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Doing

Research...

has never been


this fun and
exciting!

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What is Research?
• A systematic process of collecting and analyzing
information in order to increase understanding of
the phenomenon with which we are concerned or
interested about (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010)

• It is something that people undertake in order to


find out things in a systematic way, thereby
increasing knowledge (Saunders, et al., 2010)

• It is a scholarly exercise to generating new


knowledge and discovering innovations

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Importance of Research

• Increases knowledge and understanding


• Brings new discoveries and innovations
• Provides scientific process to addressing
issues and problem
• Shapes and influences practices and behaviors
• Strengthens beliefs and norms
• Synergizes and improves academic assertions
and theories

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Good Points:
• Original and novel study
• Rich and substantial literature review
• Appropriate method
• Reliable and relevant data
• Accurate analysis and interpretation
• Organized, clear and concise writing
• Correct writing mechanics
(spelling, organization, structure)

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Bad Points:
• Duplication of a previous study
• Plagiarized paper
• Underdeveloped conceptual and
theoretical framework
• Poor literature review
• Faulty method
• Disorganized writing style

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New Research:

• Different context/setting
• Different population
• Different combination of variables
• New theory or model used
• Multidisciplinary research
(varied disciplines)

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UM’s Institutional Research Agenda:
Sustainable
Development
• Sustainable Industries and Technologies (green
technology innovations, industrial utilization)
• Sustainable Economy (eco-friendly enterprise
development and business practices)
• Sustainable Environment (climate change, disaster
mitigation, renewable energy, environmental preservation)
• Sustainable Institutions (leadership education, good
governance, rule of law, public health, welfare and culture)
•Sustaining UM Gains (enhancement programs, systems,
mechanisms, innovative practices to improve UM)

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CAE’s Research Agenda:

• Accounting Measurement and Firm


Valuation
• Accounting and Financial Forecasts
• Accounting for Intangible Assets
• Accounting Education Issues and Directions
• Behavioral Research in Accounting
• Capital Market Reactions to Accounting
Pronouncement

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CAE’s Research Agenda:

• Corporate Reporting and Disclosure


• Corporate Governance and Ethics
• Corporate Performance Evaluation
• Employee Stock Option Valuation
• Financial Reporting Issues
• Strategic Choice of Information Technology
Investment
• Government Accounting

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CAE’s Research Agenda:
• Strategic Management Accounting
Framework
• Accounting for SME Issues
• Financial Literacy
• External and Internal Audit Issues
• Taxation Issues (Taxpayer Perspective or
Implementer Perspective)
• Risk Management
• Inventory Management
• Quantitative Analysis

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Types of Research:
• Pure or Basic Research
• Exploratory
• Confirmatory
• Applied Research
• Action Research
• Evaluative Research (Formative or Summative)
• Impact Study
• Type / Nature Research
• Quantitative
• Qualitative
• Innovation
• Creative Arts

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Title Defense:
• Title of the Study
• Chapter 1: Introduction
• Rationale of the Study
• Objective of the Study
• Statement of Hypothesis
• Significance of the Study
• Definition of Terms
• Scope and Limitations (optional)
• References
Gantt Chart
Parent’s Waiver Form
Filled-out Advising Consultation Form
Adviser’s Endorsement

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Outline Defense:
• Chapter 1: Introduction
• Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature
• Minimum of 5 pages (minimum of 15 sources)
• Variables (at least 2 variables)
• Theoretical Framework
• Conceptual Framework

• Chapter 3: Methods
• Research Design
• Research Respondents
• Research Instrument
• Research Method (Data Gathering Procedure)
• Statistical Tool
• References
• Adviser’s Endorsement

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Final Defense:
• Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
• Tables and/or Figures (APA Format)
• Descriptions and Rationalizations

• Chapter 5: Findings, Conclusion and


Recommendations
• Summary of Findings
• Conclusion
• New Knowledge Generated
• Agreement/Disagreement with TF
• Limitation of the Study

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Final Defense:
• Chapter 5: Findings, Conclusion and
Recommendations
• Recommendation

• Abstract (not more than 200 words)


• Keywords

• References (APA Format)

• Appendices
• Certificate of Endorsement by Research Personnel

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TITLE:
• Must be of 6 -15 words long
• Catchy and concise
• Should reflect and focus on the main theme,
issue or position of the study
• Formal and specific
• Must answer the following questions: (Perry et al., 2002)

• What will be researched?


• How will the topic be researched?
• With whom? (describe population and units of measurement)
• Where/ in what context will the study be
conducted?

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TITLE:
• Structure (4 elements by Grobler, 2003)
• Main theme/ research topic: Research design+
population + geographical area
Examples:
• Consumer trade-offs in jewelry purchases: A conjoint
analysis among professional pearl buyers in Davao City
• Survey of student smokers at the University of Mindanao
on value profiles and susceptibility to interpersonal
influence
• Culture and parental communication style as moderators
of children’s influence on family purchases: An
experimental investigation

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TITLE:
• Variables + Main theme/research topic +
Population + Geographical Area
Examples:
• Relationship of Organizational Characteristics to Firm
Value among SMEs in Davao City
• Impact of Profile to Purchasing Behavior of Student
Smokers
• Level of Compliance to PSA 123 among Publicly-Listed
Companies
• Knowledge on Professional Ethics of Accountants in the
Bureau of Internal Revenue, Securities and Exchange
Commission and Bureau of Customs: A Comparative
Study

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TITLE:
• Statistical Tool + Main theme/research topic +
Population
Examples:
• Use of Tobin’s Q in Determining Firm Value of Holding
Firms in the Philippines
• Measuring Banking Institutions Performance through
Balance Scorecard

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RATIONALE:
• At least 2 pages with 5 authors
• Is the “Reason” or “Why” of the Study”
• Is the issue or problem to address must be:
• Relevant (current and trend)
• Compelling (exciting and impactful)
• Urgent
• What is the purpose or direction of the study?
• What is the research gap?
• Follows the inverted pyramid style (global,
national, local)

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
• General Objective:
Title: Culture and parental communication style as moderators of children’s influence
on family purchases: An experimental investigation

• This study will establish the influence of culture and


parental communication on family purchases
Title: Use of Tobin’s Q in Determining Firm Value of Holding Firms in the
Philippines
• This study will determine the firm value of holding firms in
the Philippines through the use of Tobin’s Q model
Title: Relationship of Organizational Characteristics to Firm Value among SMEs in
Davao City
• This study will ascertain the relationship of organizational
characteristics to firm value among SMEs in Davao City

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
• Specific Objectives:
Specifically, this study sought to achieve the following objectives:

1. To determine the characteristics of SMEs in terms of:


1.1 Firm’s size;
1.2 Firm’s age;
1.3 Industry type

2. To determine the firm value index of SMEs in the Philippines

3. To determine the significant relationship in the firm value of


SMEs when grouped by firm’s characteristics

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
• Specific Objectives:
Specifically, this study sought to attain the following objectives:

1. To determine the profile of student smokers according to:


1.1 Sex;
1.2 Age;
1.3 Educational attainment

2. To determine the purchasing behavior of student smokers in terms of:


2.1 Quantity
2.2 Spending

3. To determine the significant difference in the purchasing behavior of student


smokers when grouped by profile

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STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS:
• Null Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship in the firm value


of holding firms and organization characteristics

Ho: There is no significant difference in the impact of Sin Tax


Law to purchasing behavior of student smokers when
analyzed by profile

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

• Bullet form
• Macro to micro recipients
• Specific (group of persons/entity)
• How will they benefit from the study?

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DEFINITION OF TERMS:

• Operational definition
• Title
• Variables (at least 2 variables)
• Key terms and concepts

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GANTT CHART:
Activities 5/26 11/19 11/26 12/3 12/10 12/17 1/11 1/14 1/21 1/28 2/8

Approval of Title

Approval of Outline

Validation of Questionnaire

Distribution of Questionnaires

Retrieval of Questionnaires

Analysis of Data

Final Defense Schedule

Revision of Manuscript based


on the Minutes of Final
Defense

Editing of Manuscript by the


Editor

Final Manuscript for Panel


Signature

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:

• Sources & references for citations must be:


• 2013 to present
• articles and journals (proquest, e-brary, google
scholar)
• books
• reports (government, commission, committee,
department)
• alphabetical order
• APA (6th edition) format

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• Number of sources must be AT LEAST:
• 1 to 5 pages – 15 sources
• 6 to 10 pages – 20 sources
• 11 to 15 pages – 25 pages
• 16 to 25 pages – 30 sources
• more than 25 – 40 sources

• Distribution:
• 10 percent (seminal works)
• 90 percent (within last 5 years)
• At least 95 percent from journals & articles

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• ONLINE SOURCES:
• Scholar.google.com
• Books.google.com
• en.bookfi.org
• http://doaj.org/
• http://oatd.org/
• http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/search.html

FREE ONLINE PLAGIARISM CHECKER:

smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:

• Published Article/Journal:
References:
Gumm, A.J. (2008). Musical and technical sources of choral dynamics.
Choral Journal, 43, 249-269

In-text citation:
a. …(Gumm, 2008)
b. Gumm (2008)…

References:
Nussbaum, J. & Bettini, M. (2010). Shared stories of the grandparent –
grandchild relationship. The International Journal of Aging and Human
Development, 39, 67-80
In-text citation:
a. …(Nussbaum & Bettini, 2010)
b. Nussbaum and Bettini (2010)…

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• Online Article/Journal:
References: ( for 3 to 5 sources)
Hopcroft , R., Foreman, J., Lofting, M. & Bauxhoeden, S. (2012). Is
gender still a status characteristic? Research Journal in Social
Psychology. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from
http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.7.20.html

In-text citation:
a. … (Hopcroft , Foreman, Lofting & Bauxhoeden, 2012) -1st cite
b. … (Hopcroft et al., 2012) –succeeding citations
c. Hopcroft et al. (2012) …
References: ( for 6 and more sources)
Yee, W. et al., (2016). Financial Intelligence. Accounting Journal.
Retrieved June 12, 2015, from http://www.accounting.edu/.html

In-text citation:
a. Yee et al. (2012) …

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• Book:
References:
Barr, S.M. (2012). Modern physics and ancient faith. Notre Dame, IN:
University of Notre Dame Press.

In-text citation:
a. … (Barr, 2012)
b. Barr (2012) …

References:
American Medical Association. (2013). Manual of cure (8th ed.) Baltimore.
Washington, DC: Author.
In-text citation:
a. … (American Medical Association [AMA] , 2012) -1st cite
b. … (AMA, 2012) –succeeding citations
c. AMA (2012) …

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• Government, Committee, Commission,
Department Report:
References:
Commission on Migrant Education. (2014). Invisible children: A portrait of
migrant education in the United States. Washington, DC
In-text citation:
a. …(Commission on Migrant Education, 2014)
b. Commission on Migrant Education (2014)…

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CITATIONS AND REFERENCES:
• Unpublished undergraduate / graduate
UM theses
References:
Lizada, A., Saromines, B., & Simbanan, C.(2014). Consumer perception on
trademark of dairy products: Basis for brand value. Unpublished thesis.
College of Accounting Education, University of Mindanao

In-text citation:
a. …(Lizada, Saromines & Simbanan , 2014)
b. Lizada, Saromines and Simbanan (2014)...

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CITATIONS & REFERENCES:
RULES
Two or more works by the same Morrison, 2012a, 2012b
author (same year)
Two or more works by the same Vidich, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013
author (different year)
Two authors Scott & Fuller, 2012
Two authors with same last name Barratt, J., 2010, Barratt, L., 2012
Three, four or five authors The first notation: Jarnow, Judelle, &
Guerriro, 2013
Subsequent citations: Jarnow et al., 2013
Six or more authors Gershey et al., 2012
Two or more works by different Alphabetical order:
authors Bennet, 2006; Greene, 2009; Swift, 2004
Organization The first notation: National Council of
Teachers [NCT], 2012
Subsequent citations: NCT, 2012

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APA Format for References

❑ All texts must be in normal font style (DO NOT ITALICIZE and
UNDERLINE) EXCEPT:
1. Name of the JOURNAL where the article was published or
written
2. TITLE OF THE BOOK if the source of literature is a book

❑If the source of literature is ONLINE, kindly indicate date of


retrieval and website or URL. Example:

… Retrieved June 12, 2015 from http://www.proquest.com.edu

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APA Table Format

Table No. and Title of the Table


(can be at the center or align left) Note:
Headings No lines on both
sides
No gridlines inside
Data

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Standard Letters, Formats and Templates

URL:

https://sites.google.com/a/umindanao.edu.ph/r
esearch-1b/forms-and-templates

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QUALITATIVE STUDY:
Title Outline Final

Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 4:


Title RRL Results and Discussion
Introduction • Theoretical Lens • Summary of Responses
• Rationale of the Chapter 3:
Study
Chapter 5:
• Research Question
Method Data Cross Analysis
• Scope and • Study Design ( Categorization of data and
Limitations • Study Participants discussion of the result as
(optional) and Selection Process supported by RRL)
• Phases of
References
Gantt Chart Exploration Chapter 5:
Parent’s Waiver Form • Role of the Implication
Adviser’s Researchers
Endorsement References
• Trustworthiness of
the Study
• Ethical Consideration

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TITLE (Qualitative):

❑ Paglubog ng Araw: Retired Employees’


Feedback on SSS Benefit

Blast from the Past: A Qualitative Case


Study on the Adoption of Philippine Financial
Reporting Standards for Small and Medium-
sized Entities (PFRS for SMEs)

❖ Dado: Stumbling Blocks in Taking the


Accountancy Pre-review Examination

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
• Title: Paglubog ng Araw: Retired Employees’ Feedback on SSS Benefit
1. What are the perspectives of retired employee on SSS pension
plan?

2. What are the feedbacks of the retired employees on the benefits


they received?

3. What are their recommendations regarding the retirement pension


plan offered by SSS?

• Title: Blast from the Past: A Qualitative Case Study on the Adoption of Philippine
Financial Reporting Standards for Small and Medium-sized Entities (PFRS for SMEs)

1. What is ‘PFRS for SMEs’ as viewed by the research participant?

2. What are their experiences, learning, and insights in the adoption of


the ‘PFRS for SMEs?

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OTHER CONSIDERATIONS:

❑ Synthesize, paraphrase and summarize ideas


❑ Paragraph should be at least 3 sentences (M-I-S)
• Main Idea (Thesis statement)
• Illustration (Details)
• Synthesis (Summarize)
❑ No paragraph without citation
❑ Own words in the first and last sentences of the
paragraph
❑ Make distinction between facts (backed with
literature/citation) from opinion
❑ Direct quotation is discouraged
• Maximum of 1 with 15 words only

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GENERAL FORMAT:

Margin: L (1.5), T (1), R (1), B (1)


Font Size: 12
Font Style: Times New Roman
Text Case: Sentence Case
Page No.: Top most, Right side (except the
Chapter Page)
Spacing: Double-space
Paper: A4
Portfolio: Long-Black Clear book
No. of Copies : 2 (except Title Proposal)

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SCHEDULE:
Date Type of defense

Friday of the 5th week of the Title


term - July 17, 2015

Based on the schedule Outline / Final


posted at the bulletin board

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Grade Computation
Item Source

30% Exams (1st to 3rd)


30% Title Defense
40% Outline Defense
100% Total

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Thank You!

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