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Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

IMECE2012
November 9-15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA

IMECE2012-89048

DESIGN OF A LEAN METHODOLOGY FOR AN ERGONOMIC AND SUSTAINABLE


WORK ENVIRONMENT IN TEXTILE AND GARMENT INDUSTRY

Laura Costa Maia Anabela Carvalho Alves


R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology
Management, Department of Production and Management, Department of Production and
Systems, School of Engineering, University of Systems,
Minho School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal Guimarães, Portugal

Celina Pinto Leão


R&D Centre Algoritmi
Department of Production and Systems,
School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal

ABSTRACT LCM Life Cycle Management


This paper presents a methodology to implement Lean LP Lean Production
Production (LP) in Portuguese Textile and Garment Industry PDCA Plan–Do–Check–Act
(TGI). Lean Production is a well-known work organizational PEST Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural and
model being, nowadays, widely implemented in all sort of Technological analysis
industries and services companies. LP responds to customers’ CIP –Continuous Improvement Process
demand for on-time delivery of high quality products at QFD Quality Function Deployment
reduced costs, through continuous waste elimination (e.g., SME Small and Medium Enterprise
overproduction, raw materials, energy and water more than SMED Single-Minute Exchange of Die
necessary, among others). In this methodology is included, SPC – Statistical Process Control
besides the Lean tools and techniques, some ergonomics tools SWOT Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats
in order to assess the ergonomic work conditions and TGI Textile and Garment Industry
techniques to evaluate the company sustainability. It is expected TPM Total Productive Maintenance
that, with the involvement of these tools, will allow the TPS Toyota Production System
implementation of a Lean Production that creates a positive UNEP United Nations of Environmental Protection
work environment for workers giving special attention to WBS Work breakdown structure
sustainable development. WCED World Commission on Environment and
Development
NOMENCLATURE WIP Work in process
3R reduce, reuse, and recycle
DFE Design for environment INTRODUCTION
DFMA design for manufacturability and assembly Lean Production (LP) [1] had its roots on Toyota
DMAIC Define-Measure-Analyze-Identify-Control Production System [2] being a well-known work organizational
EWA Ergonomic Work Analysis model that, through continuous waste, i.e., non-added value
FMEAFailure mode and effects analysis activities elimination, respond to customers demand with on-
ILO International Labor Organization time delivery of high quality products at reduced costs and
KPI Key performance indicators increased productivity. Nowadays, LP is widely implemented in
LCA Cycle Assessment all sort of industries and services companies [3-8]. This inspires
LCC Life Cycle Costing the authors of this paper to apply this model to the Portuguese

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Textile and Garm ment industryy (TGI). Thhis industry sector manufacturingg industry andd 1.4% of co
m ompanies opeerating in
suffeers from low productivity
p annd countless wastes.
w P
Portugal.
Traditionally, the Portugueese TGI is prredominantly Small Besides these
t numbeers and indu ustry importaance, the
and Medium Enteerprises (SME E) based indu ustry, with a strong
s a
authors experiience showed that this induustry is also ann industry
famiily-oriented sttructure. Norm mally these coompanies are much w
where many wastes and disorder caan be foundd due to
disorrganized and have a lot of wastes naamely high raate of d
disorganization a setup times and to
n, to high waaiting times and
defeccts, too many y waiting timees, high machhines failures, high o understandding the importance of orgaanization.
thhe difficulty of
absenteeism, amoong others. It hhas many moonotonous actiivities F
Figure 1 illusttrated some w
wastes that caan easily be fo ound in a
wherre employees remain seatedd, sometimes for long perioods of c
clothing comppany: inventoory piled waaiting to enteer on the
time. This can caause occupatiional diseasess and accidennts. In p
production sew
wing line or aaccessories waiting
w to be picked
p up
geneeral, the worrkers are noot involved in i the comppanies’ h
haphazardly.
projeects, discouraaging their participation on the com mpany
decissions, makingg them unsatisfied with theirr work.
The TGI usess natural resouurces (natural fibers, dyes, water,
w
energgy and otherrs) and it is traditionally
t v
very dependeent on
T decrease of these natuural resources will
thesee resources. The
repreesent a difficuulty in the texttile industry, especially
e in dyeing
d
and finishing processes, wheree the consumpption of wateer and
energgy is high. So, to reduuce the conssumption of these
resouurces shouldd be a conncern for thee companiess and
indivviduals in ordeer to achieve a sustainable development
d [9]. Figure 1. Inveentory piled waiting to en
F nter on the production
This industryy sector is aalso strongly influenced by b the s
sewing line or accessories w
waiting to be picked
p up
seasoons, trends annd fashion andd climate chaanges, adding some
new challenges: cuustomers dem mand changes significantly and a in In most Portuguese TG GI companies, due to the inffluence of
shortt time. These conditions coould be an apppealing to leaanness mass productioon paradigms could be foun
m nd a work envvironment
and agility
a compaanies. s
suffering from
m an authoriity, autocratic and comm mand-and-
A draft of a methodology
m tto implement Lean Producttion in c
control hierarrchic chain managementt, where thee “boss”
TGI will be presennted in this paaper, addressinng some Leann tools c
controls everyything and eveerybody. It is common
c in Poortuguese
as well
w as some important toools to assess ergonomic work T
TGI to find companies where w collabborators are so much
condditions and environmental
e l wastes conccerns. In ordder to a
accommodated d to a sttressful and disagreeablle work
desiggn such methoodology, somee methodologiies were studied. e
environment that the only tthing they waant, in a norm mal day of
w
work, is to reaach to the endd of the day, anxious for th he buzzer
CON NTEXT STUD DY AND MO OTIVATION a
announcing it.. In crises tim
mes, like the ones
o we livedd now, the
The Portugueese Textile annd Garment Inndustry (TGI)) have a
authors were compelled to help theese companiees to be
an immportant rolee in national economy, takking a consideerable o
organized, to reduce their w wastes and too help collabo orators to
weig ght on socio-eeconomic struuctures of Porrtugal. It is one o of f
find some com mfort and enthuusiasm on theeir work.
the few
f industries which contribbute positivelyy to the Portuuguese This was a motivation to endorse a PhD. projectt, in order
tradee balance and it is one of thhe most exposed to competition, too develop a methodologgy that helps TGI comppanies to
with significant impact
i on thhe volume off employmennt and immplement Leaan Productionn. The first steep of this projeect was to
reduction of salees margins. It represents 10% of naational d
design a surveey in order too understand if i companies know the
expo orts (in 90s, thhis value was 30%), 22% of o employmen nt, 8% L concept, iff they implem
LP ment and how w they implem ment Lean
of tuurnover and 10 0.7% of Gross Value Added of manufactturing [11]. Based onn a 13.3% off responses, th he survey reveealed that
industry [10]. f companies of the Portuuguese Textilee and Garmentt Industry
few
From the terriitorial point oof view, this in
ndustry is spreead all c
consider that they had impplemented Leean Productioon. These
overr the national territory, althoough there aree two main reegions c
companies do not know anyy of the Lean methodologie
m s and two
that are, the Nortth of Portugaal, where are located the cotton c o them answ
of wered that hadd resorted to a consulting company
comppanies and, Beira
B Interior, where the wool
w companiees are (
(Kaizen Instituute) to implem ment LP. They y also stated encounter
e
locatted, representting 85% off the compannies. This inddustry s
some difficultiies during Lean implementtation processs, namely,
compprises two laarge sectors: (1) the textiile sector - which w d
difficulty in unnderstanding Lean tools, difficulty in quuantifying
incluudes fiber prroduction, sppinning, weavving, knittingg and thhe benefits, missing knoowledge of Lean princiiples and
finishing (dyeing,, printing andd finishing) an nd (2) the gaarment r
resistance attittude from thee collaboratorrs. However, the most
sectoor - which includes m manufacture of clothing and immportant issuue was that tthe majority of o the TGI companies
accessories. The industry
i incluudes, approxim mately, 4000 textile
t s
state never heard
h or do not have knowledge of the Lean
comppanies and around 110000 garment companies, which w P
Production m
model. On thhe other han nd, they knoow some
togetther representt around 19% % of all produuction units of o the immportant concepts such as quality at thee source, wastes, value
s
stream, value among otherss and tools asssociated with Lean like

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cellular manufacturing, 5S, Kanban system and admit to have a improvement/ Kaizen; Pull system; continuous flow; Single
production model similar to JIT production or stockless minute exchange of Dies (SMED); Plan-Do-Check-Act
production. (PDCA) cycle; Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control
Almost 50% consider that Lean Production could be a (DMAIC) technique; Value Stream Mapping (VSM), Total
model to implement. This is an important topic because, and Productive Maintenance (TPM); one page report (A3) and
based on the companies respondents, the measure that they are Policy Development/deployment. Others also imply strategic
accustomed to adopt to face competition are the products tools and problem solving tools in the methodologies. For
quality improvement, practice of efficient management and instance, Hoshin-Kanri methodology [25, 26] as a methodology
eliminate wastes. The LP implementation could help on these more strategic employing tools such as Strengths-Weaknesses-
measures improvement, avoiding a capital investment or a Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis or Porter analysis to
financial effort like in the Portuguese examples described in link the strategic management to the operational manufacturing.
Alves and co-authors work [12]. Others are more practical and more orientated to problem-
solving tools such as Pareto Chart or fishbone diagram, for
METHODOLOGIES TO IMPLEMENT LEAN example, the methodology A3 PDCA [27].
A methodology studies the best way to approach problems, From the methodologies presented above, it is important to
indicating paths to reach solutions [13]. According to this refer the Lean implementation model for textile industry [28]. It
author, a methodology orients and supports in the research is a methodology oriented for the textile industry similar to the
process and in the data/information collecting to take the best one that will be proposed in this paper. Additionally, Feld [29]
decisions in a time and in a specific moment. A methodology and Wilson [20] presented a road map to implement Lean or a
must indicate and facilitate, in each project phase, data and “how to” perspective of their Lean implementations
methods or tools that allows to the designer to reach to good experiences.
project solutions, in an efficiently and effectiveness way. Additionally it is important to refer the application of TRIZ
Attending to this methodology definition, it is possible to methodology [30] and Axiomatic Design methodology [31],
find out some methodologies to implement Lean, more or less, that have been applied for understanding Lean Production and
formalized in the literature reviewed by [14] that found out, at could help in Lean production principles implementation [32-
least, thirteen different methodologies, to know: 34].
1. TPS methodology
2. Lean thinking LEAN PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY IN TEXTILE
3. Toyota way AND GARMENT INDUSTRY
4. Lean automotive vision model It is frequent to hear of unsuccessful stories of Lean
5. Lean Six Sigma Production implementation. This failure is, in most cases,
6. Kaizen methodology assigned to the fact that Lean do not addresses correctly to the
7. SECORA Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) workplace ergonomics and human factors [35]. Unfortunately,
8. Brief methodology some of these narratives are true and could result from several
9. Lean Alliance methodology reasons: 1) a poor work environment before Lean Production
10. Strategic Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) implementation; 2) an unprepared environment; 3) Lean
11. Hoshin-Kanri implementation is only a partial implementation, i.e., some
12. Methodology A3 PDCA tools were implemented as an testing, so, it is not a really Lean
13. Lean implementation model for textile implementation; 4) it is a enforced process of management, not
Some of these are well-known such as Toyota Production involving all people. Additionally, other reasons are point out
System (TPS) methodology [2, 15], Lean Thinking [16] or by other authors [20, 29]. It is also common to see in literature
Toyota Way [17] and some not so, as described elsewhere [18]. that Lean is a philosophy, a culture [36], more than a set of
Others are more oriented and focused in a specific area of tools and techniques. Toyota senior executives said that
work, like Lean Six Sigma [19] or Kaizen methodology [20] management tools can be copied, but the mindset not [37].
that are focused on the quality area. Some are specific of each Thus, Lean implementation is not an easy process because
consulting company like SECORA Lean Implementation mindset has to do with people. People are vital to feel the needs
methodology (SLIM) [21], Brief methodology [22] or Lean behind each improvement that start from these needs and not
Alliance methodology [23] or of an academic sector like from burdens. This is the fundamental mindset and
Strategic Lean implementation methodology (SLIM) from the organizational learning behind LP continuous improvement as
Warwick Business School [24]. These methodologies define discussed by Yamamoto and Bellgran [38] and Flinchbaugh
and select tools to apply in an integrated sequence or model to [40]. Lean Production promote thinkers [40] but before this
implement Lean. happen, people must be involved and compromised as the “pig
Most of these methodologies are focused on the Lean is compromised in the English breakfast”. Wilson [20] points
operational and technical tools like JIT production; Jidoka or out three fundamental issues to a cultural change: the
Autonomation; 5S; Heijunka or production smoothing; leadership, the motivation and the problem solvers assessment,
Standardized work; Visual management; continuous as the first step before the Lean project implementation.

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Attending to this need to involve peoplle as collaborrators, too diagnosis the t company strategic stattus and to bu uild their
but also
a as thinkers and respoonsible for th heir own work k and ffuture vision of o the future arre SWOT anaalysis, SWOT Analysis,
assurre that they arre working inn healthy and pleased condiitions, P
Porter analyysis and m matrix, PEST T Analysis, matrix
the methodology y proposed in i this work k, starts withh the p
product/marke et, matrix maarket/technolo ogy, diagnosiis of the
preparation of the company for the introductiion of Lean. p
president, am
mong others.. A projectt like Lean n project
The Figure 2 shows a three-phase framework of o the immplementatio on must start with supportt of top man nagement,
prop
posed methodo ology to impleement Lean Prroduction in TGI.
T o
otherwise the success
s probaability is minor.
All peoplee must be awaare of the project that it willl just start
inn the compan ny. So, a com mmunication plan will bee of great
immportance to o start with, involving peeople. It coulld not be
Im
mplementing 
e
expected that a company cu ulture suddennly change butt, starting
• Straategic tools m
methodology w the prom
with motion of an oopen commun nication, will captivate
• WBS and Gantt chart • Follow‐up measures p
people attention. Exposingg the project plan with th he project
• Teams  preparation • Sustainable tools
• Ideaas generation  tools 
• Problem so olving tools
• Ergonomic tools
a
activities in a work breakdown structuree (WBS) and represent
• Operationaal  Lean tools
(braainstorming,...)
• Standard work


Measure KPI and KEP
Scoreboards
PI thhese in a Gan ntt chart show wing the timeliine and milesttones will
• Skillls matrix
• Ergoonomic tools (EWA,...) • Heijunka • Suggestions systems g
give to all th he feeling of the seriousneess of the pro oject and
• SMED • ....
• Susttainable tools
• Cellular p
production
c
compromise to
o assume. Addditionally, rolles and respon nsibilities
• Diaggnostic tools
• Collect KPI and KEPI • Heijunka
Evaluating, 
(
(clarified with
h a skills m matrix help) must be deffined and
• Visual maanagement
Preparing wo
ork  • ... standardizing  a
assigned to the
t collaborattors. This is also the mo oment to
environment aand  and susttaining  o
organize collabborators in teams and laun nching some challenges
c
people too promote thee ideas generration and thee ground to th he culture
c
change for a continuous
c im
mprovement. TheT TPS meth hodology,
p
presented the Quality Coontrol Circless as small groups g of
Figu
ure 2. Framewwork of the m t implement Lean
methodology to c
collaborators l
looking mprovements and this way promotes
for im
Prod
duction in TGII thheir involvem ment [2].
Some too ols to promotee the ideas geeneration are the well-
This metho odology inteends to ap pproach diffferent k
known: nstorming, 66M1E (Man, Machine, Methods,
brain
dimeensions: the ergonomic dimension, the sustainaability M
Material, M
Measurement, Managemen nt informatiion and
dimeension, the op perational dim
mension and the human capital
c E
Environment) checklist, thee asking “Wh hy” five times (5Whys)
dimeension. Study ying the methhodologies reeferred abovee, the technique, thee 5W2H (Whaat, Why, Wheere, When, Who, W How,
autho ors concludee that no companies
c c
consider all these H
How much/m many) checklisst and Osborrne´s checklisst (use it
dimeensions. In order
o to connsider these dimensions, some a
another way; borrow
b an idea from someth hing similar; change
c or
ergon nomic and suustainable toolls were studieed to considerr their r
replace it; exxpand it; reduuce it; use alternatives; reeplace it;
incluusion in this methodologyy in each phaase. The toolss will r
reverse it; andd combine it).. These tools help to raise the right
permmit the diagno osis and asseessment of th he physical cu urrent q
questions [41].
statee looking to the work co onditions ergo onomic evalu uation, In this iniitial phase it iss also necessaary to collect some key
envirronmental conditions evvaluation and human capital c p
performance indicators (KPI) like products produced, p
know wledge. p
productivity, l
lead-time, deffects rate, eco
onomic, ergon nomic and
s
sustainability indicators. A As Lord Kelviin, two hundrred years
Prep paring work k environme ent and peop ple a
ago, said:“Whhen you can m measure what you´re
y speakiing about,
In the projecct beginning (first phase) it is necessaary to a express itt in numbers, you know soomething aboout it; but
and
prepare the enviironment andd the peoplee for the ch hange. w
when you cannnot measure it, when youu cannot express it in
Prepparing environ nment means to evaluate the physical work n
numbers, yourr knowledge is of a meagger and unsaatisfactory
condditions and un nderstand if th
he collaborato
ors are satisfy
y with k
kind”. So, before
b any effort in th he path of a Lean
thesee or feel uncommfortable. Some signals off this uncomfoortable immplementatio on project, inndicators will reveal thee system
are the
t absenteeissm records, mainly,
m due to
o diseases. Beesides m
measurement to better undeerstand this functioning
fu an
nd present
this, work obsservation, w well prepared interview ws or s
state but moree important to compare with h the final ind
dicators at
quesstionnaires to collaboratorss, checklists will give thee data thhe end of thee project. A peerformance measure m matrixx like the
needded to evaluatte and study it. Some of thhese techniquees and o in Table 1, adapted fro
one om [43], could help addreessing the
otherrs are used inn some ergono omic tools deescribed in thee next p
performance in
ndicators relev vant.
sectiion. Another important daata is the opeeration times.. It is Some diaagnostic tools could be ussed on this phase p like
comm mon to find out companies without know wing their opeeration V
Value Stream Mapping (V VSM), eight wastes
w tool, rooot cause
times or with obssolete (not upd dated) times, so, a time stuudy is a
analysis and spaghetti
s diaggram. Non-vaalue activitiess such as
cruciial on this phaase. W time and
WIP d movement time, among g others are identified
The need for a Lean projecct implementattion must be felt
f by u
using these techniques. Imp plement a sug ggestions prog gram and
the top managemeent and some strategic toolss that could bee used d
diary meetingss (10 minutes maximum) with w team leadeers.

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of the improvements that can be achieved, at low cost. Other
Table 1. Performance measure matrix example is the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) that is a tool
  Resources  Input  Transformation  Output  to define and evaluate the work conditions in the work space
(productive and  (incoming  (material,  (products) 
consumable)  materials)  internal focus)  [47].
Quality and productivity  Work  Scrap rate   Defects parts  Complaints from  The synergy between Lean Production and Ergonomics
How well and how  hours/available  provoked by  clients 
productive?  hours  the process   exists, as showed in the literature review developed by
Flow and inventory  Equipment  Received  WIP level  Expedited units/  Bittencourt et al. [48], so it is unavoidable to promote this in a
How much and what  utilization rate  units/week  Throughput  week 
rate? Time it takes to be  Raw material  time  Lean implementation project. Reducing wastes (or muda) of
processed  inventory  movement, handling and transports are directly related with
Timeliness  Scheduled  On time  Order  Orders 
How timely?   maintenance  supplies  completion  completed on 
reducing collaborator effort. Reducing overproduction and
completed on  status   time   inventory are reducing the effort (producing the production
time 
Workplace environment  Number of       
excess) but also reducing the risk of accidents by having less
How safe and satisfying?  accidents  material spread by all space. The overburden (or muri) is
Financial aspects  Suppliers cost  Cost of  Wastes costs   Total cost by 
another non-valued activity and this is also associated to the
How much (in monetary  material lost to  unit   overburden of people. For example, Figure 3 shows that
terms)?  obsolescence  
collaborator D is overburden. This collaborator will be in stress
and this situation not balanced will delay the lead time of the
Ergonomic tools product.
Ergonomics ideally meets the needs of better productivity
and worker health and safety all at once [43]. So, and due to
some misinterpretation, it is necessary to state that ergonomics
is not a safety issue but is allied with this. Ergonomic tools are
important to diagnose and evaluate the current work conditions
giving important indications about where the ergonomic
problems are and how to improve them. This will promote, at
least, healthy environments that contribute positively for the
productivity increase and create an environment propitious to
implement LP. By the contrary, having an unhealthy
environment where people suffer doing their tasks, beyond the
people, LP implementation could even worsen this situation.
The methodology framework presented in Figure 2 shows
that ergonomic tools are used to analyze the situation and
Figure 3. Operations balancing graph showing an example of
prepare the environment for the LP implementation. This must
the an overburden collaborator (D)
be doing with company people help, involving and sensitizing
them to the change.
Measuring the effort demanded before and after the Lean
In work environment various factors must be evaluated like
implementation will permit distinguish the situation presented
posture (sitting, standing, change of posture, hand and arm
in Figure 3 and assure that this will not happen for collaborator
postures) and movement (lifting, carrying, pulling and
sake and company benefits on lead-time reduction.
pushing), information and operation (visual information,
hearing, other senses, controls for operation, dialogues, website
Sustainable tools
design, mobile interaction, virtual reality), environment factors
Traditionally, the Textile and Garment Industry had always
(noise, vibration, illumination, climate and chemical
been to a great extent dependent on natural resources: natural
substances) and work organization jobs and tasks [44]. These
fibers, dyes, water, energy and others and a great consumer of
factors also influence the health, safety and comfort and worker
water and energy, especially in dyeing and finishing processes.
efficiency.
These processes have a problem concerning the water and soil
To improve the workplace and to reduce the human effort
pollution. In this manner reducing the consumption of these
can be used some tools, reviewed in Maia et al. [45], that must
resources and reducing the pollutants should be a concern for
be selected according the factor assessed. Of course, there are
companies and individuals, to achieve a sustainable
some tools that could assess various factors and in a general
development. As appointed by the Millennium Project [49], the
evaluation they could be used. Example of these are a manual
sustainable development and climate change are the first of the
from the International Labor Organization (ILO), named
15 Global Challenges facing humanity and its accomplishment
Ergonomics checkpoints [46], that presents various checklists
will improve enormously the life for all in the planet.
for assessing the materials storage and handling, hand tools,
According to a Brundtland report called “Our Common
machine safety, workstation design, lighting, premises,
Future”, sustainable development is: “Development that meets
hazardous substances and agents, welfare facilities and work
the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
organization. This manual also illustrates some useful examples
future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable

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development is based on three pillars: economic; environmental Also, at this stage, it is intended to seek and explore some
and social responsibility. According to Holliday et al. [50] “The key environmental performance indicators (KEPI) and
prices of goods must reflect all the costs – financial, sustainability indexes. Search will also indicate how to obtain
environmental and social – involved in making them, using certifications to companies and eco-labels for their products
them, disposing of them or recycling them.”. and processes.
One more time, the symbiosis between Lean production
and sustainable development is unmistakable, starting with Implementing Lean methodology
their key ideas of “doing more with less” and “creating more This phase concern the heart of this methodology and
with less”, respectively. Moreira and co-authors [51] reviewed before starting implementing the Lean operational tools it is
this relationship published since 1993 and showed the evidence necessary for the formed teams discover problems. There some
between the seven wastes and the impact (effect) on the simple problem solving tools that easily could be taught to the
environmental performance. teams like the ones presented by Suzaki [41]:
Fortunately, some initiatives are taking place by the entire Histogram Affinity diagram
world and Portuguese companies are not exception, Cause-effect diagram Tree diagram
accompanying this trend and promoting initiatives as presented (fishbone or Ishikawa
in [52]. Some of these initiatives are somehow forced by diagrams)
European Union legislation like the use of eco-labels and others Check sheet Matrix diagram
are research projects developed by companies in partnership Pareto diagram Arrow diagram
with universities that study alternative materials like biological Graph Gantt chart
cotton or use of more friendly fibers such as polyester or hemp Control chart Radar chart
to use in fabric production or enzymes to optimize the dying Scatter diagram Process analysis sheet
Pie chart Cycle time analysis sheet
process (less time, less energy and less water).
Display chart (pictograph) Work combination chart
Tools for Life Cycle Management (LCM), including Life Relations diagram Process flow diagram
Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Man-machine chart
AUDIO (Aspects-Upstream-Downstream-Issues-Opportunities)
analysis [53] and tools to calculate the ecological footprint, are Additionally, Pareto analysis is helpful in identifying the
tools to consider for evaluating the company sustainability. The product or the products family to analyze in first place, 8D
implementation of environmental management systems such as method problem solving could be a useful worksheet for
ISO 14000 or others like ISO 26000 continuously implemented helping the teamwork. DMAIC tool is a quality tool that
through PDCA cycles could ensure continuous improvement in assisted to an evolution for six steps including the standardize
environmental performance. Some guides to sustainability step – Six Sigma (Figure 4).
launched by UNEP [54-57] could also be used in this phase.
For this implementation will be used adapting them to the
Portuguese reality and promoting a “life cycle thinking” in all
functions of company, from development of the product to
sales, in all phases of the product lifecycle, from creation to
disposal (the perspective of “cradle to grave”) and across the
value chain, suppliers and consumers.
Additionally, it will be provided techniques to 3R (Reduce,
Reuse, Recycle) and techniques to develop more eco-efficient
products as Design For Environment (DFE), Design For
Manufacturability and Assembly (DFMA) or
disassembly/recycle. This also involves a number of other
concepts and tools like: (eco)-design methods, green
procurement, eco- and energy labeling, environmental product
declarations, ecological and carbon footprint analyses,
environmental performance indicators, and social sustainability
assessments and approaches. Others tools involve the GHG
Figure 4.Steps of DMAIC tool
protocol, corporate ecosystem services review, global water
tool, measuring impact framework, and the sustainable These problem-solving tools articulate the problem and
procurement of wood and paper-based products guide. potential causes and could be used on the PDCA phases of an
Employing these tools and concepts, TGI are also being A3 report (53). A3 report is a visual tool that could be exposed
prepared to face disappearance of well-defined seasons, having in boards to encourage everyone inspired and motivated to
an even more strongly seasonal due to global warming as a propose solutions [59]. In this one-page report, the problem is
result of climates changes. clearly defined, the root cause analysis is used to reach to
proposals, and an implementation plan is followed. Other visual

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tools already referred are the VSM, spaghetti diagram and persistence, hard work and some tools like 5S audits,
many tools presented above as problem-solving tools because scoreboards continuously updated, continue with diary
they have an enormous visual potential and could appear in the meetings and encourage the suggestions program. This program
A3 report or be used in each 8D method. Axiomatic Design and must be taken very seriously, promoting some kind of reward
TRIZ tools are also important tools to design and innovative for the best suggestions and discuss with the collaborators the
products (goods, services, systems, and others) in a way to suggestions not implemented. Otherwise the consequences will
pursuit customer specifications and desires. be disastrous, ruining the opportunity of workers collaboration.
Implementing Lean will demand the application of a set of Of course to obtain good prepared suggestions it will be
Lean operational tools that are used to improve the system, necessary to train the collaborators in problem-solving tools
from the 5S program to the Leveling (Heijunka) tool, like the like the ones already presented in previous section. Alves and
ones following: co-authors [40] presented some testimony of companies that
1. Jidoka 2. Kaizen implemented suggestions programs. The benefits obtained from
3. SMED 4. Standard work a suggestions program could be remarkable for the company
5. Poka-Yoke 6. Heijunka and the collaborators will feel more motivated and ownership
7. JITproduction/pull 8. Mixproduction of the company, incorporating a team spirit, not presented in the
9. Kanban 10. Visual management Portuguese TGI work environment. This will be difficult to
11. 5S 12. TPM achieve in work environments like Portuguese TGI but
13. Six-Sigma 14. QFD appealing to the entrepreneurship spirit that some
15. Point CIP 16. FMEA administrators assume, it is not an impossible mission. They,
17. SPC 18. Supplierspartnership more than others, are aware of the country difficulties mainly
19. One-pieceflow 20. … when they have to fire someone due to costs reduction.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) programs must be
These tools implementation have a proper precedence and also assured through standard procedures plans. Machine
implementing, for example, Heijunka before set-up reduction it failures will ruin all the implementation effort. Maintain and
will not result. Monden [2] presented the TPS methodology and improve strong and close partnerships built on the trust and
advised start with improvements by small groups (QCC) and confidence with customers and suppliers will guarantee by one
introduction of 5S (Seiri – arrangement; Seiton-tidiness; Seiso side, a certain demand, and the by other side, the right quantity
– cleaning; Seiketsu – cleanliness and Shitsuke – training). and quality and timely all the components, supplies, materials
Implementation of 5S and production technologies will or parts to produce the company product.
promote cleaner production processes that it will reduce
resource use, emissions and waste and contribute to savings in CONCLUDING REMARKS
companies. Set-up reduction, standard operations, workers The identification of the difficulties of Portuguese Textile
preparation and layout reconfiguration are parallel activities and Garment Industry and the need for new production models
that are next. Without a proper production system or layout is not new, but very few were and being done. The internal
reconfiguration it is difficult to put in action a success Lean difficulties of organizations, in general, and in the Textile and
implementation because many tools depend on this system to Garment Industry in particular, prove that this type of industry
function well. The basic problem areas: quality, cost, delivery, must adopt the Lean Production principles and tools to face the
safety and morale (QCDSM) only can be achieved with a competition, to satisfy and to deliver value to costumer
proper production system favoring an integrated and holistic (internal and external).
Lean implementation. When the companies finally accept that something is
wrong and they have to change their strategy and implement
Evaluating, standardizing and sustaining LP, there still a lot of work to carried on. To facilitate and to
In the last phase of this methodology, Lean implementation organize the LP implementation, a methodology will help to
is assessed. It is necessary to understand if the tools applied and define the road, and will allow reducing the implementation
the changes occurred, created added value to the company. In time. With this concern this paper presented a described a draft
order to do this, it is necessary to reevaluate the system with the of a methodology to implement LP in order to eliminate waste,
same tools and collect the new results of the KPI and KEPI increase the productivity of the companies and improve the
considered in the first phase. Comparing the results, it will be processes. Additionally, this methodology considers ergonomic
possible to know if the desired targets were achieved. and sustainability tools to evaluate the work conditions and
If the first phase was succeeded and the collaborators were sustainable environment. Reviewing some methodologies to
involved, this is almost a guarantee that the changes will implement LP the authors recognized that no methodology
remain. This involvement will assure this, because it will start a presented includes ergonomics and sustainability tools.
company culture of continuous improvement that before was Ergonomics allows the assessment to improve the environment
not possible to find. But, if implementing could be a difficult and the work conditions, and the sustainability development
process more difficult it will be to keep the procedures and allows the company to achieve its objectives and goals without
make them a routine. This must be done with a lot of

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destroying the planet. These reasons led the authors to include Congress Portuguese-Mozambican of Engineering
them on the methodology developed. (CLME2011), 29 August-2 of September, Maputo,
The framework of methodology presented is, yet, in an Mozambique.
initial phase of development and the authors are presenting the [13] Simcsik, T. (1993). O.M.I.S. – Organização e Métodos.
draft in this paper to obtain feedback that will be important for Makron Books, McGraw-Hill (in Portuguese).
continuing the development. [14] Maia, L.C., Alves, A.C. and Leão, C.P. (2011).
Metodologias para implementar Lean Production: uma
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS revisão crítica de literatura. (Methodologies to implement
The authors are grateful to Portuguese Foundation for Lean production: a critical review of literature). Proceedings
Science and Technology, under Strategic Projects PEst- of 6º Congresso Luso-Moçambicano de Engenharia
OE/EME/UI0252/2011 and PEst-C/EEI/UI0319/2011, for (CLME2011), 29 Agosto-2 de Setembro, Maputo,
financial support. Moçambique (in Portuguese).
[15] Ohno, T. (1988). The Toyota Production System: beyond
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