � ������ ����ڱ‬: � ð � ; � � � � � � �ȿ �
� � � � ߷� � �� �� Ź �ϰ � �ʹ � ."
15. � � ü � α � � � �  � � � � 60% � � � � � � ��� � � � 鿡 � x��ϰ � � � 8 � Ƿ � ,
� ѱ � : � � � � ‫ ��� � � � ����� ���� �ٵ‬ȭ � � ' � � � � � � : � � � ; � � 鿡� �
�Ѵ �.
16. � � � � � � � � � � � � , �� ��� ��� � ��ȣ� � � � ��n� �; �� � � �
��� � � �Ǹ �, � � � � � � � ‫� � �ڱ‬ �8���
�� : ��������
������ ' . ����� � �8 � ‫�ڵ‬
��� � �ȣ � � ��� � �ϰ � ��� � � � � ; � � � � �ִ � ���� ���� - � � �  � �
‫ڰ‬
� � � ‫ � ִ� ���� �ڰ‬-� � � � � ; � � � � � � �ɼ � � � �ް� � ȴ� .
� � � ϰ Ե � , 300ũ � γ � � � � � � : � ‫����� Ⱑڱ‬ϴ� ���� :�����
� �ü � � � � ��� � � � � �ִ � .
��� �: ��� � you � � � � � � � � � � ϶ � .
17. �  � � Ӵ ϰ � �  � � � Ƶ � ; � � � � � � � � � � ѷ� � � � � � � � � ��� � �
�ϳ � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � ۸�� R � � � � � Ϸ p � � ߴ� . �ܵ �� ; d Ȯ � ϰ � � ‫ ��غ‬Ϸp �,
� � � � Ӵ ϴ � � � � Ƶ 鿡�Լ� 3��Ʈ����ȴ�. "� � ��� � � � � �� �s � � ϴ � ,"
� � � � ‫ ��� ��׳‬Ѵ�. "�ű�� �ӽ����� 8���� �Ǵ� f�� ���ִ µ � ,
� � ¥ � � � Ƶ � � ༮�� � Ҹ � � � � � > � ϴ � . ' � � , f � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ! '"
18. � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � ħ 6�ÿ � � µ � , � � � � � � � �
� � ɲ ۵��� ��� 뽺� ������8 � � � 8 � � � � ; ' � � � ź � � � ҿ � � � � � ‫���ٸ‬
� ‫ ��־‬. � � ħ � � � � � � ɲ � � � - � � � � � � : ( � � ) � � � ۷��� ��� 翡�� ��= � �
��� � � � ‫ �־‬µ � - � � � � � � � � � ȥ� � � � � ϰ � �ִ � �� ; ū � Ҹ � � �
� � � � � � ‫ ��־‬.
" � � � � � � " , � ‫ �״‬, ��� � Ҹ � � � � � � � � � � 鼭, � � � ߴ� , " � � � � � � ſ � ; � �
��� � ߵ� �� ��� �� ���� ."
� � � � : ��� : � � � / � � � Դ ϴ � . � � �  � �"pleasure" �� �� � � � � , � �˸ �
� � �  � �"enjoy" � �� � � ʰ � , "stand" � � � � � � � '� � � � � � � � '
� � 8 � ν � � � = ; � ‫ھ‬Ƴ4ϴ�. ��� ��a���� �� ��, /�Ӵ� "�Ϲ�����
��� � � ı � " � Ǵ � " � İ � " ��� � � � � � � � > � ϴ � .
19. �  � � Ӵ ϰ � � � � � �ʻ �ȭ � � �  � � �� �� ; �  ' � � � � ȭ� � � � � �
��� � � � � � � µ � , � � � �ǰ � � � � ħ � � � ϼ � � � � � ��� : � ‫� � � � ; �װ‬ ��� �.
� ‫ � ��� ; �װ‬տ � � � � � , � � � � Ӵ ϴ � � ‫װ�; �ٶ‬� Ҵµ�,  � ���
� � � � � ϴ ‫ �ٴ‬ǥd�� ��Ÿ����, �‫� � � � � � ; �� ��׳‬ ��� � �ʾ Ҵ � . � � ȭ � � � �
� �; � � � � �� � � , ��ħ � � �� � � , �Ҿ � � � ħ � � ; � � ߸���, � � � ߴ� . " � �
� � � � ɱ � � , � � Ӵ � ? " � ��� �� Ӵϰ� ����‫ "������ �װ‬, �ߴ�
� ~ � � ϴ � � � �ɾ � � 8 � � , � � � , � � � � � ��� �8� � � � � ϰ � �ϰ � �Ŵ � � � ."
20. � � � � ��. �� �� � � � ��d� � �� � � ��� � � Կ � � � � � 켭 �8� � �
� � � � � �  �ϳ � � � � � � � � � � � � ��� Ʈ � � � � . � � � � � � � � � � � : �ּ � ;
� � �� ���� �‫ � �ؼ‬Ͽ � � � � ‫ � � ; �װ‬Ű � � � Ϸ p � � ߴµ � , � ‫ �� ���� �״‬ô �ָ � � Ἥ
� ‫��~� Ⱑڱ‬ϴ� ��: Į�θ��� =�Ĺ��� Ž���Ϸp� �ߴ� .
� � 3 � , ' � � � 濡�� �‫ ���� ��־‬ǿ � � �߱ � ���  ��, � � � � ɼ � � κп �
�ɾ � �ִ � �� : � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � I � � ; �ֹ � �� �����
�� �‫ؼ‬
� � � ‫ ����� ����� � � ����� �ڱ‬µ � , � ‫ � �״‬鿡� ������, � Ӹ � � � ��
� � ��� � ְ � , � I � � �ϳ � � � �ܲ���� Ű� � � ‫ � � � ٽ‬. ��‫ � � �� �־‬Ʈ � � � � Ű � �
�ʾƼ � , � ‫ ���״� ��� ����)�ڱ� ����(�� �ڷ‬o8 � � � � � � ⸦ � � � � � ϴ ٰ�
� ‫ � ; �װ� �װ‬Դ � � � � � � � � ��� � ��� � � � ��� .
21. � � � � � � �� ��Ʋ � �ƽ �� �� � �μ � � � � � Dz�� � � ��� � � 8 � � ��;
��� � � ‫ � ; ���� ������ �ؾ‬Ҵ � Ҵ�. ���� ������ ���� �Ÿ�����
��� � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � .
� �3 � � � � � , � � � � � � � � � � � ��� ȥ� � � � �ִ � �� ��� Ҵµ�, ��
�и � � � � � ; � � : � � � � � Ҵ � . � � � � � 켱 � ����ŷ 8 � � � ‫ �ڸ‬p � � � � � ߴ� -
� � ���� ����� �� ��� ũ � � � Ǹ Ŵ � � � � � � � � ��� � � ��� �� ; �ϳ �
� � � ‫ ��־‬. � ð � : � � � 8 � � � � � � � � � � �θ � � � � � � � � ��� � � � �ʾƼ � ,
� �= � ܰ � � ������ � ҷ� � � � � ��� η � � � � p � � �� � ϴ � � � ��� � .
��� � � � � � ��� � � ��� � � �ȭ �Ϸ � � � � � ��� � ��¦� � � � � � � ‫���ڸ‬
� �8 � � � � � � � ߴ� . � � � � � � � ƿ � � � � � , � ‫ � �״‬ƹ� ������ � ���
� � � ��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ߴµ � , � � � � � � �� ��� � � �� ��� �
� ִ3İ � � � � � ��� � �. ��� � � � � ‫ ���� ���� �ڽڽ��� �ٺ������ٴ‬.
� � ��� � Ҿ � � ȴ ٰ� ����Ѵ � ���� . �� � �������
���� � � ���� : �� �‫�� ���� ���ٴ‬
� � � � � � 鿡� ���d; � � � � ϰ � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � � � � � � ‫ ��־‬.
" � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � ; � � � ‫� � � � � � � � � � � � � "? ��־‬ ��� � �.
" � � ��� ũ � � �ܿ�� . � � � ��� ?"
ֳ �� ϸ � ," � � � � � � � : � � � ߴ� , " � � � ༮: � � � 鿡 �Ұ� � � � � � �
"� ��� � � �
� � � � µ � , � � � : � Ƹ � � � � ‫ � ; � � � � � � � ; �� �װ‬p � � � � ģ � ‫ ��� ڰټ‬°
Dz�����ϰſ�!"
22. � � � � � � � ‫ �� ���� �ڴ‬ȭ � � � � � � � � � � ~ � � � � � ΰ � ��� µ � ,
"� � � � ¹ � " � � � � � � ɹ��� ���� �� �ϳ � � � � ҷ � � � . � � � � X � ˸ �
� � 8 � 23 -�‫� � � �ڴ‬ ��Ű � � �� � � � � � � � � � � ‫ �� �ڷ� �״‬ �� ��� ����
��� �; ��� � � � � ; � � � � � ‫ �־‬µ � - � � = � � � Ծ � ‫ � �ٸ‬ȷ���Ÿ������ �
� � ƾ � Ƹ � ī � � 8 � � � � � � � � � ‫ �� ��־‬f � � � � � � �ߴ��� ���� . � � � �
��� � � � � �� �: �� � ߰ � (Ȯ � � � � � � � ʾҰ � ), � ‫� � � � ; ���� � � ����� �װ‬
� ‫� � ��� �״‬ Ϳ� ‫ ��ݴ‬ϴ � � � � 8 � � � � � � � � . � ‫ �� �״‬Ű � � � � � � � � � � � � �
��� � � ι � ��� 8 � � , � � Ȳ ; � � � � � ϱ � '� � � � � � 2� � � � � � � � � � d:
� �d � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫������ ���� � � ����� ���� ���ڵ‬
� � ��� � . � � � 鿡� ����� ���� ���ǰ� �ִ � ��� ε � � � �  � � � � � 8 � � ,
� 8 � ‫ �� ; ���� � � �ٳ‬/ ���� � ‫� � � � � � � � � �״‬ �ʾҰ � , � � Ż � � � ƿ �
��� � � � ; � � �  �  ‫ ��־‬, � � � � � � Ǿ � � ‫�� ���; ���� ���� �־‬8 �‫ ��־‬.
� � � � : � � � � : � � Ȳ � � ‫ �ݻ‬ǿ � � � � ‫ �ؼ‬Newsweek � � � Ǹ � � � 翡�� ��:
���Դϴ�. ��� � � ��� �, �� �� � � � � � � � ñ � � ‫ �ٶ‬ϴ � .
23. * � � � � � � � Ŵ � � � � � � � ��� � � Ͼ � � � ��� � � � � ǻ 鿡�µ � , � � � �
40 � � � � � ‫ ��ر‬ϱ� � � � � � ‫ �״� ���� �ڵ‬. �ߴ��� ��� � ° � , � � � � = � �
� �ȥ � � � � � � fa � � � � ǥ� � 8 � � � � Ÿ � � � � , � Ƴ � � � � � � � � ϴ ٰ� ��ȥ�ϰ�
�Ǿ � � . � � � � � ħ� � � ϰ � � � � ǽ � � � � �  , � ‫ � � � � � ; ���� �״‬ϰ � �Ǿ � � .
� ‫� �״‬ ָ � v �ʿ � �ִ � ��� d � Ű � � � � � � �  8 � � , 6� � � ϸ � � ӹ � � �
� ִٰ� Ķ � � � � Ͼ � � � � � ƿ �-  � �� �� .ߴ������
���� � ����������� ; ���� � ‫���ٽ‬
� ǻ � 븩; � � � � � 8 � � , � ǻ � μ � � � ��� � �ջ � ; � Ծ � � . 42 � � � � , � � � �
��� � ��� � � � ��� � � � ��� � � � � ְ� �ǻ � μ � � � � �ְ � ������ � � ,
� � � ‫ �� �ڿ‬ � �� �� Ƿ � � � � � � ; � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � � ߴ� .
��� � � � � ‫ � �ڻ‬õ � � � � � � � � ‫���� �ظ‬ � .ߴ ��� � 츮� ��Ҿ��ϰ� ���� d����
� � : �ǻ � � � � � ‫ڻ‬쿡 � ���� ϰ � �ִ � �� ��� ��� . � � : � � � � � � � ‫���ڻ‬
��� � � � � �ʰ � � Ѿ  � � � � � � � � d Ȯ � � � � � � � ‫����� Ⱑ �� �ڸ‬, ����
�� ���� ��� ���� �‫ٸ‬꿡 � �� ϸ � � � 10 � � � � � � � ǻ � � � �  36 � � � � 77 � � � �
� ‫� �ٰ ´ � � ; ��� � ����� ���ظ‬ϴ�µ � , ��� : � � ü � α � � � ��2‫ڻ‬ � �� ��
3 � 谡 �ȴ� . � ‫ ��� �ٲپ‬ϸ � , 130 � � ��� � � � ǻ � � � � � ‫ � ; �ظ��� �ڻ‬ϴ µ � ,
� � � � � ‫ � �ڴ‬Ϲ ‫ � �ٵ‬ǰ� � � � y � � � � � � ‫¸ � ���� �ڿ‬Դ´�. ��� ������
��� � � � ε � � � � � , � ǻ � � � � ��2‫ڻ‬�� � � � � � � ��; � � � � . � ��� �
� � � : �ν � � � i � � � � � � � ‫ڻ‬쿹� ��� �
Ϳ��� ‫ ��ٹ‬ϰ � �ִ µ � , ��� � � � � � � Ѵ � :
" �ǻ � � � � � ‫ ��� �ڻ� ���ڷ‬Ƽ� , � � � � � � Ƴ � � � � � � � � � � ſ � � � � � � �
� � � մ ϴ � ."
� � � �ϴ � � � � � ' � � � � � � ' ��� , � � ȸ � � � � � � '( � � ) � � � � � � ��/� �
� � Ȱ ; � � � � � � , � ǻ � � : � � � ‫ ��ٹ‬ð � � � � ο � � � ϰ � , � � �ϳ � � � � Ǽ � �
ȯ� ‫ � �ڸ‬ұ� � ‫ ��� �ڳ‬ɷ��‫ ���� �ڷ‬ų � � ‫װ‬Ե� ���� �� �ִ ‫ � �ٴ‬ǽİ � � ο � �
‫ڰ‬
� Ѵ � . ��� � � � й ‫ �ڰ‬: ��� � � � � � Ȱ � � � � � � ; � � ģ � � . �ν � � � i � � � � � �
d � Ű � � ǻ � � Γ � � � � � : ��� � � � � � Ѵ � : " � � ü � � , � ǻ � � : � p � � � d � �
‫ڰ‬
� ‫ � �ݷ��ڰ‬ƴմϴ�. �� �: ��; �� ����, ���� ������ϴ�."
�� �: ��� � ��� � � � ��� � � 8 � � ��� � � � � � :, � � � � � � ��� �
� ‫ � ���ڽڽ‬ɷ�; ����� ������ �� ��;��ŭ ������("challenging")�ǹ � ���ÿ�
��� � ϴ � � � ŭ � � � � � � ; �ִ � ("rewarding") � � � Դ ϴ � .

EXERCISE 19
1. � � � Ƕ��ϰ� ������ �ൿ�� ������� �� ; � � � � � � �ǰ � � � � 8 � � �
�ʴ´ 0 � � �‫ ;ٸ‬f � � � � � � � : � � � � � � � ��� .
2. 20 � � � � � � � ��� ��� б � � � � � � � � : � � � � Ҹ � ŭ � 츮� ��‫ ; �ڿ��ڿ‬a � �
��� �Ű � � � � ġ � � � � ��� � n � Դ � .

3. ȣ��'��� ��� �����ϰ� ������ ģ����� �ܼ ������ ſ � � ϵ � ;
� � � µ � , ��� ģ � � � � : d � � � � 8 � � � � � 湮�ϸ � , � ‫� ; '�� �״‬ ‫���� �׵‬
v � ‫ݸ� �ݷ����־‬ � ǾƳ 븦 � �� ‫ �ش‬.
4. � � � � � ‫ �� ��� �ڴ‬û �ϸ � � � � � � � � � �ִ � .
5. � � � ѹ � � о � � � � ġ � � θ � � � ; � � � � � � å � � � � � � � � �ִ � .
6. � � � ‫ �״‬,���‫ �� �� �ڼ��� �ٶ‬ο � � � ü � � � � : � � � � � � � ��;
�˾ Ҵ � .
7. � Ǹ � � � � ۰��� ����ϰ � � � � 鿡 � ���� ϰ �, ö� � � ϰ � � � Ḧ � � : � � .
8. � � � � � /� � � � � � � � � � �  å � � � � � ‫ ���� �ؼ‬ϵ � � � � � � � , �
�ƹ � � � � � � � = 8 � � � ‫ ; �װ‬Ī � � � ϵ � � � � � � � , � ‫ �� ���װ‬ſ � � � � ���
�ʴ´ ‫ �ٸ� �װ‬: � � ſ � � � �ƹ � � ҿ � � ���.
9. ' � � � � ; � � � � ϴ 6 � , � 츮� �' � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ִ � � 7 �
� � � Ĺ � � � � � � . ��� � � � � ��� � � � , ��� � � 7 � ã� Ƴ � � � '� �
�Ϲ � � � 8 � � � Ƶ鿡� ���ִ � ��е � ; � � � � � ϴ � ��� � �ʿ � � ϴ ٰ� �ϴ´ � .
10. � � � � �Һ � � � � � � � � � 2 � � � � ӵ Ǹ � , � � � 鿡 � ��� Ǿ� �ִ � ������
� ּ�: � � � � � Ⱑ � ‫ � � � ��� ���� �ٲ‬Ҹ � � � � ��� . � ��� ������ � Һ �
� � 2 � � � � ӵȴ ‫ �ٸ‬, � � � 鿡 � ��� Ǿ� �ִ � ö � � � � : � � � � � ��� � �ʾƼ �
� Ҹ � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
11. � ܱ � �� ����� ‫ �� ���� �ڸ‬Ȳ�� �ϴ� Ư¡�� ��� �ϳ��� �� �����
� � ϰ � �ִ � ��� ϰ � � � � � � � �  � � � � ��� . � ‫ ���ڼ‬v � � � ‫ ���غ‬, � � � � :
��� � � � � ��Ȱ� � � �ǰ � � � � � � � 谡 ��‫ � ִ� � � � � ; �� �ٴ‬. � � �  � � � �
� ް� � ‫���; ���غ‬��� . � � � � � � �� �� � � � � � � 츮� �������:
� � � � ; � 긱 � ��ִ � .
12. � � � � �ΰ � � � ȸ � � �ʿ �Ұ � � � � � � � � � � � . � ‫ �װ‬: � � � ε � � � ���θ�
��� � �ϰ � � Բ � �ϳ � � � � � ü � μ � � � ���; ��� � � � � � �ְ � ��� ִ �
d� � � � � � �  � ΰ � v � � ü � � � �  � � ‫ �� �ٸ‬ǰų � � 7 � � � � � /� � �
� � �ɼ � � � � � � . � и � � � , � �  � � ‫ �ٸ‬, � � � � ȸ � � ��� � � � ��v� �
�Ұ � � � � � � � ��� .
13. Ŀ ��� � � � � � ��� � " � � � � � " � � � � ȸ � ‫������ڱ‬ ���‫� ״‬ , �� ; �� � ‫�ڷ‬
� � �ʼ � � � ; � �8 � t � � � � � � ô ȴ� . � � � � � , � � � � � � � � �Ÿ � � � � � � �
��� � ߰ �ϰ � � � � � ��� � � ƴϳİ � � � � � , � ‫ ���� �״‬ϰ � ��Ҹ � � � �
� � � � ߴ� , " � ƴմ ϴ � . � ‫ �ٸ‬f � � � � � � ��; �� �; �� � � � � ."
�‫ �״‬,���� ���� �‫��� ���� �ٽ‬� �� ����� � � � ���� ����
�� �� �Ҵ .  ‫ ���� ��׳‬ϰ � ��Ҹ � � � � � � � � ߴ� . " � ƴ Ͽ � � � . � ‫ �ٸ‬f � �
��� � ��� � ��ó � � �� � � � � � � � � . " - � ��� � ‫ � ��׳‬ɾ � � ȴ � .
��� �: �� ��� � � ��=� � � � � � " � � � � " � � ��� � � � �ʾҰ � � � .
14. � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � 3 � d�ź � � � � � � �  � � � � � ģ ȯ � ‫ ���� ���ڵ‬ϴ �
� �; � � � � ��� � �  �� ‫ ���ڱ � �׵‬. ��‫ � ����� �� �־‬Ҹ � � ƴ � , " � � f
��� � � � � � � � � Ͻ � � ð � ��� . " � ��� �� �� ����� ��� ƴ�, "��
� � n � ‫ � �װ‬սô�." � ‫ � �װ‬Ҹ � ġ � � , � � � � � �ȿ � �ִ � ��� ������ � ǻ�
� �' � �  �  �� վ � � � � � ‫� �ٶ‬  Ҵ�. � �: �‫׵‬ � � ͻ ��� �‫ � �ؾ‬Ѵٰ�
� � � � � ߴ� .
� ‫ � � � � � ; � � ' ���ڽڽ‬, � ǻ � � � � � � ; �ϳ � � � � � � ´ � . " � }4 ϴ � ,
�� � � � � ." �  � " . � ߴ� ��� ‫ � ��� ���״‬ǻ 翡�� �� ���� �Ҹ� � ļ � � ų � � �
��� � � ‫��ͻ � �ڿ‬Ű���� �ϸ� � ���  ?"
� � � մ � � � f�ǿ � � � � � ��� � � � � � , ��� � � �Լ � � � � � � ǹ � ; � � � ‫�ؼ‬
� �s � � .
� � � � � ġ � �: �Ҹ � � � � � � � , � � � � �ʿ � � � � � , � � � � ���ε� � � ��
��� � �8 � � � Դ�.
15. ��� � � " � � � � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � 鿡 � �� ļ� � � � � � � � Ǹ �
��� � � � � ¿ � �ϳ � � � �ִ � �� ֹ ����� Ʋ����; ���� �. �� � d�ΰ�
� �ī � � � � � v � � f� � � ϱ ⸦ � � � � � Ϲ Ƿ � �Ƹ � � � � � � � � � ҷ � � � � � �ȿ �
� � � � � � � ��� . ��� : � � ȸ � � � Ƕ � � ��� � � � �͵ � � Ҿȿ � � � � � ��;
� �� ξ � � � Ѵ � . ��� : � � � � �Ƹ � � � Ƽ � � � � ĥ � � � � � � : ��� � � � � f � �
��� � � ϴ � d � ε � � � �  � Ϻ ο � � � � ‫ � �ؼ� ����ؾ‬Ѵ�. ���鿡� �����
��� � � � � ǿ � �α �; � � � � ��� � x � � � Ѵ ٰ� ����ϴ � � � � � � � ģ� � � �
� � � � � � � � . ��� : � � ī � � � � � ��: �� � � � � � Ǹ � ' � � � � � 鿡 � �� ‫�ؼ‬
��� � � � � ‫ � ��־‬Ѵ�.
16. � 븣� ��� � � � � 鿡�鿡� �� ��� ���� =�� � ��� ���  � ϳ���
� � � � � ִ� . � � � � � � � � �� ��� �� � ٰ � ��� ���� 0.05% � � � �
��� � ��� � � � � � �  3� � � � ; Ư � � � � � � � � ҿ� � � ��� � � � � � Ѵ
.
‫ڰ‬
� � � � � � � ‫ �ڵ‬: � � � � � � ��� �ų �, ��� � � Ÿ �� ¡; � ‫ڰ‬ų � , � � �
� � ; � ϰų � , � � d � � � � ��� � � � �ϵ � ; �Ѵ � . � � � � � ϴ � � � �ܿ �� , ó=
� � � � ; ' � � � ϸ � �ϳ � � � � � � � � 㸦 d � � � � ϰ � , 5 � � ��� � � � ‫�� �ٽ‬
� �8 � � � � � � � � � � � 㸦 d� � � � Ѵ � .
��� � �ƹ � � � , �ƹ � � � � ‫� � ������ �װ‬ ִ �� , ó � � ; � � � � �� �� �.
4 � � � � � ȿ � � 2 � � : ����� ; �� ���� � � � � � � � � 븣� ����ε� � � � 
� � � : / � � � � � � � � ��� µ � , � � �  � � � ȸ � ǿ � 鿡 � �� ԵǾ��‫ ��־‬.
17. � � � � � ��� � ó= � � � � � � : � 츮�� ����� ȣ � � � � ��� �8 � � ��;
� � � � � � . � 츮�� �� � ‫��ڿ‬� �ִ � ���� ���  � �� � ���� � � �� ȥ��
� � ȹ ��� � . � 츮�� ����� �� �Ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϱ � � � � � � � , � 츮��
� ‫ ��ٹ‬ϴ � � б � � � � � � � ��� �Կ � � � ��� � � ἭἭἭ � � � � � � ; � � � � �ֵ � ��
��Ʋ � � � � ��� � �ް� �� �� �� �ִ 3İ � � � �  � � . Ҵ ��� ��� � � � � ȸ�
信� � ϸ � , � б � ��� ȸ � � , � � � � �ް� ��
� '� � Ÿ� � � � � � / � � � � d � ϴ � � � � �
� �ȥ � ϴ � � �: � � � Խ � Ű � � �ʴ�´ ���� . ��� � �� �‫ �� �ٴ‬d � � � � 8 � Ƿ � , � ���
� �  � � � ϸ � , � � � � Ʋ ; � Ƿ � �ް� �� � 츮���� f� � � ϰ ‫ � � � �� �ڴٴ‬-
� 츮 ���� �и � � � � � 纴; � ΰ � �ִ ‫ �� �ٴ‬f � � .
��� �: ��� ��� � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � ֱ ��� !

EXERCISE 20
1. � ‫ ����� ���ڽڽ‬ϴ � � � ; � � õ � ϴ � � � : , � � � � � � � � d � ϵ � � � , � �
� � � � � � � � ( � � � � ) �ʴ � .
2. � ‫ ������ �ڻ‬:���� ����~ � ����� �� ��� � � � � � � � �ִ � .
3. � � � � ��� � ��� � ��� � � � ��a� � �� � � ��a� � � � ��� � ��Ӵ
� � ; � � ; � � � � ; � � ��� � � � Ѵ � .
4. �ƶ � � ε � : ��� � � � � � � ‫� � � � � � ��� ���� ���ݱ‬ ��� � �� � � ; �Ծ �
� Դ ٰ� �����ϴµ � , � ‫ � ڰټ‬:���� ���‫ �׵‬d � 缺; � � � � �ִ � .
5. � � � � � � � ü � � � � �ƹ � �͵ � Ī � � � ; � � � � ��� � � � � . � �� Ƿ � � � � :
� ‫ � � � � ; �ڽڽ‬ϴ � � � ; �ϱ � � � , � � � � � � �  �� ��‫ �� ���װ‬ġ � � �ִ � ��
� ‫ڽڽ‬ſ � � � � � �  � ƾ � � � .Ѵ
6. ���t�, � 츮 ��� ���缷�뿡 ���� �� ��� �а�'��ȸ�� ���
���Ǹ� ����� � ����-�����츮�� ���|Һ� ���� � ����-�Ƹ� �츮����
���
ο ���� �.
7. ��8�� �ҹ���8�� ���4� �ܱ��� ε��� ��ȿ�� ��f�ϱ� '�‫�ؼ‬,
��d�δ� �˸鿡� ��� ���ֹ�; ä���ϴ� ����ֵ鿡� �f��vġ-�� �:
���� ������� ��� ����ȴ�-�� ���� ��; ����ϰ��ִ�.
8. ȭ����: ���õ��� ����; ��� ����� �� ��8�� ����dz�, ���ּ���
‫� �ڽڽ‬
� �ߴ���‫�� �ڷ � ��� ٴ‬Ŵ� ���. ���Ƿ� �Ƹ� ������-���
��� �İ��������
�� ����: �ƴ϶�� �ϴ��-�� ��� �ǰ��� �п��Ǿ��ִ� �߰� ������
������ ��ο� �ּ� ��� ���‫;�� �� ������ �ؼ‬ ��� � � .

9. 5�� �‫�ڿ‬, ��� /�� ��ü ���ͱ� ������ �����
��/���ù��� �� Īȣ�� ���ߴµ�, � ����‫�� ���� �״� ��ݱ‬:
/���� ����� ��. � ‫��־‬ � /���
���� � ����� � �� ��. ���� ��:
������ ��8�μ�-�‫�װ‬: /�� ������; ��ġ�� �‫�� �ؼ‬ȭ�� �������
�� �� ����ϰ� �Ϸt� ���� ��. ����, ���� d����, ���� ��:
������ ��Դ�.
10. x�� ���� ��κ�, �ð� :���‫�ؼ‬, �������� ��Ҵµ�, �� ����;
�‫�� �״‬d��8�� ����ߴ�. �� ���� ��f 30���� � � � µ�, ���:
��=���� ���� ������ ��8�δ� ��ó���� �ҷ��� ������ ���� ���.
� ‫�� �׳� � ���ڴٱ� ��� ٴ‬: ǰ��; ��� �� ~���� ������ ��.
11. ��Ʈ�Ο� ���� ��� ���Ǽҿ��� � ‫��� �� ��־‬ǿ���, ������ f�Ǹ�
�ٰߴߴ� �ǰ� ����� � �: ������ �‫ڽڽ‬ſ��� �����ٰ � ����� ϴ� ��
��; ����϶�� �鿡� ��Ҵ�. �‫׳‬ �‫�� ;�װ‬Ǯ���ϴ� ��: ��ó��
���� , �‫� ���� ��~ ;� ׳�� �װ‬ᵵ �� t ��� ;��� �‫ٴ‬Ҵ�. �ǻ��
�˻�, �ǰ� ��ȣ���� �‫ �װ‬,�‫ �ڿ‬:�� ;�‫�װ‬: ��ɿ�鿡�Է� �Ѱ�s ��.
�� ��ɿ��� �‫� ;�װ‬а�, ��= ��ɿ�� � ‫��־‬.
� �ŷ����� ���� ��ɿ��� �8� �‫ �ڱ‬,�‫ �ڿ‬:�� ;�‫��װ‬ʿ� �ִ�
���‫��� ���ڿ‬Ϸ� ��8���‫ �״‬y��� ‫��־‬. �ƹ� �� ����, �‫� ��׳‬Ȳ�ġ��
�� ��� �  ‫��־‬��� �� ~ �� � �� ��. �ῡ�� �� �� ��ɿ�: ��
���� �а�, �‫׳‬� ���� Ҹ ���� ��=, ���� ����� � �� ���� �‫�ڱ‬
ȣ�ָӴϿ� ��� �‫���(!��־‬һ�!)
� 12. � � � ����� ������ �� �ִ� �� �Ұ��� �0��� � �
���
‫ ��� ����� �ش‬,���‫��;� �˰� ;�ڸ‬ϴ� ù��° ��� ��� �ϳ���
�‫� �װ‬�� � ���� ; ��3Ĵ� ���� �  ����� ����� ��/��
�. �����
�ִ� . �
ֳ ��ϸ� �� ������ ����; �� ���� �չ���8�� �����; ��� ��;
�˱� ������ ������ ����� �ƴϱ� ������ �.

EXERCISE 21
1. �‫���ؼ� �ڱ‬ � ��ʹ� �‫��� �� ; �� ������� �߰� �״‬.
2. �� ȫ��� �� ��;�� ��: ������ ��; �Ҿ��.
3. �뵿; ������ִ� ���б���� ����8�� ��: ������ ���‫� ���ڸ‬Ұ�
�Ǿ��.
4. ����� �
� ��‫� �ؼ‬ø��Ȱ� ⸦ �ź���8�ν� �ҷ �: ��鸸 (��õ��
�Ǵ� ���)���� ��d���� �ս�; �Ծ��.
ָ ��� �ó� �ɰ�(������)�� �ִ� �� ��ü�� �¿�� ȭ���
5. �
��ȭ�� �Ŷ�� �����ִ�.
6. 52����, �‫ �״‬ȸ������� ��ӿ� ���� ��� �����µ�, �� ���:
����dġ�� �‫ؿ‬Ա� ������ �� �: ���ķ� ����n�� ���� �а��ϰ�
�ο���ִ�.
����: �츮 � ����ű� ���� ��: �����Դϴ�. f�� �  ��
ó���ߴ��� �� ���캸� ��� .
7. ��� �÷θ��� ����� �Խ��ǿ� �‫��� �ִ��پ‬:"��= �鿡� :�
�4� ���Ŀ� ��ǿ��� ���� ��; ��n���� �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�. �� �� ɿ � ����
��8�� ¡��ó��; �ް���� ��� Դϴ�." (�� � �ʹ� �߱� ���!)
8. �‫���� �� ����� �״� �ڱ‬p� �Ѵ�. �� �� ǥ���꿡 � �� ϸ� �‫�״‬
70�� �ʹ��� �� ����, � � � ‫� ���״‬ξ� �� ��� Ȱ�Ⱑ �‫־‬�� �,
��ġ ���� ����� ��Ģ��8�� �ϳ �Ҽ� �� ��; �. ��
9. dȮ�ϰ� �극� ��� p� �ΰ��ִ� ���� ��������� v�ɽ����� ��з�
��������ְ�, �‫�װ‬: ���� � ũ ��� �����λ 翡�Ը � � ˷ � n�ִ� . ������
�����‫� ���� �ؿ‬ξ�, ��~, ���庴, ��dz, ���� ������ ��� ԵǾ�
�ִ �.
10. ����б����� ��x ��Ģ�� ��� �ൿ�ϴ� ��(�‫��������ؼ‬ ���‫� ٽ‬, ��������
�ƴ� �ൿ); �� ��v�ϸ� ���л��: �������� ��� ���� �‫�� �� �غ‬
�Ǿ���; ���� �.
11. ��= 25�� ���� ������ ����8�� ����� ����8�μ� ��������
f�ŵǰ�, ��ο� ���¿��� ���ߵǰ�, ���� �� ó���� �‫�ذ‬Ǹ�, ��f��
�‫� �� �� ���ذ‬ƴ϶ � � �  � � ǻ � Ͱ � � � � � � � ��� .
12. ����Ʈ�� ����� ��f��: ���� �‫� ���ذ‬Ұ� � � � ϴ � . � � � δ � � � � μ ҵ � :
�ܿ� �ϳ  $469��. �� ‫�ص‬
���������
���� �ִ� �� ������ :�����
��w�‫�ִ���ް� ;���� �ؼ‬. ���: ��ǻ� ħü���¿� ���ְ�, �������
�ܱ����� ���‫�ִ� �¿������ �ڴ‬. ����Ʈ�� ���� �ķ��� ��; �����Ѵ�.
13. ����Ʈ������, ��: ��鿡� �� ϰ� ��/�� ������ ��f�� � �:
����ϴ�. ��ο� ����då�� �ܱ����� ���‫ڷ‬κ��� ���4� ����: �ʹ���
�ѷ��� ���� ��� �ֻ��� ��/����� �귯 ��鿡鿡 ��
鿡 �ִ�. ���� ���ÿ�,
��‫���� � ڰټ‬Ʈ�ε�: ������ ��w, �ʿ�Ұ����� ���ü��� �����
������� ���‫�� ���ڸ‬w�� �����ϰ��ִ�.
14. ��κ��� ����: �‫���� ����� �ڱ‬Ʈ�� â��; �β��� ��: ~�� �
:����� ���� ��Ҵµ�, �� �: ��ȭ��f ���� ����‫� ;��� �ؼ‬ѵα�
'�‫���ؼ‬. �� ��/�� ��?� ���� �η��� �� ���‫� ������ �ٴ‬ι�'���
�븩; �ϴ� �:�� �� �  ��
��� �ò�� � �ġҸ� ������ �.
��õ��ȸ� �Һ��� â8�� ������ ��濡�� "��; ���"��� �Ҹ���
��f�� ���´�.

EXERCISE 22
1. �� ���: ��ư� ��� ���Ǿ��.
2. (a) �ɳ‫�� ��׵‬ο� ���8�� ��; ó���ߴ�.
= Kennedy did things in a fresh way.
(b) ���� �Ҿ��� ���8�� ��ο� ���鿡 � ����
.
= Accident makes new history in a disconcerting way.
3. �۰� ��� :�� �‫��״‬鿡 � �� ‫� �ؼ‬ǻ���8�� �˰��‫��־‬.
4. �‫�� ���׳‬: â����s�µ�, �‫� ����� ��׳‬Ҹ� ��8�p� �ߴ�.
5. (���)���� ��ε�: ������8�� ö�а� �‫� �������� ;�����ڿ‬ʾҴ�.
6. �‫� ��׳‬ʰ� ��Ƽ����Ÿ����.
= She appeared late at the party.
7. ����� ‫�� ����� �� �״� �ڱ‬ȣ���븩; �ߴ�.
cf. practice medicine:�ǻ� �븩; �ϴ�.
8. ��� �й������, �츮 � ������: Ű�� �� ũ�� �� ưư�� �����
�����; ���� �밨�ϰ� ����ߴ�.
9. ��0�� ���� ��f�� ��ġ ��ȸf���� �ƹ��� ����� ��� ��ó�� ����
���ǵ���, ���, ��0: ��d�� ��ȸf�� �ȿ��� �� ������ �� ��
��ȸf���� '�� �� ����� �����.
10. �뷡� ��ϴ� ����� �ֱ‫����� �ٿ‬s��.
11. ���; ���� ������� �ƹ��� �‫;�� ������ ����� ���� �� �װ‬
�����.
12. ����μ� ����: �� ������� ���� �ֱߴ���������
�� ‫� ٿ‬.

13. �� �‫� ������ ����ڵ‬ı��Ǿ���, ����; �� ���:, �����ϰԵ�,
������ �� ��ó�� ����; �� ȭ �� ���ߴ�.
14. Į�� ���� ���� ��: �ֱ � ‫� ٿ‬��� ��� ���� �ƴ϶� , � � � � � � � � �ȯ � �
��ߵ� ����.
15. ���: ���� ����, ��ȥ: ��; �߰� ���� ‫�ش‬.
16. �� ���ƿ�, ���� ������ ����ϴ� ��� ���� å; �� �� �տ�
�ְ� �Ǿ�µ�, �‫�װ‬: d���� �� ��; �߰� ����� å��
��.
���: ���� �������� ���ٰ ������ � Ѿ�� � ��� , ��� ǥ����;
��� ��8�� �� ���8�� ����; ���� �� � � ��� ����ϼ���.
17. �������� ����� �ĺ��‫� �ڷ� �ڱ‬系�� �������� �ַ� ȣ�ҷ�;
���� ���: 1980� Ʋ������ ������ ���� �.
18. �50 ��‫� ���� ��� ����׳‬鿡 �ſ� d����8�� ��� ���;
�߱��‫ؿ‬Դ�. �‫ ���� ������ ��׳‬/���� ����� ��� �� ���8�� 54����
��ȭ�� � �ߴµ�, �‫׳‬ ����� ȭ���� �Ҹ���忡�� f�۵� "��ũ
��Ÿŷ��"�� "���� ��� ���� ��d"�� ���Եȴ�.
19. A: �� ó���� � � ��; ����ֽð ‫?��ھ‬
��մϴ�. �� ó���� � � ��; ��� �帱 �� ��>�ϴ�. �ǻ�
B: ��
����Կ��Լ� �� ó��; ��8�ž� �˴ϴ�.
20. ���� ��ȯ��; �ҷ��� ��ȭ�� �ϳ� �ɾ��� ��Ź�‫ �׳‬.�ߴ��
����ϰ� ����ߴ�. "��b ���� �; �����ø� �ð��� ��; ����Ͻ� ��
��>�ϴ�."
"�˾ƿ�." ���� ���ߴ�. "���� ���Դ� �� �ð��� �‫־‬ � � � ð�
��� �Ϻθ� ����� �� �Һ��ϰ� �ʹ�ϴ�." ‫�׳‬ � ���� �� �����ΰ�
��Ÿ��� ��ȭ�� ����ȴ�.
21. ��Ⱑ ���: ¿�ҰŸ��µ�(���� ��:��), �ܿ��� ����� ���� �ȿ�
��� �~���� ������ ����, ȸ��: �8��� ���뽺� ��������. ������
����� �Һ����� ����, ��� ���‫��ڸ� �ڱ‬ϱ� '�� v�� ���ϰ� �‫���ݳ‬
������ �� ���� Ȯ���ϰ� �� ���� �����.
22. ����ϰ� ������, �ҹ���8�� ���ÿ� ���� � ��� ���� ���:
���n���� ��: ��; ���‫�� �ؼ‬�� � � �� �. �鿡�ϵ�: ���� ����Ʈ
������ ���ð��� �ŴҸ 鿡 � ��� ��
� Ʋ� ������ ��(������� ��: ��);
ã�ƺ���. ����� �� ��; ��쿡� ,� ��: ��� �ִ� ��; �����‫�ؼ‬,
��f�� �� ��Ѵ�.
23. �Ͻ����� ��ó�� �ִ� �� ���ÿ� ȭ���ε�: �ѹ� �� ����
��� ���-"����"�� '� ‫ �״‬.ߴ�����
� ����� ;���� � ‫� �ؼ‬밨�� �鿡 ȭ��
�ҳ�8�� �հ���; f�� ҿ� (�� �ִ� ���‫� )�ۿ‬ȾƼ� �� ��; ȫ��κ���
�����‫�־‬ٰ � � Ѵ�.
���� ���� ����8�� �� ��ε��� ���� ������, �ʹ��� ��: �� ���
�湮������ �‫� ���ؼ‬ � ���� ������ ȭ���ε�: �� '�� ����; �����
���� ����� �մ��� ���� �� ��d�ߴ� ����.
24. ����: �Ƹ��‫���� ;�� �ٿ‬�ų� � ; �����ϰų� ǥ���ϴ�
����� ����� �� ��d�� �� �ִ�. �‫� ���ڿ‬Ƹ��‫�ٿ‬: ���ϸ� �Ͻ����� �.
� ‫�װ‬: �Դٰ� �� ����� � . ��dz�찡 � ‫�� ;�װ‬Ÿ�‫� ;�� �ؼ‬Ұ� �ϰų�,
�ܿ��� ��ģ �ձ��� � ‫� ;�װ‬ı��� �� �ִ�. ����: �Ƹ��‫�ٿ�; �����ؼ‬
� ‫� ;�װ‬츮� �'�� ��������� ������� ���·� ǥ�����‫�ش‬. ȭ��, v����,
���� �=�ǰ� �Ǵ� =2����: �Ƹ��‫ ���ٿ‬õ���; �‫�� ��� ���׵‬
����Ƽ� �‫� ���׵‬츮� ���� �ູ; ����� �ܴ��� ����‫�ش‬.
25. �� ũ�ν���� ����� ���� �� �� ���������; �����ϴ� ���ȿ�
��: �� ���� ���鿡 � �� ۷� � ‫�� ����� �ؼ‬Ÿ���� �ִ�:
�츮� �ź ���� d��Ǿ�µ�, �츮� ���‫� �~ٷ‬Ѵ‫���� ⸦�� �ٴ‬.
���� ���� ���� �� ö�θ� ��� �ɾ �Դ ٰ� �� � ߴ�. ���� ������
�극� ũ��� ����ϴ� ���-�‫�� �״‬ģ, ü���� ��: �‫ػ‬鿡� �� ���-����
����; ���鿡 �Դٰ� �� � ϰ� � ‫ �״‬.��‫��� �־‬Է� �ٰ ���  � � � ߴ�. �
"���� ��; ��8�� �� ũ�ν������� �Ǵ��� �4 ‫ �״‬.���±‫����� �ٴ‬
������ �ߴµ�, ���� �ƴ� ��, ���� �ν��� �뷡�ϴ� �� ��8�� �� ģ��
�鿡�‫�� ���ۿ‬�� � � ; ����."
���� ���� ���� ���Ѵٰ� ��� ϰ� �ű ���‫������ �� �� �ؼ‬
�ʾҴ�. ��ħ�� �츮 � ;� �ε 帮�� �Ҹ��� ����. � ��� ‫���� ٷ‬극� ũ�
��������. �‫�� ���� �ٶ‬8���� �� � ¦�� �‫״‬鿡 � �� ߴ�. "���
�� �ӿ���, �� � ‫���? ����� �ٷ‬� �� ũ�ν�������! �� ��/��, ��å��
����; �‫� �ؾ‬մϴ�."

ߴ����� ���� � ��� ����. "��ũ�ν�����"���.
26. �� ����� �‫�ص‬, �� ��; �ŵδ� ��: ���� �ʾ� ��; ����
�ɷ��ִ� ���Դ� �鿡� ����� ��. �4ó� ��d: �� � ���� �ʴ�.
�Ƿ����� ��û�� ����8�� ��� �¼��� �����ϰ� �����ϴ� � �Ͱ�� ;
�����ϴ� ���� ��������, � ‫�� ���װ‬n�� �� ���� ���� aa �� ��: ��
����ϰ� �� ȯ�‫������ ���� ;���� ���� ���ڵ‬.
27. �鿡� ��� ������ ��;   � ����� �ִ� �‫ؾ‬ȿ� ��� ���ִ� ���;
����
� , �� �� �� ��8�� �� �ƴ϶�� ���Ҵ� ��� ��.� � ��� �� ���
�� ��:��. �� �� �ü� ��, 26������ �ӵ���, ���� �ĵ� -�κп� ��; ��
���� �ϸ 鼭, ���ư��� ���; ����. ���� �� ��� ������ �Բ� �� ��;
���鿡 � ��ư���. �� �: �ĵ� '��, �ĵ��� �Ѿ ���� �ĵ� �Ʒ���
���θ� ��  鼭, ������ �Բ� ������ � ���� ��: �Ÿ��� /���Ѵ�.
�����
� ���� ������ ��ü������.

EXERCISE 23
1. �ʴ� �‫� �;��� ;�׵‬Ѵ�, � ‫��� ��� �͵װ‬忡.
2. �ߴ��� ������� :���� �‫ �װ‬: � ‫׵‬µ�, ��� �  .�:
� �,��8���� ��� � ��� ���� �‫� ����װ‬ʾҴ�.
3. ��d�� �� ���� ��Ʋ���� õ�鿡� .� ��� ��뼼�谡 �˾ƿ�(���ƿ�)
���� ���� õ������ ����.
4. �츮� ���� ��� a���� �����ϴ�. ��, �츮 � ο���� �Ϸ 翡 24�ð���
�ִ‫ �ٴ‬a����.
5. �������� ��� �鿡� ��� ��, ����: x����/�� ����‫�ع‬ȴ�.
6. �‫� ���ֹ�� ;��� ���ڽڽ‬ƴ� �ϰ�, ���� ���: � ‫�� ���װ‬a;
��ܼ� ��Ģ8�� ���ϰ� �Ϸp� �ָ� ����.
7. ��� ��'���� ������ �Ͽ� �ʿ��ϰ� �µ��� �������� � ����,
������ �� ������ �ΰ����� ��x�‫�� ����� �ؼ‬ȣ�� �ƿԴ�.
8. ���� �������(���� ����� ���; ���� ��¡�� �ִµ�),
��:, ��ٰ��� 8�ν�, ������ ��ο� ���谡 �¾� ���; �����ϰ�
������‫�ش‬.
9. �γ� �� �‫پ‬ � ���ƴ϶�
� � � � � � ߴ�����
���� ;‫ �ؿ‬v�� ������,
�η����‫�ڵ‬: �ΰ� ���; �����ϴ� ����; �����‫���س‬µ�, �����
���: �‫� �ٸ‬о��� �����ϴ� ���鿡� ���Ư�� ������d����a;
���� �ִ� �� 8�� ����s��.
10. � ��� ��� :�‫� ���� ���װ‬밨�� �������. ��, ��ο� �ô 븦
�Ѿ ��: �ô 븦 ���‫ ���� �ش‬,���‫�ְ� ���ٺ‬, ����� ��ó�� ��
��8��, ��f�� �‫�ذ‬Ǹ���� ��; �� �ִ� ��� �ɷ� ���� �.
11. ���� �鿡� ��ʰ� ��� ߐ����带 ������, ���� �� ��⸦ �ξ��.
� ‫ ������ �״‬.��‫������ �״� ����� ����; �����־‬, d�ų��� ��ó��
�ɾ��ְ� ��8��, ��'�� � ִ � ���; ���� �ǽ����� ��� �. ���� ߴ ��
� ��, ����� ��: ������ �‫� �ڱ‬Ĵ�� ���8�鿡 � ;� �ϰ� �ߴ�.
�‫� �״‬ѹ� ����� ��; �� ��: ���8��, �‫��� Ⱑڱ‬ϴ� ��;
��f�� dȮ�ϰ� ���ߴ�.
12. ������ ���� �鿡 �‫ڽڽ‬ſ��� �����: ���� �‫� �߰� ;���� �׳‬, �
��ο� ��; ��8��, � Ư���� ��d; �2���, �‫����� �׳�; �ٸ‬
�������� � ���� � �,����‫�� ���־‬κ��� ��쿡 �‫���� ���׳‬
���߰;�� �ҿ��� ���δ�.
13. ���а� ���б�� ���� ��: �ҽ�; �4ó� �츮 � ȸ�� � ��:
������ ��Ÿ�����ִ�. ���� �θ� ����‫�ٸ‬, ����� ��Ȥ�� ���� ������
�츮� ����� �츮�� '��-�� ��� �Ϻδ� ��ſ� ���б��; �߸� �����
���� ����� ����ε�-�� �‫� �� �� ;�� �� ���ذ‬ƴ϶�, ���� �巡���츮��
����μ��� ����v�� �� �� ��� ��f��; �‫ ���� ��� �� ���ذ‬  �� .
����: �� ������ �ι�° ����: �츮 �����ű�Ⱑ ���� ��8�� ��
�����‫�غ��� �ٶ‬ϴ�.
14. �� �ô��� ���� '���� �۰��� �� �Ϻ��� ��; ���‫���� �ؼ‬,
���鿡� ��ô�� ��ȭ�� ��Ȥ�� �ô�� �� �� �ִ�. ���� ��: ���鿡� �
�ô��ε��� ��� �‫ ����� �ڽڽ‬:�‫װ‬Ű� ������ �ô 뿴� .� ���� ���鿡� �
�ô� ������ ����: �� �ô 븦 ������8�� ��d�� �ô�� �����.
����: �� ������ �‫�� ���پ‬ü�� ���Ǹ� ��鿡� ����� .
15. ���4��‫�� �س‬ ���ϸ� �� ��. �ɳ3�� ��‫� ��� �׵‬ƹ����
�7����� ����� �‫ �ڿ‬d�迡 ����� ����ٰߴߴ� �Ѵ�. �ҿ� 1��
(�ɳ‫� �׵‬ƹ����� )���
� � ̷ � �H
� ��� ��ȴ �� � ⸦ ���ҿ � � � � �8 .
���� ���� �8���� ���� ;��� ���‫�ڽڽ‬Ƿ� ��f �H�� dġ���� �����Ȱ;
� � ������
; ������ ‫� ؿ‬ ��� ��� �Ѵٰ� . �� ��w�� �H; �Ŀ��� ���� ��,
���� �ƹ���� ���� �. ����,
ߴ ���� �� ���ϸ�, �H: �ƹ�����
�˱��� �� � 鿡� ,� �N���� d�迡 ����� ����ٰߴߴ� �Ѵ�.
‫ ��ʹ� � ڰټ� �ٸ‬:��� ������. Ȯ���� �ɳ‫ �������� �׵‬dġ����

������ �‫��־‬. �и���, �ҿ� 1���� ���� ������ �� �n�����⸦ ���߰� �,
Ȯ���� � ‫� ���״� � װ‬ҿ 찡 �8 � �Ƿ� �H�� ���‫�� �ؼ‬n������ �ȴٰ�
���8 ���� :��� �����  . ߴ�� �ʹ� �ܼ��� ����. �ֳ��ϸ� �� �:
��� ��; ����ϰ�� ����, �� ���� ���� ���� a-��, �H �ɳ‫���׵‬
���� �ΰ���(�����, dġ���μ��� �����); ����ұ� ������ �.
����: ������, ���� ������ ���� �‫� �����ٻ‬ʽ4ϱ�? �� ���忡����
����(�Ǵ� ��a)�� "except"���Ͽ� �ִ‫� �ٴ� ���� �����ؾ‬մϴ�.
16. � ‫�װ‬: ��Ư�� ��d�� ��� �������� �ǽ�, ��f�� �‫;�ڱ� �ڽڽ‬
�. ��
�‫ٸ� ������ ��; ���ؼ� �ٶ‬�, ����ִ‫�� ���� ���� �ٴ‬d �ӿ���
����ϴ� ������ ���‫�� ���ڷ� �ڽڽ‬ȥ� ; ���� ��
� � �3� �����. �� �
����: �3 � ;��  ���
 ���-�� ������� ������ �� �ǽİ� �ΰ��� ��ȥ,
�ΰ��� ��, �ΰ��� ��‫ݵ‬Ǵ� ����;.
� ������ ����� �‫ �ڽڽ��� �������� �ھ‬,���� ��
�� � �‫ٷ‬Ƹ� �� ����
����� �‫ھ‬Ʒ� �����Ϸt� ����� ������ �����. �� ��� ���տ��� �‫�״‬
����� �‫ھ‬Ƶ� ��� �� ��0͵ � ����ϱ ⸦ ��ʴ´�. �‫;�� �״‬
‫���ٶ‬
���x�īȭ�ϱ⸦ �‫� ���ٶ‬ʴ´�. �ֳ��ϸ� �� �: ����� ���x�ī��
�������� �� �ִ� �� ; �ʹ��� ���� ����� ֱ � �������. ���� �‫���״� �ڽڽ‬
���� ��ȥ; ���� �����ȭ�� ȫ�� �ӿ� ǥ���ϰ� ���� �ʴ�, �ֳ��ϸ�
������ �Ǵ� ���迡 �������� ���� �ִ ‫��˰� �ٴ� ��; �״‬ ֱ � �������.
�‫�� ��ٸ� �װ� �ٶ‬: ������鼭 �� ����� �� �� �ְ�, �����ΰ���κ���
���ֿ� ħ��=; ������ �ʰ�, ��ȸ�� ���� �‫����� ���� ���ڽڽ‬ϰ� ������
�ʵ��� �ϴ� �����.
����: ������, �� ��: ���� �� ������ ���� �ƴմϴ�. �ֳ��ϸ� ���뵵
�Ǹ��� �Ӹ� �ƴ϶�, ǥ���� �鿡� ���"���� �� �� �8�� �Ƹ���� ��2��
�‫پ‬� ��Ƹ���� �����Դϴ�.

EXERCISE 24
1. ���б� �л��; '�� ������ å�� ���‫�ڷ‬, ��� ���� ���� ��:
�л��; '�� õ����å; �����ִ�.
2. ����, ��� ��� �ϴ��, ���; ���Ѵ� ��; �������Ե� ���� ��;
�����, �� ����� f�ǵ� ���� �ʰ ‫�ڴ‬.
3. ��
��� ����8�� ����� � ��: ���� �Ϲ���8�� ���ϰ��ִ� ��ŭ
������ �ʴ�, Ư�� �� �~�� ��캸뿡쿡  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ��
��. �
����(���) ������� �� ���� �ε 巯�� ����a�� �ִ�.
4. �츮츮츮�� ��� "����"�� "��ȭ"��� �ܾ � �� Ÿ���� ����a; �� �˰�
�ִ� . ����:, ���� �� ����8�� :����� ��8������ �ַ� ,���ߵ ��,
��ȭ�� ~������ ��, �й����� ��, ��� 8 �������� ����� �Ϲ���8��
��ǰ��ִ�. ���Ƿ � � � � � � a � Ӹ � � ƴ϶ � � ΰ � � � � � � �� �� ���
������� x���ϴ� ���� � ��ȴ�.
5. "����"���� å���� ����ϵ���, ��ũ������ ��ÿ� ��fdġ��
����dġ�� ��� ����� �‫ �״‬.�ߴ��� �Ҽ� �Ƿ�; ����ϰ��ִ� �͵�
�‫� � ڰټ‬Ƿ � ; � � � � �ִ� �͵� x������ �ʾҴ�. ��� ����; ��ȣ�� �� ‫ؼ‬
������� ���
�� ������ ��⸦ �� ����� ��‫ �״‬,����� ���‫�� ���� �ݱ‬/�Ӱ�
������ �濡���� ���������‫� �ڴ‬ƴϾ��. �‫������� �ٷ‬ǰ� ��ũ������
���µ�, � �:(��������)�‫�� ��� װ‬d���� ���s��. ���� ����: ��
������ ��=8�κ��� �ѹ� �ǰ�; ȸ������ ����.
����: �� ��: �߸� ������ ���� ��ǥ��������.�ֳ��ϸ�, ���� ������
‫ڰ‬
������ ������ �κ��� ����� "vȭ"�� �� ��� ���ϹǷ� ��� ‫���� �ڰ‬ϰ���
�ϴ� �‫� �������� ���ٽ‬ѷ��� ��Ÿ������ �ʱ� ������ �. ��� ��; ����
��: ��û�� �˾��� �. �ֳ��ϸ� �‫ �ڽ‬:�‫� ��� װ‬λ�Ӹ� �ƴ϶� �‫�ٸ‬
������ ������ �λ��� �Ϻθ� �����ϴ� ���� ϱ�.
6. ����� ������; �湮� ϴ� ����:, ���� �츮츮츮 �� ��å�� ����, �ϰ�
�ִ� -�� �츮츮츮�� �����ִ� �������� �캸콺콺 ��� � ��7��� �‫�� ;��ڱ‬ ��
���ֱ� '� � ����� �ൿ�� ��� �ƹ��͵� �ƴ϶��. ����, �����ϰԵ�,
�츮츮츮�� �����ִ� �������� ��w�ϰ� �ְ� �峭 ġ�⸦ �~��Ѵߴ� ���� �ͺ���
��ǰ� �Ÿ��� �� ��: �ƹ��͵� ��; ���� �. �ֱ��� ������ �����
�����‫����־‬, ��: �츮츮츮 �� ���� �ִ� ������: ���: �����
��x��f��ŭ�� � �ɰ��� ��x��f�� �ε����ִµ�, ��:, ������ ��� �,
��Ȱȯ���� ��v�ο�; �� ��� ��Ƴ�8�t�������
 �.������Կ� �ְ�,
��: �츮츮츮 �� ��� ���ְ�, �� ������� � �, �8�� ���‫� ڿ‬κ��� ��ȣ��
� ����, �ʺ���������� ��: ��Ȱ; �������ִ� �������� ������:
�
����ϴ�. ���δ� ����8 ;�� ���߸ ��.
7. ���� ���� �縦 ģ���ϰ� ���� ���  �� ��� ,��� .�ߴ � ������
������v�� ���� �ʾҴ�. ���� ���� �ΰ��ʵ��� � ó= �� ���� ; ����
���� �λ�; �8�‫� ����� �� ־‬λ�: �  � ��� �‫� ���ذ‬ʾҴ�. ���� � ‫�װ‬
��
ִ � � ��: �ܼ����� λ��� �ƴϾ��. �λ��� �� �ܾ ������ ϰ� �ʹ� ���
(��d�� ���). "��Ȥ"�� �� ���� ��ǿ� �� �����. ��߸��� �� �ΰ���
��=; �����Ƽ� � ‫ ���س‬/ ;�‫�� ������ ��(��� ��� � ִ� �� ��� װ‬
�����϶�!).
�: � ��ȸ���� �źп� �ִ � ��� Գ� ���� ���� ����, ��'��
��
���� �� ��� ���� �˷�n���� ��: ����� ��캸뿡쿡 ��������8�� /����
dġ���� ��: ����; ���� �‫� ��� �ڱ‬ �����
 ���
� ƴ϶� ��迡 ���ܳ �� :
����� ��캸뿡쿡 ����ŭ: ���� ���� �ƴ� ���� �. �� '���� dġ���� ��:
���� �‫ ���� ���־‬κ��� ���; ��; �� �ִ � �ΰ���; ���� �ʾҰ�,
�� �� �翡�Դ � � � ȣ � � � Ÿ � � ϰ �߳ų��ü,�ϰų�, ���ǽ��� ������
�ʾҴ�. � ‫ ������ �ڿ‬:� �‫�� ; ����� ��������״‬ϰ��‫��־‬. ��� ����
�幰�����ſ� ������ �δ�; ��ϰ�� �‫ ���ڿ‬. ��� ������ �ε��� �߱�
����� ����ġ �ʰ� ���� ��ȭ�� ��μ� � ‫ ����� �״‬ϱ� ‫�ٽ‬ (�ϱ-�����
��� �, ����� �ΰ���; �ұ�) ������; ���� ��.
���: �� ��: �츮츮츮 ���� �ű�Ⱑ ����� �� �Ƿ � � ����� �ִ �
�е鿡� � ��: ����‫ڷ‬ � ����Դϴ � .
8. �츮츮츮���� � ���� Ӵϴ� ��� Ÿ�� �‫ٴ‬ 鼭 �� κ��� ������
���� ��� ��; ������ ����. ��� ����� ���� 144�� ��� ���
������ ����θ� ����µ�, �� ����θ� ����: ���� ��= ����ο�
ȥ��� �.�ߴ��� � ����Ӵϰ� â��; ��� ‫ ���ڵ‬: � �� , ���‫ ���ٺ‬ķ�ΰ�
��; �ϰ��ִ� �� ������. �‫�׵‬: ������� ���ϴ� �� ���� ������.
���ָӴϰ� ź ��� ��= ����ο� �� ���; ����, ����Ӵϴ� �� �:
���‫�� ���ڵ‬: ��; �ϰ� �¿��� �翡 �� �ִ� ��; ���Ҵ�. �‫׵‬鵵
������� ����� ����; ��‫� �� �ִ� ���ٸ‬и���.
���� � ����Ӵϴ� ����� ���|� (���� �� �: ��= ��� Ÿ��
'� � �� �ð� d�� ��‫� �~ٷ‬Ѵ ߴ��� ;�� �‫)�ٴ‬, �� �:�鿡�Է�
�ٰ����� . �‫�׵‬: ����ӴϿ��� ���� ���8�� ��� �.�ߴ��� � ����Ӵϰ�
�‫��������� ;��� ���ڵ��� �� Ⱑڱ‬, �� �:���: ������. ������
��ſ��ϴ� �� �:�� ��� ���ƿ� ‫ڱ‬� ����‫� �ٴ‬λ 縦 ����,
���ָӴϰ� ���� ���� Ȯ ����
��. d����� ��ε����ο �� ���� ����� ȥ
�‫����� ��־‬.
��; ��8�� ���� �;, �� ���߰Ÿ��� �:�� �: ����Ӵϸ� �����
�¿�� �帮���� ����� �  �.�ߴ����� ����� � ����Ӵϴ� ������.
���ָӴϴ� ���� �ż��� ���� �ʴ� ����� �. ����, �� ��(�����ϴ� ��);
����ϰ� �ϴ� ��8�� ����, �‫� ����(�װ‬ż��� ���� �ʴ� ��)��
���ָӴϿ��Դ� ���ϴ ���� ,�ְ� �� �� ;�� �‫�� ���ٴ‬°�� �� �:�� ���
���ָӴ� �ǰ8������ � ��, �Ÿ��� �dz� �������Է� ���� ��: ��8�� ����
�‫� ������ �� ���ڳ‬簮����� ƿԴ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ; � � ��� .
��� ���� � ����Ӵ��� ����Ʈ���� �� ��; ��‫� ���� �ִ��� ��ﳪ‬ ְ �,
���� �ű�� �� �:�� 鿡 � �� � ����ִµ�, ���: � ��η�
��
���ư����� ����, � �� � ������� ‫�ڱ‬鿡� � ģ��; ��Ǯ���� ��
���� �ø� Ʋ������ ����ϰ� �� ���� �.
9. �츮츮츮 �ô�� ���� � Ҿ ��� �ô�� �θ� �˷�n�Դ�. Ư�� �� � f����
�5� .������ ./�‫� ���ٺ‬ð� 1947� ����� �� ���. �� �: �� ������
���� ��d; �ҷ���8�‫� ���� �״ٴ‬ƴϴ�. � ‫���� ����ؼ‬ ;�‫� ܼ ��� �װ‬ ���‫״‬
�� �; �ο��ϰ� �츮츮츮 ���� Ͽ��� �‫� ���װ‬θ� ��n�ִ‫���� �� ;�� �ٴ‬
�ǽ��ϰ� �����; ���� �. �κ��� 32���� �� �4ó�����, ����
��d: ������� �ʾҰ�, ���� �� ���ȿ� � ���� � �‫�������ٸ� �װ‬ ‫־‬ ��v
�Ǿ�‫� �ٴ‬ a��
�. �� ��d ���� �ŭ�� ��������� ����ȭ�� ȹ���
�‫?� ��'���� ���װ‬뿡뿡찡 �� ������ �ִٰ� �� �� ��;��? ����.
� Ҿ ��� �ô 븦밡밡������ �ô 뿡뿡찡���� � ʷ��Ǿ�ߴ� ���Ѵ ‫�����װ‬ ���� ‫�ٸ‬: ��ģ
���� �� ���� �. �츮츮츮 ����Ҿ � � � � �  � �� � b � � 8 � � � � � а � � � õǾ � �ְ�
�� � � 츮츮츮 �� Ȱ�� �‫��� �ٸ‬ε�� ��õǾ��ִ��� dȮ�ϰ� ��d ��
��: ���. ���� ������ �Ҿ � ; � � n � � �ִ� � � ��� ����� ��‫ٴ‬°�: ����
�ǽ��� ���� ��� �� ����.
10. 1967� y���� �Ϲ ‫��� �ٵ‬б��� 1,139���� �л�� �‫ �ڱ‬:��90 � �
��ο� ���� ��ȹ�� ��� � "��=�� ��d�Ǿ����� �ʴ�"�� �����µ�,
�‫ݳ‬ y���� 1,000������ �л�� ������� � � 250���� �� ���¿�
�ִٰ� �Ѵ�.

EXERCISE 25
1.���� �‫ ���ڽڽ‬y������ ����� �����ϴ� ���� ����; ���� �ʴ´ٰ�

�����ϴ� ���� y���‫����������� ���ٰش‬


� ��‫����������� �װ‬
� �� .�� �� ;�� �‫�ڸ‬

����Ϸt� ���� y���‫��� �� ;�� �� ��� �ڴ‬.
2. � �: �渮�� : ������ �繫�ǿ� �ʰԱ��� ���� �‫��־‬. ��ħ��,
������ �� �ҷ� �鿡� �‫� ;�ظ‬䱸� �.
"��, ��:," � ‫��� �״‬Ÿ��� ����, "f �Ƴ��� ���忡 �����µ�,
���� f�� �Ƴ����� ���� �� �����ϸ�, f�� ���Ļ 縦 �‫� � غ��ؾ‬մϴ�.
3. �츮츮츮 ����p� �ƴ϶� �ȷp� �� ���� �ε��� �Ұ������� �µ���
�‫�� ���� ���� ;�� ��ٲ‬f�� ����. ���� ��h�� ��; �ȷp� �Ұ����‫�ڸ‬

�ҷ� �鿡� . �
"��
� ū ���," ���� ����. "�� ��� ���ʿ� �������� ��
�ִ�ϴ�."
"��κ� ĥ��v�� �
ߴ��� �‫���!"��� �װ‬�.
���� : ������, ��
�: pun�Դϴ�.
4. ���� �����‫� ���� �ٴ‬λ�; ���� ��; �� ���� ������‫�شٴ‬
���; ��d���� �ʴ´�. ���� ���, �: ���� �繵 �� ��� �˷�n����
�ʴ� ȭ���� �‫�� ����� ���ڽڽ‬d; �ް��� Ǹ� � ‫��� ����ູ� �� �״‬ɼ���
�ִ�. ���� ���� ����, ��� d�������, �ູ; ���ų ���ɼ��� �ſ�
ũ�‫�� �͵� �ٴ‬d���� �ʴ´�. �  ������� d���� ��8��, ���� �‫���װ‬
‫��� ���ٰش‬� ������ �ʴ´�. ��Ƿ� �� ����: �������� ��:

��ູ � � � � � ҿ � � Ұ � � ϸ � , � ‫�ٸ‬
� � ���
� ��' ��� ;�‫�� �װ‬ҵ���
���Ǿ�‫�����װ‬
���� ‫�ٸ‬: �ʹ��� ��� � �����ġ �� ‫����� �ٴ‬.
5. �븦뵵뵵 ÿ�
� � ‫־‬ � ����� 뿡뿡찡 ����
�� ����� ��û����. �‫� ���ظ‬츲;
����ϴ� ���� �Һ�Ǵ� ��/�� ��� ����� ����Ǿ��, ����� �ջ�
�鿡� �ΰ��� ġ���� �� ��� �������(����Ǿ�Դ�)>
���� : �� ����: �츮 ���� �ű�Ⱑ ���� ��8�� �����Ͻñ� �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�.
6. "����"�� �� �� ���Ǵ� ������ �ʹ��� ����ϰ� ��Ȯ����
�ʾƼ� ����, =�ǰ� ����, ���‫�� �ذ‬ȭ, �ð� �� ��� ����� � ‫��� �ۿ‬
������� �‫ ���پ‬Ȱ����; �����ϴ���, ������з�� -�‫��ؼ‬
��� �‫� ٽ‬, ����

�ϳ��ϳ��� ��Ư�ϴٰų� �‫���� ��͵� �ٸ‬ϴٰ� �����ϴ� ���-��


��������
� ���� �ʿ��� ��f�� ���� �� ����
�. �з�� ��� �о�������

���; v���ϴ� ���� /���� b�18)�����‫���ٹ‬ � ‫� ��־‬Ĺ��� ������


�з� 19��� ��ȭ�� �߰��ϰ� �� ��� ‫ ����� ־‬.(��‫ ־‬, �з��
���� ���� ��ȣ��踦 ����� ϴ� ����, ���� �з����� ��; ��캸뿡쿡 ����
���ϰ� ��� ���ɼ��� �ִ� ���� �ϳ��ϳ���Ư¡�� ���Ǹ�ȯ���Ű��
���� ũ�� ������ �� �� �ִ�.
����: ����8�κ��� �ι�° ���忡 ���4� colon ��=; �츮 ��
������ ��ȣ�� ó���� a�� �����Ͻñ� �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�. ���� �8����������� ‫��ٸ‬
ó���� �� ��>�ϴ�.
7. ��ȸ �������� ����: ����(����)�� ��â�� ����; � ‫��־‬. å ����

��‫��� ������ � ڰټ‬ŷ¿� ��� � �ſ� ��� ����, ��ȸ ������: ����
��. �‫�װ‬: ������ ���� ���� ȹ���� ���鿡� �‫���װ‬
��ȸ���� â����
������ �մ� �� ���; å�鿡 b���� �� �ִ� ��; f���� � ‫��־‬,
������ ���� ��ɰ� ���ŷ� ����
� ����; |��� ���� ����; � ‫��־‬.
������ ��ȸ ������: 1740� ���� ��; �����. ������ �Ǵ� ��ȸ

�����ǵ��� �� ����: ���� ��濡���� ��ܳ���� . �� ����(18����) ������,

�� 1,000���� �������� �� aa�� ���n � ‫��־‬. ����� �� ����:


������ ���� ����� ��� ����� �‫�ش‬.
8. �츮�� ��� ���迡���� � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � �
ǷϹ 
�츮�� ���� ��� ư��� �Ͽ� ���‫��������� � ˰��־‬
� ‫� �� ؼ‬Ѵ�. ���� ��ȸ, ��f
�� dġ���� ��fa��: ��ΰ� �����ϰ� ���źȸ�� v�縦 �ʿ���ϹǷ�,
� ��� ���‫�� ���ڵ‬f�鿡 � ��
��� ��� ‫� ��ؼ� �� �� �˰� �־‬Ѵ�.
��Ŀ��� ���ϱ� '� � �츮�� ��f�� �� ���� ����, �� ����
�����ϰ�, �� ���� ���‫� �ؾ‬Ѵ�. ������ ���; �����ϴ� ���� ����;

�ִµ�, ���п����� ��� ������ �� 85%�� ������ �ʿ��� Ѵ �. ����, �����

�и��� ���ϵ � � � , ��� � � � ��� � � � � � � ‫�����ٸ‬


� �‫�ؼ‬, ������ �Ƹ� �л���

�й����� �����ϱ� '�� �ֵ� ����� �����.


����: �� ���� ��; '�� ��: ����‫ڷ‬ � ��� ��>�ϴ�. �츮 ����
�ű�� ��� �κ�; � �
��ó �� ��� ������ ���ñ� �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�.

�������5

EXERCISE 26
1. ��: �v� ��d������ �‫���� �ٸ‬f���鿡 � ������� �ü��� �
������ ���� ��� �ִ�.�v� ��d �� ��� �ϳ��� �����8�� '|:
�� ��ġ�� ��: ������ ��� �ִ�' ��8�� ���ֵ Ǿ� �ְ�, 28%����
�¼� ������ ��8��, 55%���� ������� ���, 77%���� ��ȭ�� ���.

2. ���а ��f�� ���‫������ ���� ���ذ‬ ����� � �ִ�. � ������ ��


‫ڰ‬
���ϸ�, ���а ��f�� ������ ����
 ��� ‫�� ��ڰ� �ݵ‬ġ����� �ʴ´ٰ�
�Ѵ�. �� � ������ ���‫��� �ؿ‬ϸ�, �‫�� ����� �ٷ‬dȮ�� ������ ��
���� ��ġ���� �ʴ´ٰ� �Ѵ�.
(���) �� �κп����� �츮�� ����� ��; �� ���� �  �� ��� �ϴ���
���4�
ֽ ���‫ ؼ‬ϴ�. ������ �‫ ���پ‬ǥ���Ŀ����Ǹ�
�� �� ��� ; �� : �������
����� � �‫�ٶ‬ϴ�. �����ϴ� ���� ��ġ�� ����, �۹� ;����� ���‫;�־‬
'�� �‫���� ��ڷ‬ϼ���.
3. �ѱ��ε�: �ַ� �ð� ���� ��� ��8��, a�� ����ȭ�ǰ� �ִ�.
1925���� �α�� 5%���ϰ� ���ÿ� ��Ҵ�. 1970� �� �������, ����
�α��� 30% ����� � ���� ������ ���� ��2 �� ������ ���� ���
‫������ڵ‬
��
��.
4. �������� ��õ�� ���� ������ ���� �Ʒ����� ��=�� ���ϸ�, �

��d��8�� ������ ������ ����� �߸�: ��Ȱȯ�濡 Ŀ�‫�� �ٶ‬ȭ��


��n�4µ�, ��
��� ��ȭ�� �� �ΰ��� ��ȸ���� ���� ����� ��� ��ȭ��

��n�´ٰ� �Ѵ�.
(����) ������, ��
� ����� �
߰ ��ϱ��? ���
� ��� �‫� ������ ���ڴ‬ʽ4ϴ�.
�������� �ȸ�8�� ����, ����� �ʺ����� ������. v���� �‫������ ��ٲ‬

�‫� ���ٲ‬ʰ ‫?��ھ‬


5. ���ε��� Ȱ��; �� ��� �Ѵٰ� ���ϴ� ��: �� �ϳ��� �7��.
���� v�翡 ��� ϸ�, 60�� �� ��� ����: 20���� ���麸�� ���8� ���
�‫���ڷ‬o; ���鼭 ���������ð�; �ξ� �� ��� �Һ��Ѵٰ� �Ѵ�. ��
�ϳ��� ���� ��: ���ε�: ����8�� ������ �ִ‫����� �ٴ‬. �Ϻ�
v�翡 ��� ϸ�, ���ε�: �:�� �� �� �� ���� ����a; ���� �ִٰ�
�Ѵ�. �� ���: �߳������ �Ϲ���8�� �� �ູ�ϰ� �‫ڱ��ڽڽ‬Ű� �‫�ڱ‬
��Ȱ��Ŀ� �� ��w�ϰ� �ִ� �� ����.
6. �츮�� ��� ͽ ��Ǿ ��� � �ƴ� ���� ���� ��µ�, �� ��/�� ��
��ÿ��� �����ϵ�: �յ��� ��Ȱ; �s��� ���� ����s�� ������ ��.
����� ��찡찡찡�ļ��� ������ ��ɰŸ��� �Ǹ����� �ƹ��� �������
����. ������� ���� ���ø� �ô 뿡뿡찡 �
,� �ļ� ������ �۰  � ‫�͵װ‬
Ư�� ���� � ۰�� � �   ι��� ���� �˰� �;� �ϸ����� �ƹ���
������ ����.
7. ���:, ��ü�� ���ϱ⸦, �� ���� ��‫ݵ‬Ǵ� ��; �����ִ�. ������
�ֽ��� ����������� �ΰ�� ��d���� ��; ��Ÿ���µ�, �� �: Ȱ���ְ�,
â������� ����������, ��ġ�� ���� Ż����(����)��� �ı������� �Ѵ�.

�¾��� ���� ���ȷο�� �ΰ��� ��


����� ��; ��Ÿ���µ�, ��
�: ���
ü��, d�Ǹ� ��������, ����, ����; �����ų d���� ����v����
'�輺; �����ִٰ� �Ѵ�.
‫ڰ‬
8. �����‫ �ڰ‬ü��Ǿ�; ��캸뿡쿡 ,�
��‫ �װ‬ó��; ��; ���ɼ�: �ſ�
����ϴ�. ����������� �13 �� �˷��߹� ���‫ ������ظ‬ü��Ǵµ�, �� 8õ����

���� ����. ����ÿ����� 94,000���� �߹��˷� ü��Ǵµ� 5õ���� 6õ����

�����Ѵ�. �÷���� Ư������ ���� 1974���� v��� ����� ���; ����

�‫��־‬. ���尭����ü��� ���� �1 ����4,������ϰ� ���� ����.


6õ�� ����� ���������˷� ü��Ǿ�8��, ��u� ���: 116����
��.
��Ʈ����, �ε�ֳ���, ���� ���ø��  � �: �ÿ� ���� 1977����
‫ڰ‬
v�翡���� �� ��� � � ��� : �����‫������ �ڰ‬, ���� ������ �ι�
� ���� ��=�� ��: �г 븦츮븦
������ ����� Ҹ��� ��: �ƹ��͵� ����:
"�����f���� �Ÿ��� �����‫� �ִ������� ;�ڵ‬ų� �‫�>�� ���ٸ‬ϴ�."
9. �Ϻλ��鿡� � , �������
���
�� ��: ������ ��; ���� �ʴ�
�ι�Ʈ�� ���踦 ������ ‫�ش‬. �� � ���鿡� � , �������
�:
�‫�ڵ‬vd��ġ�� ������ ���й�f�� �����ϰ� ���‫�ش‬. ��: ���鿡� �
��������: ��f�� ��� �‫־‬ � �� ȭ�� ���Ǿ�� ��ȴ�. ����,
‫ڰ‬
��κ� ���鿡� ��� ���� �� ȣ�ϸ���� ‫�� �ڰ��� �� �ڵ����� � ڰټ‬谡
�ִ� ��8�� ��ȴ�. ������鿡� ��� ��� ��� ����; �ǹ��ϴ� ���
���� �и����� �ʴ�.
10. �� �Ǿ�2: 8.9%��
�. ������ �� ���2; ��8�� �‫�� ���װ‬ġ����
��v�� ������ �ִ
���� .����� ;��� ;�� �‫���� ���ٴ‬ε�: �����‫�ڸ‬
��Ƿ� ���ϱ� ������ �� ��2�� �츮 �� ȸ�� ��ȭ�� �; d ���� ��:
950�� ���� �Ǿ��‫�� ;�ڵ‬Ÿ���‫����� ;��� �ٴ‬ϱ� ����. �Ǿ�2�� �‫־‬
���� 1(�1 ���� �‫ٽ‬%):,������� �� ���190 ��,���ߵ����� � ���
�������� ����d���� ���Ի��� �սǿ��ߴ� ����d�ΰ� �Ǿ��‫ڵ‬鿡� ������
�ִ� �� 60�� ���� ��d���� ��v�� ��Ÿ����. �� ��� ������ �ο�:
�Ǿ��� ��'�� ����ϴ ‫� ���� �������� �Ͱ� �ٴ‬ս��� ‫;�ڵ‬ ��û���� �Ǿ��

��f�ϴ� ���� ��û�� ����� ��‫ ;�� �ٴ‬/���ϰ� ����� �


���� .�‫���ش‬
�����‫� �ڴ‬Ǿ��� ��ǿ� ��� ��� ���� �ƹ��͵� � �

���� �ʴ � ‫�ٴ‬ ´
a; �츮츮븸
�‫� �ݵ�� ����ؾ‬Ѵ�. �� ���: ��f�� �������ǹ�,���� ��f��
�������� ��� ��d��� �‫� ����ڹ‬Ǿ��ִ�. d������, �Ǿ��� �ɸ���8��

�ִ� ����: ��: ����‫�(�ڵ‬Ǿ��‫���)�ڵ‬Դ� ���� ���� ���뿡뺸뺸 ���ũ


� ��.
�Ҽ��� ����:, d������, �ʹ��� ����� ����; ���� �‫־‬ � ����� 8��
�¿��� �Ǿ�; �Ƶ���ų�, �‫����� ;�װ‬ų� �� ��ȸ�� ����Ƽ�
���; ����� .�ִ� �� ‫�������ٲ‬, ��
��ε�: ���� �� ������8�� ���‫���ڸ‬
�Ұ� �Ǹ�(�� ���ο��� ������) ������ �ɸ��� ��ó�� � �. � ´��� ����

�Ǿ���°� �7����� ��ӵǸ�, ��� ����, ��� �� ��f���� �����


�Ǿ��‫� ����(�ڵ‬ߴ ���)�����ϴ� ��: �ް������ x���� ���, ��ü�ǽ�
(�‫� ������� Ⱑڱ‬ǽ�)�� ����,��� d���� ������ �Һи���, ģ����κ�����

�ҿܰ � -��: �‫ Ⱑڱ‬d���� �ҼӵǾ� �ִٰ� ���ϴ�� ���� �����


��� ����
�8�‫�װ‬κ����� ��~�� �߹���‫����� �ٴ‬.
� �⸦ �� ���� �Ӹ��� ���� �˴ ϴ�.�� ����:
(���)������, ��ƽ4ϱ�? �� ���

TIME�� "essay"��� ��
�>�ϴ�.

EXERCISE 27
1. �4ó� �: ����� ��ſ����� �ξ� �� ���� ���� ������.
2. ������: �ܸ �� ���� ���� �� : �ΰ��� ����. ��ġ�� ��캸뿡쿡 �

��d: ���. �������� �� �ȶ��ϸ�, � ‫� �״‬ƹ����Ե� �
���

�� � ʴ �� � ó
���δ�. �‫��� ����� �װ‬ſ��� �� � ���ɼ��� �� ����.
3. � ���簡�����翡��� "����� �: ���縦 ����Ų��"�� ���‫ؿ‬Դ � .
‫�����װ‬
���� �‫� ;���� �װ‬ǹ��ϴ� ��� �� ���‫���� ���� �ذ‬, ���п� �‫־‬� �
�и��� ��d: ���. �� ���簡 �� Ÿ� ����Ų��. �� �: ����� ���翡
���� �����‫� ;����� ��߸� ���ڵ‬뿡볳뼭 �
�µ��� �‫� ڰټ� ����; �ش‬.
�ִ
4. ��� ������ ��ȭ�� Ư�� �ΰ�� ѵ�, (/����)����ʹ� Ư �� ����.
��
��� ������ ��; ���� ������ �� ��� ��; ������ ����ϰ�, �� ��v��

������ �´‫� ;�� �ٴ‬츮�� ���� ��� ƿԴ � . � � : � � Ⱑ ��� � � � � � �


���ƴ ‫��� ������ �ٴ‬Ǵµ�, �� ��� ���� ���� �‫ٴ‬ϴ� ���� ���� ������ ��
�븦밡밡
��� ȴ�.
5. �‫ �� ���� ���ڵ‬v�翡 ��� ϸ�, 1940��� � �� ο� �‫ٴ‬ϴ� �¿��� ��
�뿡뿡찡
��� 3.2���� �4ٰ� �Ѵ�. 1950� �¿��� �� ��� ž���ο�