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# ERBIL Polytechnic University

## ERBIL Technical Engineering College

Mechanical & Energy .Eng. Techniques Dep.

Lecture Notes

Lecturer:
2016-2017

## Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-0

Mechanical Vibrations
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

##  Vibrations is the study of the repetitive motion of objects relative to a

stationary frame of reference or nominal position. Oscillatory systems
(Vibrations) can be broadly characterized as linear or nonlinear.

 Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or
oscillation.

##  The general terminology of “Vibration” is used to describe oscillatory

motion of mechanical and structural systems.

##  The Vibration of a system involves the transfer of its potential energy to

kinetic energy and kinetic energy to potential energy, alternately.

## Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-1

If any system has mass and elasticity it will undergo vibration.
Mass will store kinetic energy and elasticity in the system will store potential
energy.

Causes of vibration
Unbalanced forces in the machine.
External excitations applied on the system.
Elastic nature of the system.
Winds, Earthquakes etc.

Effect of Vibration
Produces unwanted noise, high stresses, wear, poor reliability and premature
failure of one or more of the parts.
In spite of these harmful effects, it is used in musical instruments, vibrating
conveyors etc.

Elimination of Vibrations
Using shock absorbers
Using vibration absorbers
Resting the machinery on proper type of isolation.

## Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-2

Classification of Vibration:
Vibration can be classified in several ways. Some of the important classifications
are as follows: (Free Vibration and Forced Vibrfation)

 Free Vibration:
Free vibration takes place when a System oscillation under action of forces
inherent in system and external forces absent .The system under free vibration
will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies .which Natural frequencies are
dynamic characteristics. The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of free
vibration.

 Forced Vibration:
The vibration that takes place under the excitation of external forces is called
forced vibration. If excitation is oscillatory (harmonic), then the response will occur
at the excitation frequency. If excitation occurs at one of the natural frequencies,
then the condition of resonance occurs. The oscillation that arises in machines
such as diesel engines is an example of forced vibration.
Forced vibrations are also known as excitations.

Damping:
All dynamic systems are subject to dissipative forces - friction, structural
resistances . Generally, damping in structural systems is small and has little
effect on the natural frequency , However, damping has a large effect on
minimizing the resonance of any structural system .

Frequency:
It is Number of cycles per unit time.

## Natural Frequency (𝑓𝑛 ):

Frequency of free vibrations of the system is called natural frequency. Expressed
in Hz (or) rad/sec. When system vibrates freely it follows simple harmonic motion.
Amplitude:
Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-3
The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position.

Resonance:
When the frequency of external excitation is equal to the natural frequency of a
vibrating body, the amplitude of vibration becomes excessively large. This concept
is known as resonance.

Time Period:
Time taken to complete one cycle.

Deterministic vibration
If in the vibratory system the amount of external excitation is known in
magnitude it is deterministic vibration.

Random vibration
Non deterministic vibrations. (Earth quake is because of random forces)

Linear vibration

## Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-4

A vibratory system basically consists of these elements:
Mass
Spring
Damper
- If in a vibratory system mass, spring and damper behave in a linear manner, the
vibrations caused are known as linear vibrations.
- Linear vibrations are governed by linear differential equations.
- They follow the law for superposition.

Nonlinear vibrations
If any of the basic components of a vibratory system behaves non linearly, the
vibration is called non-linear vibration.
It does not follow the law of superposition.
Linear vibration becomes nonlinear for very large amplitude of vibration.

In ideal systems, the free vibrations continue indefinitely as there is no damping.
Such vibration is termed as steady state vibration.

Transient vibrations
In real systems, the amplitude of vibration decays continuously because of
damping and vanishes finally. Such vibration is real system is called transient
vibration.

Degree of Freedom:
Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-5
The minimum number of independent co-ordinates required to specify the
motion of system at any instant is known as degrees of freedom. It is equal to the
number of independent displacements that are possible. This number varies from
zero to infinity.

## Zero degree of freedom:

The body at rest is said to have zero degree of freedom.

## Single Degree of freedom:

Here there is only one independent co-ordinate to specify the configuration.
Eg: A mass supported by a spring.

## Two degree of freedom:

There are two independent co-ordinates to specify the configuration.
Eg: Springs supported Rigid mass. (It can move in the direction of springs and also
have angular motion in one plane)

## Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-6

 A rigid body will have 6 DOF to describe its motion - 3 translation
and 3 rotation

##  A cantilever beam has infinite degrees of freedom.

Harmonic motion:
Simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion and it is called simple
harmonic motion (SHM). It can be expressed as
𝑡
𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 2𝜋
𝜏
Where A: is the amplitude of motion, t is the time instant and 𝜏 is the period of
motion.
Motion that repeats in regular intervals of time 𝜏 , it is called period motion
Reciprocal of the repetition time is the frequency, 𝑓 = 1⁄𝜏
If the motion is periodic, then
𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙(𝒕 + 𝝉)
Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-7
Harmonic motion is often represented as the projection on a straight line of a
point that is moving on a circle at constant speed, as shown in Figure below.

With the angular speed of the line o-p designated by , the displacement 𝑥 can be
written as 𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡
The quantity 𝜔 is generally measured in radians per second, and is referred to as the
circular frequency. Because the motion repeats itself in 2𝜋 radians, we have the
2𝜋
relationship 𝜔 = = 2𝜋𝑓
𝜏
Where 𝜏 and 𝑓 are the period and frequency of the harmonic motion, usually
measured in seconds and cycles per second, respectively .The velocity and
acceleration of harmonic motion can be simply determined by differentiation
𝑥̇ = 𝜔𝐴 cos 𝜔𝑡 = 𝜔 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜋⁄2)
𝑥̈ = −𝜔2 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝜔2 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜋) 𝑥̈ = −𝜔2 𝑥