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A MODEST PROPOSAL

Webster’s Thesaurus Edition for PSAT®, SAT®, GRE®, LSAT®,


GMAT®, and AP® English Test Preparation

Jonathan Swift

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Board which neither sponsors nor endorses this book; GRE, AP and Advanced Placement are registered
trademarks of the Educational Testing Service which neither sponsors nor endorses this book, GMAT is a
registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admissions Council which is neither affiliated with this book
nor endorses this book, LSAT is a registered trademark of the Law School Admissions Council which neither
sponsors nor endorses this product. All rights reserved.
A Modest Proposal
Webster’s Thesaurus Edition for PSAT®, SAT®, GRE®, LSAT®,
GMAT®, and AP® English Test Preparation

Jonathan Swift

PSAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit
Scholarship Corporation neither of which sponsors or endorses this book; SAT® is a registered trademark of the
College Board which neither sponsors nor endorses this book; GRE®, AP® and Advanced Placement® are
registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service which neither sponsors nor endorses this book,
GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admissions Council which is neither affiliated
with this book nor endorses this book, LSAT® is a registered trademark of the Law School Admissions Council
which neither sponsors nor endorses this product. All rights reserved.
ICON CLASSICS

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A Modest Proposal: Webster’s Thesaurus Edition for PSAT®, SAT®, GRE®, LSAT®, GMAT®, and AP®
English Test Preparation

This edition published by ICON Classics in 2005


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Copyright ©2005 by ICON Group International, Inc.


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PSAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit
Scholarship Corporation neither of which sponsors or endorses this book; SAT® is a registered
trademark of the College Board which neither sponsors nor endorses this book; GRE®, AP® and
Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service which neither
sponsors nor endorses this book, GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management
Admissions Council which is neither affiliated with this book nor endorses this book, LSAT® is a
registered trademark of the Law School Admissions Council which neither sponsors nor endorses
this product. All rights reserved.

ISBN 0-497-25286-4
iii

Contents
PREFACE FROM THE EDITOR .......................................................................................... 1
A MODEST PROPOSAL FOR PREVENTING THE CHILDREN OF POOR PEOPLE IN
IRELAND FROM BEING A BURDEN TO THEIR PARENTS OR THE COUNTRY, AND FOR
MAKING THEM BENEFICIAL TO THE PUBLIC. 1729. ........................................................ 3
GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................................... 13
Jonathan Swift 1

PREFACE FROM THE EDITOR

Designed for school districts, educators, and students seeking to maximize performance on
standardized tests, Webster’s paperbacks take advantage of the fact that classics are frequently
assigned readings in English courses. By using a running thesaurus at the bottom of each page, this
edition of A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift was edited for students who are actively building
their vocabularies in anticipation of taking PSAT®, SAT®, AP® (Advanced Placement®), GRE®,
1
LSAT®, GMAT® or similar examinations.

Webster’s edition of this classic is organized to expose the reader to a maximum number of
synonyms and antonyms for difficult and often ambiguous English words that are encountered in
other works of literature, conversation, or academic examinations. Extremely rare or idiosyncratic
words and expressions are given lower priority in the notes compared to words which are “difficult,
and often encountered” in examinations. Rather than supply a single synonym, many are provided
for a variety of meanings, allowing readers to better grasp the ambiguity of the English language,
and avoid using the notes as a pure crutch. Having the reader decipher a word’s meaning within
context serves to improve vocabulary retention and understanding. Each page covers words not
already highlighted on previous pages. If a difficult word is not noted on a page, chances are that it
has been highlighted on a previous page. A more complete thesaurus is supplied at the end of the
book; Synonyms and antonyms are extracted from Webster’s Online Dictionary.

Definitions of remaining terms as well as translations can be found at www.websters-online-


dictionary.org. Please send suggestions to websters@icongroupbooks.com

The Editor
Webster’s Online Dictionary
www.websters-online-dictionary.org

1
PSAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit
Scholarship Corporation neither of which sponsors or endorses this book; SAT® is a registered trademark of the
College Board which neither sponsors nor endorses this book; GRE®, AP® and Advanced Placement® are
registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service which neither sponsors nor endorses this book,
GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admissions Council which is neither affiliated
with this book nor endorses this book, LSAT® is a registered trademark of the Law School Admissions Council
which neither sponsors nor endorses this product. All rights reserved.
Jonathan Swift 3

A MODEST PROPOSAL

FOR PREVENTING THE CHILDREN OF POOR


PEOPLE IN IRELAND FROM BEING A
BURDEN TO THEIR PARENTS OR THE
COUNTRY, AND FOR MAKING THEM
BENEFICIAL TO THE PUBLIC. 1729.%

It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town, or


travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads and cabbin-doors
crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children,
all in rags, and importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers instead
of being able to work for their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their
time in stroling to beg sustenance for their helpless infants who, as they grow
up, either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country, to
fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes.
I think it is agreed by all parties, that this prodigious number of children in
the arms, or on the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their
fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom, a very great additional
grievance; and therefore whoever could find out a fair, cheap and easy method of
making these children sound and useful members of the common-wealth, would

Thesaurus
alms: (n) handout, charity, livelihood: (n) subsistence, existence, prodigious: (adj) gigantic, enormous,
benefaction, gift, donation, job, maintenance, support, living, huge, phenomenal, portentous,
contribution, offering, bounty; (n, v) sustenance, bread, keep, bread and stupendous, exceptional, colossal,
sportula, largess; (v) relieve. butter, career. immense, gargantuan; (adj, v)
deplorable: (adj) sad, wretched, melancholy: (adj, v) dreary; (adj, n) monstrous. ANTONYMS: (adj)
criminal, calamitous, abominable, gloom, melancholic; (adj) depressed, unexceptional, normal, average, tiny,
pitiful, lamentable, miserable, dejected, dismal, gloomy, doleful; (n, weak.
regrettable, sorry; (adj, v) woeful. v) low spirits; (n) gloominess, sustenance: (n) living, food,
ANTONYMS: (adj) acceptable, depression. ANTONYMS: (n) maintenance, subsistence, fare,
pleasing, laudable, happy, cheerful, happiness, cheerfulness, hopefulness, sustentation, provisions,
admirable, agreeable, excellent, optimism; (adj) happy, bright, cheery, nourishment, nutriment, aliment,
fortunate, praiseworthy. satisfied. livelihood. ANTONYM: (n) extras.
4 A Modest Proposal

deserve so well of the publick, as to have his statue set up for a preserver of the
nation.%
But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the
children of professed beggars: it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the
whole number of infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as
little able to support them, as those who demand our charity in the streets.
As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years, upon this
important subject, and maturely weighed the several schemes of our projectors, I
have always found them grossly mistaken in their computation. It is true, a child
just dropt from its dam, may be supported by her milk, for a solar year, with
little other nourishment: at most not above the value of two shillings, which the
mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of
begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in
such a manner, as, instead of being a charge upon their parents, or the parish, or
wanting food and raiment for the rest of their lives, they shall, on the contrary,
contribute to the feeding, and partly to the cloathing of many thousands.
There is likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent
those voluntary abortions, and that horrid practice of women murdering their
bastard children, alas! too frequent among us, sacrificing the poor innocent
babes, I doubt, more to avoid the expence than the shame, which would move
tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast.
The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and
a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple
whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couple,
who are able to maintain their own children, (although I apprehend there cannot
be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom) but this being granted,
there will remain an hundred and seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract
fifty thousand, for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by
accident or disease within the year. There only remain an hundred and twenty
thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, How
this number shall be reared, and provided for? which, as I have already said,

Thesaurus
apprehend: (v) arrest, comprehend, (adj) sympathetic, kind, humane. preserver: (n) defender, protector,
grasp, catch, understand, fathom, maturely: (adv) mellowly, adultly, custodian, conservative, keeper,
realize, sense, follow, nail; (adj, v) perfectly, completely, fully, readily, conservator, savior, patron, restorer,
conceive. ANTONYMS: (v) agedly, oldly, primely, correctly, flotation device; (adj) third person.
misunderstand, discharge, free, conscientiously. ANTONYMS: (adv) raiment: (n, v) dress, garb, apparel,
liberate. childishly, irresponsibly. garment, clothes; (n) costume, attire,
babes: (n) babies, babe. miscarry: (v) fail, founder, abort, fall, clothing, array, habit; (v) clothe.
infants: (n) brood. flop, break down, go wrong, backfire, subtract: (v) reduce, calculate, take off,
inhuman: (adj) heartless, cruel, fall through, miss, lose. add, discount, diminish, subduct,
atrocious, brutal, cold, harsh, nourishment: (n) food, alimentation, withhold, deduce, withdraw,
ferocious, remorseless, barbarous, meal, meat, diet, feeding, nutrition, remove. ANTONYMS: (v) estimate,
relentless, barbaric. ANTONYMS: repast, sustenance, edible, fuel. credit.
Jonathan Swift 5

under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods
hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture;
we neither build houses, (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very
seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing till they arrive at six years old; except
where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments
much earlier; during which time they can however be properly looked upon only
as probationers: As I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county
of Cavan, who protested to me, that he never knew above one or two instances
under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest
proficiency in that art.%
I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old, is
no saleable commodity, and even when they come to this age, they will not yield
above three pounds, or three pounds and half a crown at most, on the exchange;
which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of
nutriments and rags having been at least four times that value.
I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will
not be liable to the least objection.
I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in
London, that a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious
nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and
I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricasie, or a ragoust.
I do therefore humbly offer it to publick consideration, that of the hundred
and twenty thousand children, already computed, twenty thousand may be
reserved for breed, whereof only one fourth part to be males; which is more than
we allow to sheep, black cattle, or swine, and my reason is, that these children
are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our
savages, therefore, one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the
remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in sale to the persons
of quality and fortune, through the kingdom, always advising the mother to let
them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump, and fat for
a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and

Thesaurus
handicraft: (n) craft, handcraft, bountifully, bounteously, rudiments: (n) grammar,
handiwork, mystery, occupation, abundantly, profusely, richly, fully, fundamentals, elements, alphabet,
handwork, trade, art, profession, liberally, opulently, amply, abecedary, primer, vade mecum,
artifice, job. prolifically. ANTONYM: (adv) bedrock, element, fundamental
nourishing: (adj) alimentary, healthy, meagerly. principle, rudiment.
nutrient, healthful, wholesome, rich, proficiency: (n) ability, expertise, saleable: (adj) salable, marketable,
nutritive, hearty, alimental, good, capability, dexterity, competence, merchantable, commercial, vendible,
beneficial. ANTONYMS: (adj) efficiency, knowledge, expertness, sellable, profitable.
unhealthy, unwholesome, meager, skill, facility, craft. ANTONYMS: (n) stewed: (adj) poached, tipsy,
insufficient. inability, inexperience. intoxicated, done, drunk, huffy,
nursed: (adj) care, suckled. quickest: (adv) most quickly. inebriated, baked, tight.
plentifully: (adv) plenteously, roasted: (adj) fried, baked. towardly: (adj) timely, seasonable.
6 A Modest Proposal

when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable
dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the
fourth day, especially in winter.%
I have reckoned upon a medium, that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds,
and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, encreaseth to 28 pounds.
I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for
landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have
the best title to the children.
Infant's flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in
March, and a little before and after; for we are told by a grave author, an eminent
French physician, that fish being a prolifick dyet, there are more children born in
Roman Catholick countries about nine months after Lent, the markets will be
more glutted than usual, because the number of Popish infants, is at least three
to one in this kingdom, and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage,
by lessening the number of Papists among us.
I have already computed the charge of nursing a beggar's child (in which list
I reckon all cottagers, labourers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two
shillings per annum, rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to
give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will
make four dishes of excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular
friend, or his own family to dine with him. Thus the squire will learn to be a
good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants, the mother will have eight
shillings neat profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child.
Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flea the
carcass; the skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for
ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen.
As to our City of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose, in the
most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting;
although I rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot
from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.

Thesaurus
carcass: (n) body, frame, corpse, edible, healthy. scotch. ANTONYMS: (adj) wasteful,
cadaver, framework, shell, carrion, repine: (v) kick, grumble, regret, spendthrift, profligate, extravagant,
remains, dead body, skeleton, bomb. quetch, murmur, brood, mourn, generous.
devoured: (adj) eaten up. languish, whine, lament; (n) sink. tolerably: (adv) well enough, passably,
gentlemen: (n) sirs, messieurs. roasting: (n) barbecuing, cookery, acceptably, reasonably, enough,
glutted: (adj) fleshed, fat, exceeding cooking; (adj) broiling, baking, moderately, to a tolerable degree,
demand, corpulent, fuller, overfull, burning, boiling, airless, blazing, pretty, to an adequate degree; (adj,
satiate, congested, blas, gorged, close; (adj, n) scorching. adv) somewhat; (adj) pretty well.
replete. ANTONYMS: (adj) airy, fresh. ANTONYMS: (adv) unbearably,
nutritive: (adj) nourishing, nutritious, thrifty: (adj) careful, economical, intolerably, unacceptably,
alimentary, nutrient, alimental, provident, sparing, prudent, stingy, unreasonably, insufficiently,
wholesome, eatable, rich, alible, saving, spare, parsimonious, chary, inadequately.
Jonathan Swift 7

A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly
esteem, was lately pleased, in discoursing on this matter, to offer a refinement
upon my scheme. He said, that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late
destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well
supply'd by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years
of age, nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in every country being
now ready to starve for want of work and service: And these to be disposed of by
their parents if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due
deference to so excellent a friend, and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be
altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance
assured me from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and
lean, like that of our school-boys, by continual exercise, and their taste
disagreeable, and to fatten them would not answer the charge. Then as to the
females, it would, I think, with humble submission, be a loss to the publick,
because they soon would become breeders themselves: And besides, it is not
improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice,
(although indeed very unjustly) as a little bordering upon cruelty, which, I
confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against any project,
how well soever intended.%
But in order to justify my friend, he confessed, that this expedient was put
into his head by the famous Salmanaazor, a native of the island Formosa, who
came from thence to London, above twenty years ago, and in conversation told
my friend, that in his country, when any young person happened to be put to
death, the executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality, as a prime dainty;
and that, in his time, the body of a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an
attempt to poison the Emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty's prime minister
of state, and other great mandarins of the court in joints from the gibbet, at four
hundred crowns. Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of
several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their
fortunes, cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at a play-house and
assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for; the kingdom would
not be the worse.
Thesaurus
dainty: (adj, v) nice; (adj, n, v) delicacy; undernourish, starve. ANTONYMS: (adj) sloppy,
(adj) fastidious, savory, tasteful, gibbet: (n) gallows, gallowstree, unscrupulous, slapdash, relaxed,
squeamish, particular, mincing, gallous, scaffold; (v) hang, expose, guilty, deceitful.
refined; (adj, n) tidbit; (n) luxury. pillory, brand, stigmatize, disgrace, unjustly: (adv) wrongly, wrongfully,
ANTONYMS: (adj) coarse, vulgar, string up. wickedly, iniquitously, inequitably,
rough, inelegant, harsh, gross, groat: (n) penny, doit, rap, mite, Grote, undeservedly, illegally, foully,
awkward, accepting, heavy, careless, change, denarius, farthing, coin, injuriously, unrighteously,
thick. stiver, pocket money. unjustifiedly. ANTONYMS: (adv)
fatten: (adj, n) enrich; (adj, v) fat, scrupulous: (adj) careful, punctilious, rightly, reasonably.
elaborate; (v) fatten up, feed, fill out; exact, conscientious, particular, venison: (adj) turtle; (n) beef, chicken,
(adj) fructify, bloom, bear fruit, painstaking, accurate, prudent, ham, lamb, mutton, pork, red meat,
blossom, blow. ANTONYMS: (v) meticulous, rigorous, cautious. animal protein, white meat.
8 A Modest Proposal

Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast
number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed; and I have been
desired to employ my thoughts what course may be taken, to ease the nation of
so grievous an incumbrance. But I am not in the least pain upon that matter,
because it is very well known, that they are every day dying, and rotting, by cold
and famine, and filth, and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. And as
to the young labourers, they are now in almost as hopeful a condition. They
cannot get work, and consequently pine away from want of nourishment, to a
degree, that if at any time they are accidentally hired to common labour, they
have not strength to perform it, and thus the country and themselves are happily
delivered from the evils to come.%
I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the
advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as
of the highest importance.
For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of
Papists, with whom we are yearly over-run, being the principal breeders of the
nation, as well as our most dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on
purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take
their advantage by the absence of so many good Protestants, who have chosen
rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay tithes against their
conscience to an episcopal curate.
Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own,
which by law may be made liable to a distress, and help to pay their landlord's
rent, their corn and cattle being already seized, and money a thing unknown.
Thirdly, Whereas the maintainance of an hundred thousand children, from
two years old, and upwards, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a
piece per annum, the nation's stock will be thereby encreased fifty thousand
pounds per annum, besides the profit of a new dish, introduced to the tables of
all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom, who have any refinement in taste. And
the money will circulate among our selves, the goods being entirely of our own
growth and manufacture.

Thesaurus
curate: (n) rector, clergyman, minister, evils: (n) mala. maimed: (adj) disabled, mutilated,
chaplain, pastor, Stipendiary curate, incumbrance: (n) impediment, deformed, truncated, faulty, cut
priest, vicar, incumbent, reverend, hindrance, obstruction, clog, fardel, short, game, cut off; (n) wounded.
canon. imposition, charge, hitch, burden, rotting: (adj) rotten, decaying,
desponding: (adj) despairing, worry, vexation. decayed, moldering, mouldering,
despondent. lessen: (v) decrease, abate, fall, decomposing, putrid; (n) rot,
diseased: (adj) bad, ailing, sickly, decline, dwindle, assuage, allay, putrefaction, decomposition, deep
unsound, sick, ill, unhealthy, alleviate; (adj, v) abridge, curtail, etching.
pathological, infected, unwholesome, contract. ANTONYMS: (v) increase, selves: (pron) oneself.
infirm. ANTONYMS: (adj) well, fit. exacerbate, intensify, raise, grow, vermin: (n) bug, varmint, louse, trash,
episcopal: (adj) pontifical, bishoplike, aggravate, accelerate, bolster, pest, brute, varment, scum, riffraff,
clerical, episcoparian. worsen, strengthen, rise. ragtag and bobtail, rabble.
Jonathan Swift 9

Fourthly, The constant breeders, besides the gain of eight shillings sterling
per annum by the sale of their children, will be rid of the charge of maintaining
them after the first year.%
Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns, where the
vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it
to perfection; and consequently have their houses frequented by all the fine
gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating;
and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to
make it as expensive as they please.
Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise
nations have either encouraged by rewards, or enforced by laws and penalties. It
would encrease the care and tenderness of mothers towards their children, when
they were sure of a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by
the publick, to their annual profit instead of expence. We should soon see an
honest emulation among the married women, which of them could bring the
fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives, during the
time of their pregnancy, as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf,
or sow when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too
frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage.
Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the addition of
some thousand carcasses in our exportation of barrel'd beef: the propagation of
swine's flesh, and improvement in the art of making good bacon, so much
wanted among us by the great destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables;
which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to a well grown, fat
yearly child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a Lord
Mayor's feast, or any other publick entertainment. But this, and many others, I
omit, being studious of brevity.
Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant
customers for infants flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings,
particularly at weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off

Thesaurus
brevity: (n) briefness, shortness, manage. ANTONYMS: (v) demolish, brilliancy, gorgeousness; (n) glory,
succinctness, transience, terseness, destroy, ruin, waste, wreck, fail. pomp, brilliance, grandness,
abruptness, crispness, duration, enumerated: (adj) detailed. greatness, dignity, majesty, loftiness.
economy, length, brevities. exportation: (n) exporting, ANTONYMS: (n) paucity, modesty,
ANTONYMS: (n) lengthiness, length. mercantilism, emission, ejection, shabbiness, poverty, austerity,
compute: (v) cipher, count, measure, rejection, expulsion, effusion, unattractiveness.
account, cast, enumerate, gauge, add, commercialism; (v) importation, rewards: (n) booty, loot.
reckon, assess, tally. ANTONYMS: transportation, transport. studious: (adj) scholarly, bookish,
(v) guess, suppose, surmise, estimate. farrow: (v) pig, bear fruit, EAN, give academic, assiduous, erudite,
contrive: (v) plan, invent, design, birth, kindle, kitten; (adj, n) brood; (n) diligent, learned, careful, deliberate;
concoct, devise, cast, concert, breed, spat, spawn, parturition. (adj, v) thoughtful, reflective.
excogitate, frame, formulate; (n, v) magnificence: (adj, n) splendor, ANTONYM: (adj) negligent.
10 A Modest Proposal

annually about twenty thousand carcasses; and the rest of the kingdom (where
probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand.%
I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this
proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby
much lessened in the kingdom. This I freely own, and 'twas indeed one principal
design in offering it to the world. I desire the reader will observe, that I calculate
my remedy for this one individual Kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that
ever was, is, or, I think, ever can be upon Earth. Therefore let no man talk to me
of other expedients: of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: Of using neither
cloaths, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: Of
utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: Of curing
the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: Of introducing
a vein of parsimony, prudence and temperance: Of learning to love our country,
wherein we differ even from LAPLANDERS, and the inhabitants of TOPINAMBOO: Of
quitting our animosities and factions, nor acting any longer like the Jews, who were
murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: Of being a little cautious
not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: Of teaching landlords to have at least
one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry,
and skill into our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our
native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the
measure, and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just
dealing, though often and earnestly invited to it.
Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, 'till
he hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and
sincere attempt to put them into practice.
But, as to my self, having been wearied out for many years with offering
vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length utterly despairing of success, I
fortunately fell upon this proposal, which, as it is wholly new, so it hath
something solid and real, of no expence and little trouble, full in our own power,
and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging England. For this kind of
commodity will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender a consistence,

Thesaurus
consistence: (n) thickness, body, unhelpful, contrary, disagreeable, ill- vitiated, atrophied, short, attenuate,
coherence, consistency, viscosity, natured. ANTONYMS: (adj) obliging, attenuated.
hardness, uniformness, property, agreeable, polite, pleasant, courteous, parsimony: (n) frugality, thrift,
density, solidity; (adj) spissitude. mannered, civil, helpful, cooperative. niggardliness, parsimoniousness,
ANTONYM: (n) inconsistency. expensiveness: (n) dearness, closeness, meanness, miserliness,
curing: (n) hardening, ageing, drying, sumptuosity, sumptuousness, cost, avarice, stinginess, prudence,
rectification, vulcanization, luxury, lavishness. pettiness. ANTONYMS: (n)
preservation; (adj) curative, remedial, gaming: (n) play, game, diversion, extravagance, generosity.
corrective, comforting, medicinal. speculation, wager, frolic, bet, quitting: (n) departure, resignation.
disobliging: (adj) unobliging, harsh, gamble, recreation, vice, betting. wearied: (adj) jaded, tired, spent,
uncooperative, unwilling, offensive, lessened: (adj) diminished, hurt, fatigued, weary, prostrate, limp,
not ready to give a hand, awkward, lower, mitigated, pointed, tapering, haggard, shattered, worn, fatigate.
Jonathan Swift 11

to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country,


which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it.%
After all, I am not so violently bent upon my own opinion, as to reject any
offer, proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy,
and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in
contradiction to my scheme, and offering a better, I desire the author or authors
will be pleased maturely to consider two points. First, as things now stand, how
they will be able to find food and raiment for a hundred thousand useless
mouths and backs. And secondly, there being a round million of creatures in
humane figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a
common stock, would leave them in debt two million of pounds sterling, adding
those who are beggars by profession, to the bulk of farmers, cottagers and
labourers, with their wives and children, who are beggars in effect; I desire those
politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold to attempt an
answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would
not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food at a year old,
in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of
misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords,
the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common
sustenance, with neither house nor cloaths to cover them from the inclemencies
of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of intailing the like, or greater
miseries, upon their breed for ever.
I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal
interest in endeavouring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive
than the publick good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants,
relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich. I have no children, by which
I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my
wife past child-bearing.

Thesaurus
continuance: (n) duration, abidance, ineffective, unproductive, preface, opening, presentation, feeler,
existence, endurance, protraction, unsuccessful, useless. bid, motion. ANTONYMS: (n) finale,
adjournment, resumption, impossibility: (n) impossibleness, conclusion, postscript.
prolongation, time, standing, option, nonexistence, absurdity, prescribe: (n, v) ordain; (v) enjoin,
perseverance. ANTONYMS: (n) inability, impracticability, alternative, decree, dictate, fix, command, assign,
discontinuation, destruction. choice, contradiction, contradiction in determine, set, stipulate, designate.
effectual: (adj, n) efficient, efficacious, terms, doubtfulness. ANTONYMS: profess: (v) assert, feign, affirm, avow,
able; (adj) forceful, telling, (n) possibility, probability. state, pretend, claim, confess, allege,
authoritative, operative, potent, misfortunes: (n) misfortune. aver; (n, v) protest. ANTONYM: (v)
adequate, impressive, powerful. mortals: (n) people. repress.
ANTONYMS: (adj) ineffectual, overture: (n, v) offer, advance; (n) relieving: (adj) pertinent, comforting,
incapable, weak, impotent, prelude, approach, introduction, applicable; (n) encouragement.
Jonathan Swift 13

GLOSSARY
able: (adj) dexterous, competent, intercourse, companion; (n, v) processive, thriving, ongoing,
clever, ingenious, accomplished, knowledge. ANTONYMS: (n) aggressive; (n) advancement,
gifted, effective, fit, expert; (adj, n) ignorance, inexperience, progression, proceeding
talented, efficient. ANTONYMS: unfamiliarity, animosity, enemy advantage: (n) privilege, behalf,
(adj) incapable, incompetent, weak, acting: (adj) interim, active, profit, good, preponderance,
untrained, inept, delicate, feeble, temporary, pro Tem, provisional, account, lead, virtue, expediency,
infirm, clumsy, ineffective, agent, substitute; (n) drama, perk; (n, v) boot. ANTONYMS: (n,
ineffectual business, portrayal, playing v) disadvantage; (n) drawback,
above: (adv, prep) beyond, aloft, on, adding: (n) addition, calculation, difficulty, detriment, hindrance,
in excess of; (adv) up, supra, on top; reckoning minus, restriction, obstacle, loss,
(adj) preceding, former; (adj, prep) addition: (n) accession, accessory, inferiority, inconvenience
past; (prep) surpassing. increase, extension, addendum, affairs: (n) dealings, concern,
ANTONYMS: (prep) beneath, accretion, attachment, appendage, circumstances, transaction,
under, deficient, underneath; (adj) annex, extra; (n, prep) accumulation. occupation, duty, matters, matter,
inferior, following ANTONYMS: (n) removal, personal business, gear, finances
abroad: (adj, adv) overseas, away; estimation, deduction, exclusion, again: (adv) more, then, repeatedly,
(adv) afield, forth, beyond seas, decline, erosion, loss, setback anew, encore, furthermore, yet, also,
yonder, farther, at large, further; additional: (adj) extra, often, once again, once more
(adj) foreign, out. ANTONYMS: supplementary, more, further, against: (adj, adv) counter; (prep)
(adj) remaining, nearby accessory, ancillary, another, toward, versus, from; (pref) by; (v)
absence: (n) absenteeism, deficiency, second, spare, increased; (adj, pron) oppose; (adv, prep) on; (n)
lack, default, dearth, want, other. ANTONYMS: (adj) main, opposition; (adj) unwilling,
nonattendance, scarcity, paucity, fewer, none, scant, essential, basic repugnant; (adv) athwart.
shortage, privation. ANTONYMS: admirable: (adj) fine, outstanding, ANTONYMS: (prep) for; (adj) eager
(n) attendance, existence, beautiful, great, commendable, aged: (adj) senile, elderly, older,
fulfillment, inclusion, occurrence, lovely, good, creditable, hoary, ripe, venerable, ancient,
abundance, glut, confirmation, praiseworthy, worthy, grand. senior, decrepit, antique, antiquated.
supply, excess ANTONYMS: (adj) appalling, poor, ANTONYMS: (adj) youthful, new,
accident: (n) casualty, crash, unworthy, despicable, contemptible, fresh, green, unripe, unseasoned,
coincidence, fortune, smash, detestable, dishonorable, rotten, smooth
incident, hazard, hap, luck, event, unimpressive, loathsome, low agreed: (adj) unanimous, approved,
fortuity. ANTONYMS: (n) certainty, admit: (n, v) allow; (adj, v) set, united, in agreement, accepted,
design, intention, intent, calculation acknowledge; (v) concede, accede, agreeable; (adv, int) all right; (int)
accidentally: (adv) incidentally, grant, affirm, confess, include, okay; (v) content; (adv) no question.
casually, fortuitously, by chance, permit, take, welcome. ANTONYMS: (adj) changing,
coincidentally, adventitiously, ANTONYMS: (v) reject, exclude, individual
unintentionally, contingently, bar, dispute, gainsay, withhold, agriculture: (n) Department of
haphazardly, occasionally, refuse, oust, hide, eject, dismiss Agriculture, agricultural,
inadvertently. ANTONYMS: (adv) advanced: (adj) progressive, senior, agribusiness, farm, husbandry,
deliberately, knowingly, purposely, higher, precocious, modern, new, agriculture department, tillage,
unfortunately, correctly late, superior, ripe, cultured, agronomy, geoponics, cultivation,
account: (n) narrative, score, tale, developed. ANTONYMS: (adj) rural economy. ANTONYM: (n)
reckoning, narration, description, inferior, fundamental, slow, industry
tally, tab, reason; (n, v) regard, traditional, simple, obsolete, alas: (adv) unluckily, regrettably,
report neurotic, behind, after, backwards, sadly, unhappily, sorry to say; (n)
acquaintance: (n) connection, friend, incomplete oh; (int) lackaday. ANTONYM:
acquaintanceship, mate, awareness, advancing: (adj) progressive, moving (adv) luckily
associate, buddy, friendship, forward, increasing, moving, alive: (adj) live, vivacious, living,
14 A Modest Proposal
sensible, delicate, snappy, animated, annual: (adj, v) yearly; (n) yearbook, aim. ANTONYMS: (n) success,
lively, spry, responsive; (n) life. magazine, ephemeris, flora, annals, fulfillment, achievement,
ANTONYMS: (adj) deceased, periodical; (adj, n) annuary; (adj) accomplishment; (v) succeed, fulfill,
inanimate, unanimated, dispirited, anniversary, etesian, yearlong. achieve, accomplish, perform
dull, inactive, lethargic, lifeless, ANTONYMS: (adj) biennial, author: (n) writer, producer, founder,
listless, nonfunctioning, sluggish perennial creator, inventor, parent, originator,
allow: (adj, v) admit, accord; (v) annually: (adv) each year, every year, architect, maker; (v) compose,
agree, permit, grant, accede, per annum, anniversarily, by year, a create. ANTONYM: (n) reader
acquiesce, afford, authorize, bear; (n, year, per year, periodically avoid: (v) shun, parry, avert, escape,
v) give. ANTONYMS: (v) prohibit, another: (adj) second, more, evade, ward off, duck, circumvent,
deny, reject, refuse, keep, prevent, alternative, additional, new, further, prevent, ignore; (adj, v) eschew.
disallow, disapprove, withstand, fresh, extra; (adj, v) other; (adj, pron) ANTONYMS: (v) associate, tackle,
hold, outlaw some other; (n) the other. face, validate, participate, invite,
almost: (adj, adv, prep) about; (adj, ANTONYMS: (n, pron) same seek, embrace, court, permit,
adv) nearly, all but, near, nigh; (adv, answer: (n, v) respond, retort; (v) encourage
prep) just about, approximately; counter, serve, resolve, avoided: (adj) unpopular
(adv) just, mostly, virtually, most. acknowledge, correspond; (n) away: (adj, adv) abroad, absent; (adj,
ANTONYMS: (adv) surely, exactly, solution, defence, return, reaction. adv, int) out; (adj) distant; (adv)
definitely, certainly ANTONYMS: (n, v) question; (v) aside, aloof, afar, way, by, forth;
alms: (n) handout, charity, ask, differ, fail, ignore; (n) request, (adv, int) off. ANTONYMS: (adj)
benefaction, gift, donation, problem, invitation, poison adjacent, neighboring, nearby, near,
contribution, offering, bounty; (n, v) appear: (v) occur, seem, sound, come close; (adv) intermittently, haltingly,
sportula, largess; (v) relieve out, turn up, show, emerge, break, discontinuously, in
alone: (adj) forlorn, individual, arrive, feel, arise. ANTONYMS: (v) babes: (n) babies, babe
lonely, lonesome; (adj, adv) only, vanish, hide, stop, sink, recede, go, bacon: (n) Francis bacon, statesman,
apart; (adv) solely, entirely, depart solon, philosopher, lard, gammon,
exclusively, separately, individually. appointed: (adj) specified, livelihood, pay, middlings, Roger
ANTONYMS: (adj) overshadowed, prescribed, destined, ordained, fit, bacon, salary
ordinary, mobbed, equaled, set, fitted, commissioned, baked: (adj) adust, parched,
crowded, accompanied, common, nominated, designated; (v) appoint scorched, baken, heated, driest,
grouped, surpassed; (adv) jointly; apprehend: (v) arrest, comprehend, tempered, sunbaked, seared, arid,
(n) foe grasp, catch, understand, fathom, drier. ANTONYMS: (adj) unbaked,
already: (adv) beforehand, realize, sense, follow, nail; (adj, v) humid
previously, before, formerly, even conceive. ANTONYMS: (v) bastard: (adj, n) illegitimate, fake;
now, just now, at present, once, misunderstand, discharge, free, (adj) spurious, phony, misbegotten,
heretofore, yet, in advance liberate bastardly, adulterine, impure; (n)
although: (adv, prep) arms: (n) armament, coat of arms, whoreson, love child, illegitimate
notwithstanding; (prep) in spite of, weaponry, ammunition, shield, child. ANTONYM: (adj) fathered
even though, however; (adv, conj) ordnance, order, munition, bear: (v) accept, take, stand, acquit,
though; (conj) whereas; (adv) even, hardware, blazon; (adj) armed abide, allow, wear, comport,
tho, when, anyway, tho' arrive: (n, v) come, appear; (v) tolerate, convey, teem.
altogether: (adv) absolutely, all, mature, reach, attain, succeed, turn ANTONYMS: (v) release, avoid,
wholly, perfectly, purely, all in all, up, land, fall, get in, show. destroy, dodge, take, eradicate,
completely, entirely, totally, simply, ANTONYMS: (v) go, depart, fail, evade, kill, refuse, erase; (n) bull
ensemble. ANTONYMS: (adv) fall, lose, exit beat: (n, v) pulse, throb, tick, flap,
incompletely, partially artificially: (adv) synthetically, knock; (v) batter, whip, trounce,
always: (adv) continuously, factitiously, affectedly, contrivedly, pulsate, bat; (n) round.
whenever, permanently, ever, insincerely, unreally, feignedly, ANTONYMS: (v) protect, help,
usually, eternally, unceasingly; (adj) falsely, fictitiously, artfully, divide, cede, aid, separate,
perpetual, still, eternal; (adj, adv) counterfeitly. ANTONYM: (adv) surrender; (adj) invigorated,
without exception. ANTONYMS: naturally energized; (n) caress, pat
(adv) erratically, intermittently, assured: (adj, v) certain, sure; (adj) become: (v) grow, suit, be, match,
temporarily confident, guaranteed, positive, come about, arise, get, sit, to
american: (n) Missourian, Alabamian, definite, assertive, confirmed, become, fall; (adj) becoming.
aboriginal, Hoosier, wolverine, convinced, reliable, safe. ANTONYMS: (v) halt, stay, lower,
Tory, Oregonian, Ohioan, ANTONYMS: (adj) uncertain, stop, reduce, clash
northerner, American English, doubtful, unsure, troubled, timid, beef: (n, v) grumble, moan, grouse,
Nebraskan questionable, hesitant, confused, squawk, groan; (n) complaint, ox,
among: (prep) between, amidst, mid, halting, unlikely fuss, beeves; (v) grouch, complain.
in, amongst, in the middle of, inter, attempt: (n, v) endeavor, offer, ANTONYMS: (n) impotence, praise;
in the midst of, with, within, middle. struggle, assay, essay, attack; (n) (v) rejoice
ANTONYM: (prep) outside effort, trial; (v) undertake, chance, before: (adv) ahead, ago, in front,
Jonathan Swift 15
previously, already, forth; (adv, organization, cluster, set, carcass, relax; (n, v) help; (n) tranquility,
prep) fore, afore; (adj) preceding, figure, consistency, aggregate, relaxation, peace, pleasure
prior; (adj, adv) earlier. association; (adj, n) mass. buying: (n) purchasing, buy,
ANTONYMS: (adv, prep) later, ANTONYMS: (n) handful, mind, purchase, business, shopping,
behind, afterward, after; (adv) minority, soul, few import, export, transaction,
subsequently, ahead; (adj) boiled: (adj) intoxicated, poached, ownership, patronage, sale
subsequent stewed; (v) sodden calculate: (v) estimate, compute, add,
begging: (n) mendicancy, request, bold: (adj) adventurous, audacious, account, appraise, gauge, cipher,
plea; (v) asking, beg; (adj) manly, arrogant, intrepid, fearless, reckon, enumerate, forecast, guess.
beseeching, entreating, mendicant, spirited, heroic, daring, courageous, ANTONYMS: (v) suppose, doubt,
imploring, suppliant, vagabond stalwart. ANTONYMS: (adj) timid, estimate
believe: (n) belief, believing; (v) modest, afraid, meek, shy, light, calf: (n) calves, calfskin, sura, foal,
assume, conceive, consider, reckon, courteous, discreet, faint, fearful, shorthorn, pup, kitten, colt, leather,
guess, accredit, to believe, abashed kid, box calf
understand; (n, v) trust. boots: (n) Bootes, bell boy, bootblack, came: (v) arrive, come
ANTONYMS: (v) distrust, doubt, counterjumper, boy, shoeblack, carcass: (n) body, frame, corpse,
question, suspect, reject, discredit, footwear cadaver, framework, shell, carrion,
deny, despair bordering: (adj) abutting, adjoining, remains, dead body, skeleton, bomb
beneficial: (adj) favorable, fruitful, conterminous, contiguous, frontier, care: (adj, n, v) anxiety; (n, v)
handy, profitable, useful, expedient, next, neighboring, nearby, near, attention, charge, worry; (n) caution,
propitious, productive, healthy, approximate, fringent bother, concern, apprehension, aid,
conducive, good. ANTONYMS: born: (adj) native, natural, congenital, custody; (v) attend. ANTONYMS:
(adj) useless, disadvantageous, inbred, inborn, innate, inherent, (n) carelessness, recklessness,
harmful, unhelpful, unhealthy, untutored; (v) be born, to be born, thoughtlessness, rashness,
unprofitable, destructive, arise. ANTONYMS: (adj) learned, negligence, vagueness, unconcern;
detrimental, inauspicious, negative, unborn, acquired, trained (n, v) disregard, dislike; (v) loathe,
unfortunate breast: (n) boob, udder, tit, titty, abhor
bent: (adj) curved, arched, deformed, chest, knocker, mammilla, bust, pap, cattle: (n) stock, cows, neat, bull, beef,
crooked; (n) propensity, inclination, heart; (n, v) front bovine, livestock, ox, kine, cow,
fancy, leaning, flair, gift, curvature. breed: (n) variety, race, kind, oxen
ANTONYMS: (n) weakness, ancestry, sort, order, species; (v) cautious: (adj) guarded, conservative,
inability, aversion; (adj) engender, multiply, beget, bear. prudent, watchful, attentive,
undetermined, undecided, ANTONYMS: (v) destroy, eradicate, reserved, shy, provident, judicious,
uncurved, uncaring, rigid, unbent ignore, kill, neglect, quell circumspect, chary. ANTONYMS:
besides: (adv) as well, moreover, too, brevity: (n) briefness, shortness, (adj) rash, open, impulsive,
furthermore, again, as well as, succinctness, transience, terseness, impetuous, careless, irresponsible,
anyway, additionally; (prep) apart abruptness, crispness, duration, wasteful, incautious, thoughtless,
from, beside; (adj, adv) more economy, length, brevities. imprudent, unwary
best: (adj, n) supreme, most, elite; ANTONYMS: (n) lengthiness, censure: (n, v) accuse, reprimand,
(adj) superior, great, leading, choice, length reproach, attack, animadversion,
superlative; (v) beat, outdo; (adj, n, bring: (v) convey, get, take, bear, abuse; (n) accusation,
v) top. ANTONYMS: (adj, n) worst; carry, put, conduct, return, reduce, condemnation; (v) carp, condemn,
(v) lose, surrender; (adj) minimum, set, bring in. ANTONYMS: (v) drop, berate. ANTONYMS: (v) approve,
lowest, least, inferior, incorrect, free, leave, lose, remove, avoid commend, allow, endorse, laud,
fewest; (n) loser; (adv) insincerely build: (n, v) make, shape; (v) erect, permit, sanction; (n) approval,
better: (adj, v) improve, mend; (adj, establish, raise, rise, found, base, blessing, commendation; (n, v)
adv, v) best; (v) recover, ameliorate, fabricate, fashion; (n) frame. compliment
emend, reform, advance, enhance, ANTONYMS: (v) destroy, certain: (adj) definite, sure, assured,
surpass; (n) bettor. ANTONYMS: dismantle, raze, overturn, obliterate, absolute, reliable, indisputable,
(adj, adv) worse; (adj, n) inferior; (v) decrease, decelerate, ruin, dependable, unquestionable,
worsen, deteriorate; (adj) lesser, disassemble undeniable, unavoidable,
lower, tinier, ill, unhealthy, smaller, bulk: (n) size, mass, volume, unequivocal. ANTONYMS: (adj)
sicker majority, amount, capacity, unsure, doubtful, questionable,
black: (adj) sable, dark, ebony, quantity, dimension, magnitude, hesitant, debatable, erratic, faulty,
colored, bleak, dirty, evil, nigger, thickness; (adj, n) lump. indistinct, vague, doubting,
darkie, unclean; (adj, n) blackamoor. ANTONYMS: (n) minority, undecided
ANTONYMS: (v) whiten; (adj) lightness certainly: (adv) assuredly, definitely,
spotless, snowy, saintly, pale, burden: (n, v) bother, weight, pack, positively, clearly, necessarily,
optimistic, merry, light, angelic, burthen, trouble, clog, strain; (n) undoubtedly, actually, securely,
ivory, bright anxiety, bale, responsibility; (v) confidently, absolutely; (adj, adv)
bodies: (n) people, public afflict. ANTONYMS: (v) relieve, really. ANTONYMS: (adv)
body: (n) cadaver, corpse, lighten, free, disburden, alleviate, doubtfully, possibly, equivocally,
16 A Modest Proposal
perhaps hot, prepared, burning, affectionate, confined: (adj) limited, cramped,
chair: (n, v) chairman; (n) bench, loving, soporific, fervid; (n) heat, imprisoned, bounded, enclosed,
president, chairperson, throne, warmth restricted, narrow, constrained,
couch, armchair, electric chair, collateral: (n) warranty, guarantee, strict; (adj, v) close, invalided.
chairwoman; (v) moderate, lead mortgage, guaranty, security, ANTONYMS: (adj) liberated,
charge: (n, v) blame, care, burden, pledge, bond; (adj) secondary, invasive, roomy, unconfined,
commission, command, attack, bill, indirect, oblique, subsidiary. unlimited, open, spacious, general
load, tax; (n) accusation; (v) bid. ANTONYMS: (adj) primary, chief, conscience: (n) moral sense,
ANTONYMS: (v) request, discharge, fundamental, principal, lineal Conscience money, sense of right
plead, beg, compensate, aid, credit, commodity: (n) article, product, and wrong, scruple, intention,
calm; (n, v) retreat, absolve, unload object, thing, good, goods, stuff, tender conscience, small voice,
charity: (n) dole, favor, aid, liberality, wares, ware, basic, item principles, morals, morality, inward
generosity, kindness, alms, mercy, common: (adj) coarse, mutual, monitor. ANTONYM: (n)
virtue; (v) almsgiving; (adj, n) vulgar, mean, mediocre, ignoble, indifference
brotherly love. ANTONYMS: (n) plebeian, base; (adj, n) cheap, consequently: (adv) therefore,
intolerance, meanness, unkindness, habitual; (adj, n, v) usual. subsequently, as a result, then,
cruelty, malice, stinginess, ANTONYMS: (adj) uncommon, sequentially, followingly, so,
cheapness, nastiness, inhumanity rare, unusual, characteristic, specific, naturally, in consequence, hence;
cheap: (adj) tacky, low, stingy, base, unique, extraordinary, exclusive, (conj) ergo
flashy, worthless, sleazy, shabby, aristocratic, infrequent, refined consider: (v) think, regard, view,
niggardly, mean, economical. comparable: (adj) analogous, cogitate, deliberate, calculate,
ANTONYMS: (adj) expensive, corresponding, alike, conceive, reckon, reflect, assume; (n,
costly, tasteful, generous, luxurious, commensurate, similar, same, equal, v) study. ANTONYMS: (v)
quality, noble, inflated, precious, equivalent, parallel, akin; (v) disregard, forget, discard, doubt,
dear, steep allusive. ANTONYMS: (adj) reject, nevermind, dismiss, abandon,
cheat: (n, v) trick, con, fake, sham; (n) dissimilar, incomparable, unworthy, leave, decide, overlook
fraud, bilk, impostor; (v) defraud, unlike, unequal, unalike considerable: (adj, v) important,
beguile, betray, fleece. computation: (n, v) calculation, influential; (adj) large, ample,
ANTONYMS: (v) support, repay, estimation, reckoning; (n) compute, substantial, significant, sizable,
help, contribute, aid estimate, account, arithmetic, great, momentous, consequential,
child: (n) baby, babe, bairn, infant, figuring, count, computing; (v) meaningful. ANTONYMS: (adj)
kid, toddler, tot, girl, brat, juvenile, enumeration. ANTONYMS: (n) insignificant, faint, trivial, slight,
minor. ANTONYMS: (n) ancestor, guesswork, guessing, conjecture, paltry, imperceptible, unnoticeable,
parent estimation little, inconsiderable, unimportant,
children: (n) child, offspring, compute: (v) cipher, count, measure, subtle
descendant, family, seed, boy, account, cast, enumerate, gauge, consideration: (n, v) respect, regard,
babies, descendants, birth, relatives, add, reckon, assess, tally. care, account, condition; (n)
people ANTONYMS: (v) guess, suppose, reflection, thought, attention,
chosen: (adj, n) elect; (adj) preferred, surmise, estimate cogitation, conception,
select, favored, named; (adj, v) conceived: (adj) formed thoughtfulness. ANTONYMS: (n)
designate, desired, designated; (n) concern: (adj, n, v) worry; (n, v) impulsiveness, inconsideration,
deary, ducky, dearie. ANTONYMS: interest, care, affect, regard, trouble, inattention, cruelty, rashness,
(adj) ignored, involuntary bother; (n) affair, attention, matter, unconcern, heedlessness, disregard,
circulate: (v) broadcast, circle, anxiety. ANTONYMS: (n) negligence, neglect, insensitivity
disseminate, disperse, distribute, reassurance, negligence, consistence: (n) thickness, body,
propagate, circularize, mobilize, unresponsiveness, calmness, coherence, consistency, viscosity,
diffuse, proclaim, issue. coldness, detachment, pleasure, hardness, uniformness, property,
ANTONYMS: (v) suppress, hide, confidence, recklessness, serenity, density, solidity; (adj) spissitude.
block, withhold, concentrate thoughtlessness ANTONYM: (n) inconsistency
circumstance: (n) affair, incident, condition: (n) position, status, constant: (adj) ceaseless, perpetual,
matter, event, occasion, chance, provision, standing, clause, continual, faithful, changeless,
accident, opportunity, adventure, circumstances, term, predicament, steadfast, eternal, uninterrupted,
casualty, fact rank; (n, v) aspect; (v) provide. continuous; (adj, n) steady,
city: (adj) municipal, urban, civic, ANTONYMS: (v) disqualify; (n) invariable. ANTONYMS: (adj)
public; (n) borough, the City, burgh, option irregular, intermittent, changeable,
village, metropolis, municipality, confess: (adj, v) own, allow, admit, variable, inconstant, erratic,
state. ANTONYMS: (adj) suburban, avow; (v) concede, profess, episodic, fickle, temporary, disloyal,
country, private recognize, divulge, disclose, reveal, inconsistent
cold: (n) chilliness, chill; (adj) chilly, receive. ANTONYMS: (v) suppress, continual: (adj, adv) constant; (adj)
frigid, distant, indifferent, aloof, hide, dispute, conceal, repress, ceaseless, incessant, endless,
callous, icy, apathetic, impassive. harbor continuous, frequent, everlasting,
ANTONYMS: (adj) warm, friendly, confessed: (adj) known uninterrupted, perpetual,
Jonathan Swift 17
unrelenting, perennial. place, area, territory, incumbent, reverend, canon
ANTONYMS: (adj) sporadic, commonwealth, soil, kingdom, curing: (n) hardening, ageing, drying,
temporary, occasional, finite, realm; (adj) rustic. ANTONYMS: rectification, vulcanization,
inconstant, infrequent, ending, (adj) urban, metropolitan; (adj, n) preservation; (adj) curative,
ceasing, halting, rare, acute city; (n) metropolis remedial, corrective, comforting,
continuance: (n) duration, abidance, county: (n) canton, state, area, medicinal
existence, endurance, protraction, country, shire, commune, custom: (n) habit, convention, usage,
adjournment, resumption, arrondissement, district, mofussil, practice, consuetude, fashion,
prolongation, time, standing, precinct, realm method, mores; (n, v) use, accustom;
perseverance. ANTONYMS: (n) couple: (v) connect, associate, (adj) bespoke. ANTONYMS: (n) fad,
discontinuation, destruction combine, attach, copulate, join, tie, innovation, phenomenon, rage,
contradiction: (n) antithesis, denial, mate; (adj, n) brace; (n, v) yoke; (n) rarity
repugnance, clash, disproof, duo. ANTONYMS: (v) separate, customers: (n) trade
contrast, opposite, disagreement, unhook, detach, disconnect, divide, dainty: (adj, v) nice; (adj, n, v)
paradox, inconsistency, reverse. unbuckle, undo; (n) individual, delicacy; (adj) fastidious, savory,
ANTONYMS: (n) correspondence, single tasteful, squeamish, particular,
confirmation, consistency, course: (n, v) stream, flow; (n) mincing, refined; (adj, n) tidbit; (n)
reinforcement, concord bearing, route, career, track, path, luxury. ANTONYMS: (adj) coarse,
contrary: (adj, n) contradictory, road, channel; (adj, n) current; (v) vulgar, rough, inelegant, harsh,
reverse; (adj) adverse, conflicting, chase. ANTONYM: (v) trickle gross, awkward, accepting, heavy,
unfavorable, perverse, cross, court: (n) forum, bar, close, field, careless, thick
disobedient, alien, different, tribunal, passage, judicatory, judge; danger: (n) risk, peril, hazard, chance,
obstinate. ANTONYMS: (adj) (v) romance, attract; (n, v) invite. jeopardy, threat, trouble,
similar, harmonious, helpful, ANTONYMS: (v) shun, reject, precariousness, slipperiness,
obliging, compatible, complaisant, ignore, spurn, disregard, discourage disaster, insecurity. ANTONYMS:
concordant, parallel, agreeable, cover: (n, v) coat, top, conceal, screen, (n) security, ease, privilege
cooperative, favorable cloak, veil, shield, spread; (v) bury; dangerous: (adj, n) critical; (adj)
contribute: (v) bring, bestow, (n) blanket, binding. ANTONYMS: severe, serious, grave, adventurous,
administer, aid, impart, supply, (v) reveal, expose, uncover, exclude, unhealthy, precarious, hazardous,
provide, afford, endow, lead; (adj, v) ignore, abandon, strip, free, forget, perilous, threatening, chancy.
tend. ANTONYMS: (v) hurt, harm, omit; (n) exposure ANTONYMS: (adj) stable, secure,
detract, counteract, minus, neglect, cows: (n) cattle, cow, bull, ox, oxen, protected, unhazardous, slight,
subtract, withhold, refrain, leave, Bos Taurus, bullock, beef, Cowes, weak, harmless, friendly, favorable,
refuse steer, milker calm, pleasant
contrive: (v) plan, invent, design, crowded: (adj) compact, congested, dealing: (n, v) trade; (n) transaction,
concoct, devise, cast, concert, full, packed, busy, dense, populous, deal, exchange, business, concern,
excogitate, frame, formulate; (n, v) jammed, cramped, tight; (adj, n) traffic, conduct, handling, dealings,
manage. ANTONYMS: (v) thronged. ANTONYMS: (adj) distribution
demolish, destroy, ruin, waste, sparse, deserted, uncrowded, loose dear: (adj, adv) close, near; (adj, n)
wreck, fail crown: (n, v) top, cover; (v) cap, darling; (adj) costly, expensive,
convenient: (adj) comfortable, complete; (n) apex, pinnacle, crest, lovely, precious, affectionate,
commodious, handy, appropriate, summit, peak, kingdom, acme. adorable, cherished; (n) love.
expedient, timely, fit, useful, nearby, ANTONYMS: (n) base, bottom; (v) ANTONYMS: (adj) worthless,
opportune; (adj, n) advantageous. dishonor, dethrone, begin, inexpensive, valueless, despised,
ANTONYMS: (adj) unwieldy, fixed, commence, start, depose modest, loathed, hateful, distant; (n)
useless, distant, troublesome, cruelty: (n) brutality, cruelness, rival, foe, enemy
unsuited, remote, unsuitable, oppression, barbarity, ferociousness, death: (n) expiration, end, close, exit,
unadaptable, unuseful, tyranny, violence, atrocity, ferocity, fate, mortality, departure, cessation,
inappropriate mercilessness, harshness. decease, dissolution; (adj) quietus.
conversation: (n) talk, conference, ANTONYMS: (n) compassion, ANTONYMS: (n) existence,
communication, colloquy, gentleness, friendliness, humanity, delivery, living, nascency, being,
confabulation, discussion, language, benevolence, sensitivity, liberty, survival, life, beginning
discourse, speech, talking, palaver decency debt: (n) score, debit, loan, liability,
cook: (v) boil, prepare, brew, bake, cultivate: (v) civilize, educate, train, obligation, due, bill, commitment,
make, stew, simmer, grill, falsify, produce, polish, farm, crop, arrears, pocket, hole. ANTONYMS:
concoct; (n) chef develop, domesticate, raise; (adj, v) (n) asset, cash, credit
corn: (n) clavus, cereals, Zea Mays, promote. ANTONYMS: (v) neglect, deer: (n) caribou, buck, fawn, stag,
callus, wheat, Indian corn, callosity, sterilize, brutalize, stunt, retard, reynard, brocket, cervid, ruminant,
grain; (v) feed, keep; (adj, n) pollute, ignore, harm, discourage roe, roebuck, hart
commonplace curate: (n) rector, clergyman, deference: (n) homage, respect,
countries: (n) country minister, chaplain, pastor, compliance, admiration, allegiance,
country: (n) nation, home, land, Stipendiary curate, priest, vicar, reverence, obedience, submission,
18 A Modest Proposal
compliancy, duty, complaisance. v) fancy, wish, aim; (v) want, aspire, platter, food, saucer, beauty, meat,
ANTONYMS: (n) contempt, seek. ANTONYMS: (n, v) dislike, repast; (n, v) hollow
opposition, rebellion, resistance, hate; (n) aversion, reality, revulsion, dishes: (n) food, meal, crockery,
disobedience apathy; (v) spurn, abhor, answer, dinner service, dishware, menu,
degree: (n) extent, level, condition, command, insist plates
title, rank, academic degree, place, desired: (adj) coveted, desirable, dislike: (n) disapproval, disaffection,
caliber, status, stair; (adj, n) order favorite, wanted, welcome, needed, antipathy, disdain, disfavor,
delicious: (adj, v) delicate; (adj) beloved, required, most wanted; revulsion; (n, v) hate, disinclination,
tasteful, pleasing, delightful, (adj, v) chosen; (v) consenting aversion, distaste; (v) detest.
appetizing, agreeable, sweet, despairing: (adj) hopeless, desperate, ANTONYMS: (n) liking, fondness,
toothsome, savory, enjoyable, despondent, forlorn, desolate, taste, attraction, enjoyment,
dainty. ANTONYMS: (adj) tasteless, dejected, pessimistic, sad, preference, longing; (v) like, enjoy,
distasteful, yucky, unsavory, brokenhearted, miserable, approve, adore
unpleasant, unappetizing, revolting, inconsolable. ANTONYMS: (adj) disobliging: (adj) unobliging, harsh,
nauseating, inedible, gross, dry hopeful, optimistic, rosy, happy, uncooperative, unwilling, offensive,
deliver: (v) consign, bear, carry, save, confident, cheerful not ready to give a hand, awkward,
rescue, abandon, send, pronounce, desponding: (adj) despairing, unhelpful, contrary, disagreeable,
hand over, bring; (adj, v) utter. despondent ill-natured. ANTONYMS: (adj)
ANTONYMS: (v) capture, confine, destroyed: (adj) ruined, lost, desolate, obliging, agreeable, polite, pleasant,
imprison, hold, oppress, enslave, shattered, desolated, broken, courteous, mannered, civil, helpful,
restrain, retain, collect, withhold, depressed, dead, damaged, undone, cooperative
shackle fallen. ANTONYMS: (adj) disposed: (adj) prone, apt, ready,
demand: (v) ask, require, ask for, beg; preserved, living subject, prepared, liable, game,
(n, v) need, request, command, destruction: (n, v) defeat; (n) death, inclined, fain, likely, minded.
appeal, requisition, sale; (n) ruin, collapse, demolition, ANTONYMS: (adj) ailing,
requirement. ANTONYMS: (v) devastation, downfall, abolition, indisposed, unlikely, disinclined,
grant, offer, obviate, give, eliminate, damage, desolation, end. reluctant, impervious
cede, beg, present, request; (n) ANTONYMS: (n) preservation, distress: (n, v) pain, torment, trouble,
response, plea protection, creation, reparation, concern, torture, upset, worry; (n)
deny: (v) controvert, rebuff, formation, conservation, restoration, anguish, agony; (adj, n) difficulty,
contradict, disavow, gainsay, reject, building, help, making, order grief. ANTONYMS: (n, v) comfort;
oppose, refuse, disown, abnegate, devoured: (adj) eaten up (v) please, soothe, relieve; (n) peace,
renounce. ANTONYMS: (v) affirm, differ: (v) disagree, contradict, clash, encouragement,
claim, acknowledge, declare, diverge, deviate, depart, difference, straightforwardness, solace,
maintain, agree, spoil, accept, discrepancy, conflict, vary, contrast. relieving, relief, prosperity
accede, allow, argue ANTONYMS: (v) correspond, doubt: (n, v) suspicion, question,
deplorable: (adj) sad, wretched, concur, conform, match, resemble, query, dispute; (n) disbelief,
criminal, calamitous, abominable, harmonize, equal, consent, accord, misgiving, incertitude,
pitiful, lamentable, miserable, accede, support apprehension, uncertainty; (adj, n)
regrettable, sorry; (adj, v) woeful. dine: (v) feed, lunch, breakfast, skepticism; (v) suspect.
ANTONYMS: (adj) acceptable, dining, meal, give, have supper, ANTONYMS: (n) certainty,
pleasing, laudable, happy, cheerful, take tea, grub, consume, entertain. confidence, conclusiveness, belief,
admirable, agreeable, excellent, ANTONYM: (v) abstain certitude, faith, approval; (v) accept,
fortunate, praiseworthy disagreeable: (adj) nasty, offensive, believe, consider, swallow
deserve: (v) rate, warrant, gain, earn, uncomfortable, distasteful, dressed: (adj) attired, clad, garbed,
to deserve, demand, justify, bear; (n, cantankerous, cross, ungrateful, appareled, spruced up, spiffed up,
v) reward; (n) richly deserve, worth abhorrent, horrible, bad, painful. covered, polished, garmented; (v)
deserving: (adj) meritorious, ANTONYMS: (adj) pleasant, clothed, habited
admirable, creditable, friendly, amiable, inoffensive, dressing: (n) bandage, stuffing,
commendable, laudable, fit, good, acceptable, desirable, easygoing, fertilization, binding, bandaging,
deserved, condign; (v) deserve, happy, pleasing, sweet, nice scolding, fertilizer, manure,
worthy of. ANTONYMS: (adj) disease: (n, v) ailment; (n) illness, compress, preparation, farce
unworthy, undeserving, sickness, condition, complaint, dublin: (n) Irish capital, capital of
unimpressive affection, ill, disorder, affliction, Ireland
design: (n, v) purpose, aim, scheme, bug; (adj, n) infirmity. ANTONYM: during: (prep) within, on, by, of, for,
sketch, conceive; (n) conception, (n) health pending, inside; (adv) whilst, while;
drawing, device, idea, arrangement; diseased: (adj) bad, ailing, sickly, (adj) throughout; (n) at.
(v) contrive. ANTONYMS: (n) unsound, sick, ill, unhealthy, ANTONYM: (prep) out
chance, fortuity, accident, pathological, infected, dying: (n) death, demise, decease,
destruction; (v) improvise unwholesome, infirm. ANTONYMS: mortality; (adj) vanishing,
desire: (n) ambition, aspiration, (adj) well, fit moribund, last, final, ultimate,
craving, dream; (adv, n, v) will; (n, dish: (n) basin, disk, plate, meal, failing, ebbing. ANTONYMS: (adj)
Jonathan Swift 19
thriving, well, opening, aborning, elevated, brilliant, illustrious, noble, unusually. ANTONYMS: (adv)
developing, flourishing, growing, big, famous, renowned, unexceptionally, customarily,
reviving, rejuvenating; (n) birth conspicuous, dignified. usually, commonly, frequently,
earlier: (adj) past, former, previous, ANTONYMS: (adj) undistinguished, generally
advance, preceding; (adj, adv) obscure, low, unremarkable, esteem: (n) deference, admiration; (n,
antecedent; (adv) formerly, common, uncelebrated, v) respect, value, consideration,
beforehand, ahead, anterior, before unimportant, insignificant, humble, account; (v) appreciate, deem, adore,
now. ANTONYMS: (adj, adv) later; ordinary admire, count. ANTONYMS: (v)
(adj) subsequent, present, following; emperor: (n) sovereign, ruler, scorn, hate, disdain, insult, despise,
(adv) subsequently, afterward monarch, imperator, mikado, king, abominate, abhor, dislike, reject; (n)
earnestly: (adj, adv) seriously; (adv) Saturnia pavonia, crowned head, disesteem, disapproval
eagerly, intently, zealously, emperors, protector, saturniid ever: (adj, adv) always, continually;
solemnly, ardently, fervently, employ: (v) use, apply, exploit, (adj) constantly, still, forever; (adv)
heartily, gravely, warmly, consume, wield, hire, engage, never, e'er, before, once, perpetually;
passionately. ANTONYMS: (adv) exercise, work, busy, utilize. (n) Evers. ANTONYM: (adv)
indifferently, insincerely, ANTONYMS: (v) fire, dismiss, can, erratically
unconcernedly, jokingly ignore, misuse, sack, underuse; (n) every: (adj) each, total, whole, any,
earth: (n) world, dust, ground, land, unemployment thorough; (n) everybody, everyone,
lair, dry land, terra firma, clay, emulation: (n) mimicry, rivalry, everything; (adv) apiece, either;
creation, ball, country contest, simulation, contention, (pron) every one
ease: (v) alleviate, assuage, relieve, strife, conflict, ambition, emulate, evils: (n) mala
allay; (n) convenience, rest, leisure, compete, imitating exact: (adj, n) correct; (v) demand,
relief, satisfaction; (adj, v) facilitate; encouraged: (adj) optimistic, claim, command, ask; (n, v) require;
(n, v) relax. ANTONYMS: (n) confident, enthused, expectant, (adj, v) close, direct; (adj) precise,
discomfort, formality, inspired, pleased, positive, detailed, faithful. ANTONYMS:
awkwardness, worry, toil, problem, stimulated, stirred, moved. (adj) wrong, vague, imprecise,
pain, maladroitness; (v) aggravate, ANTONYM: (adj) pessimistic approximate, inexact, rough,
worsen, impede enforced: (adj) required, obligatory, careless, thoughtless, indeterminate;
easy: (adj) convenient, gentle, compulsory, applied, compelled, (v) tender, give
familiar, graceful, at ease, light, binding, essential, requisite, exactly: (adv) correctly, punctually,
lenient, clear, contented, cozy; (adj, necessary, mandatory, legal. rightly, accurately, strictly, perfectly,
adv) soft. ANTONYMS: (adj) ANTONYMS: (adj) optional, definitely, directly, truly, right,
arduous, laborious, demanding, unenforced, voluntary absolutely. ANTONYMS: (adv)
hard, strenuous, particular, england: (n) Britain, British, UK, inaccurately, randomly, figuratively,
burdensome, tough, uneasy, United Kingdom, Albion, British wrongly, vaguely, roughly,
awkward, testing Empire inexactly, indirectly, imprecisely,
eating: (n) ingestion, intake, feeding, entertainment: (n) distraction, around; (adv, prep) about
browsing, banqueting, food, diversion, enjoyment, show, exceeding: (prep) beyond, more than,
lunching, supping, pica, repletion; pleasure, recreation, fun, reception, greater than; (adj) excessive,
(v) eat pastime; (adj, n) party; (n, v) transcendent, extraordinary,
effect: (n, prep) consequence; (v) regalement. ANTONYMS: (n) job, exceptional, prodigious, surpassing,
accomplish, achieve, bring about, boredom, discomfort Olympian; (v) exceed
create, complete, cause, do; (n) entirely: (adv) fully, absolutely, excellent: (adj, n) estimable, worthy,
product, sequel; (n, v) result. utterly, wholly, altogether, all, capital; (adj) superior, admirable,
ANTONYMS: (n) reason, cause; (v) thoroughly, perfectly, clean, solely; beautiful, distinctive, superb, great,
impede, fail (adj, adv) completely. ANTONYMS: good, splendid. ANTONYMS: (adj)
effectual: (adj, n) efficient, (adv) partially, incompletely, poor, abysmal, awful, mediocre,
efficacious, able; (adj) forceful, unenthusiastically, hardly, slightly, terrible, imperfect, inadequate,
telling, authoritative, operative, somewhat middling, shoddy, bad, used
potent, adequate, impressive, enumerated: (adj) detailed except: (adj, conj, prep) save; (v)
powerful. ANTONYMS: (adj) episcopal: (adj) pontifical, bishoplike, exclude, demur, omit, elide; (adv,
ineffectual, incapable, weak, clerical, episcoparian conj, prep) but; (adv, prep) besides;
impotent, ineffective, unproductive, equally: (adv) evenly, equivalently, (prep) excepting, excluding, aside
unsuccessful, useless levelly, alike, justly, as, parallelly, from; (conj, n) without.
eight: (n) eighter, eleven, nine, ten, uniformly, similarly; (adj, adv, conj) ANTONYMS: (prep) including; (v)
team, queen, ogdoad, octonary, as well; (adj) even. ANTONYMS: receive, admit
octet, ace, octad (adv) unevenly, individually, exchange: (n, v) barter, interchange,
eighty: (n) four score differently, unfairly swap, counterchange, switch,
either: (adj) whatever; (adv) too, also, especially: (adv) particularly, chiefly, substitute; (n) commutation; (v)
neither, besides, likewise; (n) or; expressly, peculiarly, specifically, commute, alternate, alter, convert.
(det) any; (conj) other above all, exceedingly, principally, ANTONYMS: (n) holding, keeping;
eminent: (adj) high, celebrated, exceptionally, extraordinarily, (v) keep
20 A Modest Proposal
executioner: (n) killer, murderer, family: (adj, n) household, descent, fifty dollar bill, cubic decimeter,
hangman, headsman, home; (n) name, genus, house, cubic decimetre
electrocutioner, executor, tormentor, people, breed, brood, kin, lineage fight: (n, v) battle, dispute, contest,
executer, public executioner, famine: (n) scarcity, shortage, quarrel, engagement, feud,
slaughterer, slayer privation, deficiency, deficit, squabble, argue, struggle, clash;
exercise: (n, v) employ, practice, use, starvation, drought, hunger, (adj, n, v) brawl. ANTONYMS: (n, v)
discipline; (v) apply, train, exert; (n) poverty, penury, failure. withdrawal, retreat; (n) fear,
employment, application, play, ANTONYMS: (n) abundance, surrender, agreement; (v)
movement. ANTONYMS: (n) avoid, plenty, glut, feast, bounty, excess compromise, favor, submit
idleness, inactiveness, inactivity, famous: (adj) celebrated, splendid, figure: (n, v) form, design, cast,
work; (v) ignore, neglect, overlook, distinguished, renowned, estimate, shape, image; (v) count,
perform, conserve illustrious, famed, capital, cipher; (adj, n) appearance; (n)
expected: (adj) likely, expect, prominent, well-known, fine, character, cost. ANTONYM: (v)
predictable, prospective, stunning. ANTONYMS: (adj) estimate
anticipated, usual, conventional, infamous, ordinary, anonymous, filth: (n) grime, garbage, foulness,
intended, due, assumed, hoped-for. insignificant, obscure, inglorious, impurity, soil, blot, stain, nastiness,
ANTONYMS: (adj) unusual, undistinguished squalor, uncleanliness; (adj) impure.
surprising, unconventional, farrow: (v) pig, bear fruit, EAN, give ANTONYMS: (n) cleanliness,
unexpected, unlikely, exceptional birth, kindle, kitten; (adj, n) brood; luxury, loveliness
expedient: (adj) fit, advisable, (n) breed, spat, spawn, parturition find: (v) catch, detect, encounter,
becoming, desirable, adequate, apt, fast: (adj, v) firm; (adj) dissolute, come across, feel, attain, ascertain;
convenient, suitable; (n) contrivance, instant, agile, staunch, quick, (n) detection, disclosure, search,
resource, artifice. ANTONYMS: hurried, fixed, rapid; (adv) soon, discovery. ANTONYMS: (v)
(adj) inappropriate, inexpedient, hard. ANTONYMS: (adv) slowly, misplace, search, fail; (n) loss
impractical, futile, detrimental, loosely, sluggishly; (n) binge; (adj) fine: (adj) delicate, dainty, agreeable,
inconvenient, foolish sluggish, loose, unattached, nice, thin, elegant, capital, excellent,
expensive: (adj) sumptuous, dear, plodding; (adj, adv) leisurely; (v) brave; (n) penalty; (v) punish.
luxurious, lovely, extravagant, gorge, eat ANTONYMS: (adj) poor, thick,
valuable, lavish, darling, beloved, fatten: (adj, n) enrich; (adj, v) fat, wide, coarse, unsatisfactory,
overpriced, high-priced. elaborate; (v) fatten up, feed, fill out; substantial, wretched, unpleasant,
ANTONYMS: (adj) cheap, (adj) fructify, bloom, bear fruit, unimpressive, dark, cloudy
reasonable, inexpensive, worthless, blossom, blow. ANTONYMS: (v) fish: (n) bird, eel, fishing, Pisces,
economical, plain, shabby undernourish, starve anchovy, chondrichthian, alewife,
expensiveness: (n) dearness, fear: (n) awe, dismay, alarm, fright, shellfish; (v) seek, hunt, pursue
sumptuosity, sumptuousness, cost, consternation, care, anguish; (n, v) five: (n) fives, quintuplet, quint,
luxury, lavishness apprehension, doubt, concern, Phoebe, basketball team, fin, squad,
experience: (v) endure, suffer, reverence. ANTONYMS: (n) ace, digit; (adj, n) v; (adj) quinary
examine, meet, live, know, receive; fearlessness, reassurance, flea: (n) chamois, chigger, chigoe,
(adj, v) see; (n) event, episode, confidence, courage, valor, calm, insect, frog, chigoe flea, epizoon,
happening. ANTONYMS: (n) boldness, security, equanimity, goat, ectoparasite, chinch, dog flea
inexperience, greenness, naivete, peace; (v) brave flesh: (adj) carnality, concupiscence;
inability, ignorance feast: (n, v) junket, fete; (n) (n) mortality, beef, form, figure,
exportation: (n) exporting, entertainment, dinner, binge, frame, person, mankind, humanity,
mercantilism, emission, ejection, spread, celebration, jamboree, meat
rejection, expulsion, effusion, carousal; (v) feed, eat. ANTONYMS: foal: (n) filly, pony, calf, horse, Arab,
commercialism; (v) importation, (v) abstain, starve; (n) snack charger, thoroughbred, racer,
transportation, transport feeding: (n) alimentation, eating, palfrey, nag, jument
extent: (n) extension, amplitude, nourishment, grazing, dining, fond: (adj) affectionate, caring,
bulk, amount, ambit, compass, browsing, feed supply, banqueting, devoted, tender, loving, amorous,
boundary, scope; (n, v) area, supplying, ingestion, intake delicate, adoring, doting, ardent,
expanse; (adj, n) distance. fell: (v) cut, chop, bring down, drop, attached. ANTONYMS: (adj)
ANTONYMS: (n) weakness, cut down; (adj) barbarous, cruel; aversion, cold, rough
mildness, scarcity (adj, v) prostrate, floor, knock down; food: (n, v) fare; (n) edible, board,
fair: (adj) clear, beautiful, sweet, (n) skin. ANTONYMS: (v) construct, nourishment, diet, sustenance,
reasonable, dispassionate, average, erect, raise, build aliment, dish, foodstuff, meat,
fine, impartial; (adj, v) bright; (adj, female: (n) woman, girl, she, wife, nurture
adv) clean; (n) blonde. hen, spouse, squaw; (adj) feminine, forced: (adj) compelled, bound,
ANTONYMS: (adj) biased, unjust, distaff, pistillate, not male. constrained, artificial, involuntary,
exceptional, dark, partial, ANTONYMS: (adj) masculine, unnatural, forcible, farfetched,
mismatched, unwarranted, foul, manly, androgynous, manlike; (n) strained, obligatory, labored.
imbalanced, prejudiced, poor man, boy ANTONYMS: (adj) unprovoked,
families: (n) family fifty: (adj, n) l; (n) half a hundred, spontaneous, voluntary, natural,
Jonathan Swift 21
genuine, willing, optional few; (v) shun, boycott, avoid bestow, accord. ANTONYMS: (v)
fore: (adv) ahead, before; (adj, adv) frequently: (adv) usually, repeatedly, withdraw, take, withhold, retain,
forward; (n) bow, head, forefront, continually, generally, regularly, receive, keep, get, hide, conceal,
stem; (adj, n) front; (adj) anterior, habitually, ordinarily, commonly, starve, withstand
foremost, frontal. ANTONYMS: often, incessantly, constantly. giving: (n) endowment, donation,
(adv) aft, behind, rear; (adj) back ANTONYMS: (adv) infrequently, presentation, bestowal, disposal;
foreign: (adj) extraneous, extrinsic, unusually, seldom, intermittently, (adj) liberal, generous, charitable,
alien, exterior, external, exotic, occasionally, spasmodically bighearted, big, humanitarian.
strange, oversea, adventitious, friend: (adj, n) associate, comrade, ANTONYMS: (adj) nasty,
unfamiliar, stranger. ANTONYMS: companion, fellow, ally; (n) tightfisted, malevolent, mean, stiff,
(adj) familiar, domestic, internal, acquaintance, colleague, boyfriend, stingy
relevant, national, natural crony, brother, mate. ANTONYMS: glad: (adj) jubilant, cheerful, gay,
formosa: (n) Taiwan (n) foe, stranger, rival, nemesis, blithe, delighted, festive, content,
fortunately: (adv) happily, adversary, antagonist delightful, genial, bright, willing.
prosperously, propitiously, friends: (n) circle, associates, ANTONYMS: (adj) unhappy,
fortuitously, providentially, connections, links, support group, apologetic, dismayed, unwilling,
successfully, auspiciously, acquaintances disappointed, sorry
opportunely, felicitously, blessedly, fruits: (n) revenue gloves: (n) gauntlet, mitten, mittens,
advantageously. ANTONYMS: full: (adj, n) complete, absolute, gauntlets, scarf, ornament, handbag,
(adv) disastrously, unluckily, entire; (adj) abundant, flush, broad, belt, batting glove, boxing glove,
inauspiciously, negatively extensive, ample, total, enough; (adj, baseball mitt
fortune: (n) estate, fate, fluke, adv, n) crowded. ANTONYMS: (adj) glutted: (adj) fleshed, fat, exceeding
destiny, luck, accident, means, lacking, starving, hungry, sketchy, demand, corpulent, fuller, overfull,
assets, riches, abundance, doom. incomplete, thin, deserted, partial, satiate, congested, blas, gorged,
ANTONYM: (n) design restricted, weak; (v) wane replete
fortunes: (n) adventures, fortune, furniture: (n) fitment, equipment, gone: (adj, prep) past; (adj) deceased,
personal narrative, life, journal appliance, fixture, appointments, bygone, departed, desperate, lost,
found: (v) erect, build, base, form, furnishings, goods, dresser, article late; (adj, v) exhausted, extinct; (adj,
construct, constitute, appoint, of furniture, cabinet; (v) stuff adv) absent, away. ANTONYMS:
institute, set up, create, ground. gain: (n, v) profit, benefit, win, catch, (adj) present, remaining, found,
ANTONYMS: (v) abolish, disband; advance; (v) derive, earn, get, attain, alive
(adj) lost reach; (n) earnings. ANTONYMS: goodness: (adj, n) generosity,
four: (n) quaternary, foursome, (n) loss, deficit, disadvantage, kindness, gentleness; (n) good,
tetrad, quaternion, quadruplet, setback; (n, v) decrease; (v) reduce, excellence, benefit, virtue, worth,
square, quarter, quad, air, age of scatter, collapse morality; (adj) favor, beneficence.
man; (adj, n) IV gaming: (n) play, game, diversion, ANTONYMS: (n) evil, wickedness,
fourteen: (adj, n) XIV speculation, wager, frolic, bet, badness, corruptness, bad,
fourth: (adv) fourthly; (n) interval, gamble, recreation, vice, betting immorality, corruption
third, after part, common fraction, generally: (adj, adv) usually; (adv) goods: (n) cargo, belongings,
fourth part, quartern, second; (adj) commonly, broadly, regularly, commodity, merchandise, product,
quaternary ordinarily, altogether, estate, chattels, property, wealth,
fourthly: (adv) quaternarily approximately, generically, produce; (n, v) stuff
freely: (adv) loosely, frankly, openly, normally, comprehensively, grant: (adj, v) bestow, allow, confer;
generously, independently, popularly. ANTONYMS: (adv) (n, v) award, gift, boon; (v) concede,
gratuitously, voluntarily, liberally, rarely, specifically, locally, afford, admit, acknowledge; (adj, n,
free, sparely; (adj, adv) occasionally, particularly, unusually v) present. ANTONYMS: (v) deny,
spontaneously. ANTONYMS: (adv) gentleman: (n) gent, Mr, male, reject, refuse, maintain, prohibit,
reluctantly, deceitfully, accurately, patrician, sir, adult male, esquire, disagree, retrieve, take, withhold,
meagerly, parsimoniously, secretly, sahib, gentlemen; (adj) withdraw
stingily, unwillingly; (adj) restricted gentilhomme, gentlemanly granted: (adj, v) assumed; (adj) fixed,
french: (adj) Gallic, Frankish, gentlemen: (n) sirs, messieurs approved, settled, privileged, legal,
Gallican, Gallian; (v) to take French gibbet: (n) gallows, gallowstree, decided, acknowledged, arranged;
leave; (n) Frenchman, romance gallous, scaffold; (v) hang, expose, (v) disposed; (adv) yes
language, French people, Daniel pillory, brand, stigmatize, disgrace, grave: (adj) solemn, serious, critical,
Chester French, profanity, the string up earnest, dangerous, sedate, sad,
French girl: (n) damsel, gal, lady, young grand; (adj, v) severe, acute; (v)
frequent: (adj, v) customary, usual, woman, maid, lass, fille, wench, engrave. ANTONYMS: (adj)
ordinary, incessant; (adj) everyday, daughter, bride, virgin. frivolous, funny, cheerful, carefree,
many, familiar, continual, habitual; ANTONYMS: (n) son, boy slight, nonchalant, trivial, stable,
(v) patronize, haunt. ANTONYMS: give: (v) extend, commit, donate, minor, insignificant, favorable
(adj) infrequent, occasional, endow, contribute, dispense, great: (adj) eminent, gigantic, big,
intermittent, spasmodic, unusual, deliver, convey, grant; (adj, v) distinguished, large, extensive,
22 A Modest Proposal
extreme, grand, chief, ample, (adj) fully, complete independent, capable, invulnerable,
massive. ANTONYMS: (adj) awful, handicraft: (n) craft, handcraft, armed, powerful, impervious
insignificant, tiny, mild, poor, handiwork, mystery, occupation, highest: (adj, n) most; (adj) best,
minor, useless, ordinary, slight, handwork, trade, art, profession, chief, foremost, first, supreme,
weak, unknown artifice, job topmost, extreme, utmost, top,
greater: (adj) larger, more, major, happily: (adv) fortunately, joyously, uppermost. ANTONYMS: (adj)
higher, superior, most, great, bigger, joyfully, merrily, luckily, gladly, bottom, minor
increased, considerable, not blissfully, cheerfully, felicitously, highly: (adv) greatly, extremely,
inconsiderable. ANTONYMS: (adj) providentially, successfully. much, loftily, exceedingly, mightily,
inferior, smaller, small, lower ANTONYMS: (adv) miserably, eminently, toweringly, too, largely;
greatly: (adv) badly, enormously, unhappily, sadly, unfortunately, (adj, adv) very. ANTONYMS: (adv)
considerably, extremely, highly, unsuccessfully, reluctantly, insignificantly, poorly, simply,
vastly, immensely, mightily, hugely; gloomily, discontentedly, slightly, ill
(adj, adv) far, deeply. ANTONYMS: despondently, negatively, hind: (adj, n) rear; (adj) after,
(adv) mildly, hardly, superficially, grudgingly posterior, hindermost; (n) doe,
poorly, lightly, insignificantly, happiness: (n) delight, merriment, clown, peasant, roe, countryman,
barely, moderately ecstasy, welfare, gladness, luck, servant; (v) hinder
grievance: (n) injustice, wrong, cheerfulness, blessedness, bliss, hired: (adj) leased, chartered,
grudge, affliction, protest, objection, felicity, contentment. ANTONYMS: mercenary, hackneyed, hack; (v)
disaffection, discontentment, (n) sadness, despair, grief, misery, contented, compensated, paid
dissatisfaction; (adj) annoyance; (adj, dissatisfaction, seriousness, hitherto: (adv) as yet, yet, so far, up
n) distress. ANTONYMS: (n) justice, dullness, discontent, dejection, to now, until now, thus far, before,
praise gloominess, displeasure hereunto, to date, still, all the same
grievous: (adj) bitter, dolorous, having: (n) estate, possession, home: (n) domicile, abode, house,
dreadful, deplorable, sad, tough, acceptance, enjoyment residence, base, place, dwelling,
pitiful, atrocious, regrettable, head: (n) captain, boss, froth, foam, family, habitation; (adj) domestic;
sorrowful, sorry. ANTONYM: (adj) crown, chieftain; (n, v) point, lead; (adj, n) household. ANTONYMS:
successful (adj, n, v) front; (v) capital, direct. (adj) external, national, public,
groat: (n) penny, doit, rap, mite, ANTONYMS: (adj, n) subordinate; away, foreign; (adv) out
Grote, change, denarius, farthing, (n) end, beginning, foot, mouth, honest: (adj) fair, genuine, sincere,
coin, stiver, pocket money rear, tail, body, underling, base; good, equitable, artless, heartfelt,
grossly: (adv) rudely, roughly, (adj) minor guileless, frank, forthright, faithful.
commonly, heavily, bluntly, healthy: (adj) healthful, wholesome, ANTONYMS: (adj) lying,
disgustingly, shamefully, rankly, salubrious, hale, good, fit, beneficial, misleading, guarded, corrupt,
totally, uncouthly, obscenely. whole, well, sound, hearty. disloyal, unwholesome,
ANTONYM: (adv) appealingly ANTONYMS: (adj) unwell, harmful, discourteous, disreputable, fictional,
grow: (v) expand, advance, augment, unfit, soporific, dependent, crafty, crooked
enlarge, come, emerge, spring, fattening, infected, unwholesome, honesty: (adj, n) candor, justice,
become, farm, turn, get. weak, ill, underfed fidelity, equity; (n) integrity,
ANTONYMS: (v) decrease, weaken, heart: (adj, n) core, gist, marrow; (n) fairness, candidness, probity,
shrink, decline, drop, collapse, spirit, center, essence, basis, kernel, frankness, rectitude, faith.
struggle, wane, plummet, dwindle, crux, breast, hub. ANTONYMS: (n) ANTONYMS: (n) dishonesty,
deteriorate body, surface wickedness, treachery, deceit,
grown: (adj) mature, big, growed, hearty: (adj) heartfelt, healthy, genial, deception, deviousness, decadence,
grown-up, developed, ripe, sturdy, cheering, fervent, affectation, caution, evasiveness,
grownup, fully grown, full-grown, wholehearted, lusty, enthusiastic, injustice
growth, become. ANTONYM: (adj) convivial; (adj, n) well. hope: (n, v) trust, desire; (n)
unripe ANTONYMS: (adj) unhealthy, frail, aspiration, faith, belief, expectation,
growth: (n, v) increase, evolution, old, weak, sluggish, unwholesome, confidence, expectancy, anticipation;
augmentation; (n) gain, accretion, meager (v) confide, anticipate.
enlargement, germination, help: (n, v) assist, assistance, support, ANTONYMS: (n) reality, past,
accumulation, improvement, benefit, favor, avail, cure, assistant; pessimism, distrust, independence
increment, rise. ANTONYMS: (n) (v) facilitate, ease, alleviate. hopeful: (adj) confident, auspicious,
weakening, reduction, decline, ANTONYMS: (n) hindrance, bright, optimistic, sanguine, rosy,
nondevelopment, shrinking, detriment, interference, damage, probable, likely, expectant, upbeat;
contraction, collapse, fall, loss, disadvantage, disservice, manager; (n, v) candidate. ANTONYMS: (adj)
disappearance, retreat (v) worsen, aggravate, halt, hurt desperate, pessimistic, gloomy,
guests: (n) guest, visitors helpless: (adj, v) forlorn, destitute, pained, doubtful, bad, unhopeful,
half: (adj) moiety, part, short, abandoned; (adj) powerless, weak, unlikely, unpromising, down
defective; (n) semi, mediety, halve, defenseless, disabled, impotent, hoping: (adj) desirous, expectant,
division, piece, first half; (adv) feeble, hopeless, unable. optimistic, eager
partly. ANTONYMS: (adj, n) all; ANTONYMS: (adj) strong, horrid: (adj) grisly, ghastly, ugly,
Jonathan Swift 23
gruesome, grim, fearful, dreadful, imperial: (adj) majestic, grand, as a matter of fact, admittedly; (adj,
direful, dire, horrible, fearsome. dignified, imperious, purple, stately, adv) really, much; (n) yes.
ANTONYMS: (adj) lovely, nice, August, regal, noble, lordly; (adj, n) ANTONYMS: (adv) possibly,
appealing, attractive, kind beard doubtfully
house: (adj, n, v) family; (adj, n) importance: (n) account, gravity, individual: (adj) single, distinct,
home; (v) accommodate; (n) import, dignity, prominence, stress, particular, different, especial, alone,
dwelling, firm, abode, domicile, emphasis, value, concern, characteristic, distinctive; (n)
edifice, habitation, housing; (n, v) magnitude; (n, v) consequence. creature, fellow, person.
lodge. ANTONYM: (adj) public ANTONYMS: (n) unimportance, ANTONYMS: (adj) joint, common,
however: (adv, conj, prep) but; (adj, insignificance, triviality, combined, vague, general,
adv, conj) although; (adv) meaninglessness communal, ordinary, public, group;
nevertheless, anyway, nonetheless, important: (adj, v) grave; (adj) (adj, n) collective; (n) collection
how, notwithstanding; (adv, conj) fundamental, significant, crucial, inducement: (n) enticement,
though, yet; (conj) albeit; (n) while key, serious, remarkable, chief, attraction, cause, incitement,
humane: (adj, n) gentle, earnest, central, heavy. impulse, temptation, bait, impetus,
compassionate, beneficent, gracious; ANTONYMS: (adj) insignificant, occasion, motive, goad.
(adj) clement, kind, charitable, trivial, minor, irrelevant, low, ANTONYMS: (n) disincentive,
merciful, good, tender, benignant. worthless, frivolous, secondary, deterrent
ANTONYMS: (adj) inhumane, foul, little, superfluous, inconsequential industry: (n) application, diligence,
harsh, selfish impossibility: (n) impossibleness, effort, assiduity, industriousness,
humble: (v) demean, humiliate, option, nonexistence, absurdity, trade, toil, labor, work,
mortify; (n, v) disgrace, debase; (adj, inability, impracticability, assiduousness, exertion.
n, v) abase; (adj) base, lowly, alternative, choice, contradiction, ANTONYM: (n) sloth
unassuming, docile, low. contradiction in terms, inevitable: (adj) ineluctable,
ANTONYMS: (adj) impressive, doubtfulness. ANTONYMS: (n) unavoidable, inescapable, destined,
arrogant, haughty, imposing, possibility, probability fatal, fated, necessary, obvious,
conceited, pompous, snooty, impossible: (adj) unimaginable, irrevocable, irresistible; (n)
overbearing, presumptuous, proud, insufferable, unbelievable, hopeless, ineluctability. ANTONYMS: (adj)
exalted impracticable, impractical, evitable, avoidable, optional,
humbly: (adv) lowly, meanly, inconceivable, unlikely, preventable, unpredictable,
modestly, submissively, low, shyly, unthinkable, unable, ridiculous. unlikely; (adv) surprisingly
lowlily, naturally, regretfully, ANTONYMS: (adj) feasible, infants: (n) brood
remorsefully, repentantly. achievable, manageable, bearable, informed: (adj) cognizant, educated,
ANTONYMS: (adv) conceitedly, attainable, on, tolerable, probable, conscious, knowledgeable, familiar,
haughtily, pompously, hopeful, easy, consistent apprised, wise, conversant,
ostentatiously, unrepentantly, improbable: (adj) implausible, experienced, sensible; (adv) abreast.
affluently, brashly, pretentiously impossible, incredible, unbelievable, ANTONYMS: (adj) uninformed,
hundred: (adj) a hundred, one fishy, questionable, inconceivable, unconcerned
hundred, many; (adj, n) c; (n) cent, impractical, unthinkable, absurd; inhabitants: (n) population, citizens,
centred, riding, lathe, soke, tithing, (adj, n) marvelous. ANTONYMS: populace, folk, country, community,
carbon (adj) probable, certain, plausible, abode, group, inhabitation, nation,
idle: (adj) lazy, indolent, inactive, truthful, ordinary, on, practical natives
free, unfounded, fruitless, baseless, improvement: (n, v) advancement; inhuman: (adj) heartless, cruel,
groundless, frivolous, empty, (n) amelioration, betterment, atrocious, brutal, cold, harsh,
disengaged. ANTONYMS: (adj) correction, repair, development, ferocious, remorseless, barbarous,
active, employed, industrious, amendment, gain, enhancement, relentless, barbaric. ANTONYMS:
energetic, meaningful, productive, adjustment, advance. ANTONYMS: (adj) sympathetic, kind, humane
worthwhile, diligent; (v) change, (n) deterioration, downgrade, innocent: (adj) chaste, artless, clear,
run, work knock, setback, slump, worsening, ingenuous, innocuous, guileless,
idleness: (n) lethargy, laziness, decrease, disadvantage, retreat guiltless, ignorant, unsophisticated,
torpor, inactivity, idling, included: (adj) inclusive, spotless, naive. ANTONYMS: (adj)
unemployment, sloth, inaction, incorporated, numbered, enclosed; culpable, responsible, wicked, wary,
inertia, faineance, idlesse. (adv) under experienced, corrupt, worldly,
ANTONYMS: (n) energy, activity, incumbrance: (n) impediment, unfair, meaningful, offensive, jaded
bustle, liveliness, responsibility hindrance, obstruction, clog, fardel, instance: (n) exemplar, case, time,
immediately: (adv) instantly, imposition, charge, hitch, burden, illustration, sample, affair, pattern,
presently, readily, rapidly, quickly, worry, vexation chance, cause; (v) exemplify,
promptly, instantaneously, speedily, incur: (n, v) contract; (v) catch, get, illustrate
right; (adj, adv) at once, forthwith. incite, begin, cause, encounter, instances: (v) conceive, abate,
ANTONYMS: (adv) slowly, experience, obtain, suffer, receive commotion, decline, decrease,
whenever, gradually, now, indeed: (adv) certainly, exactly, in imply, diminution, diminish
eventually reality, surely, of course, assuredly, instead: (adv) instead of,
24 A Modest Proposal
alternatively, as an alternative, in wist lean: (adj, v) gaunt; (adj) emaciated,
place of, more willingly, to knife: (adj, n) blade; (adj) cutlery, thin, bony, lank; (n, v) bend, tilt,
compensate for, sooner, preferably, edge tool; (v) stab; (n) sword, slant, list, careen; (n) inclination.
otherwise, on the other hand; (n) cleaver, whittle, cutter, tongue, ANTONYMS: (adj) plump, rich,
lieu pocketknife, chopper chubby, greasy, stout; (v) straighten,
intended: (adj) deliberate, calculated, knowing: (adj, v) canny, crafty, wise; repel
destined, knowing, meant, planned, (adj, n) clever; (adj) conscious, learn: (v) get, find, ascertain, hear,
premeditated, prospective, willful, aware, ingenious, intelligent, bright, find out, have, determine, con,
designed; (adj, v) voluntary. conversant, smart. ANTONYMS: acquire, tell; (n, v) know.
ANTONYMS: (adj) accidental, (adj) naive, uncomprehending, ANTONYM: (v) reject
involuntary, unintended, unconscious learning: (n, v) erudition,
spontaneous, unconscious knowledge: (n) information, enlightenment; (n) acquisition,
intention: (n) idea, intent, goal, comprehension, science, lore, education, culture, scholarship,
purpose, cause, motive, mind; (n, v) understanding, intelligence, grasp, wisdom, acquirement, letter,
aim, end, design, drift erudition, acquaintance; (n, v) literature; (v) learn
interest: (n, v) advantage, care, cognition; (adj, n) art. ANTONYMS: least: (n) minimum; (adj) smallest,
benefit; (adj, v) engage; (n) affair, (n) foolishness, inexperience minimal, littlest, lowest,
account, gain, hobby, eagerness, known: (adj) familiar, knew, insignificant, minutest, negligible;
enthusiasm, sake. ANTONYMS: (n) conscious, certain, famous, know, (adj, n) smallest amount; (adv) at
indifference, apathy, boredom, eminent, plain, accepted, published, least, fully. ANTONYMS: (adj)
distraction, hostility, detachment, acknowledged. ANTONYMS: (adj) maximum, greatest; (adj, adv) most
inattention, repulsion; (v) repel, unknown, secret, unidentified, leave: (v) depart, go, abandon, desert,
appall unfamiliar lead; (adj, v) forsake, quit; (n)
introduced: (adj) exotic, familiar, labour: (n, v) travail, labor, toil; (v) furlough, permission, holiday; (n, v)
foisted in, imported grind, fag, drudge; (n) exertion, escape. ANTONYMS: (v) enter,
introducing: (n) introduction employment, confinement, childbed, arrive, stay, remain, come,
invited: (adj) welcomer, wanted, business approach, change, reposition,
cherished land: (n) country, earth, soil, disinherit, occupy, participate
ireland: (n) Hibernia, cork, Emerald kingdom, field, nation, estate, length: (n, v) extent; (n) distance,
Isle, Irish Free State domain; (v) disembark, debark, get. range, duration, size, measurement,
island: (n, v) isle; (n) islet, reef, safety ANTONYMS: (adj) aquatic, longness, dimension, depth,
zone, Cebu, Papua; (v) insulate, amphibious; (n) sea; (v) lose, depart, compass, quantity. ANTONYMS:
isolate, segregate, sequester, embark (n) shortness, width, breadth,
separate landlord: (n) laird, proprietor, brevity, conciseness
justify: (v) explain, exonerate, landlady, owner, landholder, land lent: (n) Quadragesima, Lententide
vindicate, confirm, absolve, defend, holder, land owner, innkeeper, less: (adj) inferior, wanting, minor,
deserve, apologize, claim, palliate; property owner, slumlord, publican. secondary, subordinate, deficient,
(n, v) warrant ANTONYM: (n) occupant minus, few; (adj, adv) lesser, lower;
justly: (adv) accurately, fairly, lastly: (adv) eventually, ultimately, (adv) below. ANTONYMS: (adj)
correctly, honestly, lawfully, latterly, in conclusion, last, at last, additional; (prep) plus
properly, exactly, uprightly, terminally, latestly, utmostly, lessen: (v) decrease, abate, fall,
legitimately, impartially, purely. definitively, concludingly. decline, dwindle, assuage, allay,
ANTONYMS: (adv) wrongly, ANTONYM: (adv) initially alleviate; (adj, v) abridge, curtail,
unfairly, unjustifiably, unjustly, late: (adj, adv) dilatory, fresh, contract. ANTONYMS: (v) increase,
unlawfully, sinfully, falsely, behindhand, backward; (adj) exacerbate, intensify, raise, grow,
immorally former, deceased, dead, slow, aggravate, accelerate, bolster,
kick: (v) grumble, complain; (n) delayed, modern; (adv) belatedly. worsen, strengthen, rise
bitch, beef, thrill, gripe, charge, ANTONYMS: (adj, adv) early, lessened: (adj) diminished, hurt,
excitement; (n, v) recoil, spurn, punctual; (adv) punctually, lower, mitigated, pointed, tapering,
protest. ANTONYMS: (v) start; (n) promptly; (adj) ahead, existing, vitiated, atrophied, short, attenuate,
bore alive, initial, middle, old, premature attenuated
kind: (n) sort, form, class, variety, lately: (adv) tardily, newly, freshly, lessening: (n) diminution, cutback,
breed; (adj, n) helpful, good, belatedly, slowly, latterly, deadly; alleviation, contraction, abatement,
humane, friendly, gentle; (adj) (adj, adv) anew, late, afresh; (adj) mitigation, shrinking, reduction, cut;
generous. ANTONYMS: (adj) recent (adj) decreasing, diminishing.
unkind, cruel, hardhearted, mean, lawful: (adj) legal, just, rightful, ANTONYMS: (n) growth,
merciless, nasty, spiteful, uncaring, constitutional, true, right, justifiable, restoration; (adj) increasing
upsetting, callous, disagreeable licit, regular; (n, v) allowable; (adj, liable: (adj) answerable, accountable,
kingdom: (n) domain, realm, state, v) permissible. ANTONYMS: (adj) disposed, apt, responsible, inclined,
empire, dominion, territory, nation, unlawful, prohibited, exposed, likely, subject, culpable,
crown, monarchy, department, land unconstitutional vulnerable. ANTONYMS: (adj)
knew: (adj) known; (v) recognize, laws: (n) Pentateuch, Torah unwilling, innocent, unlikely,
Jonathan Swift 25
disinclined, impervious amorist, man ANTONYM: (n) separation
life: (adj, n) animation; (n) energy, luxury: (n) comfort, luxuriousness, married: (adj) wedded, conjugal,
spirit, activity, dash, enthusiasm, extravagance, opulence, wealth; matrimonial, connubial, nuptial,
being, biography, existence, (adj, n) delicacy, gratification, united, mixed, connected, marrying,
exuberance, live. ANTONYMS: (n) elegance; (adj) luxurious, deluxe, attached, unite. ANTONYMS: (adj)
death, apathy, extinction, indulgence. ANTONYMS: (n) unmarried, unattached, divorced,
nonexistence, lifelessness paucity, necessity, poverty, filth, public
likewise: (adv) besides, in addition, discomfort, bareness, shabbiness; materials: (n) goods, resources,
furthermore, alike, moreover, (adj) basic, inferior, cheap, Spartan equipment, riches, treasures,
further, too, similarly; (adj, adv) as magnificence: (adj, n) splendor, reserves, provisions, order
well, equally; (adj) even brilliancy, gorgeousness; (n) glory, matter: (n) business, substance, issue,
list: (n) catalogue, catalog, pomp, brilliance, grandness, material, affair, concern, incident,
inclination, index, calendar, greatness, dignity, majesty, loftiness. article, subject; (n, v) case; (adj, n)
enumeration; (n, v) file, tilt, ANTONYMS: (n) paucity, modesty, import
schedule; (v) enter, itemize shabbiness, poverty, austerity, maturely: (adv) mellowly, adultly,
little: (adj, adv) small; (adj) unattractiveness perfectly, completely, fully, readily,
diminutive, insignificant, short, tiny, maimed: (adj) disabled, mutilated, agedly, oldly, primely, correctly,
some, brief, petty, minute, exiguous; deformed, truncated, faulty, cut conscientiously. ANTONYMS: (adv)
(adv) rather. ANTONYMS: (adj) short, game, cut off; (n) wounded childishly, irresponsibly
enormous, large, important, huge, maintain: (v) continue, assert, aver, mean: (adj, n) middle, low,
high, giant, older, old, tall; (adv) preserve, defend, declare, guard, contemptible, average, medium,
frequently, well conserve, affirm; (n, v) justify, common; (v) design; (n, v) imply,
livelihood: (n) subsistence, existence, allege. ANTONYMS: (v) change, denote; (adj) ignoble, hateful.
job, maintenance, support, living, neglect, abandon, transform, quit, ANTONYMS: (adj) generous, kind,
sustenance, bread, keep, bread and grant, end, cancel, endanger, refute, extravagant, charitable, luxurious,
butter, career stop rich, expansive, extreme, great; (n)
lives: (n) life, living, estate, existence, maintaining: (n) contention, maximum, minimum
earnest living continuation; (adj) affirming, measure: (n) amount, criterion,
london: (n) British capital, jack assertory extent, measurement, estimate,
London, John Griffith Chaney, making: (n) creation, construction, degree, beat, benchmark, quantity,
Greater London, capital of the production, fabrication, meter; (n, v) act. ANTONYMS: (v)
united kingdom manufacture, cartography, devising, guess, estimate
long: (v) yearn, desire, hanker, fashioning, manufacturing, meat: (n) food, gist, essence, core,
languish, ache, wish; (adj, n) formation; (v) to make. kernel, heart, substance, marrow,
extensive; (n, v) hunger; (adj) ANTONYMS: (n) undoing, crux, matter, beef
extended, lengthy; (n) length. destruction medium: (adj, n) mediocre, mean;
ANTONYMS: (adj) short, brief, male: (n) fellow, boy, chap, guy, man, (adj) intermediate, fair, mid; (n)
concise lad, gent; (adj) masculine, manly, instrument, vehicle, atmosphere, go-
longer: (adj) longest, better, lengest; virile, manlike. ANTONYMS: (adj, between, means, agency
(adv) farther; (n) yearner, thirster n) female; (n) woman; (adj) melancholy: (adj, v) dreary; (adj, n)
lord: (n) chief, king, noble, sir, duke, feminine, androgynous gloom, melancholic; (adj) depressed,
master, God, seignior, nobility, manner: (adj, n) kind; (n) bearing, dejected, dismal, gloomy, doleful;
Mister, potentate. ANTONYM: (n) demeanor, method, form, (n, v) low spirits; (n) gloominess,
lady appearance, carriage, way; (n, v) depression. ANTONYMS: (n)
loss: (adj, n) detriment, damage, custom, style, habit happiness, cheerfulness,
injury, harm; (n) defeat, deprivation, manufacture: (v) construct, frame, hopefulness, optimism; (adj) happy,
deficit, destruction, forfeit, fabricate, produce, build, contrive, bright, cheery, satisfied
forfeiture, bereavement. invent; (n) formation, construction, members: (n) convention, personnel
ANTONYMS: (n) retrieval, production, fabrication. mercy: (n) kindness, compassion,
appearance, victory, recovery, ANTONYMS: (v) consume, destroy pity, favor, leniency, pardon,
gaining, income, gain, accumulation, march: (n, v) hike, parade, trek, forgiveness, grace, charity,
win, benefit, fortune ramble, journey, tramp, course; (n) humanity; (n, v) quarter.
love: (n) desire, fondness, affection, demonstration; (v) process, pace, ANTONYMS: (n) cruelty, harshness,
dear, liking, benevolence, charity, stride unkindness, severity, mercilessness,
honey, devotion; (v) enjoy; (n, v) market: (n) fair, emporium, ruthlessness, impatience,
worship. ANTONYMS: (n, v) marketplace, bazaar, grocery store; inhumanity
dislike; (n) abhorrence, hatred, (n, v) shop, trade; (v) demand, sell, merry: (adj) joyful, lively, cheerful,
aversion, detestation, detachment, commercialize, exchange glad, jolly, facetious, frolicsome,
indifference; (v) abhor; (adv) marriage: (adj, n) bridal, nuptial; (n) lighthearted, festive; (adj, n)
roughly matrimony, espousal, union, convivial, jovial. ANTONYMS: (adj)
lover: (n) dear, darling, fan, devotee, wedlock, intermarriage, alliance, gloomy, miserable, serious, uptight
beau, buff, love, admirer, beloved, coupling; (n, v) match; (v) marry. method: (n) course, fashion, form,
26 A Modest Proposal
system, order, approach, ANTONYM: (n) disincentive nutritive, hearty, alimental, good,
arrangement, way, manner, move: (v) excite, go, affect, carry, beneficial. ANTONYMS: (adj)
formula; (adj, n) plan. ANTONYMS: touch, instigate, travel; (n, v) act, unhealthy, unwholesome, meager,
(n) chaos, disorderliness drive, transfer, maneuver. insufficient
might: (n) power, energy, ability, ANTONYMS: (v) stay, restore, nourishment: (n) food, alimentation,
influence, strength, puissance, refrain, remain, rest, withdraw, stop, meal, meat, diet, feeding, nutrition,
vehemence, intensity; (v) may, can, repel, come, leave repast, sustenance, edible, fuel
could. ANTONYMS: (n) weakness, name: (v) appoint, describe, baptize, number: (n, v) amount, figure; (v)
feebleness, meekness list, enumerate, identify, cite, calculate, total, aggregate,
milk: (v) squeeze, drain, tap, bleed, mention; (n, v) title, entitle; (n) enumerate, come; (n) score, act,
anodyne, balm; (n) buttermilk, epithet. ANTONYMS: (n) nobody, volume, issue
colostrum, foremilk; (adj) gluten, indecency nursed: (adj) care, suckled
chalk nation: (n) state, country, kingdom, nursing: (n) attention, tending, care,
million: (n) meg, myriad, one people, community, commonwealth, breast feeding, treatment, nurture,
thousand thousand, heap, large land, a people, body politic, suckling, nurse, feeding, treat,
integer, mint nationality, tribe rearing
minister: (n) envoy, priest, deputy, native: (adj, n) aboriginal, natural; nutritive: (adj) nourishing, nutritious,
divine, ambassador, churchman, (adj) inherent, inborn, innate, alimentary, nutrient, alimental,
clergyman, cleric, curate, congenital, inbred, indigenous, wholesome, eatable, rich, alible,
ecclesiastic; (v) supply domestic; (n) autochthon, aborigine. edible, healthy
miscarriage: (n, v) failure; (n) flop, ANTONYMS: (n) stranger, migrant, object: (n) cause, intent, meaning,
fiasco, spontaneous abortion, defeat, foreigner; (adj) foreign, learned, mark, subject, objective, substance;
disappointment, failing, balk, acquired, nonnative, overseas, (n, v) aim, end, intention; (v) except.
frustration; (v) fail, fault adopted; (adj, n) immigrant, ANTONYMS: (v) agree, approve,
miscarry: (v) fail, founder, abort, fall, imported praise; (n) notion
flop, break down, go wrong, nearest: (adj) proximate, immediate, objection: (n) dissent, complaint,
backfire, fall through, miss, lose close, near, next, adjoining, intimate, grievance, exception, gripe,
misfortunes: (n) misfortune direct, adjacent; (adj, adv) nighest; disagreement, outcry, difficulty,
mistaken: (adj) wrong, erroneous, (adv) fore. ANTONYM: (adj) distant expostulation, disapproval,
false, misguided, inaccurate, neat: (adj) elegant, tidy, clear, natty, criticism. ANTONYMS: (n)
fallacious, untrue, misleading, graceful, dainty, pretty, clever, pure, approval, agreement, praise,
confused, improper, error. straight, nifty. ANTONYMS: (adj) acceptance
ANTONYMS: (adj) accurate, wise, messy, scruffy, unkempt, clumsy, oblige: (v) coerce, force, drive,
right disordered, disorderly, diluted, constrain, make, bind,
modest: (adj) humble, lowly, large, lax, impulsive, loose accommodate, obligate, necessitate,
moderate, gentle, low, meek, chaste, necessary: (adj, n, v) requisite; (adj, v) enforce, impel. ANTONYMS: (v)
decent, unassuming; (adj, n) bashful, important; (adj) inevitable, displease, request, hinder
diffident. ANTONYMS: (adj) compulsory, mandatory, observe: (n, v) comment, notice, note;
pretentious, arrogant, spectacular, fundamental, main, indispensable; (v) commemorate, mind, guard,
conceited, showy, proud, pompous, (n) necessity, demand; (adj, n) basic. mention, mark, see, discover; (int, v)
elaborate, grand, conspicuous, ANTONYMS: (adj) optional, look. ANTONYMS: (v) feel,
ostentatious surplus, needless, unjustified, disregard, break, overlook, disobey,
moment: (n, v) consequence, weight; dispensable, possible, unimportant, disrespect, Miss, violate
(adj, n) instant; (n) flash, jiffy, voluntary, nonessential, observed: (adj) ascertained,
minute, import, second, time, bit, inappropriate; (n) inessential empirical, discovered, viewed,
hour. ANTONYMS: (n) neither: (conj) either, no-one, not experimental, experiential,
inconsequence, age, triviality either, nor, nother determined, visual, disclosed
money: (n) currency, capital, kale, never: (adv) ne'er, Nevers, always, obvious: (adj, v) clear; (adj) distinct,
funds, means, lucre, assets, legal not ever, by no means, at all times, conspicuous, open, evident, flagrant,
tender, pelf, cash, dough not at all, not, NE. ANTONYMS: glaring, blatant, discernible; (adj,
month: (n) calendar month, months, (adv) always, forever adv) apparent, manifest.
lunation, minute, hour, day, period, nine: (n) niner, club, ball club, ANTONYMS: (adj) inconspicuous,
quarter, quinquennium, year, baseball club, ennead, Nina from obscure, unclear, undetectable,
moonshine Carolina, three times three, ten, hidden, imperceptible, slight, subtle,
mortals: (n) people nightspot, clubhouse, queen concealed, unobvious, furtive
mother: (n) mamma, mommy, origin, nothing: (adv, n) naught; (adj, n) nil, occupation: (n) occupancy, business,
mama, ma, mammy, mummy; (n, v) null; (n) nobody, cipher, nihil, craft, calling, job, place, vocation,
father; (v) engender, generate, beget nonentity, trifle, nix, aught, cypher. career, function, line; (n, v) affair.
motive: (n, v) cause; (n) account, ANTONYMS: (pron) anything, ANTONYM: (n) surrender
incentive, impulse, inducement, everything, some; (n) all offer: (v) give, bestow, put, tender,
motif, motivation, incitement, nourishing: (adj) alimentary, healthy, extend, impart, introduce, advance,
reason, subject; (v) aim. nutrient, healthful, wholesome, rich, propose; (n) proposal, proposition.
Jonathan Swift 27
ANTONYMS: (v) refuse, withhold, extravagance, generosity spice, season, salt
take part: (adj, n) constituent; (n) piece, perfection: (n) maturity, ideal,
offered: (adj) presented, accessible, article, section; (v) break, disjoin, consummation, paragon,
existing, obtainable, available, divide, divorce; (n, v) branch, completeness, finish, completion,
ready, on hand, to be had, division, character. ANTONYMS: crown, flawlessness, development,
unsolicited (n) whole, entirety; (v) join, unite, ne plus ultra. ANTONYMS: (n)
offering: (n, v) gift, grant; (n) meet, arrive, connect; (adv) wholly imperfection, fault, abandonment,
oblation, contribution, donation, particular: (n) detail, item; (adj) ugliness, deterioration
presentation, offer, present, fastidious, fussy, finicky, exact, perform: (v) execute, fulfill,
endowment, gratuity, bestowal individual, careful, definite, delicate, accomplish, do, achieve, complete,
often: (adj, adv) oft; (adv) much, detailed. ANTONYMS: (adj) carry out, behave, make, play,
again and again, repeatedly, careless, easy, vague, ordinary, appear. ANTONYMS: (v) omit,
ofttimes, oftentimes, many times, collective, generalized, slapdash, rehearse, malfunction, stop
always, commonly, again; (adj) universal, strong, normal, perhaps: (adv) mayhap, perchance,
frequent. ANTONYMS: (adv) indeterminate peradventure, possibly, probably,
seldom, infrequently, never particularly: (adj, adv) specially, conceivably, by chance, haply, if,
omit: (adv, v) neglect, disregard; (adj, only; (adv) peculiarly, specifically, presumably; (n) might. ANTONYM:
v) miss, skip, jump, pretermit; (v) individually, expressly, separately, (adv) certainly
delete, forget, exclude, except, leave. curiously, markedly, unusually, perpetual: (adj) incessant, continual,
ANTONYMS: (v) add, remember definitely. ANTONYMS: (adv) constant, endless, eternal,
opinion: (adj, n, v) judgment, feeling, slightly, generally, vaguely, everlasting, lasting, ceaseless,
notion; (n) idea, belief, conjecture, somewhat, unexceptionally immortal, continuous, perennial.
advice, guess, impression, view; (n, partly: (adj) half, semi, quasi; (adv) ANTONYMS: (adj) temporary,
v) meaning part, constituently, in part, sidely, intermittent, transitory, mortal,
oppression: (n, v) hardship, moderately, halfway, incompletely, unstable, finite, inconstant,
grievance; (n) injustice, despotism, relatively. ANTONYMS: (adv) occasional, sporadic
weight, stress, doldrums; (adj, n) completely, wholly, entirely; (adj) person: (n) individual, human, man,
abuse, tyranny, dictatorship, fully mortal, character, soul, human
autocracy. ANTONYMS: (n) parts: (n) faculty, nous, quick parts, being, being, creature, body; (n, v)
democracy, ease, freedom, liberty sagacity, wit, surroundings; (adj) party
order: (n, v) command, direct, decree, ingenuity, cleverness, capacity, turn, personal: (adj) own, particular,
dictate, sort, rank, array, talents human, intimate, peculiar, private,
commission, charge; (n) instruction, passenger: (n) traveler, wayfarer, direct, proper, subjective, physical;
edict. ANTONYMS: (n, v) request; occupant, itinerant, rider, stowaway, (n) person. ANTONYMS: (adj)
(n) mayhem, confusion, chaos, mess, voyager, hitchhiker, commuter, public, general, detached, collective,
anarchy, disorderliness, disarray; (v) passer, pilgrim. ANTONYM: (n) common, orthodox, formal,
disturb, deregulate, supply driver impersonal, outermost, external,
others: (n) rest, cessation, lie, lave, past: (n) history, yesterday; (adj, adv, typical
LAN, ease, acquiesce, intermission prep) beyond; (adj) former, bygone, persons: (n) folk, public, society,
otherwise: (adv) besides, differently, old, prior, over, gone by; (adv) world
or else, yet, alias, nevertheless, on before; (adv, pref) along. physician: (n) doctor, medico, doc,
the other hand, in addition; (adj, ANTONYMS: (adj, n) future, medic, quack, surgeon, leech,
adv) other; (n) or; (adj) different present; (prep) within; (adj) current, houseman, MD, allergist, intern
overture: (n, v) offer, advance; (n) contemporary, modern, upcoming, pick: (n) alternative, best, option,
prelude, approach, introduction, following, subsequent, later; (n) selection, choice; (adj, n) cream,
preface, opening, presentation, prospect elite; (adj, v) select; (v) opt, harvest,
feeler, bid, motion. ANTONYMS: patriot: (n) jingoist, jingo, subject, gather. ANTONYMS: (v) reject,
(n) finale, conclusion, postscript patriotic, Garibaldi, loyalist, refuse
pain: (n, v) hurt, afflict, ache, bother, national, chauvinist. ANTONYM: piece: (n) fragment, division, part,
torment, trouble, grieve, anguish; (n) (n) turncoat article, lump, hunk, composition,
ill, agony, nuisance. ANTONYMS: paying: (adj, v) profitable; (adj) paid, component, opus; (n, v) patch,
(v) encourage, cheer; (n) joy, peace, lucrative, salaried, stipendiary, portion. ANTONYMS: (n) whole,
content, balm, ecstasy good, beneficial; (v) advantageous, chunk; (v) disassemble
parish: (n) community, congregation, remunerative; (n) payment, pigs: (n) stock, hogs, Suidae,
county, region, province, township, defrayment livestock, litter, family Suidae,
borough, church, grazing land, area, penalties: (n) penalty domestic animals, cattle, boars,
arrondissement penny: (n) change, coin, centime, sheep, farm animals
parsimony: (n) frugality, thrift, copper, groat, subunit, money, mite, pine: (v) languish, long, ache, droop,
niggardliness, parsimoniousness, doit, small change, denomination flag, crave, fade; (n) fir; (n, v) yearn,
closeness, meanness, miserliness, pepper: (n) cayenne, capsicum, sink; (adj) peak
avarice, stinginess, prudence, paprika, pimento, peppercorn, black pity: (n, v) compassion, ruth; (n)
pettiness. ANTONYMS: (n) pepper; (v) bombard, sprinkle; (adj) mercy, commiseration, condolence,
28 A Modest Proposal
sympathy, clemency, remorse; (v) poorer: (adj) lesser, substandard, quack, shammer, humbug; (v)
sympathize, compassionate, feel subordinate, of inferior quality, not fanfaron
sorry for. ANTONYMS: (n) blame, as good as, lower, junior, minor. prevent: (n, v) hinder, bar; (v)
cruelty, indifference, harshness, joy ANTONYMS: (adj) superior, higher anticipate, block, forbid, avert,
please: (v) delight, charm, amuse, popish: (adj) papistic, papist, Roman, avoid, preclude, arrest, hamper,
entertain, oblige, enchant, enrapture; Romish, Romanist, papal, pontifical, obviate. ANTONYMS: (v) allow,
(adj, v) gratify, enjoy, like; (adj) glad. apostolic, Roman Catholic permit, promote, advance, attract,
ANTONYMS: (v) displease, annoy, popular: (adj) general, current, cause, let, drive, help, support,
irritate, anger, distress, sicken, fashionable, democratic, customary, include
disappoint, dissatisfy, sadden, repel, plain, known, pop, celebrated; (adj, price: (v) appraise, assess; (adj, n)
appall v) favorite; (n) folk. ANTONYMS: worth, merit; (n) cost, charge,
pleased: (adj) contented, glad, (adj) unpopular, aristocratic, expense, figure, fee; (n, v) estimate,
delighted, content, joyful, thankful, disliked, companionless, out, amount
gratified, appreciative, overjoyed, unknown, unpleasant, minority, pride: (n) arrogance, conceit, egotism,
cheerful; (adj, v) elated. forgettable, highbrow, vanity, lordliness, assumption,
ANTONYMS: (adj) unhappy, unfashionable insolence, disdain, hauteur; (n, v)
annoyed, angry, worried, ashamed, possibly: (adv) probably, perhaps, boast; (v) plume. ANTONYMS: (n)
disappointed, frustrated, sad, peradventure, likely, perchance, modesty, sorrow, dregs, disgrace,
unsatisfied, ungrateful, may, might, or, mayhap, shame, baseness
uncomplimentary conceivably, potentially. prime: (adj, n) chief, best, paramount,
pleasure: (n) fun, enjoyment, ANTONYMS: (adv) impossibly, essential; (adj) first, head,
delectation, joy, comfort, happiness, definitely, certainly, indeed, fundamental, primary, early; (n)
mirth, inclination; (n, v) implausibly flower; (v) ground. ANTONYMS:
contentment, content; (adj, n, v) pound: (n, v) pen, hammer, thump; (adj, n) secondary, inferior; (adj)
gratification. ANTONYMS: (n) (v) palpitate, grind, maul, crush, new, marginal; (n) nadir
irritation, nuisance, boredom, ache, bang, flap, mash, buffet principal: (adj, n) chief, master,
displeasure, dissatisfaction, misery, power: (n, v) might, ability, influence, cardinal, primary, leading, capital,
pain, sadness, worry, anguish dominion, faculty; (n) potency, prime, main; (adj) grand; (n)
plentiful: (adj) opulent, bountiful, energy, control, authority, manager, leader. ANTONYMS: (adj)
ample, luxuriant, liberal, copious, domination, strength. ANTONYMS: secondary, subordinate, peripheral,
fruitful, full, abundant, rich, plenty. (n) powerlessness, helplessness, trivial, marginal, side
ANTONYMS: (adj) scanty, meager, weakness, inability, subjugation, probably: (adv) presumably,
sparse, lacking, insufficient, few, moderation, calmness, meekness, perhaps, maybe, in all probability, in
infertile inferiority, feebleness, ease all likelihood, belike, believably,
plentifully: (adv) plenteously, practice: (n, v) exercise, drill, credibly; (adj, adv) doubtless; (adj)
bountifully, bounteously, discipline, use; (n) fashion, like; (n) may. ANTONYM: (adv)
abundantly, profusely, richly, fully, convention, habitude, habit, implausibly
liberally, opulently, amply, experience, form, observance. procure: (v) get, obtain, buy, earn,
prolifically. ANTONYM: (adv) ANTONYMS: (n) theory, win, gain, have, purchase, induce,
meagerly innovation; (v) perform derive, find. ANTONYM: (v) give
plump: (adj) chubby, corpulent, pregnancy: (n) gestation, richness, prodigious: (adj) gigantic, enormous,
stout, round, obese, overweight, womb, abundance, fertility, huge, phenomenal, portentous,
gross, buxom, pudgy; (adj, n) fleshy; affluence, wealth, profusion, stupendous, exceptional, colossal,
(v) fatten. ANTONYMS: (adj) thin, conception, opulence; (adj) immense, gargantuan; (adj, v)
emaciated, skinny, slim, slender procreation monstrous. ANTONYMS: (adj)
points: (n) turnout, handicap, prescribe: (n, v) ordain; (v) enjoin, unexceptional, normal, average,
interest, percentage, brownie points, decree, dictate, fix, command, tiny, weak
commendation, credit, eight points, assign, determine, set, stipulate, profess: (v) assert, feign, affirm,
share, terms designate avow, state, pretend, claim, confess,
poison: (adj, v) contaminate, taint; (n, present: (adj, n, v) gift, grant; (n, v) allege, aver; (n, v) protest.
v) envenom, drug, empoison; (adj) donation, display; (adj, v) confer, ANTONYM: (v) repress
toxic, poisonous; (v) defile, bestow; (v) introduce, give, prefer, professed: (adj) alleged, declared,
intoxicate; (n) bane, venom. offer, perform. ANTONYMS: (v) apparent, avowed, pretended,
ANTONYMS: (n) cure; (v) clean withdraw, withhold, consume, take; seeming, supposed, affected,
poor: (adj) bad, miserable, piteous, (adj) missing, lost, dated, historical; feigned, so-called, purported
destitute, pitiful, insufficient, (adj, n) past, future; (n) history profession: (n) employment,
penniless, pathetic; (adj, v) meager; preserver: (n) defender, protector, declaration, occupation, affirmation,
(adj, n) paltry, mean. ANTONYMS: custodian, conservative, keeper, calling, career, vocation, job,
(adj) wealthy, excellent, privileged, conservator, savior, patron, restorer, position, assertion, assurance.
admirable, good, adequate, flotation device; (adj) third person ANTONYM: (n) denial
satisfactory, outstanding, favorable, pretender: (n) fraud, fake, imposter, proficiency: (n) ability, expertise,
dignified, comfortable sham, hypocrite, claimant, cheat, capability, dexterity, competence,
Jonathan Swift 29
efficiency, knowledge, expertness, ANTONYMS: (v) refuse, withhold, rags: (adj) refuse, rubble, scourings,
skill, facility, craft. ANTONYMS: (n) divest, neglect, take, buy sweepings, trash, waste; (n)
inability, inexperience provided: (adv) in case, provided clothing, tatter, orts, odds and ends,
profit: (n, v) gain, produce, net, always; (conj) if; (n) conditionally, as dress
increase, help; (adj, n, v) benefit, if, quasi; (adj) fitted, instructed, raiment: (n, v) dress, garb, apparel,
advantage; (n) account, earnings, enlightened, arranged; (v) foreseen garment, clothes; (n) costume, attire,
lucre; (adj, n) good. ANTONYMS: providing: (v) provide; (n) provision, clothing, array, habit; (v) clothe
(n) loss, detriment, insignificance supply, supplying, health care raised: (adj) embossed, erect, convex,
project: (n, v) design, jut, scheme; (v) delivery, giving out, alimentation, inflated, brocaded, high, uplifted,
hurl, contrive, overhang, protrude, logistics; (conj) if, on condition that; lifted, exultant; (v) in relief, repousse
shoot, bulge; (n) device, idea (adv) in case rather: (adv) a little, enough, fairly,
promote: (adv, v) further, forward; prudence: (n) foresight, economy, pretty, moderately, considerably,
(v) help, encourage, aid, push, frugality, caution, care, forethought, very, relatively, kind of, instead,
prefer, develop, foster, advertise, providence, circumspection, kinda. ANTONYMS: (adv)
assist. ANTONYMS: (v) demote, judgment, deliberation; (adj, n) extremely, absolutely; (adj) complete
prevent, downgrade, impede, wisdom. ANTONYMS: (n) reader: (n) professor, lector,
obstruct, oppose, restrain, thwart, imprudence, profligacy, generosity, proofreader, subscriber, reviewer,
buy, hinder, neglect hindsight, recklessness, bookworm, printer, preacher,
propagation: (n, v) generation, extravagance compositor, schoolbook, scholar
progeneration, genesis; (n) diffusion, prudent: (adj, v) discreet; (adj) ready: (v) prepare, fix; (adj, v) fit,
dissemination, extension, cautious, circumspect, reasonable, disposed, willing; (adj) quick,
circulation, transmission, chary, economical, careful, frugal, prompt, nimble, apt; (adj, n)
promulgation; (adj, n) deliberate, advisable, canny. available, dexterous. ANTONYMS:
multiplication; (v) procreation ANTONYMS: (adj) imprudent, (adj) unwilling, reluctant,
proper: (adj) due, decent, modest, reckless, spendthrift, stupid, unavailable, unready, unripe,
agreeable, fitting, legitimate, right; careless, unwise, unsafe, tactless difficult, unenthusiastic, young
(adj, v) correct, fit, becoming; (adj, n) public: (n) folk, people, populace; real: (adj, n, v) actual; (adj, n) true,
just. ANTONYMS: (adj) (adj) national, overt, civic, pure, authentic; (adj) physical,
inappropriate, wrong, unseemly, communal, popular; (adj, v) general, material, natural, concrete, positive,
rude, unconventional, unsuitable, open; (adj, n) community. literal, native. ANTONYMS: (adj, v)
false, relaxed, vulgar, unreasonable, ANTONYMS: (adj) private, pretend; (adj) imaginary, artificial,
undue confidential, personal, individual, fake, apparent, mock, insubstantial,
properly: (adv) duly, decently, privileged, restricted, unknown, imitation, fantasy, false, bogus
appropriately, neatly, exactly, home, secret reason: (n) account, intellect,
rightly, becomingly, fittingly, fitly, purpose: (n, v) plan, intention, occasion, object, understanding,
seemly, aptly. ANTONYMS: (adv) design, project, resolve, purport, argument, purpose; (n, v) cause; (v)
improperly, incorrectly, end, object; (n) mind, effect, motive. argue, debate; (adj, n) rationality.
inappropriately, unlawfully, ANTONYM: (n) weakness ANTONYMS: (n) inconsistency,
unsuitably, unduly, informally, putting: (n) placing, putt, botong, disincentive
indecently, dishonorably, badly, swing, puts, miniature golf, golf reasonable: (adj) rational, just, fair,
jokingly stroke, golf shot, placing into legitimate, judicious, sensible, sane,
proposal: (n) advice, suggestion, standby temperate, impartial, inexpensive,
proposition, overture, plan, proffer, quality: (adj, n) character, faculty; (n) equitable. ANTONYMS: (adj)
offer, hypothesis, presentation, idea, class, characteristic, condition, illogical, unfair, expensive,
view grade, feature, distinction, unsatisfactory, inadequate,
propose: (v) bid, nominate, design, description, mark, peculiarity. excessive, intolerable, intemperate,
plan, proffer, move, intend, mean, ANTONYMS: (adj) cheap; (n) inexplicable, ridiculous, obsessional
aim, suggest; (n, v) advance. drawback, inferiority, mediocrity reasonably: (adv) fairly, rather, quite,
ANTONYMS: (v) reject, improvise, quarter: (n) part, district, passably, pretty, justly, somewhat,
oppose neighbourhood, division, mercy, sensibly, rationally, enough, fair.
proposed: (adj) intended, projected, neighborhood, region, direction, ANTONYMS: (adv) extremely,
suggested, intentional, jutting, portion; (n, v) place; (v) lodge. dangerously, illogically, irrationally,
planned, future, projecting, ANTONYM: (v) evict wrongly, extravagantly, foolishly,
predetermined, prospective; (n) question: (n, v) query, distrust, implausibly, intolerably,
moot interrogate, matter, challenge, unsatisfactorily, unfairly
prospect: (n) outlook, expectancy, demand; (n) inquiry; (v) investigate, receipts: (n) proceeds, earnings,
lookout, aspect, anticipation, hope, inquire, contest, examine. revenue, gain, profit, gross, gate,
possibility, perspective, probability, ANTONYMS: (n) certainty, profit and loss account, box office,
panorama, picture resolution; (n, v) trust; (v) praise, gains, emolument
provide: (v) contribute, furnish, offer, reply, believe, accept reckon: (v) estimate, judge, hold,
cater, supply, afford, equip, quickest: (adv) most quickly compute, guess, calculate, gauge,
administer, accommodate, allow, fit. quitting: (n) departure, resignation rate; (n, v) enumerate, count,
30 A Modest Proposal
number quetch, murmur, brood, mourn, putrefaction, decomposition, deep
recommend: (v) advocate, advise, languish, whine, lament; (n) sink etching
counsel, commend, offer, suggest, require: (v) charge, crave, involve, round: (n) bout, circuit, beat; (n, v)
move, praise, urge, endorse, desire, demand, exact, claim, ask, ring, compass; (adv, prep) about;
promote. ANTONYMS: (v) oppose, entail; (adj, v) want, lack. (adj) circular, entire; (adj, v) plump;
reject ANTONYMS: (v) obviate, dislike, (adj, n, v) turn; (v) gird.
refinement: (n) culture, cultivation, have ANTONYMS: (adj) sharp, slender,
purification, gentility, polish, finish, reserved: (adj, n) cold, distant, frigid; thin, square, harsh, reedy, evasive;
civilization, nicety, courtesy, grace; (adj) coy, reticent, diffident, bashful, (prep) exactly
(adj, n) elegance. ANTONYMS: (n) aloof, retiring, quiet, shy. rudiments: (n) grammar,
vulgarity, adulteration, tackiness, ANTONYMS: (adj) open, fundamentals, elements, alphabet,
uncouthness, tastelessness, forthcoming, uninhibited, relaxed, abecedary, primer, vade mecum,
inelegance, coarseness, clumsiness, warm, communicative, talkative, bedrock, element, fundamental
awkwardness, crudeness free, definite, cordial, forward principle, rudiment
regarded: (adj) reputed resolution: (n) determination, sale: (n) fair, disposal, sales, sales
reject: (v) deny, decline, disapprove, purpose, firmness, conclusion, event, bazaar, market, demand,
eliminate, dismiss, exclude, rebuff, answer, solution, resolve, marketing, saloon, vend, vendition.
discard, repel, ignore; (n) cull. decomposition, resoluteness, ANTONYMS: (n) acquisition,
ANTONYMS: (v) approve, choose, perseverance, settlement. purchase
select, grant, acknowledge, agree, ANTONYMS: (n) problem, saleable: (adj) salable, marketable,
pass, welcome, propose, prefer, feebleness, indecision, merchantable, commercial, vendible,
keep irresoluteness, irresolution, sellable, profitable
rejecting: (adj) negative, dismissive, weakness, indifference salt: (adj) salty, saline, briny,
disdainful; (n) rejection rest: (adj, n) remnant, remainder, brackish, pungent; (v) cure, pickle;
relations: (n) family, dealings, kin, residue; (n, v) pause, balance, nap, (n) salinity, common salt, alkali;
relation, connections, people, relaxation, sleep; (n) recess, leisure; (adj, n) spice
kindred, kinsfolk, contact, (v) remain. ANTONYMS: (n) same: (adj) identical, equal, like,
relationship, folks activity, agitation, intensification; (v) corresponding, equivalent, similar,
relieving: (adj) pertinent, comforting, change, stand, deteriorate uniform, even, consistent, matching;
applicable; (n) encouragement return: (v) recur, reimburse, restore; (adv) equally. ANTONYMS: (adj)
remain: (n, v) abide, endure, (n, v) pay, restitution, recompense, different, varying, another, unlike,
continue, last; (v) bide, linger, stay, refund, restoration, render, retort; other, varied
keep, persist, live, hold. (n) proceeds. ANTONYMS: (n) savage: (adj, v) fierce, wild, furious;
ANTONYMS: (v) leave, depart, departure, confiscation, abolition, (adj) ferocious, brutal, cruel,
change, move, go, become, stop recovery, loss, disappearance, bloodthirsty, rough, pitiless; (adj, n)
remaining: (adj) leftover, left over, penalty; (v) keep, depart, take, brute; (n) vandal. ANTONYMS:
odd, surplus, extra, other, enduring, remove (adj) civilized, gentle, nice
lasting, residual, spare; (adv) over. rewards: (n) booty, loot scene: (n, v) aspect, view, outlook,
ANTONYMS: (adj) spent, finished, rich: (adj, n) copious, luxurious; (adj) lookout; (n) background, display,
left, gross, fleeting, basic, transient productive, fruitful, full, deep, spectacle, picture, environment,
remedy: (n, v) cure, redress, heal, prolific, opulent, fat, affluent; (adj, panorama, perspective
help, medicine, relief; (v) rectify, v) fertile. ANTONYMS: (adj) poor, scheme: (n, v) plot, design, intrigue,
amend, relieve, correct; (n) drug. impoverished, destitute, broke, project; (n) contrivance, dodge,
ANTONYM: (n) poison light, plain, lean, delicate, infertile, device, diagram, method; (v) devise,
render: (v) interpret, explain, give, weak, barren conspire
offer, furnish, pay, construe, return, roads: (n) anchorage, anchorage scraps: (n) garbage, odds and ends,
provide, impart, translate ground, communications, scrap, bits, food waste, leftover,
renowned: (adj, n) illustrious, infrastructure, port, road and rail trash, waste, oddments, leftovers,
glorious; (adj) famous, famed, network, transportation residue
notable, noted, eminent, roasted: (adj) fried, baked scrupulous: (adj) careful, punctilious,
distinguished, great, notorious, roasting: (n) barbecuing, cookery, exact, conscientious, particular,
well-known. ANTONYMS: (adj) cooking; (adj) broiling, baking, painstaking, accurate, prudent,
obscure, anonymous, burning, boiling, airless, blazing, meticulous, rigorous, cautious.
undistinguished close; (adj, n) scorching. ANTONYMS: (adj) sloppy,
rent: (n, v) breach, fissure, lease, let; ANTONYMS: (adj) airy, fresh unscrupulous, slapdash, relaxed,
(adj, n) cleft; (n) crevice, tear, crack, roman: (adj) Romanist, Romish, guilty, deceitful
break; (v) charter, engage classical, apostolic, popish, papist, season: (v) mature, flavor, salt,
repeat: (v) copy, recapitulate, papistic; (n) Catholic, Roman type, mellow, moderate; (adj, v) harden,
reduplicate, reiterate, rehearse, reglet, Romanesque inure, habituate; (n) opportunity,
return, say, double, renew, iterate, rotting: (adj) rotten, decaying, spell, space
duplicate decayed, moldering, mouldering, seasoned: (adj) veteran, flavoured,
repine: (v) kick, grumble, regret, decomposing, putrid; (n) rot, flavored, mature, ripe, versed,
Jonathan Swift 31
hardened, confirmed, practised, ANTONYMS: (n) pride, consistent, close, fixed; (adj) hard,
accustomed, sophisticated. glorification, making, worthiness; strong, real, good, secure,
ANTONYMS: (adj) green, (v) acknowledge, glorify, respect, substantial. ANTONYMS: (adj) soft,
unseasoned, inexperienced, mild dignify unreliable, loose, permeable, runny,
secondly: (adv) secondarily, second, sheep: (n) goat, ram, tup, ewe, cattle, gaseous, transparent, watery, slim,
latterly, subordinately, duplicately, follower, Bovidae, stock, simple, weak, brittle
inferiorly, forwardly, additionally, simpleton, family Bovidae something: (n) what, object, thing,
furtherly, in the second place, since: (adv, conj, prep) because, article, entity, substance, somebody;
subsequently seeing that; (adv, prep) afterwards, (adv, n) somewhat; (adv) rather, a
seem: (v) appear, feel, seeming, loom, before; (adv, conj) for, as; (adj, adv) little, kinda. ANTONYM: (pron)
expect, show, beseem, sound, glitter, ago; (conj) whereas; (prep) from, of; nothing
glisten, gleam (adv) after somewhat: (adv) slightly, a little,
seized: (adj) confiscate, appropriated, sincere: (adj, v) earnest, devout; (adj) fairly, a bit, reasonably, pretty,
condemned, apprehended, grasped, genuine, faithful, heartfelt, honest, moderately, sort of; (adv, v) little;
taken, held, seised, detained, serious, open, artless, candid; (adj, (adv, pron) partly; (adj, adv)
obtained, arraught n) cordial. ANTONYMS: (adj) something. ANTONYMS: (adv)
seldom: (adj) scarce, rare, few, insincere, dishonest, guarded, considerably, very, unreasonably,
infrequent; (adv) occasionally, flippant, affected, disingenuous, totally, hugely, completely, closely,
infrequently, uncommonly, hardly, hypocritical, cunning, unfaithful, massively, absolutely, wholly
scarcely, not often, once in a blue unenthusiastic, unbelievable soon: (adv) shortly, presently, anon,
moon. ANTONYMS: (adv) often, sincerity: (adj, n) candor, honesty, immediately, directly, at once,
seldom integrity, probity, faithfulness; (n) before long, betimes, quickly,
self: (n) ego, person, me, individual, earnestness, heartiness, promptly; (adj, adv) early.
being; (pron) myself, herself, itself; genuineness, candour, frankness, ANTONYMS: (adv) now,
(adj) same; (v) own; (adv) personally cordiality. ANTONYMS: (n) eventually, later, slowly
sell: (v) deal, handle, dispose, betray, dishonesty, hypocrisy, flippancy, sort: (adj, n, v) class; (n, v) type,
give, promote, realize, merchandise, frivolity, affectedness, caution, group, rank; (n) variety, breed,
dispose of; (n, v) cheat; (adj) sold. reticence, deceit, doubt assortment, form, pattern; (adj, n)
ANTONYMS: (v) buy, wholesale single: (adj) celibate, odd, particular, manner, description
selves: (pron) oneself separate, solitary, isolated, sole, sound: (n, v) chime, echo, peal; (adj)
sentiments: (n) breast lone, lonely, simple; (adj, n) one. reasonable, complete, healthy,
serve: (adj, n, v) avail; (v) assist, aid, ANTONYMS: (adj) double, sensible, sane, rational; (adj, v) fit,
act, benefit, tend, attend, operate, multiple, divorced, attached, dual, fast. ANTONYMS: (adj) illogical,
function, do; (n, v) officiate involved, widowed, general, unsound, confused, unreliable,
service: (n, v) overhaul, serve, refit, common; (n) record flawed, flimsy, silent, weak,
assist; (n) aid, employment, situation: (n) employment, position, unreasonable; (n) silence; (v)
assistance, avail, ministration, post, job, matter, location, devoice
ceremony; (v) attendance. circumstance, circumstances, spain: (n) spains, Espana
ANTONYMS: (n) disservice, condition, site, office spirit: (n, v) courage, mind; (n) mood,
damage, hindrance, uselessness skilful: (adj) adroit, practised, ghost, apparition, disposition,
settlement: (n) accommodation, experienced, cunning, expert, energy, essence, soul, phantom; (adj,
colony, hamlet, payment, dextrous, clever, adept, proficient, n) animation. ANTONYMS: (n)
arrangement, conclusion, resolution, practiced, good lethargy, body, cowardice, surface,
determination, contract, village, skill: (n) artifice, capacity, capability, sluggishness, lifelessness, defeatism
colonization knack, ability, faculty, finesse, squire: (n, v) escort; (n) landlord,
seventy: (n) large integer cleverness, expertise; (adj, n) craft, gallant, attendant, beau, gentleman,
several: (adj, v) diverse, divers, cunning. ANTONYMS: (n) esquire, landowner, landholder,
sundry; (adj, n) a few, some; (adj) clumsiness, incompetence, armiger; (v) attend
various, individual, different, uselessness, stupidity, ineptness, stand: (v) endure, undergo; (n) rack,
particular, special, numerous. tactlessness, inexperience, booth, attitude, base, pedestal; (n, v)
ANTONYMS: (adj) joint, all, none ignorance, inaccuracy, delay, live, position; (adj, v) suffer, tolerate.
shall: (n) must, necessity; (v) require, drawback ANTONYMS: (v) sit, lie, yield,
bequeath, leave skin: (n) hide, fur, rind, coating, shell, forbid; (n) top
shambles: (n) disorder, confusion, hull; (v) pare, scrape, excoriate, flay; starve: (v) fast, crave, lust, hunger,
mess, butchery, abattoir, chaos, (n, v) bark thirst, perish, be hungry, deprive,
muddle, bedlam, hash, tangle; (n, v) solar: (adj) heliacal, sunny, solars, benumb; (adj, v) pinch; (adj) gripe.
slaughterhouse. ANTONYM: (n) sunlight, suns, the sun, planetary, ANTONYMS: (v) feed, eat
order lunar, astral, astronomical, state: (n) nation, position, kingdom,
shame: (n, v) disgrace, dishonor, astrophysical status, country; (n, v) say, show,
discredit, humiliate, degrade, sold: (adj) depleted, interested; (v) to place; (adj) national; (v) express,
chagrin; (n) humiliation, modesty, market expound. ANTONYMS: (adj)
scandal, insult; (v) abash. solid: (adj, v) dense, compact, private; (n) monarchy; (v) conceal,
32 A Modest Proposal
refute defiance, divergence, disobedience sustentation, provisions,
statue: (n) figure, monument, subsistence: (n) existence, life, entity, nourishment, nutriment, aliment,
statuette, effigy, idol, sculpture, maintenance, food, support, livelihood. ANTONYM: (n) extras
carving, bust, sphinx, icon, sustenance, living, livelihood, esse, swine: (n) hog, boar, beast, sow,
representation ens Eohyus, babiroussa, babirussa,
stay: (adj, n, v) remain; (n, v) rest, subtract: (v) reduce, calculate, take barrow, brute, razorback, grunter
prop, stop, delay, abide, continue, off, add, discount, diminish, table: (n) board, schedule, chart,
pause, endure, halt, support. subduct, withhold, deduce, stand, list, desk, plateau, platen; (v)
ANTONYMS: (v) change, abscond, withdraw, remove. ANTONYMS: defer, shelve, postpone.
depart, move, disappear, become, go (v) estimate, credit ANTONYMS: (v) decide, vote,
stealing: (n) pilferage, larceny, theft, success: (n) conquest, prosperity, withdraw
steal, burglary, misappropriation, achievement, hit, passing, victory, taken: (adj) occupied, full,
embezzlement, stolen, thievery, effectiveness, accomplishment, interpreted, appropriated, seized,
pilfering, thieving triumph, coup, achiever. overcome, affected, besotted; (v)
sterling: (adj) sound, fine, authentic, ANTONYMS: (n) flop, take, get, receive. ANTONYMS:
reliable, genuine, pure, good, disappointment, prevention, (adj) given, free
infallible, excellent; (n) pound debacle, defeat, fruitlessness, talk: (n, v) discourse, gossip,
sterling, pound. ANTONYM: (adj) poverty, dissatisfaction, inefficiency, converse, lecture, chatter, chat,
spurious criticism address; (v) articulate, speak,
stewed: (adj) poached, tipsy, suck: (v) nurse, drink, imbibe, suckle, prattle; (n) language. ANTONYMS:
intoxicated, done, drunk, huffy, absorb, lactate, puff, drain, pull, (v) refuse; (n) silence
inebriated, baked, tight suck up; (n) sucking. ANTONYM: taste: (n, v) relish, sample, smack,
stir: (adj, n, v) move, bustle; (v) rouse, (v) rock touch; (n) flavor, liking, penchant,
arouse, affect, agitate, inspire; (adj, sufficient: (adj) adequate, proper, morsel, bit, drop, fondness.
n) movement; (n) commotion, commensurate, competent, good, ANTONYMS: (n) dislike,
excitement, disturbance. acceptable, apt, ample, full; (adj, n) tastelessness, disinclination, hate,
ANTONYMS: (v) dampen, retire, enough; (adv) quite. ANTONYMS: lot, coarseness, uncouthness; (v)
stultify, bore, steady, stifle, (adj) inadequate, insufficient, abstain, refrain
suppress; (n) quiet, peace; (n, v) unacceptable, unsatisfactory, taxing: (adj) burdensome,
calm impossible, appalling demanding, trying, arduous,
stock: (n, v) store, handle; (n) lineage, summer: (n) summertime, joist, exacting, strenuous, heavy,
breed, goods, origin, ancestry, rafter, beam, scaffold, season, troublesome, tough, laborious, hard.
hoard, race; (adj, v) regular; (adj) skeleton, corner stone, lintel, ANTONYMS: (adj) light, refreshing,
standard. ANTONYMS: (adj) transom, girder. ANTONYM: (n) relaxing, undemanding
original, unusual, atypical, winter teaching: (n) education, instruction,
nonstandard support: (n, v) stand, aid, keep, prop, indoctrination, precept, pedagogy,
streets: (n) street comfort, patronage; (adj, n, v) assist; schooling, doctrine, training, lesson,
strength: (n, v) power; (n) energy, (v) brace; (adj, v) encourage, back; advice, tuition
firmness, endurance, stability, (n) maintenance. ANTONYMS: (n, tears: (n) cry, crying, snivel, brine,
potency, health, soundness; (adj, n, v) neglect; (v) undermine, reject, weeping, activity, bawling, bodily
v) might; (adj, n) vigor, intensity. weaken, abandon, condemn, function, bodily process, body
ANTONYMS: (n) frailty, contradict, disapprove, release; (n) process, lacerations
shortcoming, flaw, faintness, hindrance, opposition temperance: (n) moderation,
powerlessness, moderation, supported: (adj) sustained, backed, abstinence, abstemiousness, control,
limitation, instability, impotence, bolstered, based; (v) borne, carried, restraint, moderateness, soberness,
feebleness, disadvantage conveyed, supporting; (adv) on forbearance, measure, gravity,
studious: (adj) scholarly, bookish, supposing: (adv) admitting, asceticism. ANTONYMS: (n)
academic, assiduous, erudite, conditionally, in case; (n) intemperance, wildness
diligent, learned, careful, deliberate; supposition, conjecture, thought, tender: (n, v) offer, proffer, bid; (adj,
(adj, v) thoughtful, reflective. theory, assumption; (conj) although, v) affectionate; (adj) painful,
ANTONYM: (adj) negligent what if; (v) suppose sensitive, soft, loving, sore; (v)
subject: (n) matter, citizen, motif, sure: (adj) secure, reliable, safe, propose, present. ANTONYMS:
question, issue, affair, point, indisputable, dependable, assured, (adj) hardhearted, rubbery, hard,
national; (adj, v) exposed; (adj, n) positive; (adj, v) steady, firm; (adv) rough, uncaring, healthy, mature,
dependent, inferior. ANTONYMS: certainly; (adj, adv) for certain. unfeeling, cold, experienced; (v)
(n) foreigner, resolution; (adj) ANTONYMS: (adj) doubtful, withdraw
impervious uncertain, unsure, hesitant, tenderness: (n) fondness, soreness,
submission: (n) compliance, humbled, dubious, indefinite, love, affection, sympathy; (adj, n)
obedience, acquiescence, bid, offer, wavering, wobbly, unconvinced; clemency, mildness, compassion,
deference, entry, presentation, (adv) doubtfully gentleness, softness, delicacy.
conformity; (adj, n) resignation, sustenance: (n) living, food, ANTONYMS: (n) pleasure, dryness,
surrender. ANTONYMS: (n) maintenance, subsistence, fare, hatred, strength, detachment
Jonathan Swift 33
themselves: (pron) myself, itself, appellation, epithet. ANTONYM: having inflections, versed,
yourself; (n) yourselves (n) possession glowering. ANTONYM: (adj)
thence: (adv) therefore, thus, told: (v) related, narrated; (adj) unturned
therefrom, thereof, consequently, numbered, oral, spoken, legendary, twelve: (adj, n) dozen, XII; (n)
then, so, thereafter, thenceforth, verbal, manifest boxcars, large integer
since, on account of tolerably: (adv) well enough, twenty: (adj) vigesimal; (n) large
thereby: (adv) whereby, hereby passably, acceptably, reasonably, integer, twenty dollar bill
therefore: (adv) thence, so, hence, enough, moderately, to a tolerable under: (adj) lower, down, nether,
accordingly, as a result, thus, for degree, pretty, to an adequate bottom, inferior, low, subject; (adv,
that reason; (conj) since, because, degree; (adj, adv) somewhat; (adj) prep) beneath, underneath; (adv)
then, ergo pretty well. ANTONYMS: (adv) downstairs, infra. ANTONYMS:
thing: (n) affair, occurrence, object, unbearably, intolerably, (adv, prep) over, above; (adv)
event, concern, something, article, unacceptably, unreasonably, primary, higher, major
happening, substance, occasion, insufficiently, inadequately unite: (v) associate, meet, connect,
being tough: (adj) difficult, strong, arduous, link, blend, join, coalesce, unify, tie,
things: (n) gear, belongings, rugged, severe, stout, laborious, amalgamate; (adj, v) fuse.
equipment, garb, garment, clothes, sturdy; (adj, v) tenacious; (n) bully, ANTONYMS: (v) divide, cut,
paraphernalia, goods, life, property, rowdy. ANTONYMS: (adj) weak, disband, disconnect, diverge,
palliament easy, flimsy, soft, lightweight, segregate, split, undo, unpick
thirdly: (adv) third, tertiarily, in the simple, feeble, gentle, kind, fragile, unjustly: (adv) wrongly, wrongfully,
third place, thrice facile wickedly, iniquitously, inequitably,
thirty: (n) large integer, termination; towardly: (adj) timely, seasonable undeservedly, illegally, foully,
(adj) thretty towards: (prep) to, facing, until, injuriously, unrighteously,
though: (adj, conj) however; (conj) opposite to, till, unto, upon; (n, unjustifiedly. ANTONYMS: (adv)
still, notwithstanding, nevertheless, prep) against; (adv) about, by; (n) at rightly, reasonably
albeit, whereas, while; (adv) even, town: (adj) municipal, urban; (n) unknown: (adj, n) secret, alien; (adj)
after all, tho'; (adv, conj) tho borough, township, village, burgh, hidden, unfamiliar, unidentified,
thoughts: (n) mind, opinion, depth of burg, municipality, townspeople, obscure, nameless, foreign,
thought, feelings, reflection, ideas, metropolis; (adj, n) community. anonymous; (n) stranger, foreigner.
workings of the mind, view, stance, ANTONYMS: (adj) country, private ANTONYMS: (adj) familiar,
position, considered opinion trade: (n, v) deal, exchange, swap, recognized, famous, documented,
thousand: (adj, n) one thousand, k, merchandise, switch, barter, change; identified, transparent; (n) native
m; (n) grand, g, thou, cat Valium, (adj, n) business; (n) commerce, unless: (adv) but, if, yet, besides,
constant of gravitation, grounds, profession, occupation. except with, further; (adv, conj)
curtilage; (adj) a thousand ANTONYMS: (n) purchase, save; (conj) without, if not; (n)
thousands: (n) myriad, much, many entertainment, fun, pastime; (v) buy, provisionally; (adj) not necessary
thrifty: (adj) careful, economical, wholesale upon: (adv, prep) above; (prep) up,
provident, sparing, prudent, stingy, travel: (adj, n, v) go, pass, run; (adj, v) onto, against, towards; (adv) on, on
saving, spare, parsimonious, chary, proceed; (v) roam, move, ride, sail; that occasion, then, before, by; (n) at
scotch. ANTONYMS: (adj) wasteful, (n) stroke, tour; (n, v) voyage. upwards: (adj, adv) upwardly, up;
spendthrift, profligate, extravagant, ANTONYMS: (v) remain, settle (adv) over; (adj) improving, open.
generous trouble: (n, v) inconvenience, pain, ANTONYM: (adv) down
throughout: (prep) during; (adv, bother, disquiet, disorder, worry, useful: (adj) helpful, beneficial,
prep) about; (adv) every inch, in annoy, fuss, afflict, torment; (adj, n) practical, handy, advantageous,
extenso, en masse, on the whole, difficulty. ANTONYMS: (v) please, valuable, convenient, effective,
bodily, en bloc, passim, everywhere, help, assist, aid, placate, soothe, functional, efficient, gainful.
thoroughly comfort; (n) fitness, pleasure, ANTONYMS: (adj) worthless,
thus: (adv) then, so, consequently, advantage, ease ineffective, unusable, negative,
hence, thence, accordingly, as a true: (adj, n) genuine, authentic; (adj) decorative, destructive, detrimental,
result, ergo, thusly, for that reason, right, faithful, even, correct, disadvantageous, ineffectual,
as accurate, honest, straight, truthful; irrelevant, theoretical
till: (conj, prep) until, unto; (v) plow, (adj, v) actual. ANTONYMS: (adj) useless: (adj) pointless, unnecessary,
hoe, farm, dig; (adj) up to; (n) tiller, inaccurate, untrue, bogus, needless, worthless, fruitless,
drawer; (adv) so far; (prep) to untrustworthy, unrealistic, mythical, hopeless, abortive, idle, barren,
times: (n) present time, modern fraudulent, faithless, disloyal; (adv) superfluous, unavailing.
times, contemporary world, wrongly, dishonestly ANTONYMS: (adj) helpful,
multiplication, time, period, era, turn: (n, v) curve, roll, twist, go, coil, effective, competent, convenient,
many years duration, epoch, round, change, bent, spin; (n) bout; valuable, necessary, brilliant, great,
present, arithmetic operation (v) revolve. ANTONYMS: (n) meaningful, usable, worthwhile
title: (n, v) call, style, designation, failure, Miss, stagnation; (v) unbend using: (n) colonialism, employment,
term, designate; (adj, n) claim, right; turned: (adj) off, curved, rancid, enjoyment, victimisation,
(n) caption, denomination, twisted, false, bent, altered, sullen, mistreatment, victimization,
34 A Modest Proposal
development; (adv) through, via, by; slight, shallow, restricted resist, brave, stand, brave out, wear;
(adj) usant vein: (n) vena, strain, nervure, mine, (n) climate, atmospheric condition,
usual: (adj, n, v) ordinary, common, temper, blood vessel, tone; (adj, n) downfall, inclemency. ANTONYMS:
customary; (adj, n) habitual, mood, humor, strip, frame of mind (v) succumb, reject
accustomed, familiar, average, venison: (adj) turtle; (n) beef, chicken, weigh: (v) press, study, measure,
regular; (adj) everyday; (adj, v) ham, lamb, mutton, pork, red meat, matter, consider, count, deliberate,
frequent, general. ANTONYMS: animal protein, white meat contemplate, assess; (n, v) balance,
(adj) unconventional, extraordinary, vermin: (n) bug, varmint, louse, poise. ANTONYMS: (v) ignore,
abnormal, irregular, atypical, trash, pest, brute, varment, scum, neglect
exceptional, unprecedented, riffraff, ragtag and bobtail, rabble weighed: (adj) determined,
uncommon, rare, changing, violently: (adj, adv) vehemently, deliberate, tared
unacceptable hotly, madly, ardently; (adv) wildly, when: (adv, conj) once, as soon as;
usually: (adv) generally, ordinarily, passionately, strongly, hard, (adv) then, because, than, since,
normally, frequently, habitually, furiously, turbulently; (adv, n) after; (conj) although, while, if;
customarily, mostly, regularly, vigorously. ANTONYMS: (adv) (prep) during
typically, as a rule, in general. gently, nonviolently, feebly, where: (adv) there, here, wherever,
ANTONYMS: (adv) rarely, impassively, peacefully, tamely whither, in which, wherein, in what;
exceptionally, occasionally virtues: (n) brawn, sinew, qualities, (adv, pron) anywhere; (pron)
utterly: (adv) completely, absolutely, nerve, manner, habit, disposition, everywhere; (n) point, spot
totally, entirely, extremely, custom whereas: (conj) while, though,
altogether, expressly, purely, dead, visionary: (adj, n) utopian; (adj, v) whenas, where, albeit; (adv) when,
fully, wholly. ANTONYMS: (adv) imaginary; (adj) airy, fanciful, whilst, then; (prep) because; (n)
partly, uncertain, slightly, unreal, dreamy, ideal, romantic; (n) grounds for a decisions
incompletely, hardly, somewhat seer, dreamer, prophet. whereby: (adv) how, hereby
vain: (adj) proud, arrogant, conceited, ANTONYMS: (adj) foolish, wherein: (adv) in what, in which,
fruitless, idle, empty, abortive, unromantic, practical, real, realistic, where
ineffectual, unproductive, unimaginative whether: (pron) where
narcissistic; (adj, v) useless. voluntary: (adj) optional, deliberate, whoever: (n) anyone, somebody;
ANTONYMS: (adj) shy, successful, unforced, willing, gratuitous, (pron) whosoever, whatsoever
possible, persuasive, selfless, intentional, conscious, willful, person
fruitful, humble, useful, responsible, intended, unpaid; (adj, n) volunteer. whole: (adj, v) entire; (adj, n) total,
worthwhile, effective ANTONYMS: (adj) compulsory, integral, sum, aggregate, well; (adj,
valuable: (adj) costly, beneficial, forced, instinctive, unwilling, adv, n) all; (adj) complete, healthy,
expensive, helpful, useful, obligatory, welcome, professional; intact, full. ANTONYMS: (adj)
admirable, important, invaluable; (n) draftee; (adv) paid incomplete, broken, partial,
(adj, n) estimable, worthy; (n) walk: (adj, n, v) step; (n, v) gait, imperfect, unhealthy, deficient,
treasure. ANTONYMS: (adj) useless, ramble, march, pace, hike, course, destroyed, fractional, impaired, half,
unimportant, valueless, saunter, stroll, roam; (n) path. sick
insignificant, ineffectual, shabby, ANTONYMS: (v) run, ride, stride wholesome: (adj) healthy, beneficial,
cheap, detrimental, want: (n, v) lack, desire, miss, wish; salubrious, healthful, salutary,
disadvantageous; (n) trash, garbage (n) poverty, deficiency, deprivation, sound, good, nutritious, nourishing,
value: (adj, n, v) price; (n) cost, famine, necessity, destitution, pure, hale. ANTONYMS: (adj)
importance, consequence; (n, v) rate, shortage. ANTONYMS: (n, v) hate; unwholesome, unhealthy, impure,
appraise, measure; (v) appreciate, (n) glut, despise, luxury, option, indecent, sordid, warped, tainted,
evaluate, esteem, assess. prosperity, supply; (v) disinterest, decadent, deadly, unsavory
ANTONYMS: (n) disadvantage, answer wholly: (adj, adv) totally, entirely,
futility, uselessness, insignificance, wanted: (adj) welcome, cherished, altogether, quite, exclusively,
detriment, inefficiency, inferiority; precious, treasured, marketable, perfectly, solely; (adv, pref) all;
(v) scorn, disregard, disrespect, hate invited, necessary, needed, (adv) fully, utterly, absolutely.
vanity: (n) egotism, pride, emptiness, desirable, desired, loved. ANTONYMS: (adv) partially,
arrogance, futility, inanity, ANTONYMS: (adj) unwanted, inclusively, hardly, incompletely,
vainglory, conceitedness, unwelcome slightly
pretension, pomposity; (adj, n) wanting: (adj, v) missing; (adj) wife: (n) matron, missis, partner,
amour propre. ANTONYMS: (n) deficient, lacking, absent, defective, married woman, spouse, consort,
selflessness, humility, importance, short, failing, insufficient, devoid, helpmate, housewife, lady, woman,
value, effectiveness poor, incomplete. ANTONYMS: viscountess
vast: (adj) large, immense, spacious, (adj) sufficient, satisfactory, winter: (n) wintertime, season, time
extensive, immeasurable, enormous, adequate, full, present of year, hiems, frost, chill; (adj)
gigantic, wide, boundless, colossal, wearied: (adj) jaded, tired, spent, wintery, wintry; (v) spend.
great. ANTONYMS: (adj) narrow, fatigued, weary, prostrate, limp, ANTONYM: (n) heat
tiny, cramped, small, miniature, haggard, shattered, worn, fatigate wise: (adj) reasonable, sensible,
affordable, bounded, insignificant, weather: (v) survive, withstand, sound, rational, sagacious,
Jonathan Swift 35
intelligent, prudent, shrewd,
discreet; (adj, n) knowing; (n)
method. ANTONYMS: (adj) unwise,
stupid, ignorant, mistaken, illogical,
reckless, naive, irrational, dense
within: (adv, n, prep) inside; (adv,
prep) in; (adv) indoors, internally,
inwardly, inly; (adj, n) interior;
(prep) into, on, between; (adj)
inwards. ANTONYMS: (prep)
beyond, out
without: (adv, n, prep) outside; (adj,
adv) except; (adj) lacking, save
barring; (prep) out of, sans; (n)
minus, provisionally; (adv) save,
beyond; (adv, prep) besides.
ANTONYMS: (prep) with, having;
(adv) inside
wives: (n) woman
women: (n) sex, gentle sex
world: (n) cosmos, nature, creation,
earth, public, sphere, society, realm,
globe, macrocosm; (adj) global
worse: (adj) worser, subordinate,
waur, worsened, warre, unrelieved,
minor, lesser, junior, poorer; (n)
badness. ANTONYMS: (adj)
improved, healthier, higher
worthy: (adj) noble, good,
meritorious, valuable, estimable,
respectable, deserving, worthwhile,
virtuous, honorable; (adj, n)
celebrity. ANTONYMS: (adj) bad,
unrespected, disreputable,
mediocre, petty, poor, unimpressive,
insignificant, dishonorable,
despicable; (n) nobody
yearly: (adv) annually, each year,
every year, per annum, per year, by
year; (adj) perennial, anniversary,
periodic, annual tickets; (n) a year
yield: (n, v) produce, return, allow,
give; (v) surrender, concede, submit,
give up, grant, cede; (n) output.
ANTONYMS: (v) persevere,
survive, stand, withstand, repel,
reject, prevent, withhold, acquire,
oppose, veto
young: (n, v) offspring; (adj, n)
juvenile; (adj) immature, fresh,
adolescent, new, raw, baby, childish,
early; (n) progeny. ANTONYMS:
(adj) old, mature, adult, ripe, older,
late; (adj, n) aged
36