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Chapter ll

Review pf Related Literatures and R elated Studies

This chapter presents the related literatures and related studies that supports ye present

researchers study about the level of satisfaction of selected work immersion students in relation

to their performance in BFAR.

Related Literatures

According to the study of Naseem and Salman (2015) that age, experience, salary and

cadre bring variation in the level of job satisfaction. While hygiene factors such as job security,

post retirement packages, suggestion system grievance system cause high job satisfaction. Age

is also positively related to organizational commitment means that the older employees will be

more committed to their organization as compare to the younger employees. Job satisfaction is

directly related to the inner feelings of employee.

Relatively to the present study, there are factors that affect the performance of a certain

worker. First is age wherein if the worker feels something unfair and bias because of the age gap,

that might be the reason of low confidence. The experience and salary is the second because of

having less experience it did not meet the expectation and affect the performance of the

employee. Moreover, hygiene is one of the common factors of satisfaction. The worker feel that

he could not do his best because of his unaccepted hygiene but it is contrary when there’s not.

The commitment of the employee to the employer will be good enough as well as the level of their

performance and rating.

Successful organizations depend on the high performance of their employees to meet

their objectives in order to achieve their strategic aim and keep their competitive advantage, their
employees must perform at high levels. The person-job fit is important because it determines

whether or not the employee is well suited for the job, and whether the employee will be committed

and productive to the organization. Examining job performance as a concept can be done in a

number of ways including the ability of an employee to achieve their targets and organization

standard, Shmailan A. (2016).

In relation to the present study, the ratings of the company is on the hand of the

employees. People sometimes think that meeting the objectives of the company is much better

to feel high level of satisfaction because you able to help the company increased the percentage

of their products or services as compare in enjoying and experiencing how does job flows and

works to every individual. To achieve that perception, it is important that the worker is well suited

to the job offers or he is sitting off and through that, worker will surely achieve high and proudly

performance.

In the study of European Journal of Business and Management, (2013) stated that it is

general understanding that job satisfaction, performance and organizational performance

depends on staff’s satisfaction. Persons having high level of satisfaction hold positive attitude

towards his job while a person who is dissatisfied with his work hold negative attitudes about the

job even about the organization. It is factual that employee satisfaction is an innermost concern

in the business. It is multi-factorial construct. Employee satisfaction contains basic factors,

excitement factors. Basic factors are the minimum requirements that cause dissatisfaction.

Excitement factors increase employee’s satisfaction and performance factors result in satisfaction

only when performance is high.

As attested above, for the other when they get high satisfaction from the staff of a particular

institution, they also feel high level of satisfaction. That might affect their attitude towards his job

and would able to do his work better or not. When they are everyday excited to do their work then

they will have good performance that may be the reason to a satisfying selves and happiness
around his environment. But when he did not feel any excitement, then he would be having a bad

mood and can’t able to deal with such aspects over his job.

According to Rosli et. Al. (2011), self-esteem affect the thinking process, emotions,

desires, values and goals of a person, developed when the acceptance of others and their

personal and group contributions are recognized and applauded, especially in a multi-culturally

diverse world, it is a key ingredient that affects the level of proficiency an all fields of endeavor. In

addition, self-esteem can also be developed by achieving great success and it can be maintained

by avoiding failures.

In relation to the present study, it is important to have self-esteem during work or even

outside. Without self-esteem you will not able to do your work as what it is expected. It is factual

that self-esteem can dearly affect the thinking process of an individual. If you have good self-

esteem, then you will achieve success but if you don’t have good self-esteem you will not achieve

the success. That’s the main ingredients we should have as a worker in order for us to contribute

something to the institution we are working for and for us to share with others that we are proud

and satisfied enough because we have self-esteem that helps us to be more competitive as

worker.

Related Studies

In the study of Liu, R. (2004), a man alienates himself because he alienates himself from

work. Performance and the working conditions precede satisfaction. In modern industrial

management, research has found that increased satisfaction has led to improved performance.

The continuing debate over whether performance precedes satisfaction or satisfaction precedes

performance has permeated the study of student satisfaction in the American Field.
As attested above, as a man feel that he is no longer belong to the environment or to the

institution, he will treat himself unfriendly. He will think that he can’t able to adopt such aspects

from the company he is working for that he will surely affect his performance. In deeper negative

result, that would have led to resign. Moreover, because he teats himself unfriendly he no longer

gains satisfaction.

According to Antaramian S. (2017), issued call for a broader definition of mental health

beyond just the absence of psychological symptoms. This movement has led to more widespread

recognition that complete mental health is characterized by not only a lack or problems or distress,

but also the presence of strengths and positive qualities that allow individuals to flourish and

thrive.

Health truly affect one’s action. If some has disease that might be the reason for him to

work not well. Because of illness, he can’t make himself focused on his work which can be result

in having low performance. He might even feel satisfied because he unable to do his work better.

This could lead to dealing with hard commitment between him, his work and environment.

According to How to be More Satisfied with your Life, (2017) there has a 5 steps that

should be keep in mind to increase life satisfaction and there are friends, have goals, have a life

story, money isn’t the answer and keep growing.

In relation to the present study, students should also have steps to keep in mind in order

to gain satisfaction and good performance. Having friends at work can make students feel

accepted and confident, having goals can help them to have unforgettable memories during

training, money isn’t the answer explains that students should make job using their skills and

abilities and the last is keep growing to be more optimistic one. Through those steps, that would

help them to have high level of performance and satisfaction.


Motivation refers to reasons that underlie behavior that is characterized by willingness and

volition. Intrinsic motivation is animated by personal enjoyment, interest or pleasure whereas

extrinsic motivation is governed by reinforcement contingencies. Motivation involves a

constellation of closely related beliefs, perceptions, values, interests and actions. Motivation

within individuals tends to vary across subject areas and this domain specificity increases with

age, Lai E. (2011)

Relatively to the present study, if a person is well motivated, there’s a heart existing when

she was doing her job as well the willingness to do the other related or not related works. Because

of that, she will be having good beliefs and perceptions about work and its environment. A well-

motivated person surely having high level of performance because of attested reasons above.

Moreover, the level of satisfaction will also be high because of having good perceptions and

beliefs as well as having interest in work.


Chapter lll

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research design, respondents of the study, research instrument,

reliability and validity of the instrument, data gathering procedure/data collection and statistical

analysis and treatment.

Research Design

This study will employ Quantitative Research. According to De Franzo (2011) in What’s

the Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research, it is used to quantify the problem

by the way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. It

is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors and other defined variables-and generalize

results from a larger sample of population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to

formulate facts and uncover patterns in research. Quantitative data collection methods are much

structured than Qualitative data collection methods.

Relatively from the stated above, quantitative is a systematic observation and objective

that uses clearly defined research questions in either through survey, questionnaires, face to face

interview and systematic observation. In addition, it is in the form of numerical with large sample

size that can be replicable and possible for seeking such outcomes. Quantitative aims to identify

the results of attitudes, opinions, etc. in relation to the other variable.

This study will further use descriptive correlational research. According to Given (2016),

descriptive research is any scientific process begins with description, based on observation of an

event or events from which theories may later be developed to explain the observations. In
psychology, techniques used to describe behavior include case studies, surveys, naturalistic

observation, interviews and psychological tests.

As attested above the descriptive correlational research means to describe subject to

analyze or identify the possible outcomes of the study between the relationship from other variable

or subject. Moreover, it is very useful to determine what outcomes can be produce between single

or multiple subjects.

This research entitled Level of Satisfaction of Selected Work Immersion Students in

Relation to their Performance in BFAR aims to identify the relationship of the satisfaction to the

performance of the trainees.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study are the selected senior high school of Doroteo S. Mendoza

Sr. Memorial National High School that went-through work immersion at Bureau of Fisheries and

Aquatic Resources (BFAR). The respondents of the study are obtained using complete

enumeration.

From the thirty (30) Work Immersion Trainees in BFAR, twenty-five (25)n are selected as

presented on Table 1.

Table 1
Respondents of the Study

Senior High School Work Immersion Population


Trainees

Grade 12: GAS-Tenacity 25


The respondents of the study are the Selected Senior High School Work Immersion

Trainees specifically from the Grade 12: GAS-Tenacity. The selected students take their

specialized subject and spending eighty (80) hours of training in the Bureau of Fisheries and

Aquatic Resources (BFAR).

Research Instrument

In order to determine the satisfaction of Selected Work Immersion Students in relation to

their performance in BFAR, the researcher will create self-made questionnaires with fifteen (15)

items (Appendix B) which are subdivided into three (3) parts mainly about field, office and lecture

activities. Each part is composed of five (5) questions as presented in the Table 2.

Table 2
Parts of the Questionnaire on the Level of Satisfaction of Selected Work Immersion
Students in Relation to their Performance in BFAR

Level of Satisfaction of Selected Work Immersion Students No. of Items


in Relation to their Performance in BFAR
A. Field
5
B. Office
5
C. Lectures
5
Total 15

The respondents will fill up the questionnaires that includes their name, age, grade level

and section but that will be optional just for their confidentiality and privacy. The respondents will

answer the questionnaire by putting a check mark.


On the other hand, for the second set of obtaining data regarding to their performance in

BFAR, a letter was issued upon the request of having the list of their performance from the

institution they have immerse.

The numerical scale, range, verbal description and verbal interpretation for determining

the level of satisfaction of selected work immersion students in relation to their performance is

shown in Table 3.1

Table 3.1
Scaling and Quantification of Data for the Level of Satisfaction of Selected Work
Immersion Students

Numerical Range Verbal Description Verbal Interpretation


Scale
5 4.50-5.00
Always Very High Satisfaction
4 3.50-4.49
Frequent High Satisfaction
3 2.50-3.49
Sometimes Moderately Satisfaction
2 1.50-2.49
Rare Low Satisfaction
1 1.00-1.49
Never Very Low Satisfaction

The table above shows the scaling and quantification of data for the first set of obtained

data. The numbers in the leftward side has the interpretations: number five (5) ranges 4.50-5.00

describe as always and means very high satisfaction, number four (4) ranges 3.50-4.49 describe

as frequent means high satisfaction, number three (3) ranges 2.50-3.49 described as sometimes

means moderately satisfaction, number two (2) ranges 1.50-2.49 described as rare means low

satisfaction and number one (1) ranges 1.00-1.49 as never means very low satisfaction.
“Always” means that the respondent reached high satisfaction that may be based on the

level of their performance or not. Likewise, for this study it indicates that the respondent had

reached a very high level of satisfaction.

“Frequent” means that the respondent reached enough satisfaction that may be based on

the level of their performance or not. Likewise, for this study it indicates that the respondent had

reached a high level of satisfaction.

“Sometimes” means that the respondent reached somewhat high and somewhat low

satisfaction satisfaction that may be based on the level of their performance or not. Likewise, for

this study it indicates that the respondent had reached high satisfaction.

“Rare” means that the respondent reached low satisfaction that may be based on

the level of their performance or not. Likewise, it indicates that the respondent had reached low

satisfaction.

“Never” means that the respondent reached a very low satisfaction that may be based on

the level of their performance or not. Likewise, it indicates that the respondent had reached a very

low satisfaction.

On the other hand, for the second set of obtained data the grading scale, verbal description

and verbal interpretation from the report card will be used to determine their level of performance

which is show in Table 3.2.


Table 3.2
Scaling and Quantification of Data for the Level of Performance

Grading Scale Verbal Description Verbal Interpretation

90-100 Outstanding Very High Performance

85-89 Very Satisfactory High Performance

80-84 Satisfactory Moderately Performance

75-79 Fairly Satisfactory Low Performance

74 below Did not meet expectations Very Low Performance

The table above explains that the numbers in the leftward side has interpretations: grade

ranges 90-100 is described as outstanding means very high performance, grade ranges 85-89

described as very satisfactory means high performance, grade rages 80-84 described as

satisfactory means moderately high performance, grade ranges 75-79 described as fairly

satisfactory means low performance and grade ranges 74 below described as did not meet the

expectation means very low performance.

Reliability and Validity

To ensure the reliability ad validity of the questionnaire the researchers will conduct a test

consistency ad rationality. The self-made questionnaire will be given to the 10 chosen

respondents that are not included I actual sample of the study. Test will be repeated again after

five (5) days. The test will be tabulated using Pearson’s r and if it was found reliable ad valid, the

test will be given to the actual respondents of the study.


Moreover, the table below shows the result of the reliability and validity test made by the

researchers to their self-made questionnaire.

Table 4
Reliability ad Validity Test Result

Level of Satisfaction of Selected Work


Immersion Students in Relation to their Values Description Interpretation
Performance in BFAR
0.408248 Always Very High
A. Field Satisfaction
B. Office 10 Always Very High
Satisfaction
C. Lecture 0.614647 Always Very High
Satisfaction

Data Gathering Procedure

The process of data collection for this study starts by seeking approval to the authorized

school personnel specifically from the school head. Researchers will give a request letter with its

good objectives and benefits of this study to allow the distribution of the structured questionnaires

to the certain respondents from Doroteo S. Mendoza Sr. Memorial National High School.

The researchers will personally give and distribute the questionnaire to the selected work

immersion students and will entertain them if they have questions, clarifications and concerns

about the study. The researchers will observe also the respondents for documentation of the

study.

The respondents will answer the questionnaire which is in the checklist for using a check

mark to the level of satisfaction in terms of field, office and lecture. Furthermore, the answers of
the respondents have a corresponding legend in order to identify the level of satisfaction in relation

to their performance in BFAR.

To father identify the level of performance od selected work immersion students, their

grades will be collected from the BFAR staff. On the other hand, the researchers will tabulate the

sets of obtained data for further analysis.

Statistical Analysis and Treatment

The researchers of this study will employ both descriptive and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean will be used to determine the level

of satisfaction of selected work immersion students when it comes to field, office and lecture

activities. In addition, it will be used also to identify the level of performance of the selected work

immersion students in BFAR.

Moreover, inferential statistics specifically t-test for correlation will be used to distinguish

the relationship of satisfaction to the level of performance of selected work immersion students.