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Guidelines & Recommended Practices

Selection of Artificial Lift Systems


for Deliquifying Gas Wells
Prepared by Artificial Lift R&D Council
Status
 Document written and edited
 Chair: Cleon Dunham, cleon@oilfieldautomation.com
 Team: Not applicable
 Comments: Not applicable

1.7 Know Your Wells

This describes the knowledge you must have about your wells: depth,
tubular sizes, any downhole equipment problems or limitations, static
bottom-hole pressure, flowing bottom-hole pressure, typical production rate.
- Wellbore database

A recommended practice is to maintain an accurate well data base with


at least the following information on each well.

 Well depths

o MD. Measured depth to the plugged back total depth of the


wellbore.

o TVD. True vertical depth to the plugged back total depth.

o Deviation survey. Wellbore deviation survey if the well has a


deviated wellbore.

o Depth of all perforations. The measured depth to the top of the


perforations, the bottom of the perforations, and all perforated
intervals in the well.

o Liner depth. Depth of the top of the liner, if a liner is used.

o Tubing depth. The measured depth of the end of the tubing.

o Packer depth. The measured depth of the packer, if a packer is


used.

 Tubular sizes
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o Casing size(s). The casing ID and weight per foot for all casing
sizes used in the well.

o Liner size(s). The liner ID and weight per foot for all liner sizes
used in the well.

o Tubing size(s). The tubing OD, ID, and grade for all tubing
sizes used in the well.

 Well Equipment

o Wellbore geometry. A description of the wellbore completion


including casing(s), liner(s), tubing, etc.

o Wellbore sketch. A comprehensive sketch of the wellbore


showing all components, including nipples, mandrels, etc.

o Subsurface safety valve. The depth, size, and description of a


subsurface safety valve, if one is used in the well.

o Surface choke. The size and description of a surface choke, if


one is used in the well.

o Downhole choke. The measured depth, size, and description of


a downhole choke, if one is used in the well.

o Sand fill, junk in hole, wellbore integrity. A discussion of any


sand fill in the well, any junk in the hole including measured
depth(s) and likely type, and any known wellbore integrity issues
such as leaks, cracks, corrosion, erosion etc.

o Wellbore constraints. A discussion of any other wellbore


constraints that might affect the installation, operation, or
maintenance of an artificial lift system.

 Production history

o Production volumes. Measured, allocated, and/or estimated


production volumes of gas, water, and condensate over time.

o Production rates. Measured or calculated production rates of


gas, water, and condensate over time over time;

o Downtime. History of downtime and reasons.


Selection of Artificial Lift Systems for Deliquifying Gas Wells Page 3

 Pressures and pressure history

o Static bottom-hole pressure. See Section 1.6, Know your


Reservoir.

o Flowing bottom-hole pressure. See Section 1.6, Know your


Reservoir.

 Temperatures and temperature history.

o Static bottom-hole temperature. See Section 1.6, Know your


Reservoir.

o Flowing wellhead temperature. See Section 1.6, Know your


Reservoir.

 Critical flow rate

o Critical gas flow rate. Calculated critical flow rate of gas.


Calculate this using both the Turner and the Coleman
equations. (Normally the Turner equation is used if the flowing
pressure is over 1000 psi. The Coleman equation if the flowing
pressure is under 1000 psi. The Turner equation is more
conservative and therefore sometimes is preferred.) Calculate
the critical flow rate in the casing, in the liner if the well has a
liner, and in the tubing. Calculate it at the bottom of the well and
the top of the well. The critical flow rate must be achieved and
maintained at all depths and in all pipe sizes in the well to
remove liquid from the well.

o Critical rate calculation pressure, temperature. Record the


measured and/or estimated pressures and temperatures used
to calculate the critical flow rate at the surface and all depths in
the well.

o Calculated flow velocity vs. depth. The flow velocity vs. depth
can be a useful variable to display. By comparing the actual
flow velocity with the critical flow velocity locations were the
velocity may be below critical can be spotted.

 Well maintenance requirements.

o Workovers. Record and describe the details of any workovers


or other repair and/or maintenance work performed on the well.
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o Chemical treatments. Record the type and frequency of any


chemical treatments or other routine maintenance performed on
the well.

- Artificial lift data base

A recommended practice is to maintain a comprehensive artificial lift


database that describes the artificial lift system(s) that have been used
in each well.

o Artificial lift history. Describe the history of artificial lift systems


used in the well, including type, start/end dates, etc.

o Current artificial lift type. Describe the current type of artificial


lift system in the well, including all pertinent information
including type, sizes, etc.

o Artificial lift performance history. Describe the performance


history of the current form of artificial lift in the well, including
operating problems, efficiencies, etc.

o Artificial lift failure history. Describe the failure history of the


current artificial lift system, including type of failure, dates, etc.

- Other information

It is recommended to keep the following additional information.

o Well status – where is your well in its life expectancy? Map


each well on a “life expectancy” chart or graph. See Figure 1.7-
1 for an example of this graph.

o Identify wells below critical. Maintain a list of all wells that are
producing below the critical flow rate at any depth in the well.
See Section 1.8, Know the Performance of Your Wells for more
information on this.

Copyright

Rights to this information are owned by the Artificial Lift Research and
Development Council (ALRDC). This material may be used by any member of
ALRDC in any way they see fit as long as they refer to the ALRDC Artificial Lift
Selection document where it is presented.

Disclaimer
Selection of Artificial Lift Systems for Deliquifying Gas Wells Page 5

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