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BOYD, Jack A rth u r, 1932-


SECULAR MUSIC FOR THE SOLO VOCAL ENSEMBLE
IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

The U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa, P h .D ., 1971


Music

University Microfilms, A XEROXC om pany, A nn Arbor, Michigan

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SECULAR MUSIC FOR THE SOLO

VOCAL ENSEMBLE IN THE

NINETEENTH CENTURY

by
r t h Ur
J a c k IBoyd

A t h e s i s subm itted in p a r t i a l f u lf il lm e n t of th e
re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e degree of D octor
o f P hilosophy in th e D epartm ent
of M usic i n th e G raduate
C ollege of th e
U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa

May, 1971

T h e sis s u p e rv is o rs ! P r o f . D an iel Moe, P r o f . R ichard B loesch

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G raduate C ollege
The U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa
Iowa C ity , Iowa

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

PH.D. THESIS

T his i s to c e r t i f y th a t th e Ph.D . t h e s i s o f

Ja c k Boyd

w ith a m ajor in C horal L i te r a tu r e has been


approved by th e Examining Committee a s s a t i s ­
f a c to r y f o r th e t h e s i s req u irem en t f o r th e
Ph.D . degree a t th e convocation of

H ay, i m

Thesis committees \ J
Tjs^sis s u p e rv is o r

-jycJvD^Jj J. /SC ^c^.


T h e s is s u p e rv is o r

7A>S^f
Member

Menb

Member

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

LIST OF FIGURES........................................................ iii

C h ap ter

I. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1

G u id e lin e s f o r L im ita tio n s . . • • . • • • • • . . 2


B asic S o u rces . . » • • • » • • • • » • « • • » • • 4
The B asic Problem : Chorus o r S o lo is ts ? • • • . • • 7
V ocal D uets ............................................... •. . . 17

II. THE SOLO VOCAL ENSEMBLE: 1600 to 1800 ..................................... 18

The V ocal Ensemble in th e Baroque E r a .................. .... • 18


The V ocal Ensemble in th e C la s s ic E ra 27

III. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND THE VOCAL ENSEMBLE . . . . . 35

Opera C horuses . . . • • • ................... 35


The M ale Chorus Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
V o ic in g i n th e N in etee n th -C e n tu ry V ocal Ensemble . 47
I n s tru m e n ta tio n i n th e N in e te e n th -C e n tu ry V ocal
Ensemble • ........................................ . . . . . . . . $8
The T e x t s .................................. 65

IV . THE FOUNTAINHEADS OF THE VOCAL ENSEMBLE............................... 72

The T hree M ainstream s .................................................... 79

V. CONCLUSION............................................................................................. 108

BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................. 115

APPENDIX I — A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y • • • • • • • • • • • • • 128

APPENDIX I I — N on-A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y .................................. • 190

APPENDIX I I I — Seven Works f o r Solo V ocal Ensemble . . . . • • 209

ii

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LIST OF FIGURES

F ig u re page

1. Anthony P h ilip H e in ric h , E le g ia c O u in te tto V ocale . . . 56

2. George (Z .? ) H olden, The 7 /a tc h a a n ............................................. 69

3. R o b ert Schumann, "Schon i s t das F e s t des L e n z e s,”


No. 5 from I I in n e s p ie l. Op. 1 0 1 ....................................... 93

• • •
111

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In th e n in e te e n th c en tu ry th e r e were hundreds of composi­

t i o n s f o r v a rio u s com binations of so lo v o ic e s on s e c u la r t e x t s , b u t

th e l i t e r a t u r e concerning such works i s alm o st n o n e x is te n t. A few

books devote a c h a p te r to th e g e n re ; some g iv e only a few p ag es, bu t

m ost books concerned w ith so lo sin g in g o r c h o ra l perform ance ig n o re

v o c a l ensemble m usic e n t i r e l y . Even such an a u th o r ita ti v e work as

G ro v e 's D ic tio n a ry o f M usic and M u sician s d e v o tes l e s s th a n h a l f a

column t o th e V ocal Q u a rte t, and a c tu a lly d ism isse s th e s t y l e i n one

s e n te n c e : "The s e l f - e x i s t i n g v o c a l q u a r te t, so p ran o , a l t o , te n o r and

b a s s , w ith o r w ith o u t accompaniment, h a s , i f one e x ce p ts th e m ad ri­

g a l, a c u rio u s ly sm all r e p e r to r y ." ^ Die M usik i n G esch ich te und

Gegemvart h as no e n try w hatever co n cern in g v o c a l ensemble m u sic.

The purpose of th e re s e a rc h f o r t h i s p ap er i s to uncover neg­

le c t e d o r f o r g o tte n works f o r th r e e , fo u r o r f iv e so lo v o ic e s , w ith

o r w ith o u t accompaniment o f p ian o o r chamber ensem ble, u t i l i z i n g a

s e c u la r t e x t . Works f o r s im ila r fo rc e s w ith s a c re d t e x t s a re some­

what b e t t e r known and more r e g u la r ly perform ed and th e s e a re n o t

•^G ro v e 's D ic tio n a ry o f M usic and M u sic ia n s . 5 th e d it io n , e d .


E r ic Blom, 10 v o l s . (New York: S t . M a r tin 's P r e s s , 1954), V o l. VI,
p . 1031.

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c o v e re d . A lso , opera sc e n e s, even though p erfo rm ab le w ith pian o

accompaniment, and c a n ta ta o r c a n ta ta - lik e works w ith o r c h e s tr a l

accompaniment have n o t been in c lu d e d . The t h r u s t has been e x c lu ­

s iv e ly tow ard v o c a l chamber m usic.

The s p e c if ic g o a ls were:

1. t o p ro v id e i n one p la ce in fo rm a tio n concerning th e g e n re ,

i t s h is to r y and p r e - h is to r y ;

2. to p ro v id e a b ib lio g ra p h y of more o r l e s s r e a d ily a v a i l ­

a b le works, w ith a n n o ta tio n s co n cern in g th e p h y s ic a l

p r o p e r tie s of each work;

3. t o p ro v id e a f u r th e r b ib lio g ra p h y of works from th e

p e rio d under c o n s id e ra tio n which a r e n o t r e a d ily a v a i l ­

a b le but which i l l u s t r a t e c e r ta in t r a i t s o f th e g en re,

a rra n g e d a c c o rd in g to v o ic in g ;

4. and f i n a l l y , t o show, th ro u g h seven m a n u sc rip ts, th e

p h y s ic a l p r o p e r tie s of seven w idely d i f f e r e n t i a t e d works

which a re not c u rre n tly in p r i n t .

G u id e lin e s f o r L im ita tio n s

I n a d d itio n t o th e p re v io u s ly l i s t e d lim i t a t i o n s (no o rc h e s­

t r a l accompaniments, no o p era scen es, no c a n ta ta movements, no s a c re d

t e x t s ) i t was f u r th e r decided t h a t th e fo llo w in g g u id e lin e s were

needed to keep th e re s e a rc h w ith in a manageable a re a :

1. w r itte n o r f i r s t p u b lish ed betv/een ap p ro x im ately 1800

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and 1900;

2. w r itte n fo r a t l e a s t th r e e s o lo v o ic e s ;

3. dem onstrably w r itte n f o r s o lo v o ic e s a s c o n tra s te d to

works w r itte n w ith c h o ra l perform ance i n m ind.

T h is f i n a l c r i t e r i o n p ro v id ed one of th e prim ary problem s i n

th e r e s e a r c h . Many b io g ra p h e rs ig n o re th e sm all works, which th e y

c o n sid e r works f o r s p e c ia l o c c a s io n s . Even when such works a re

l i s t e d by b io g ra p h e rs, th e d e s ig n a tio n f o r perform ance by s o lo v o ic e s

o r f o r chorus i s o fte n o m itted ( i f , in d e e d , th e w r i t e r a c t u a l l y

know s). W hile i t i s tr u e t h a t many o f th e sm a ll works a re o f n e g l i ­

g ib le v a lu e from a m u sic al s ta n d p o in t, th e s e works s t i l l have v a lu e

i n i l l u s t r a t i n g th e com poser's mind a t i t s e a s e . As G erald Abraham

has s ta t e d :

The stu d y of a com poser's s m a lle r co m p o sitio n s i s alw ays an


i n t e r e s t i n g , sometimes a v a s tl y illu m i n a tin g p ro c e s s . I n such
works one i s o fte n a b le to c a tc h th e co m p o ser's mind o f f i t s
g u a rd , so to speak, and t o s u r p r is e th e m ost in tim a te r e v e l a ­
t i o n s — thoughts and f a c e ts o f m e n ta lity th e e x is te n c e o f w hich .
one would o therw ise n ev er s u sp e c t . . . . However much a com­
p o s e r may have h is tongue in h is cheek he i s n o n e th e le s s
e x p re s s in g a p a r t of h im s e lf; th e u n w o rth ie s t p a r t , c e r t a i n l y ,
b u t s t i l l a m en tal p h a se , and p erh ap s we do wrong to n e g le c t th e
im portance of p ie c e s d 'o c c a s io n and th e l i k e i n e s tim a tin g th e
m e n ta l com position o f any c r e a tiv e a r t i s t , be he p o e t o r
m u s ic ia n . . . . M u sic a lly , such works a r e q u ite n e g l i g i b l e ;
p s y c h o lo g ic a lly th e y a re in v a lu a b le .

T h is i s n o t to say t h a t a l l sm a ll works f o r v o c a l ensem ble a r e o f

p e r ip h e r a l v a lu e , because many a re c e r ta in l y o f th e h ig h e s t q u a l i t y .

^G erald Abraham, B orodin, th e Composer and H is M usic (London:


W illiam Reeves Book S e l l e r , 1 9 4 3 ), p . 107.

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The D re i Q u a r te tte . Op. 64, o f Brahms o r Schumann's Spanische L ie d e r-

s p i e l , Op. 74 show th e e x c e lle n t c ra ftsm a n sh ip which can be found

i n a s m a ll form . Even when th e work i s d e l i b e r a t e l y k ep t sim p le , as

i n August H a rd e r 's D reistim m ige Gesange^ . th e r e i s m u sic a l v a l i d i t y

and i n t e r e s t .

B asic Sources

The fundam ental so u rce o f in fo rm a tio n co n cern in g in d iv id u a l

w orks was i n b io g ra p h ie s and a u to b io g ra p h ie s o f composers whose m ain

work was done i n th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . Composers' correspondence

o f te n illu m in a te d th e m o tiv a tio n f o r seem ingly innocuous p ie c e s .

L i s t i n g s o f works when ta k e n i n th e a g g re g a te a ls o gave

in fo rm a tio n where in d iv id u a l n o tic e s o f co m p o sitio n s would t e l l

n o th in g . F o r in s ta n c e , H o fm eister* s Handbuch d e r M u s ik li te r a t u r ^-

was o f immense im portance because each o f th e f i r s t f iv e volumes was

b ro k en down i n t o d iv is io n s a cc o rd in g t o v o ic in g o r u s e . S e c tio n Y,

"M ehrstim m ige G esange, m e is te n s ohne, zum T h e il auch m it P ia n o fo r te

(o d e r G u i t a r r e ) , ” i s a l i s t i n g w hich showed th e works which were

c o n sid e re d a t th e tim e of th e p u b lis h in g o f th e book a s more a p p l i ­

c a b le f o r s o lo p erfo rm an ce. However, even t h i s l i s t i n g caused

problem s b ecau se many o f th e e n t r i e s m entioned s p e c i f i c works a s

^T his work i s a v a ila b le in th e m a n u sc rip t s e c tio n of t h i s


d i s s e r t a t i o n , Appendix I I I , p . 269.

^H o fm e is te r 's Handbuch d e r t i u s i k l i t e r a t u r . V o ls . 1 th ro u g h
13 (L e ip z ig : F . H o fm eister, 1845-1909)•

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b e in g " f u r g em ischten Chor" o r " f u r M annerchor." In Volume I o f th e

H o fm e iste r handbooks th e r e were th ir t y - s e v e n pages of ex ceed in g ly

sm a ll ty p e c o n ta in in g l i s t i n g s of ov er 1500 s e p a ra te e n t r i e s , many

o f w hich were m u ltip le e n t r i e s ( e . g . , "Sechs S tu ck e f u r M anner-

q u a r t e t t " ) , and of th e s e e n t r i e s c e r ta i n l y l e s s th a n te n p e rc e n t

were d e f i n i t e l y and u n d en iab ly w r itt e n f o r so lo p erform ance. Even

w ith th e s e lim i t a t i o n s th e H ofm eister p u b lic a tio n s were of u npar­

a l l e l l e d im p o rtan ce.

G ro v e 's D ic tio n a ry o f M usic and M u sic ia n s, because o f i t s

th o ro u g h n ess in l i s t i n g works by even m inor com posers, c o n trib u te d

many works to th e N on-A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y in Appendix I I of t h i s

s tu d y . However, even h e re th e r e were some n o tic e a b le g a p s, p a r t i ­

c u la r ly in th e a re a o f u n p u b lish e d w orks. A lso , th e r e was some

c o n fu sio n a s to th e o r i g i n a l d e s ig n a tio n o f so lo o r c h o ra l perform ­

ance. In th e l i s t i n g of works by F ranz S c h u b e rt, f o r example, th e

s e c tio n t i t l e d "C horal works w ith p ia n o f o r te , e t c . " has a fo o tn o te

w hich s t a t e s 'lian y o f th e s e were o r i g i n a l l y in te n d e d f o r v o cal

q u a r t e t , e s p e c ia lly th o s e f o r male v o ic e s , b u t b ein g more l i k e l y

nowadays to be perform ed c h o ra lly ., th e y a r e l i s t e d a c c o rd in g ly .

Even a quick p e r u s a l of O tto E r ic h D e u ts c h 's d e f i n i t i v e S c h u b e rt:

Them atic C atalogue o f A ll H is Works in C h ro n o lo g ic a l O rder^ w i l l

^G ro v e 's . V o l. V II, p . 572.

^O tto E r ic h D eu tsch , Schubert: Them atic C atalo g u e o f A ll His


Works i n C h ro n o lo g ic a l O rder (New York: W. W. N orton & C o., 1951)•

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show th a t a l l of h is t r i o s and a m a jo rity o f h is f o u r - p a r t male

v o ic e works were o r ig i n a lly w r itte n fo r perform ance by s o l o i s t s .

A nother book of m ajor im portance was th e C horal and Opera

C atalogue o f th e B r itis h B ro a d ca stin g C o rp o ratio n C e n tra l Music

L ib ra ry ,^ p a r t i c u l a r l y in th e a re a of d eterm in in g p u b lis h e rs of

obscure w orks. Two o th e r works were u s e f u l in lo c a tin g m an u scrip t

co p ies and obscure com positions* Augustus Hughes-Hughes's C atalogue

o f M anuscript M usic i n th e B r i t i s h Museum^ and th e D ic tio n a ry C atalo g

o f th e M usic C o lle c tio n o f th e New York P u b lic L ib rary Music D iv is io n .^

R obert E i t n e r 's B io g ra p h is c h -b ib lio g ra p h isc h e s Q uellen-Lexikon- ^ was

u s e f u l a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r work had been i d e n t i f i e d a s o r ig in a lly

^B r i t i s h B ro a d ca stin g C o rp o ra tio n . C e n tra l M usic L ib ra ry .


"C horal and Opera C a ta lo g u e ," 2 v o ls . (London: B r i t i s h B ro ad castin g
C o rp ., 1967).

^Augustus Hughes-Hughes, C atalogue o f M an u scrip t M usic i n


th e B r itis h Museum. 3 v o l s . , V ol. I I , "S e c u la r Vocal M usic" (London:
Longmans and C o., I 9O8) . The e n t i r e s e t was p u b lish e d between 1906
and I 9O9, w ith each volume indexed acc o rd in g to th e a u th o r, t i t l e
and f i r s t l i n e . Most of th e e n t r i e s , p r e d ic ta b ly and u n fo rtu n a te ly
f o r t h i s stu d y , a r e of much e a r l i e r m usic.

^New York P u b lic L ib ra ry , M usic D iv is io n , D ic tio n a ry C atalog


o f th e M usic C o lle c tio n . 35 v o l s . p lu s supplem ent (B oston: G. K. H a ll
& C o., 1964) . Volume 32 l i s t s 165 t r i o s (n o t c h o ra l works f o r th re e
p a r t s , which a re l i s t e d e lse w h e re ), 107 q u a r te ts , 13 q u in te ts , te n
s e x t e t s , and one n o n e tte . T h is in c lu d e s a l l d u p lic a tio n s a s w e ll as
th o s e works from c e n tu r ie s o th e r th a n th e n in e te e n th .

^ R o b e r t E i tn e r , B io g ra p h is c h -b ib lio g ra p h isc h e s O uellen-


Lexikon d e r M usiker und M u sik g e le h rte n d er c h r is tlic h e n Z eitrechnung
b is zur M itte des 19. J a h rh u n d e rts . 10 v o ls . (L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f &
H a r te l, l898-19"04-). A lthough i t c o n ta in s re fe re n c e s f o r b o th
p r in te d and m anuscript m u sic, w ith lo c a tio n s , i t does not c o n ta in
any l a t e n in e te e n th c en tu ry e n t r i e s .

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d e sig n e d f o r so lo p erform an ce.

I n o th e r p u b lic a tio n s h e lp f u l t o t h i s s tu d y , th e B iographie

u n i v e r s e l l e des m u sic ie n s^ in clu d ed l i s t s o f u n p u b lish ed as w e ll as

p u b lis h e d m u sic, and th e C atalogo d e ll e Opere M u s i c a l i ^ had two

s e c tio n s germane t o t h i s stu d y : pages 326-82, " C a n ta ta , S e re n a te p e r

V oci e Strum m ento," and pages 399"544, "M usica v o c ale da Camera,

A rie , A r i e t t e T e a t r a l i , D u e tti, e c c ."

The re fe re n c e l i b r a r i a n f o r th e M usic S e c tio n of th e L ib ra ry

o f C ongress, W ashington, D. C .,'M r. Rodney H. M i l l , as w e ll as th e

r e s t of h i s s t a f f , were of immense h e lp in lo c a tin g s p e c if ic works,

a s were th e l i b r a r i a n s in th e m usic s e c tio n s o f th e U n iv e rs ity of

Iowa and N orth Texas S ta te U n iv e rs ity , D enton, T ex as.

The B asic Problem : Chorus o r S o lo is ts ?

The term s which composers have used in t i t l e s of works

h a v e, i n m ost in s ta n c e s , been c le a r ly u n d e rsto o d by th e people f o r

whan th e y were w r itt e n . U n fo rtu n a te ly , th e s e term s o fte n change

t h e i r o r i g i n a l meanings w ith in a few d e ca d e s, and o c c a s io n a lly th ey

^■ F rangois F e t i s , B iographie un iv e r s e l l e des m u sic ie ns e t


b ib lio g r a o h ie g ln e r a le de l a m usique, 2nd e d i t i o n , w ith Supplement e t
com plim ent, 10 v o ls . ( P a r is : F irm in D id o t F r e r e s , 1866-70 and
1878- 80 ).

•l-^C atalogo d e lle Opere M u sic a li (Parma: O ffic in a G ra fic a


F re s c h in g , 1934).

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ap p ear to mean alm ost th e o p p o s ite of th e o r i g i n a l . Thus, th e r e h as

alw ays been a problem when re a d in g a t i t l e o f an o ld e r p ie c e o f

m usic a s to th e e x a c t m eaning o f p a r t i c u l a r w ords. The word "symphony"

means som ething q u ite d i f f e r e n t a cc o rd in g t o th e e r a o f c o m p o sitio n .

The p h ra se "p ian o t r i o " does n o t mean m usic f o r t h r e e p ia n o s , n o r i s

M o z a rt's c l a r i n e t q u in te t f o r f iv e c l a r i n e t s .

The problem of ambiguous t i t l e s o ccu rs f r e q u e n tly w ith v o c a l

m u sic, p ro b a b ly because v o c a l chamber m usic i n th e l a t e e ig h te e n th

cen tu ry and n in e te e n th c e n tu ry had n o th in g com parable to th e s ta n d a rd ­

i z a t i o n t h a t e x is te d in th e in s tru m e n ta l w o rld , w ith th e e x c e p tio n

o f th e m ale q u a r te t f o r two te n o rs and two b a s s e s . The v/ord " L ie d e r"

commonly meant "songs" and was used w ith alm o st u n i v e r s a l a c c e p ta n c e .

However, Hugo Wolf w rote h i s Sechs g e i s t l i c h e L ie d e r f o r SATB d i v i s i

c h o ru s. T h is makes th e word "L ie d e r" in th e t i t l e a t l e a s t s u s p e c t

when u sed as a d e te rm in in g f a c t o r to e s t a b l i s h t h a t a work was f o r

s o lo is ts . The word " p a rtso n g " i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to d e fin e

s in c e E n g lis h composers used t h i s term to d e s ig n a te b o th c h o r a l and

so lo ensemble w orks. Johan Nepomuka Hummel's Choeur p a t r i o t i q u e

avec canon. Op. 62, i s n o t f o r chorus b u t f o r a v o c a l q u a r te t w ith

p ia n o . D a riu s M ilhaud, i n th e tw e n tie th c e n tu r y , even w ro te h is 6e

symphonic f o r a mixed s o lo v o c a l q u a r te t, oboe and c e l l o . In

Appendix I I , N on-A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y , o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n th e r e

a r e s e v e r a l o th e r t i t l e s and d e s ig n a tio n s w hich i l l u s t r a t e t h i s

problem .

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9

The l i s t i n g o f v o ic in g s in th e Non-Annotated B ib lio g ra p h y

o f Appendix I I w ill show works f o r s o p r a n o /a lto /te n o r , s o p ra n o /te n o r /

b a s s , s o p r a n o /te n o r /te n o r , s o p ra n o /s o p ra n o /te n o r, so p ra n o /so p ra n o /

b a s s , a l t o / t e n o r / b a s s and o th e r v a r i a ti o n s o f th e b a s ic fo u r v o ice

c la s s ific a tio n s . S ince many works f o r v o c a l ensem ble perform ance

were w r itt e n f o r s p e c if ic o c c a sio n s when a s p e c if ie d number and

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v o ic e s w ere a v a il a b le , we can see a c o r r e l a ti o n

betw een t h i s v a r ie ty o f v o c a l v o ic in g s and th e odd co u p lin g s of

in s tru m e n ts in th e l a t e s e v e n te e n th and e ig h te e n th c e n tu r ie s when

s ta n d a r d iz a tio n was l e s s s t r i c t . By no s t r e t c h o f th e im a g in a tio n

could we c a l l a v o ic in g f o r b a rito n e s o lo /s o p r a n o /te n o r /b a s s i /

b a ss I I a " s ta n d a rd ” c h o ra l s i t u a t i o n , b u t th e s e were th e fo r c e s

P e te r C o rn e liu s c a lle d f o r in T ro s t i n T ran en .^ 3 Even w ith o u t th e

n o ta tio n from th e composer t h a t th e com p o sitio n was co n ceiv ed f o r

” fu n f Solostim m en m it P ia n o f o r te b e g le itu n g ," we would s u s p e c t t h a t

s o lo ensem ble perform ance was in d ic a te d b ecau se o f th e u n u su al

f o r c e s in v o lv e d .

T hus, one of th e p rim ary means o f i d e n ti f y in g works f o r so lo

ensem ble perform ance a s opposed to c h o ra l perform ance i s th ro u g h th e

e x o tic v o ic in g . As we s h a l l see i n l a t e r c h a p te rs th e r e were c e r ta in

s ta n d a rd iz e d v o ic e g ro u p in g s which were c o n sid e re d p ro p e r f o r c h o ra l

s in g in g , and d e v ia tio n s from th e s e norms in d ic a te a t l e a s t th e

-*-3peter C o rn e liu s , M u sik a lis c h e s Y'erke (L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f &


H a r te l, 1897 ( ? ) , p l a t e No. P . C. 1 2 2 ), p . 153* T h is work i s No. 1,
page 21Q in th e m a n u sc rip t s e c tio n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .

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10

p o s s i b i l i t y o f so lo perform ance.

I t i s a n o th er problem when, w ith in th e c o n fin es of a l i s t i n g

o f one com poser's work% we f in d th r e e o r fo u r d if f e r e n t p erfo rm er

in d i c a t i o n s . In a co m p ilatio n of th e v/orks o f Gounod th e r e i s th e

l i s t i n g of h is works composed in 1856 which in c lu d e s th e fo llo w in g :

0 S a l u t a r i s e t I n v i o l a t e , k 4 v o ix .
Ave Verum de M ozart, choeur til q u a tre v o ix a rra n g e pour
l'O rp h eo n . (a rra n g e d f o r male chorus)
C ieux, fondez-vous en p le u r s , c a n tiq u e du XVII® s i e c l e ,
arran g e ^ q u a tre v o ix .14

In addition, the 1855 entry has the following listing:

Dans c e tt e e ta b le . p a s to r a le s u r un Noel du X V IIIe s i e c l e ,


& 4 voix (q u a tre grands choeurs No. 2 ) .

Some problem s a re r a is e d by such a la r g e v a r ie ty of v o c a l d e sig n a ­

tio n s . How d id Gounod d i f f e r e n t i a t e between " q u a tre v oix" and "4

v o ix ," i f , in f a c t , he d id see a d iffe re n c e ? The d e s ig n a tio n " q u a tre

gran d s choeurs No. 2" pro b ab ly in d ic a te s th e second s e c tio n o f a s e t

o f fo u r works f o r grand chorus and o r c h e s tr a Gounod had w r itt e n in

1852. T h is could in d ic a te t h a t " a 4 v o ix " means a f o u r - p a r t ch o ru s,

and th u s th e 0 S a lu ta r is and th e I n v io l a ta a r e fo r f o u r - p a r t chorus

a ls o . G rove18 i s of l i t t l e h e lp h e re s in c e th e in d ic a tio n s f o r

0 S a l u t a r i s and I n v io la ta a r e f o r "4 v o ic e s" w hile o th e r e n t r i e s

have such in d ic a tio n s as " f o r unaccompanied c h o ru s," " f o r two e q u al

v o ic e s ," o r " f o r c h o ru s." 1^

14J . G. Prud-Homme and A. D an d elo t, Gounod: s a v ie e t se s


o eu v res ( P a r is : L ib r a ir ie Ch. D elag rav e, 1911), p . 324.

15Grove's . V ol. I l l , p . 732.

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11

A s im ila r problem occurs in th e l i s t i n g s o f works by Franz

A bt, whose tw e n tie th -c e n tu ry p o p u la rity has dimmed c o n sid erab ly as

compared to th e re c o g n itio n he re c e iv e d in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry .

A bt had 103 s e p a ra te e n tr ie s i n Volume VI o f th e H ofm eister Handbuch,

many of which were m u ltip le - s e c tio n e d w orks. Among th e s e were th e

fo llo w in g in d ic a tio n s :

Op. 209, 4 Gesange f . 4 M annerst.


Op. 215, 5 L ied e r f . 4 s t M annergesang.
Op. 219, 5 4 s t . M annergesange.
Op. 224, 4 Gesange f . M annerchor.

Mannergesang; means '’m en's c h o ra l ( s o c i e ty ) ." M*arinerchor means simply

"male chorus" o r "m ale-voice c h o ru s." Mannerstimmen means "male

v o ic e s ." Such d if f e r e n c e s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to d if f e r e n t pub­

l i s h e r s s in c e S ie g e l in L e ip z ig p u b lish e d a l l fo u r of them. We may

assume t h a t Op. 209 i s f o r an ensemble of fo u r male s o l o i s t s , and th e

o th e r th r e e opus numbers were in ten d ed f o r c h o ra l r e n d itio n .

O ther problem s a re r a is e d when d i f f e r e n t so u rces g iv e con­

f l i c t i n g in d ic a tio n s . R obert Schumann's D rei G e d ich te . Op. 29,

s u b t i t l e d "Fur mehrstimmigen G esan g ,"!^ i s a s e t o f th r e e works:

No. 1 , "L an d lich es L ie d ," f o r two t r e b l e ( o r t r e b l e range) v o ic e s;

No. 2, "L ied (In meinem G arten)," f o r th re e t r e b l e (o r tr e b l e range)

v o ic e s ; and th e f i n a l number, "Z ig e u n e rle b en ," which has th e i n d i ­

c a tio n "f’u r k le in e n C hor." H o fm e is te r's Handbuch, Volume I , says

l^R o b ert Schumann, D rei G ed ich te, Op. 29, (L eip z ig : E d itio n
P e te r s , n . d . , No. 7077) (R obert Schumann, Werke. L eip zig : B r e it-
kopf & H a r te l, 1887, S e rie X, Z w eiter Band, p . 4 ) . The P e te rs
p u b lic a tio n has th e v o ic e s of No. 1 and No. 2 in d ic a te d f o r So­
prano I , Soprano I I and A lto .

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12

th e l a s t work o f th e s e t i s f o r a "k le in e n C hor," b u t G r o v e l c a l l s

i t a '*q u a r t e t ." Schumann w rote s e v e ra l o th e r s e t s o f works f o r so lo

v o c a l ensem ble, so one would s u sp e c t t h a t t h i s s e t m ight be f o r th e

same ty p e of g ro u p in g . I t seems h ig h ly unusual to have two p ie c e s

f o r s o lo v o ic e s (a d u et and t r i o f o r equal so lo v o ic e s) follow ed in

th e same opus number by a c h o ra l work. However, t h i s appears to be

th e c ase s in c e " Z ig e u n e rlie d e r" would n o t work as a q u a rte t because

o f some d i v i s i , as w e ll a s th e c le a r ly marked p assag es f o r so lo


Tf
v o i c e s . A*

A nother problem a p p e a rs in a d i f f e r e n t Schumann work, th e


18
Gesange f u r Frauenstamm en. Op. 69. In t h i s s e t of s ix works f o r

fem ale v o ic e s only No. 2, "vraldmadchen," and No. 5> "H eerfey ," have

i n d ic a tio n s in th e sc o re f o r so lo v o ic e s . The o th e r fo u r s e c tio n s of

t h i s opus, and th e s ix s im il a r works o f Op. 91> a re t o t a l l y w ith o u t

i n d ic a tio n s a s t o so lo o r c h o ra l perform ance. However, lo o k in g back

a t Op. 29, d is c u sse d in th e p re v io u s p arag rap h , i t i s p o s s ib le t h a t

Schumann w rote two s e c tio n s f o r s o l o i s t s f o r th e c o n tr a s t such

v o ic in g would g iv e in a c o n c e r t. A ll s e c tio n s a re in a s im ila r

s t y l e , from fo u r to s ix v o ic e p a r ts and o p tio n a l s e m i-o b lig a to piano

accom panim ent. A s im ila r s i t u a t i o n occurs in Franz S c h u b e rt’ s f i v e -

■ ^ It should a ls o be m entioned t h a t a c h o ra l work which con­


t a i n s a s e c tio n f o r two e q u a l v o ic e s , a s e c tio n f o r th re e eq u al
v o ic e s and a concluding work f o r f u l l chorus o f mixed v o ic e s i s a ls o
q u ite u n u s u a l.

^ R o b e r t Schumann, Gesange ftir Frauenstim m en, Op. 69 (L e ip z ig ;


E d i tio n P e te r s , n . d . , No. 2393) (R obert Schumann, 7/erke, S e rie X,
Z w e ite r Band, p . 1 8 ).

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13

v o ic e work, M ondenschein. w hich he c a ll e d Q u in te tto i n th e s c o r e ,

h u t he a ls o w rote f o r th e f i r s t te n o r p a r t , " te n o re s o l o ." N ever­

th e le s s , he in te n d e d th e p ie c e to be sung by a so lo q u i n t e t, and

r e f e r r e d to i t as such in l e t t e r s to h is p u b lis h e r s .^

I ia te r in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry th e com posers were g e n e r a lly

more c a r e f u l , or a t l e a s t more c o n s i s t e n t . An e x c e p tio n i s Max

R e g e r's Op. 6, D re i Chore f u r S opran. A l t . T en o r, und Bass which


n r\
co u ld be f o r e i t h e r chorus o r s o l o i s t s . One c lu e i s t h a t i n h i s

Funf D u e tte f u r Sopran und A lt th e in d iv id u a l v o ic e l i n e s a r e named

i n th e t i t l e , as th ey a re i n th e t i t l e o f Op. 6 , w hereas i n h i s o th e r

p o ly -v o ic e d works th e in d ic a t io n i s f o r "g em isch ten C h o r.” G rove1s

l i s t s th e works under th e h e ad in g "V ocal Q u a r t e t s . " 2^ A ls o , th e

in d iv id u a l v o c a l l i n e s a re much more in d e p en d e n t of th e accompaniment

th a n m ost o f th e r e s t of h i s c h o ra l w o rk s. A lth o u g h t h e r e i s no

c o n firm in g e v id en c e , i t a p p e a rs t h a t th e s e t h r e e works a r e f o r p ian o

and s o lo v o c a l q u a r te t.

O c c a sio n a lly a word a p p e a rs w hich h as no a p p a re n t m eaning.

Giacomo M eyerbeer w rote a p ie c e t i t l e d B u s s lie d . w ith an i n d i c a t i o n

f o r "B ass so lo w ith C h o r q u a r te tt." T here i s th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a

" C h o rq u a r te tt" i s a q u a rte t ta k e n from th e m ain c h o ru s, b u t th e r e i s

no p o s i t i v e evidence f o r su c h .

^ % a u ric e J . E . Brown, E ssay s on S c h u b e rt (New Y ork: S t .


M a r t i n 's P r e s s , 1966), p . 63.

^ k a x R eger, S a m tlic h e Werke (W iesbaden: B re itk o p f & H a r te l,


n . d . (1 9 4 7 ? )), V o l. 30, p p . 1 -1 9 .

2lG ro v e 's . V o l. V II, p . 9 9 .

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14

T here a re o th e r in s ta n c e s where th e composer o r i g i n a l l y

w ro te f o r s o l o i s t s , and l a t e r re c o n s id e re d h i s f i r s t id e a . Jo sep h

Haydn o r i g i n a l l y in te n d e d th e t h i r t e e n songs f o r th r e e and fo u r

v o ic e s w ith pian o accompaniment^2 to be perform ed by s o l o i s t s .

However, Haydn h im se lf su g g e ste d , i n a l e t t e r t o F r ie d r i c h Z e l t e r ,

t h a t Z e l t e r should make an arrangem ent of one of th e q u a r te ts , Abend-

l i e d , f o r ch o ru s, so lo q u a r te t and p i a n o f o r t e . ^3 Even Brahms was

n o t above changing h is b a s ic co n cep ts o f h is own w orks. He w ro te a t

l e a s t t h r e e l e t t e r s to v a rio u s men commenting on th e u se of a chorus

f o r t h e L ie b e s lie d e r W alzer, Op. 52, a lth o u g h when w r itin g t o E r n s t

Rudorff concerning the orchestration of some of the Liebeslieder


,2 4
he em phasized " . . . s o lo — n ic h t chor . . . .

T here i s one o th e r means of i d e n t if y i n g works which were

in te n d e d f o r s o lo perform ance: i f an accompanying in stru m e n t was

s u g g e s te d we can assume t h a t th e in s tru m e n t sh o u ld be a u d ib le to

b o th t h e p e rfo rm e rs and th e a u d ie n c e , i f , i n f a c t , an au d ien ce was

c a lle d f o r . Some music was w r itt e n w ith o u t an a u d ien c e i n m ind, such

a s th e Hausmusik o f th e Germans, much r e l i g i o u s m usic o f e a r l i e r

tim e s and a f a i r amount o f chamber m usic o f a l l c o u n tr ie s where th e

2?Franz Joseph Haydn, Werke (Munchen: G. H enle V e rla g , 1958),


V o l. XXX, ^ e h rs tim m ig e G esange," p . I f f .

23h. C. Robbins Landon, The Collected Correspondence and London


Notebooks of Joseph Haydn (London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1959)»
p . 224.

2^ S ie g f r ie d K ro ss, Die Chorwerke von Johannes Brahms ( B e r lin :


Max H esses V e rla g , 1958), p . 273•

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15

perform ance was meant f o r th e p erfo rm ers and n o t f o r n o n -involved

lis te n e r s . I f an in s tru m e n t was a u d ib le t o th e h a lf dozen p erfo rm ers

i n such an in s ta n c e th e n i t was loud enough t o f u l f i l l i t s m u sic a l

r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , even though i t m ight be unheard te n rows away i n a

c o n c e rt s i t u a t i o n . On th e o th e r hand an in stru m e n t m ight balance

v ery w e ll in a co n cert w ith a v o c a l q u in te t bu t be drowned out by a

chorus o f tw enty v o ic e s . The p ia n o fo rte was w e ll on i t s way t o b ein g

a loud in s tru m e n t by 1800 so i t could c a rry th e w eight o f sound o f a

r e l a t i v e l y la r g e group. A d e l ic a te in stru m e n t such a s a g u i t a r could

n o t b e a r such volume. T here were many works w r itte n w ith e i t h e r an

o p tio n a l o r re q u ire d accompaniment f o r g u i t a r , a s w itn e ss th e e n t r ie s

i n th e H o fln eister handbooks. W ithout some ty p e o f a m p lific a tio n

(w hich, o f c o u rse , was im p o ssib le a t t h a t tim e ) i t would be extrem ely

d i f f i c u l t f o r th e l i g h t sound o f a g u i t a r t o cu t th ro u g h th e w e lte r

o f sound produced by tw en ty o r t h i r t y lu s ty m ale s in g e r s . However,

w ith a q u a r te t o r t r i o th e problem would be n o n ~ e x is te n t. G o ttf r ie d

Weber u sed a t e x t which K a rl M aria von Weber (no r e l a t i o n ) had s e t so

s u c c e s s f u lly , Theodore K o rn er’ s L e ie r und Schwerdt ( s i c ) , and gave i t

a s e t t i n g ” f u r e in e und m ehrere Singstimmen m it P ia n o fo rte (o d er

G u i t a r r e ) ." A composer named Hoffmann w rote a work c a lle d Kosaken-

l i e d (C ossacks Song) f o r w3stim m . m. P f . (o d . G u i t . ) , " which was

p u b lis h e d by S c h o tt in M a in z .^5 S e v e ra l of th e works o f Schubert

2^The H ofm eister handbooks a re n o to rio u s ly bad about o m ittin g


a composer’ s f i r s t name o r g iv in g only th e i n i t i a l s . In Volume I
th e r e i s a s e c tio n o f works by C. J . A. Hoffmann, E . T . A. Hoffmann,
H. A. Hoffinann, and th e above m entioned Hoffmann w ith no i n i t i a l s .

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16

have g u ita r accompaniments, a lth o u g h D eutsch c o n sid e rs most o f them

sp u rio u s a d d itio n s by some e n th u s ia s tic e d i t o r . D eutsch a ls o con­

s id e r s many o f th e piano accompaniments q u e s tio n a b le , and in t r u t h ,

many of th e accompanied works can stan d a s w e ll w ith o u t th e piano

p a r t s , m ost o f which m erely double th e v o ic e p a r t s .

Beethoven, probably from a la c k o f i n t e r e s t , l e f t a l l i n d i ­

c a tio n s o ff h is E n g lish , S co tch , I r i s h and Welch f o lk song a rra n g e ­

m ents concerning perform ance by s o l o i s t s o r a ch o ru s. These i n t e r ­

e s tin g l i t t l e p ie c e s fo r unnamed s o lo , th re e -v o ic e d ensemble and an

accompaniment of v io lin , v io lo n c e llo and p ia n o o fte n have endings

marked v a rio u s ly "C oro," "C hor," o r not marked a t a l l . The w r ite r

has not been a b le to a s c e r ta in th e ex act meaning o f th e s e two w ords,

b u t presum ably "Coro" means " r e f r a i n , " w hile "Chor" in d ic a te s e i t h e r

" th e chorus sin g s h ere" o r " t u t t i s in g e rs " ( t h a t i s , " t u t t i so lo

s in g e r s " ) . S ince some of th e s e works a re v o iced f o r so p ra n o /so p ran o /

b a s s , one i s fo r a lto /te n o r /b a s s and o th e rs f o r s o p ra n o /te n o r/b a s s ,

B eethoven was not w ritin g w ith a s p e c if ic e s ta b lis h e d c h o ra l group

in mind. There i s , of c o u rse , th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t both words mean

th e same th in g , although what th a t meaning m ight be i s o b scu re.

To f u r th e r muddy some Brabmsian w a te rs , S ie g f r ie d Kross p u ts

f o r t h a t h e s i s t h a t alth o u g h Brahms o r ig i n a ll y th o u g h t o f th e Op. 52

L ie b e s lie d e r as so lo m a te r ia l, he had meant t h a t in a c tu a l p r a c tic e

a sm all chorus (" k le in e n Chor") should p erfo rm . H is d ed u ctio n i s

b ased on th e "m assive sound" ("m assiven K lang") o f a four-handed

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17

perform ance on a modern grand p ia n o .

To conclude t h i s d is c u s s io n of th e problems encountered in

c o n s id e rin g c h o r a l v s . so lo perform ance, D eutsch m entions t h a t

S c h u b e r t's q u a rte t N achtgesang im Walde. Op. p o s t. 139(b), v/as

w r itt e n f o r a b e n e f it co n cert and f i r s t perform ed by a chorus of

tw en ty s in g e r s , d e s p ite th e t i t l e of Q u a r te tt. The p robable ex p la ­

n a tio n i s t h a t , alth o u g h i t was a q u a rte t and in ten d ed f o r p e r f o r ­

mance in in tim a te su rro u n d in g s ( li k e most of S c h u b e rt's o th e r te n o r /

te n o r /b a s s and te n o r /te n o r /b a s s /b a s s w orks), th e s p e c ia l req u irem en ts

f o r p erfo rm in g to a la rg e group n e c e s s ita te d th e added s t r e n g t h .^7

V ocal D uets

A lthough v o c a l d u e ts te c h n ic a lly f a l l w ith in th e a re a of solo

v o c a l chamber m usic, i t v/as decid ed to e lim in a te them from t h i s study

because o f th e v a s t number of them. S ince v i r t u a l l y every composer of

th e n in e te e n th cen tu ry w rote d u e ts, such works could p ro p e rly be th e

s u b je c t of an e n t i r e d i s s e r t a t i o n . The only d u e ts co n sid ered in t h i s

stu d y a re th o s e which form p a r t of a s e t of v o c a l ensemble w orks, o r

th o s e which i l l u s t r a t e a p o in t in o th e r works by a given composer.

2fycross, p . 273-

27peutsch, Schubert Thematic Catalogue, p. 445*

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18

CHAPTER I I

THE SOLO VOCAL ENSS1BLE: 1600 TO 1800

The V ocal Ensemble in th e Baroque E ra

The s o - c a lle d "monodic re v o lu tio n " ap p ro x im a te ly a t th e

b eg in n in g o f th e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry form s a s o l i d b eg in n in g p o in t

f o r th e p r e - h is to r y of th e v o c a l en sem b le. I t i s obvious t o any

re a d e r of m u s ic a l h i s t o r y t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l s e c u la r v o c a l m usic

b e fo re 1600 was perform ed by an ensem ble o f s o l o i s t s . L itu rg ic a l

m usic had alm o st a com plete monopoly on c h o r a l p e rfo rm an c e. W ith th e

ad v en t of monody and th e r i s e o f o p era and o p e ra -in flu e n c e d fo rm s,

s e c u la r v o c a l m usic came i n t o i t s own. However, i t d id n o t change

d ra s tic a lly a t f i r s t . E x cep t f o r th e a d d itio n o f a keyboard i n s t r u ­

ment p la y in g a fig u r e d b a s s l i n e th e t e x t u r e was o fte n much th e same

a s l a t e R en aissan ce m a d rig a ls . T aking o n ly th e books o f m a d rig a ls o f

C laudio M onteverdi we can se e in th e f i f t h th ro u g h th e e ig h th b ooks,

p u b lis h e d r e s p e c tiv e ly i n 1605, 1614, 1621 and 1638, th e developm ent

of th is s ty le . B eginning w ith Book V th e m a d rig a ls had a b a sso

c o n tin u o , and many o f them had o b b lig a to in s tru m e n ts a s w e ll a s v o c a l

d u e ts and t r i o s . ^ These c o n tin u o m a d rig a ls o f M o n tev erd i and h i s

lD onald Jay G ro u t, A H is to ry o f W estern M usic (New Y ork:


W. W. N orton & C o ., i 960) , p . 285.

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19

c o n te m p o ra rie s , w ith t h e i r em phasis on harm onic fo u n d a tio n s , n e c e s­

s i t a t e d a change i n both s t r u c t u r e and b a s ic c o n c e p t. S in ce th e

in s tru m e n ts no lo n g e r m erely doubled o r su p p o rted th e v o c a l l i n e s

th e y had no re a so n fo r e x is te n c e u n le s s th e y liv e d t h e i r own sep a ­

r a t e m u s ic a l l i v e s . As th e in s tru m e n ts l e f t th e v o c a l l i n e s th e

v o ic e s to o k on a s p e c if ic c o lo r w hich h e r e to f o r e had been mixed ad

hoc w ith any a v a ila b le in s tru m e n t. Thus each g roup, in s tru m e n ta l

and v o c a l, p o la r iz e d to th e e x c lu s io n o f th e o th e r , and th e c o n c e r-

t a t o m a d rig a l was b o rn .^

T h is concern w ith m u s ic a l p o l a r iz a t i o n came a t th e same tim e

a s a concern w ith a c c u ra te t e x t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n . Toward th e end of

t h e s i x te e n th cen tu ry th e N e th e rla n d is h composers had d r i f t e d tow ard

t h e s t y l i s t i c te n d e n c ie s o f th e I t a l i a n s , w ith th e fundam ental t h r u s t

b ein g t o b e t t e r th e r e la tio n s h ip betw een word and m u s ic .3 A s o lo is t

was a more a p t choice f o r r e a l i z i n g th e words of an e m o tio n al poem

th a n a c h o ru s. I f th e r e had to be a p l u r a l i t y o f v o c a l l in e s , i t was

found t h a t p la c in g th e melody in th e upperm ost v o ic e fo rc e d i t to

s ta n d o u t i n s h a rp e r r e l i e f th a n i f s e v e r a l v o ic e s were entw ined

around t h e w ords. One of th e m ost im p o rta n t c o lle c tio n s i n t h i s

d i r e c t i o n was Jacob R e g n a rt1s T eu tsch e L ie d e r^ which became th e b e s t

2Homer U lric h and P a u l A. P is k , A H is to ry o f M usic and Musi ­


c a l S ty le (New York: H a rc o u rt, B race & W orld, I n c . , 1963)> PP* 2 4 5-6.

^Helmut O sth o ff, The German P a r t Song (K oln: Arno Volk


V e rla g Hans G erig KG, 1955)» P» 1 2 .

^Jac o b R eg n art, T eutsche L ie d e r su d re ie n Stimmen nach A rt


d e r N a p o lita n e n oder w elschen V i l l a n e l l e n (German Songs i n Three
P a r t s i n th e Manner of th e N e a p o lita n o r F ren ch V i l l a n e l l a s , 1576-79)*

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20

known o f a l l song c o lle c tio n s of t h a t p e r io d . T h is was a ls o th e

f i r s t c o lle c tio n of songs i n which th e melody was e x c lu s iv e ly in

th e upper p a r t .

M usic o f t h i s ty p e was p u b lish e d in c o lle c tio n s and had a

much w ider fame and h e a rin g th a n any o f th e contem porary o p e ra s.

O p e ra tic m usic was lim ite d p rim a rily to a few perform ances b efo re

s m a ll, lim ite d au d ien ces w hereas th e c o lle c tio n s o f monodies were

p u b lis h e d i n r e l a t i v e l y la r g e e d itio n s and sung everyw here. Occa­

s io n a l ly a composer would in d ic a te o p tio n a l methods of p erfo rm an ce.

Johann Hermann S c h e in 's M usica b o s c a re c c ia (1621-28) could be sung

a s so lo songs, a s d u e ts o r a s t r i o s w ith o r w ith o u t an in s tru m e n ta l

accom panim ent.^ L a te r i n th e cen tu ry th e r e was a d d itio n a l m o tiv a tio n

f o r th e w r ite r s of e l i t e v o c a l chamber m u sic .

A lessan d ro S c a r l a t t i was a ls o supreme i n th e f i e l d of th e chamber


c a n ta ta , th e e l i t e v o c a l m usic of th e l a t e Baroque in t h a t i t was
w r itt e n f o r a s e l e c t audience of c o n n o isse u rs and d id no t have to
depend upon p o p u la r s u c c e ss , as d id th e o p e ra . A p a p a l i n t e r d i c ­
t i o n o f th e tim e to th e e f f e c t t h a t o p era was a form of m usic n o t
p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive to p u b lic m o ra lity in c re a s e d th e p o p u la r­
i t y o f th e s e s m a ll-s c a le d chamber p ie c e s.®

Many of th e s e c a n ta ta s w ere, in a c t u a l i t y , sm all opera

s c e n e s, w ith com plete d ra m a tic s i tu a tio n s w hich, as C h arles Burney

5ArnoId S c h e rin g , G esch ich te d e r M usik i n B e is p ie le n


(L e ip z ig : VEB B re itk o p f & H a r te l M u sik v erlag , 1931)• Ho. 187 (p»
223) i s S c h e in 's " V ie l sch’dner B lftn elein 1' from th e M usica b o s c a re c c ia .
I t i s a th re e -v o ic e d p ie c e , b a s ic a lly homophonic w ith some rhythm ic
independence w ith in th e s ix te e n m easu res. There a re a t l e a s t th r e e
p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r th e v o ic in g : so p ra n o /so p ra n o /b a s s, te n o r /te n o r /b a s s
o r s o p ra n o /te n o r /b a s s .

^Howard D. McKinney and W . R . A nderson, M usic in H is to ry


(New York: American Book C o., 1957), p . 331*

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p u t i t , "amused th e mind w h ile th e e a r was g r a t i f i e d . " ? Both th e

p o e try and m usic were s c a le d to chamber dim ensions and had much more

e leg a n c e and refin em en t th a n most opera w r itin g .

A lthough t h i s stud y i s n o t p rim a rily concerned w ith chamber

d u e ts , th e s e were im p o rtan t h i s t o r i c a l l y because i t was from th e d u et

t h a t th e t r i o grew .

A lthough m ost c a n ta ta s of th e sev e n te en th cen tu ry were


w r itt e n f o r a so lo soprano v o ic e w ith co n tin u o , th e r e were many
v o c a l chamber m usic works f o r more th an one v o ic e and a ls o some
w ith ensemble accompaniments and r i t o m e l l o s . The v o c a l chamber
d u e t, corresponding t o th e in s tru m e n ta l t r i o s o n a ta w ith two
e q u a l high v o ic e s over a fig u re d b a ss, was a fav o red medium, one
i n which S te f f a n i was e s p e c ia lly renown; th e s t y l e o f S t e f f a n i 's
d u e ts was im ita te d by many l a t e r composers, in c lu d in g Bach
and Handel.®

These d u e ts were u s u a lly q u ite f l o r i d , i f no t in th e w ritin g a t l e a s t

i n th e p erform ance. One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a sp e c t o f Baroque m u sic, th e

t r a n s f e r o f m elodic idiom s from in s tru m e n ta l m usic to v o c a l, was

q u ite a p p aren t in th e so lo and d u et c a n ta ta s . Vocal m e lo d ie s to o k on

in s tru m e n ta l c lo th e s w ith wide m elodic le a p s , w ider ra n g e s, a rp e g g i-

a te d m elodic seg n en ts and o th e r t r a d i t i o n a l l y in s tru m e n ta l c o n c e p ts.

The a d d itio n o f a second in stru m e n t of th e same ty p e to form a d u et

was echoed by th e a d d itio n o f a second v o ic e of th e same range to

form a v o c a l chamber d u e t. J u s t as th e in s tru m e n ta l d u e t assumed th e

v is a g e o f a b a t t l e of v i r t u o s i t y between th e two in s tru m e n ts , so th e

v o c a l d u e t o fte n used ech o in g p h ra se s to show o f f th e a b i l i t y o f th e

^McKinney and A nderson, p . 331*

®Grout, A H isto ry o f \7estern M usic, p . 326.

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22

two s in g e r s to f u l l ad v an tag e.

V ir tu a lly a l l of th e composers who w rote so lo c a n ta ta s a ls o

w rote v o c a l d u e ts - - M o n tev erd i, C a rissim i and C e s ti among them .

A v a r i e t y of te x tu r e s , in te r p la y of m elodic m o tiv e s, and s u s ta in e d

ly r ic is m c h a ra c te riz e d th e d u e t, and i t reach ed a h ig h le v e l of

symmetry, c o n siste n cy of s t y l e , and form al p e r f e c tio n in th e seven­

te e n t h c e n tu ry .^ An example of t h i s ty p e o f d u et can be found in

A rnold S c h e rin g ’ s a n th o lo g y , G e sc h ic h te d e r Musik in B e is p ie le n .^Q

A g ostino S t e f f a n i 's chamber duet f o r soprano and a l t o t i t l e d O cchi.

perche p ia n g e te has a t o t a l o f 256 m easu res, m o stly w ith a l te r n a t in g

p h ra s e s by th e v o ic e s . The two v o c a l li n e s seldom use th e same words

a t th e same tim e , o th e r th a n a t cad en ces. The in d iv id u a l v o c a l lin e s

a r e r e l a t i v e l y easy w ith th e soprano going from e 1 to g" and th e a l t o

from a below M iddle c to b ' , which m ight in d ic a te a c o u n te r-te n o r

in s te a d o f a fem ale a l t o .

Three c o lle c tio n s of works from England must be l i s t e d h e re

n o t o n ly because of t h e i r m u sic a l e x c e lle n c e b u t because th e y were

th e fo u n ta in h e a d s from which o th e r works sp ra n g . The T reasu ry of

M usick, p u b lish e d by th e b ro th e rs W illiam and Henry Lawes in 1699 j

in c lu d e d a s e r ie s o f d ia lo g u e s f o r two v o ic e s and c o n t i n u o .^ The

^ U lric h & P is k , p p . 249-51.

^ S c h e r in g , p . 335.

•^W illiam Lawes and Henry Lav/es, D ialogues f o r Two V oices and
C o n tinuo, e d . Roy Jesso n (U n iv e rs ity P a rk , P en n sy lv an ia: The
P e n n sy lv a n ia S ta te U niv. P r e s s , 1964)•

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23

t i t l e s show th e ty p e o f t e x t fa v o re d by th e s e b re th re n :

A D ialogue between a Shepherd and a Nymph


A D ialogue on a K iss
A D ialogue between Charon and P h ilo m el
A D ialogue betw een Daphne and S trep h o n

These pastoral scenes were set in a quasi-operatic style with the two

v o ic e s som etim es a l t e r n a t i n g s o lo s , som etim es s in g in g to g e th e r . The

v o c a l l i n e s a r e q u ite m odest i n ran g e and use o f la r g e i n t e r v a l s , and

co m p letely la c k in g in e x p re s s io n m ark s. The o r i g i n a l accompaniment

was an u n fig u re d b a s s .

The o th e r two c o lle c tio n s were by th e s p i r i t u a l tw in s , Henry

P u r c e ll and D r. John Blow. P u r c e l l 's c o l l e c t i o n o f v o c a l s o lo s ,

d u e ts and t r i o s , w hich he t i t l e d Orpheus B r ita n n ic u s ^ was o b v io u sly

th e model f o r B low 's Amphion A n g e lic u s. ^3 The f u l l t i t l e o f th e

latter work completely describes the works contained therein:

Amphion Angelicus. A 'Hork of Many Compositions, for One. Two


Three and Four Voices With several Accoapagnaments of Instru­
mental Uusick: and a Thorow-bass to each Song: figur'd for an
Organ. Harpsichord, or Theorboe-Lute.

T h is c o l l e c t i o n of songs f o r from one to fo u r v o ic e s a ls o c o n ta in s

several works excerpted from larger forms. Among other separate

pieces is Cloe Found Amintas Lying, a delightful work for the popular

Baroque com bination of c o u n te r - te n o r , te n o r and b a s s , w ith c o n tin u o .

With these three collections as a beginning point, it is

n e c e s sa ry t o c o n s id e r a c u rio u s phenomenon p e c u l i a r to th e E n g lis h

l^H enry P u r c e ll, Orpheus B rita n n ic u s (London, 1698; rep u b ­


lis h e d by Gregg P r e s s , I n c . , Ridgewood, N. J . , 1965) .

13john Blow, Amphion A n g elicu s (London: W illiam P e a rso n , 1700;


re p u b lis h e d by Gregg P r e s s , I n c . , Ridgewood, N. J . , 1965)*

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24

m e n ta lity , namely th e B inging o f ro u n d s, canons, and p a r t i c u l a r l y

g le e s and c a tc h e s , A c a tc h , w hich was a round o r canon t o be sung by

some c o n v iv ia l group w ith o u t th e encumbrance of an accompanying

in s tru m e n t ( u s u a lly ) , o fte n had t e x t s which were humorous, r i b a l d o r

o b scen e, o r even a l l t h r e e . D r. John David R obinson has w r itte n a

d i s s e r t a t i o n on th e s o c ia l p ro v o c a tio n s and h i s t o r i c a l backgrounds o f

th e E n g lis h v o c a l canon.

The composers of th e s e c a tc h e s and g le e s to o k abnorm al p rid e

in t h e i r a b i l i t i e s a t m u sic al p i c t u r e p a in tin g , w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t

s e v e r a l o f them had u n u su a lly g ro te sq u e m u sic . P u r c e ll, one o f th e

m ost fecu n d of g le e and c a tc h w r i t e r s , w rote an A -sharp a t th e words

" th e sw eet m e lts th e sh arp " in Would you know how we m eet? There

w ere a ls o many anim al c a tc h e s , such as R ich ard B row n's Cat Catch w ith

i t s "meowing" and " s q u a llin g ." The m ost obvious (when sung) and a t

th e same tim e hidden (when m erely read o r sung a s a s o lo ) f e a tu r e i s

what J o e l Newnan c a l l s " d ia g o n a l b aw d in ess," th e te c h n iq u e which

f o r c e s a double e n ten d re t o ap p ear only when a l l of th e v o ic e s have

e n te re d and a r e s in g in g to g e th e r .

Rummaging th ro u g h th e bawdy c atc h e s i s b o th a p p a llin g and r e ­


f r e s h in g . Even our p ro lo n g ed immersion in F re u d ia n n o tio n s and
o u r p ostw ar t r a d i t i o n o f th e fra n k ly p r u r i e n t n o v el does n o t
p re p a re us f o r th e sh o ck in g ease w ith which P u r c e l l and h is
c o lle a g u e s sang th e a g e -o ld w ords. Try to s in g th e s e p ie c e s

14john David R obinson, "The V ocal Canon o f th e C la s s ic a l E ra"


(U npublished d i s s e r t a t i o n , In d ia n a U n iv e rs ity , 1959)* T h is d i s s e r ­
t a t i o n in c lu d e s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f a c o lle c tio n o f one hundred
can o n s.

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25

w ith a s t r a i g h t fa c e and you w i l l fin d i t im p o ssib le to a v o id


a tw in g e o f envy f o r th o s e old ro a rin g b o y s l ^

The s ty le of th e m usic was u s u a lly a s tra ig h tfo rw a rd round in

th r e e v o ic e s , a lth o u g h th e r e were some f o r two, fo u r , o r even e ig h t

v o ic e s . Some were even w r itte n t o in c lu d e a fig u re d bass p a r t , and

o th e r s had in s tru m e n ta l, u n fig u re d b ass p a r t s .

The im portance of th e E n g lish c a tc h e s and g le e s was n o t i n

t h e i r m u s ic a l e x c e lle n c e , which was o fte n n o n e x is te n t, o r i n t h e i r

t e x t u a l b e a u ty , which was o fte n of g u t t e r a rg o t and seldom ro s e to

th e l e v e l o f p o l i t e c o n v e rsa tio n . R a th e r, th e im portance was i n th e

f a c t t h a t th e y 7/ere alm ost u n iv e r s a lly perform ed by s o l o i s t s , even

d u rin g th e m eetings of th e numerous c a tc h clu b s which d o tte d England

i n th e e a r ly e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry . The E n g lish c atc h club d id n o t have

a C o n tin e n ta l c o u n te rp a rt, even though thousands of canons v/ere

composed d u rin g th e c l a s s i c a l e ra f o r s o c ia l re a s o n s . In A m erica,

how ever, th e g le e was an im p o rtan t p a r t o f any co n ce rt stag e d by

a m a te u rs . O scar Sonneck l i s t s s e v e ra l in s ta n c e s o f g le e s b ein g sung

by t r i o s of v a rio u s v o ic in g s , and in one p la c e he m entions a g le e

which was sung on one co n ce rt by two men and a woman, th e n l a t e r by

15John V.ra ls h , The Catch Club, o r Merry Companions, being A


Choice C o lle c tio n o f th e Most D iv e rtin g C atches f o r Three and F our
V o ic e s, i n t r o . J o e l Newman (London: p r iv a te p r i n t i n g , 1731> r e p r in te d
by Da Capo P r e s s , New York, 19&5) j P* x *

ome "^e unaccompanied catc h e s of P u r c e ll which a p p e a r in


W alsh’ s The Catch Club ap p ear i n o th e r e a r l i e r so u rces w ith an i n s t r u ­
m e n ta l b a ss l i n e . See: F ra n k lin B. Zimmerman, Henry P u r c e ll 1659-
1695: An A n a ly tic a l C atalogue o f H is M usic (London: M acm illan, 1963)*

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
26

th r e e men and th r e e w om en.^ As w ith a l l p o p u la r m usic, th e re were

seme works which were perform ed tim e a f t e r tim e . Sigh no more.

L a d ie s , a g le e by an unnamed composer, was m entioned on a t l e a s t

f iv e d i f f e r e n t program s, and Adieu to th e v i l l a g e d e lig h ts was on

f o u r o th e r c o n c e rts . From s u rv iv in g examples i t i s e v id en t t h a t th e se

g le e s were n o t th e most d i f f i c u l t works e i t h e r to w rite o r to perfo rm .

J . A. F u l l e r M a itla n d c a l l s a t te n t io n to a c e r ta in D r. J . H7. C a llc o tt

who su b m itted one hundred s e p a ra te g le e s to th e ju d g es in a com peti­

t i o n sponsored by a c atch clu b in 1 7 8 7 . I t was t h i s same C a llc o tt

who made a g le e s e t t i n g of The E a rl King s e v e r a l y e a rs b efo re S ch u b ert

s e t th e same s t o r y . In C a l l c o t t 's s e tt in g one v o ic e re p re s e n ts th e

c h ild , one th e v o ic e of D eath, and a l l th r e e s in g th e p a r t of th e

f a t h e r . ^-9 By 1800 th e genre had f a i r l y w e ll run i t s co u rse,

a lth o u g h as in any a r t form th e re were h an g ers-o n who i n s i s t e d on

w r itin g i n an outmoded s t y l e . F u lle r M aitlan d con sid ered th e z e n ith

o f g le e w ritin g to have occured w ith Samuel Webbe, th e composer of

G lo rio u s A p o llo , who d ie d in I 8l 6. ^

On th e c o n tin e n t th e canons were re s e rv e d e i t h e r f o r g i f t s fo r

■^Oscar G. Sonneck, E a rly C o n ce rt-L ife in America (I7 3 1 “l8 0 0 )


(L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l, 1907), p p . 54-55«

A. F u ll e r M a itla n d , E n g lish M usic in th e XlXth C entury


(New York: E . P . D utton & C o., 1902), p . 82.

^ D e n is S tev en s, A H is to ry .o f Song (New York: W. ¥ . N orton


& C o., I9 6 0 ), p . 149.

20F u l l e r M a itla n d , p . 79*

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27

c e r t a i n s o c ia l occasions or fo r dem o n stratin g a com poser's c o n tro l of

h is medium. The i n f i n i t e canon (u s u a lly a t th e unison o r o ctav e) i s

a r e l a t i v e l y tame anim al whose reason f o r e x is te n c e i s over once a l l

o f th e v o ic e s have sung through th e p ie c e once. M ensuration canons

a r e som ething e ls e a g a in , bu t such s o p h is tic a te d w ritin g was alm ost

n e v er found in th e canons of th e sev e n te en th and e ig h te e n th c e n tu rie s .

The t e x t s o f th e c o n tin e n ta l canons were o fte n p e rs o n a l to th e e x te n t

t h a t th e y were n o n se n sic a l to an u n i n iti a te d o u ts id e r . Haydn even

took b r i e f e x c e rp ts out of th e m iddle of poems, making them in to

epigram s o r p ro v e rb -lik e t e x t s .2-


1

T h is i s n o t to say t h a t a l l of th e canons by a l l of th e com­

p o se rs were o f le s s th a n a c c e p ta b le q u a li ty . Moser l i s t s th e works

o f Haydn, M ozart, Beethoven, Padre M a rtin i and S a l i e r i as worthy o f

n o te , a s w ell a s th e polyphonic p ie c e s in J . G. Naumann's Songs of

F re e Masonry which was p u b lish e d in 1782 .22 M o z a rt's canons, in

p a r t i c u l a r , a r e of e x tra o rd in a ry q u a lity .

The Vocal Ensemble in th e C la s s ic E ra

The h is to r y o f v o c al ensemble m usic i n th e Baroque e ra i s

m o stly a h is to r y o f German ensemble m usic, I t a l i a n s e c u la r c a n ta ta s

^ K a r l G e irin g e r, Haydn: A C re a tiv e L ife in Music (New York:


W. W. N orton & C o., 1946), p . 369* In an a p p aren t attem p t to h a rv e s t
some money from th e se inn o cen t canons, H aydn's p u b lis h e r p u t ou t an
e d itio n o f th e canons w ith new t e x t s , which were u s u a lly of i n f e r i o r
q u a lity .

22Han8 Joachim M oser, Das deutsche L ied (B e rlin und Z u rich :


A t l a n t i s V e rla g , 1937), p . 197.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
28

p lu s a few E n g lis h in flu e n c e s . As th e c o n tro l and fo r m a lity o f th e

B aroque s lo w ly gave way to th e e le g a n t s im p l ic ity o f th e C la s s ic

p e r io d , th e c o n ce p tio n o f a song a s b ein g a sim ple tu n e over an even

s im p le r b a ss was g a in in g wide fa v o r in Germany. The r i s e o f th e

m id d le c l a s s am ateu r, combined w ith th e h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t o f

Germans i n "H ausm usik," o r d o m e s tic a lly produced m u sic, advanced th e

need f o r m usic of r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y .

A m ass p ro d u c tio n o f odes r a p id ly came a b o u t, which o ffe re d


a s tim u la tin g o c c u p a tio n to th e f e e b l e s t o f t a l e n t s w ith o u t th e
n e c e s s i t y of any p e r s o n a lly f e l t e x p e rie n c e . Among o th e rs
L e s s in g , Weibe and Bleim s e t th e to n e w ith t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c
w i t t i c i s m s , and only seldom d id more s e r io u s work a p p e a r, such
a s t h e "Songs of a P r u s s ia n G re n ad ier" s e t t o m usic by K rause
h im s e lf a f t e r poems by Gleim and th e P r u s s ia n T y r ta io s , R am ler.
The p r i n c i p l e preach ed by Abb^ Dubos (and l a t e r a ls o by Leopold
M o z a rt) t h a t e v e ry th in g m ust be a s sim ple a s p o s s ib le and e a s i ly
c o m p reh en sib le f o r th e broad m ass, co n tin u e d t o d eterm in e th e
s t y l e o f th e s e songs f o r a lo n g tim e . A nother p r i n c i p l e , of
K ir n b e r g e r , i s a ls o s i g n i f i c a n t : i t say s t h a t i t s u f f i c e s i f th e
m elody f i t s w e ll t o th e f i r s t s ta n z a ; th e r e s t i s only a m a tte r
o f v a r i a t i o n i n perform ance (G oethe s a id th e same t h i n g ) . 23

T here w ere, of c o u rs e , any number o f com posers whose works

w ere I t a l i a n a t e in in f l u e n c e . A ls o , th e body o f works c re a te d in th e

s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry and e a r ly e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry would by no means be

aban d o n ed . The d u e ts and t r i o s o f George F r e d e r ic H andel, f o r i n ­

s ta n c e , w ere s t i l l h e ld i n h ig h esteem , even th o u g h m ost o f them were

d e ca d e s p a s t t h e i r tim e o f c o m p o s itio n .^ P o s s ib ly t h e d if f e r e n c e s in

23Hans Joachim M oser, The German S o lo Song and th e B allad


(K*oln: Arno Volk V e rla g Hans G e rig KC., 19 5 8 ), PP« 5 -6 .

2^The Works of George F r e d e r ic H andel (L e ip z ig : The German


H andel S o c ie ty , 1870 ( ? ) ; re p u b lis h e d by Gregg P r e s s , I n c . , Ridgewood,
N . J . , i n 1966) . N o tice p a r t i c u l a r l y th e t r i o "Se tu non l a s c i amore"
i n Volume 3 2 , " I t a l i a n D uets and T r i o s ," p . 158.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
29

th e b a s ic s t r u c t u r e of th e lan g u ag es caused th e ru p tu re in s t y l e s .

The I t a l i a n s ty le had a p e r s i s t e n t g r ip on th e whole m u sic al v;orld,

b u t t h e I t a l i a n c a n tile n a found no r e a l home w ith th e German conso­

n a n ts . As th e E nlightenm en t and R a tio n a lism perm eated th e whole o f

Germany th e r e was a sharp a r t i s t i c r e a c t i o n . The people wanted

s im p l i c i t y ; th e d i c t a t o r s of s t y l e s a id s im p lic ity was th e b e s t, so

many s t a r k l y a u s te r e works came i n t o b e in g . As w ith most extreme

movements t h i s one v/as to a d eg ree s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . A nything can be

s im p le , b u t only up to a p o in t, and th e n i t m ust have c e r ta in item s

w hich make i t sta n d out among th e m u ltitu d e o f works l i k e i t . Volume

54 o f th e Denkmaler d e r Tonkunst i n O s te r r e ic h i s t i t l e d "Das W iener

L ied von 1778-1791*” I t shows th e b la n d n e ss which r e s u lte d from

p ro lo n g e d a tte m p ts a t s i m p l i c i t y . ^ T h is was to change a b ru p tly

u n d e r th e in flu e n c e of S c h u lz , R e ic h a rd t, Z e l t e r and o th e r s .

One o f th e most i n f l u e n t i a l o f th e e a r ly e ig h te e n th -c e n tu ry

c o l l e c t i o n s o f s o lo songs was Johann S c h o lz e 's D ie singende Muse an

d e r P l e i s s e . p u b lis h e d u n d er th e pseudonym o f S p ero n tes i n 173& and

1745. A s im ila r c o lle c ti o n by Telemann (1734) shows t h a t some Rococo

e le m e n ts , a d e lib e r a t e n a i v e t l and a d e c lin e i n th e continuo accom­

p anim ent were beginning to e n te r th e m u sic .

25penkm aler d e r Tonkunst in O s te r r e i c h . Jahrgang XXVIl/2,


Band 5 4 , "Das Y/iener L ied von 1778-1791" (G raz: Akademische D ruck- u .
V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , i 960) . I t i s of i n t e r e s t to compare th e works in
Volume 54 w ith th o s e in Volume 79, "Das Y/iener L ied von 1792-1815,"
where th e te x tu r e changes from th e d o u b lin g o f th e v o c a l l i n e by th e
r i g h t hand o f th e piano to th e v o c a l l i n e ( s ) bein g com pletely i n ­
d e p e n d e n t.

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30

M usic f o r th e so lo v o c a l ensemble was o c c a s io n a lly d esig n ed

f o r impromptu perform ance. F r ie d r ic h D oles (1715“97) composed a s e t

i n 1758 t i t l e d M elodien zu G e lle r ts G e is tlic h e n Oden und L ied ern

. . . z u r p r iv a te n und b f f e n tlic h e n Andacht g e s e tz t (M elodies f o r

G e l l e r t 's S p i r i t u a l Odes and Songs . . . s e t f o r p r iv a te and p u b lic

d e v o tio n ). These could be perform ed by one o r s e v e ra l v o ic e s up to

a so lo q u a r te t w ith a c o n tin u o accompaniment. The upper v o ic e v/as

by f a r th e m ost f l o r i d o f th e p a rts .* 10 T h is s ty le o f s o l o is t - w ith -

s u p p o r tin g - c a s t p e r s is te d w e ll in to th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . An

example o f t h i s ty p e of w r itin g i s C arlo C an n ab ich 's S e i C anzonette

f o r so p ra n o , te n o r and b a ss, w ith piano a c c o m p a n i m e n t . ^7 Here th e

soprano has th e m a jo rity of th e m u sic a l i n t e r e s t w h ile th e te n o r and

b ass j u s t p u t t e r alo n g in an accompanying r o l e . The S e i Q u a r te tti

o f F ran z D anzi show t h i s same predominance o f th e to p v o ic e , e x cep t t h a t

in t h i s in s ta n c e th e low er v o ic e s a re th e om nipresent s o p ra n o /te n o r /

l a s s . 2® The piano o fte n doubles th e s e low er th r e e v o ic e s w hile th e

soprano I weaves a c o lo ra tu ra l i n e above t h i s accompaniment.

2^T his w ritin g f o r o p tio n a l v o ic in g r e c a l l s Johann Hermann


S c h e in 's M usica b o s c a re c c ia w ith i t s s tro p h ic songs and o p tio n a l
methods o f perform ance. A lso , Gaetano D o n i z e t t i's Ah. che i l d e stin o
i s w r itt e n f o r o p tio n a l so p ran o /so p ran o d u et o r so p ra n o /so p ran o /1 e n o r
t r i o w ith p ia n o . See Appendix I I I , page 263 f o r a*1 e d itio n o f th e
D o n iz e tti work.

2 7 c a rlo Cannabich, S e i C an zo n ette. Op. 5 (Monaco: M acario


F a l t e r , n . d . , p la te No. 85; L ib rary o f Congress No. M 1553 »c >
c a s e ) . See Appendix I , page 150 f o r f u r th e r d is c u s s io n o f th e s e
w orks.
28pranz D anzi, S e i Q u a r te t ti (Bonn: N. Sim rock, n . d . , p l a t e
No. 1840; L ib ra ry of C ongress No. M 1554 .D, c a s e ). See Appendix I ,
page 154 f o r f u r th e r d is c u s s io n o f th e s e w orks.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31

The t e x t s of th e works became more and more s u b je c tiv e . The

o ld o b j e c t iv ity and detachm ent became much more p e rs o n a liz e d . As

one c r i t i c has n ic e ly p u t i t , " th e d if f e r e n c e , a s compared w ith th e

B aroque, i s between 'e x p re s s in g som ething' and 'e x p re s s in g o n e s e l f ,'

between s ic h ausdrucken and etw as au sd ru ck en . "29 This s u b j e c t i v i t y

grew r a p id ly in th e l a t e 1 7 8 0 's and 1 7 9 0 's .

The c lo s e of th e baroque p e rio d had pushed a w e ll developed


in s tru m e n ta l s ty le in to th e fo reg ro u n d . There was a new ty p e of
l i s t e n e r t o go w ith th e new s t y l e : t h i s l i s t e n e r came from th e
ra n k s o f th e m en tally a g i l e , q u ick ly p e rc e p tiv e am ateu rs, who
a lre a d y showed s ig n s of an e x c i t a b i l i t y which could exceed th e
l i m i t s of n o rm a lity .3°

As M oser p u t i t , J . A. P . S c h u lz , Johann F r ie d r ic h R e ic h a rd t and C arl

F r ie d r ic h Z e lte r allow ed th em selv es to be "in flam ed by th e poem."31

Above a l l e ls e t h i s music (and t e x t ) should be capable o f u n itin g men

beyond th e li m i t s of c re ed , v o c a tio n o r s o c ia l c la s s w hile rem ain in g

an a g re e a b le melody f o r a s o c ia l o c c a sio n . In h is book Von d e r

m u s ic a lis c h e n P o esie (1852), C h ris tia n G o ttf r ie d Krause w rote t h a t

f a r to o o f te n th e kind of m usic one h eard v/as o p e ra tic a r i a s , n o t th e

k ind o f g e n ia l song " th a t anyone could sin g w ith o u t d i f f i c u l t y and

t h a t could be sung w ithout a keyboard or any s o r t o f a c c o m p a n i m e n t . "32

I t was w ith th e above re q u ire m e n ts i n mind t h a t f o lk song o r

29R ichard H inton Thomas, P o etry and Song in th e German Baroque


(O xford: a t th e Clarendon P r e s s , 1963) , p . 111.

3®Kurt Stephenson, Romanticism in M usic, t r a n s . R o b ert Kolben


(K<5ln: Arno Volk V erlag, I 96I ) , p . 9»

3-^Moser, The German Solo Song, p. 6.

32Thomas, p . 110.

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32

p s e u d o -fo lk song came in to vogue. The lo w est common denom inator was

th o u g h t to be th e h o n e st, hard-w orking p e a s a n t. T h e re fo re , h is m usic

m ust be th e b a s ic elem ent in a l l m usic, and e v ery th in g should be b u i l t

from t h e r e . T h is meant t h a t sm a lle r works would develop r a th e r th a n

th e lo n g e r movements of e s ta b lis h e d form s. K urt Stephenson a ls o

makes th e p o in t t h a t s m a lle r v o c a l works a re " f u l l of th e rom antic

s p i r i t , " 3 3 in d ic a tin g , p o s s ib ly , th a t th e sim ple mind was l e s s a b le

t o fathom long developm ents and was b e t t e r s u ite d to em otionalism .

Johann F r ie d r ic h R e ic h a rd t, fo llo w in g th e furrow made by J . A. P«

S c h u lz , f u r th e r e d th e pseu d o -fo lk so n g movement, which in clu d ed f u l l y

w r itte n - o u t accompaniments.

A nother movement which i s o fte n ig n o red i s th e m usic which

was so prom inent i n German p r iv a te s c h o o ls . These s p i r i t u a l and

m o ra l songs f o r th r e e and fo u r v o ic e s c o n d itio n e d th e young p eo p le to

h e a rin g fo lk s y music i n a p l u r a l i t y of p a r t s . Moser c o n sid e rs th e

s p i r i t u a l a n c e s to rs of th e s e sch o o l works to be th e a tro p h ie d church

m o te t-so n g s which v;ere p u b lish e d by B u rk li in Z uring ( a f t e r 1775) >

Schuback’ s Hamburg C o lle c tio n (1779)> K a rl S p a z ie r 's D essauer P ie c e s

(1785) and th e t h i r t y q u a rte t songs of J . A. P . Schulz (1 8 0 0 ), a l l of

w hich were re p u b lish e d by J . D. Sanders i n a c o lle c tio n t i t l e d

C a c ilia i n l 8 l 8 . ^ A lthough th e s e were r e l i g i o u s works, or a t l e a s t

th e y had r e lig io u s t e x t s , th e y were p o p u la r enough to show th e

^^Thomas, p , 110.

3 ^stephenson, p . 19.

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33

p o p u la c e t h a t p o ly -v o ic e d works were e n jo y a b le . B ernhard H acker, a

S a lz b u rg m usic s e l l e r , produced seme s o c i a l songs w hich were w id ely

su n g , and which V e tte r c laim s were f o r e i t h e r m ale o r fem ale v o ic e s . 35

I f fem ale v o ic e s a lo n e were u sed , and th e s c o r in g f o r m ale v o ic e s

c o u ld q u ite e a s i l y be a d a p te d t o fem ale v o ic e s (a s w itn e s s modern

b a rb e r shop q u a r te t m u s ic ), i t would be among t h e f i r s t p o ly -v o ic e d

m u sic in te n d e d f o r a d u lt t r e b l e v o ic e s .

T hese works by H acker were fo llo w ed by some songs f o r fo u r

m ale v o ic e s by th e B av arian g u i t a r v ir tu o s o Leonhard von C a ll (w hich

w ere through-com posed i n c o n tr a s t to th e s tr o p h ic works o f H a ck e r),

t h e V ie rz eh n Gesange f u r v i e r Mannerstimmen of M ich a e l Haydn and

f i n a l l y t h e ex tre m ely im p o rta n t t h i r t e e n t r i o s and q u a r te ts o f Franz

J o se p h Kaydn• T h is l a t t e r composer, a c c o rd in g t o M oser, " d ir e c te d

t h e m ixed v o ic e q u a r te t song o f th e C la s s ic e ra to a h ig h l e v e l w ith

h i s 'v o c a l s id e p ie c e s ^companion works] to th e s t r i n g q u a r t e t .' ” 36

T h e re i s a n o th e r c o lle c tio n of works w hich m ust be m entioned

f o r t h e i r charm jas w e ll a s t h e i r in h e re n t m u s i c a l i t y . These a r e th e

G e s e llig e L ie d e r o f W olfgang M ozart, v o c a l t r i o s u s u a lly accompanied

by wind t r i o s composed v a r io u s ly o f t h r e e b a s s e t h o rn s o r two c l a r i ­

n e t s and one b a s s e t h o rn . These were p re d o m in a n tly s o c i a l p ie c e s

m eant f o r h i s im m ediate c i r c l e o f f r ie n d s w hich in c lu d e d a l o c a l ra k e

named G o ttf r ie d von J a c q u in , th e same Ja c q u in who t r i e d t o pawn th e s e

35walther Vetter, D er k la s s i k e r S c h u b e rt. 2 v o l s . (L e ip z ig :


C . F . P e t e r s , 1953)> P» 4°0»

3^Moser, Das d e u tsc h e L ie d , p . 197.

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34

t r i o s o f f as h i s own c r e a tio n . M o z a rt's p o ly - lin g u a l a b i l i t i e s a re

shown by th e u se o f I t a l i a n (Ecco quel f i e r o i s t a n t e ) . p lu s th e

m ild ly comic L iebes M andel. wo i s ' s Bandel? " , K. 441. T his l a s t work

was prom pted by th e e a r th s h a t te r in g o ccasio n of M o z a rt's s i s t e r ,

C o n stan ze, having l o s t a rib b o n she w ished to wear when Jacq u in

c a lle d f o r h e r and W olfgang to ta k e a w alk. The t r i o c o n s is ts s o le ly

o f a c o n v e rsa tio n betw een a soprano (C o n stan ze), a te n o r (M ozart) and

a b ass ( J a c q u i n ) . 37 D e s p ite th e r e l a t i v e im b e c ility o f th e d ram atic

s i t u a t i o n , i t i s of im po rtan ce because a Prague newspaper m entioned

t h a t M ozart perform ed t h i s comic t r i o f o r an assem blage a t th e Thun

P a la c e .3^ A pparently a l l " s o c i a l " m usic was n o t re s e rv e d f o r p r iv a te

homes o f th e m iddle c l a s s . The comic q u a r te t w ith th e p o ly g lo t

t i t l e , Caro m io, Druck und S ch lu ck . K. App. 2, w r itt e n f o r sop ran o ,

te n o r I , te n o r I I and b ass w ith p ian o accompaniment would f a l l in

th e same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as th e G e s e llig e L ie d e r.

37Alfred Einstein, Mozart, His C h a ra c te r, His .Work (Londons


Oxford U niv. Press, 19 45 ). The Kochel numbers of these Gesellige
Lieder are 346, 432, 436, 437, 438, 439, 549 and 5 6 2 .

3® 0tto E r ic h D eutsch , M ozart, a Documentary Biography


(S ta n f o rd , C a lif o r n ia : S ta n fo rd U niv. P r e s s , 1965) , p . 284. The
new spaper was th e P ra g e r O b erp o stam tszeitu n g of Jan u ary 9, 1787.

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CHAPTER I I I

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND THE VOCAL ENSEMBLE

C e r ta in in flu e n c e s on th e m usic composed f o r th e s e c u la r so lo

v o c a l ensemble must be examined in some d e t a i l t o f u ll y u n d e rsta n d

th e h is to r y of th e g e n re . No a r t i s t i c form s p rin g s to l i f e in f u l l

m a tu r ity . C e rta in ly n o th in g a s w idely a ccep ted as th e t r i o s and

q u a r te ts f o r s o lo v o ic e s co u ld have bloomed w ith o u t p re v io u s

p r e p a r a tio n . There were two p rim ary in f lu e n c e s : ( l ) th e o p era c h o ru ses

o f th e l a t e e ig h te e n th and e a r ly n in e te e n th c e n tu r ie s , and (2 ) th e m ale

chorus movement i n Germany.

O pera Choruses

When opera was s t i l l in i t s fo rm ativ e s ta g e s , th e chorus

began t o occupy a v i t a l r o l e . When a drama wa3 p re s e n te d which

was to ta k e p la c e in a crowd o f p e o p le , i t was h e lp fu l i f th e crowd

co u ld do som ething o th e r th a n s ta n d around lo o k in g i n t e r e s t e d . These

s ta g e crowds were u s u a lly g iv e n some ty p e o f commentary to u t t e r , and

a s o fte n a s n o t th e m usic was r e l a t i v e l y s im p le . In th e e ig h te e n th

c e n tu ry th e chorus i n I t a l i a n o p era had slow ly faded f o r f i n a n c i a l

re a s o n s ; th e operas were n o t s t a t e su p p o rte d and th e management could

n o t s e e i t s way c le a r to pay s in g e r s ’ wages to people who s ta n d

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around and sin g f o r only a few m inutes o f th e ev en in g .

I n F rance th e s i t u a t i o n was c o n sid e ra b ly d i f f e r e n t . The very

n a tu re of th e Academic Royal de Musique re q u ire d pomp and ceremony,

and t h i s i n tu r n could no t be d e c e n tly r e a liz e d w ith a bare h a lf

dozen s in g e rs on th e s ta g e . Crowds o f p eo p le were needed to m irro r


p
th e g lo ry o f th e French R e p u b lic . The m usic f o r th e s e crowds was

produced in two d i f f e r e n t ways by th e two p re m ie r composers,

C h risto p h W illib a ld Gluck and Jean P h i l l i p e Rameau. Gluck, b eing th e

d ra m a tis t o f th e two, gave h is choruses f a i r l y sim ple m usic f u l l o f

b lock chords and easy m e lo d ie s. T his allow ed th e s in g e rs to do some­

what more th a n stan d l i k e so many chunks o f v o c a liz in g g r a n ite on th e

s ta g e . The more fo u r-sq u a re th e m usic th e e a s ie r i t became f o r th e

s in g e rs to b o th move and s in g .

Rameau, on th e o th e r hand, was c o n sid e ra b ly more of a v o c a l

composer th a n Gluck, but he d id not know how to im press th e populace

a s h a n d ily as G luck. This w r i t e r 's u n p u b lish ed p ap er t i t l e d "The

Opera Chorus: 1750 ““ 1850" e x p lo re s t h i s a re a a t some d e p th .3

Rameau's choruses a re f i l l e d w ith c o u n te rp o in t and d e lic a te e f f e c t s

which make them fin e c o n c e rt works even to d a y , b u t th e y were immensely

•^Donald Jay G rout, A S h o rt H isto ry of Opera (New York:


Columbia U niv. P r e s s , 1947), p . 86.

^W illiam Loran C ro sten , French Grand Opera: An A rt and a


B usiness (New York: Columbia U niv. P r e s s , 1948), p . 118.

3 ja c k Boyd, "The Opera Chorus: 1750 — 1850" (U npublished


p a p e r, Departm ent of M usic, U n iv e rs ity of Iowa, I 968) .

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37

more difficult to perform on a stage. Gluck, on the other hand,

almost never used counterpoint, choosing rather to give the chorus

block chords which could be quickly learned by the chorus and

quickly comprehended by the audience. Given a fairly low musical

ability (which, according to contemporary reports, was almost uni­

versal) the chorus would find it difficult singing the notes without

the added distraction of stage movements.

The voicing of these French opera choruses was usually

either soprano/tenor/bass or soprano/tenor/tenor/bass. The contralto

voice was not considered to be particularly useful in France.

Nature, in fact does not proceed in the same manner in all cli­
mates; and if it be true that in Italy she produces many con­
tralto voices, it cannot be denied that in France she is very
sparing of than. Tenors that can easily go up to A and B-flat
are common in France and Italy, but are rarer in Germany,
where -- compensation — they have in their bass notes more
sonority than anywhere else. It therefore appears to me abso­
lutely imprudent to write choruses n four real parts of equal
importance, according to the classi j.1 division of voices into
Sopranos, Contraltos, Tenors, and Basses. It is at least cer­
tain that in Paris, in a chorus thus arranged, the contralto
part — comparatively with the other parts, especially in a
large mass of voices — would be so weak as to miss the greater
portion of the effects assigned to it by the composer . . . . As
nature everywhere produces sopranos, tenors and basses, I think
it infinitely more prudent, more rational, and even more musi­
cal, if the object is to make all the voices useful [Berlioz's
emphasis]] to write choruses in six parts — first and second
soprano, first and second tenor, baritone and bass.4

Georges Kastner echoes the same sentiment that "the contralto voices

are generally rather rare," and suggests writing in unison or two or

4Hector Berlioz, Treatice on Instrumentation, trans. Mary


Cowden Clarke (London: Novello & Co., n. d.; original publication,
1843), p . 177.

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t h r e e p a r t s f o r men, r a t h e r th a n fo u r p a r t s . ^ Oddly enough, he

s u g g e s ts t h a t women sound b e t t e r i n th r e e o r fo u r p a r t s .

W ith such s u g g e s tio n s from th e t h e o r i s t s o f th e tim e i t i s no

wonder t h a t th e v o ic in g o f s o p ra n o /te n o r/b a s s became th e s ta n d a rd

v o ic in g f o r o p e ra c h o ru s e s , and from th e n c e t o v o c a l ensemble

w ritin g . Even when th e ch o ru s was in fo u r p a r t s i t was m ost common

t o have t h r e e m ale v o ic e l i n e s (th e a n tiq u e b u t proven d iv is io n of

c o u n t e r - t e n o r / t e n o r / b a s s ) and a lo n e soprano l i n e . ^ In Ram eau's

C a s to r e t P o llu x and s e v e r a l o th e r o p eras th e c o u n te r -te n o rs sang

th e a l t o l i n e th ro u g h o u t. W ith th e d e c lin e in p o p u la r ity of th e

c o u n te r - te n o r v o ic e t h e r e h a s been a concom itant s la c k in g o f i n t e r e s t

i n w orks w hich r e q u ir e a m ale to s in g a t e x t which i s p la c e d in th e

m u s ic a l s t r a t o s p h e r e .

I n Germany such v o ic in g was n o t as s ta n d a rd iz e d i n th e o p era

c h o ru s e s a s i n F ra n c e . These choruses were in flu e n c e d more by th e

S in g s p ie l th a n by any o u ts id e a r t form . In th e s e b u c o lic p la y s - w ith -

m usic th e em phasis was on e x citem e n t and on th e le a d c h a r a c te r s . The

c h o ru s c o u ld i n j e c t a l o t o f ex citem en t w ith th e m ark et-d ay and

w edding-day c h o ru s e s . The composers were w ise enough t o r e a l i z e t h a t

in v o lv e d c o u n te r p o in t was c e r t a i n l y n o t re q u ire d f o r such s c e n e s , so

t h e m usic was o f te n i n two p a rtis , t e n o r /b a s s , o r even m a le /fe m a le .

•'’G eorges K a s tn e r, T r a i t e g e n e ra l d 'In s tr u m e n ta tio n ( P a r is :


P r i l i p p e t C ie , 1 8 44), p . 177.

^G eorges F a v re , B o ie ld ie u : Sa v ie — son o eu v re. Deuxieme


p a r t i e s L1oeu v re ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e E . D roz, 1945)» P* 207.

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3?

T here were even c h o ru ses where everyone sang in u n is o n . By f a r th e

m a jo r ity of th e cho ru ses were f o r m ale v o ic e s o n ly , e i t h e r te n o r /b a s s

o r te n o r / t e n o r / b a s s , w ith th e te n o r I I b ein g a c tu a lly a b a rito n e p a r t

a s f a r a s th e ran g e was co n cern ed . The re a so n in g s behind t h i s

em phasis upon th e use of m ale v o ic e s in o p era ch o ru ses were b a s ic a lly

two in number: ( l ) s o c io l o g ic a lly , men were more a c c e p ta b le on s ta g e

th a n women, and i n a t l e a s t one t h e a t r e boys to o k th e women's r o l e s

s in c e th e r e were no women in th e c h o ru s,^ and ( 2) d ra m a tic a lly , men

co u ld s t r i k e more t h e a t r i c a l p o s tu re s w hile s in g in g about h ero ism ,

h u n tin g , f i g h t i n g and o th e r m ale p a s tim e s . An a d d itio n a l p o s s i b i l i t y

i s t h a t m ale v o ic e s , b ein g somewhat s tr o n g e r , m ight f i l l gin o p era

house more e a s i l y th a n an e q u a l number of m ixed v o ic e s . A group of

women would have been lim ite d to m a rk e tin g and h o u sew ifely c h o re s.

Georg B en d a's S in g s p ie l Der Jah rm ark t h a s only one chorus i n

th e e n t i r e span o f th e p la y , a te n o r /b a s s ch o ru s which opens th e

o p e ra w ith " T r in k t, t r i n k t , t r i n k t . " The m usic i s ex trem ely easy

w ith th e v o ic e s moving m o stly in t h i r d s . I n th e f i n a l e of C lau d in e.

F ran z S ch u b ert d iv id e d h is men i n to two tw o -v o ice c h o ru s e s . The

w r itin g i s a n tip h o n a l te n o r /b a s s , and i s some o f h is b e s t c h o ra l

w r itin g in s id e o r o u ts id e h is o p e ra s . I n R u b ezah l, C a rl U a ria von

V/eber used a m ale chorus in th r e e p a r t s to in tro d u c e th e f i r s t a c t ,

b u t th e v o ic e s were alw ays e i t h e r doubled by th e in s tru m e n ts o r

s in g in g i n t u t t i u n is o n . A ls o , th e range was q u ite low w ith th e

^Volfgeing B ecker, D ie d eu tsch e Oper in D resden u n te r d e r


L eitu n g von C a rl M aria von ~.7eber (B e rlin : Colloquium V erlag O tto
H. H ess, 1962), p . 176.

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tenors going above E-flat only once. Obviously, all opera choruses

were not so prosaic. The barcarole in Albert Lortzing's Casanova •

alternated a soloist with the chorus to give enough musical variety

for a concert presentation, almost as if Lortzing were saying, "See,

this is what I would write if the audience would let me."

Richard Wagner summed it up this way:

The demands upon the chorister, compared with the dramatic


singer or the member of the orchestra, from whom individual
artistic attainments are likewise expected, are certainly of
humbler nature: it is enough for him to have a voice of average
quality, an unobjectionable exterior, and diligence.”

The effect of such voicing on the music outside the opera is

obvious. For any combination of voices in the opera chorus, there

were dozens or hundreds of works for similar voicing outside opera.

The opera chorus, coupled with the male chorus movement in Germany

and German speaking countries, proved a strong matrix for the devel­

opment of solo ensemble music.

The Male Chorus Movement

To speak of the male chorus movement is not to say that there

were no mixed choruses on the continent. It is just that organized

groups of mixed voices (outside of church auspices) were so scarce

in comparison to the organizations of male voices in the eighteenth

century and first quarter of the nineteenth century that they were

®Richard Wagner, Richard Wagner1s Prose Works. Vol. VII,


"In Paris and Dresden," trans. William Ashton Ellis"(London: Kegan
Paul, Trench, Trubner & C o ., 1898) , p . 340.

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a l l b u t l o s t from s i g h t . M oser l i s t s th r e e im p o rtan t mixed choruses

and a la d ie s ’ group:

The o rg a n iz a tio n f o r unequal [mixed] v o ic e s began w ith P arso n


S c h m id lin 's Z urich Mixed Chorus of 1754, th e Saxony B e rlin
C horal S o c ie ty , and i n 1792 th e B e r lin S in g in g Academy under
K a rl F asch , th e n Z e l t e r . L a te r th e V iennese L a d ie s' S in g in g
M eeting (Vfiener Singkranz chen] under G. van Sw eiten, Ignaz M osel
and A. S a l i e r i had t h e i r b e g in n in g .9

However, i t was th e male choruses w hich gave th e im petus to

v o c a l ensemble w r itin g . The b eg in n in g s of th e movement began in

Germany, A u s tria and S w itz e rla n d i n th e second h a lf of th e e ig h te e n th

c e n tu r y . The most im p o rtan t push came from B e rlin where th e church

c h o irs o fte n doubled as th e chorus f o r th e l o c a l o p era. T his m a rk e t-

day s in g in g th ro u g h th e week and th e m o tet sin g in g on Sunday showed

th e o f te n s t a i d r e lig io u s s in g e rs t h a t s e c u la r sin g in g was n o t a l l

t h a t bad f o r o n e 's s o u l. A p a r a l l e l m ight be drawn between th e b a rb e r

shop q u a r te t movement of th e tw e n tie th c en tu ry and th e m ale chorus

movement o f th e l a t e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry . A lthough each movement had

i t s p r o f e s s io n a ls , b oth were b a s ic a lly am ateur in c o n ce p t. F u r th e r ,

b o th movements used m usic which could be a d ju s te d and "gimmicked" f a r

beyond th e sim ple n o tes on th e pag e, and b o th movements used t e x t s

C lo s e r, Das d eutsch e L ied , p . 208. M oser adds t h a t th e s e


groups perform ed th e la r g e c h o ra l works o f H andel and Haydn, l a t e r
th e works o f Bach, and f a r t h e r on th e Romantic o r a to r io s of Spohr,
F r ie d r ic h S ch n eid er, Lowe, M endelssohn, Schumann, and B ruch. M oser
a ls o say s t h a t th e "song f o r mixed c h o ru s ,” h is term f o r a so lo
ensem ble, had only a t r i f l i n g r o l e , t h a t th e s e rem ained th e p ro p e rty
o f th e dom estic fam ily m usic making.

^•®The S o c ie ty f o r th e P re s e rv a tio n and Encouragement o f B arb er


Shop Q u a rte t S inging in America, In c o rp o ra te d .

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which were s e n tim e n ta l to an ex trem e. The e x to llin g of th e v i r t u e s of

p a s t y o u th , th e o ld g i r l f r i e n d , lo v e o f country and f r a t e r n a l good

w i l l have "been th e s t u f f on v/hich groups of men have doted and ab o u t

which th ey have sung f o r c e n tu r ie s . F i n a l l y , l ik e th e b a rb e r shop

c h o ru ses, th e male choruses of th e e ig h te e n th and n in e te e n th cen­

t u r i e s were a c tu a lly groups of sm a lle r so lo ensembles which v/ould

m eet o th e r tim es to perform f o r t h e i r own en jo y m en t.o r f o r g roups of

frie n d s . The r e h e a r s a l of th e e n t i r e chorus was by no means th e o n ly

purpose of th e s e g a th e r in g s . The chorus m eetin g s were a ls o th e

p la c e s where one heard o th e r ensem bles, le a rn e d new l i t e r a t u r e ,

organized programs and (presum ably) found a n o th e r h ig h te n o r to

re p la c e th e one who moved to D u ss e ld o rf.

I t i s im p o rtan t to n o te th e name L ie d e rsc h u le or L i e d e r t a f e l

to show th e co n n ectio n w ith th e so lo song o r L ie d . I n h is famous

L ie d e r 5m V o lk sto n , J . A. P . Schulz had o c c a s io n a lly made use o f th e

a l t e r n a t i o n between s o lo and c h o ra l s in g in g .

The L i e d e r ta f e l was a h ig h ly e x c lu s iv e a s s o c ia ti o n ; i t r a r e l y
appeared in p u b lic and only p e rm itte d mixed c h o ra l s in g in g w ith
women i n e x c e p tio n a l c a s e s . I t s c h ie f aim was to r a i s e th e
l e v e l o f s o c ia l g a th e rin g s by means of c u ltiv a t in g th e a r t o f
s in g in g , and c e r ta in p a t r i o t i c te n d e n c ie s a ls o came in to i t .
A ll members had to c o n trib u te to w ard s th e c r e a tio n o f new
so n g s. •*"*■

T h is c h o ra l movement re c e iv e d i t s i n i t i a l im petus i n 1809 w ith

th e fo rm atio n o f th e B e r lin e r L ie d e r ta f e l under th e d i r e c t i o n o f K a rl

F r ie d r ic h Z e lte r (1758-1832). Im m ediately fo llo w in g t h i s momentous

i:L0 s th o f f , p . 1 4.

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43

o c c a s io n o th e r c i t i e s ru sh e d t o found t h e i r own m ale c h o ru s e s .

D resden, L e ip z ig , F r a n k f u r t, D essau and Hamburg, among o th e r German

c i t i e s o rg a n iz ed m ale c h o ru s e s . Hans N a g e li founded an e x a c t d u p li­

c a te of th e B e r lin e r L i e d e r t a f e l i n Z u ric h i n 1810. N a g e li had pub­

lis h e d only two y e a rs e a r l i e r th e S i n g i n s t i t u t , which was among th e

f i r s t of th e p u b lis h e d c o ll e c tio n s of songs f o r m ale v o ic e s to

a c h ie v e a wide h e a r in g .

The m usic which was perform ed by th e s e L i e d e r ta f e l groups was

u s u a lly q u ite s im p le . At th e b eg in n in g t h e r e was c o n s id e ra b le depen­

dence on th e p ia n o , p ro b a b ly because of th e c lo s e h i s t o r i c a l t i e s

betw een th e songs f o r male v o ic e s and th e songs f o r s o lo v o ic e from

th e F i r s t and Second B e r lin S c h o o l. To q u o te V e tte r : "At t h i s s ta g e

th e p ia n o accompaniment of th e V iennese songs f o r m ale c h o ru s, having

been borrowed from th e songs w ith p ia n o accom panim ent, had a p u re ly

m e c h a n ic a l te c h n iq u e to r e l y o n , " ^ i n d i c a tin g th e prep o n d eran ce of

u n is o n d o u b lin g by th e p ia n o . T h is dependence was soon overcome as

th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een m usic and t e x t became b e t t e r b a lan c e d and

a l l dependence cn th e p ian o song was overcom e. The m usic d id n o t be­

come e x trem ely c o n tr a p u n ta l, p ro b a b ly because c o u n te rp o in t in groups

. o f s im ila r v o ic e s te n d s t o become l o s t . M usic f o r groups o f th e same

■*-2K ro ss, p . 528. K ross c a lle d t h i s th e "G o eth e -G e n e ratio n ,"


p o s s ib ly because o f th e many poems by Goethe w hich became c h o ra l
w o rk s. Z e l t e r h im s e lf made o v er one hundred s e t t i n g s f o r m ale
v o ic e s , many on G oethe poems.

l o o s e r , Das d e u tsc h e L ie d , p . 200.

l^ Y e tte r , P e r k l a s s i k e r S c h u b e rt, p . 399•

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44

g en d er i s u s u a lly b e s t c o n fin ed t o more o r le s s homophonic work w ith

o n ly o c c a s io n a l d e v ia tio n s in to polyphony o r q u asi-p o ly p h o n y . There

a r e , however, many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r v a r ie ty of te x tu r e in m usic

w r i t t e n fo r male chorus, a n o ta b le example b eing L u ig i C h e ru b in i's

Requiem Mass No. 2. in D m in o r, f o r th r e e - p a r t male chorus ( t e n o r /

t e n o r /b a s s ) w ith o r c h e s tr a . S o lo i s ts can be u se d , e i t h e r accompanied

by th e f u l l chorus o r i n t r i o s o r q u a r te ts s in g in g a n tip h o n a lly w ith

t h e c h o ru s. The humming chorus was a s p o p u la r th e n a s now, w ith

Volume I of th e H ofm eister Handbuch s e r ie s l i s t i n g s e v e ra l works f o r

s o l o i s t and humming v o ic e s . Franz Commer, th e B e r lin e d ito r and

com poser, w rote Zwei L ie d e r f u r Bass m it v i e r Brummstimmen und P ia n o ­

f o r t e . Op. 16 (p . 5 7 ), and Franz Kucken, a composer o f o p eras and

p o p u la r songs, composed D re i Ges a nge f u r A lt (o d e r B ass) m it P ia n o ­

f o r t e (o d er v i e r Brummstimmen), Op. 18 (p . 6 7 ). T here were some

o th e r e x o tic v o ic in g s which may have been in te n d e d only f o r en co res or

f o r fu n s in g in g . J . W. Im m ler's J o d le r q u a r te tt f u r v i e r M anner-

st-imman (p . 64) appears t o be f o r a q u a rte t o f y o d e le r s , which

b o g g le s th e im a g in a tio n , and G. A. B ie re y 's Demagogisch f u r e in e

Singstim m e und v i e r F r ’d sche jf r o g ^ (p . 55) on a poem by Goethe

a p p e a rs to be one more i n th e lin e a g e o f comic q u a r t e t s .

From these entries it becomes more evident how similar the

two movements of the male choruses in the early nineteenth century

and the barber shop quartet movement of the twentieth century are.

Neither crusade developed a literature with any depth. "When, later

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45

on in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , th e movement c o lla p s e d , th e thousands

o f p a r t songs t h a t i t had c a lle d in to being flo o d ed in to o b s c u rity :

autum nal le a v e s d r i f t i n g away to mark th e end o f a long summer o f

p o p u l a r i t y ." 1^

T h is does n o t mean t h a t every composer was w h o leh earted ly in

fa v o r of th e m ale-ch o ru s movement. In a l e t t e r w ritte n in 1840,

M o ritz Hauptmann s a id , " I c a n 't stan d m usic — to w it, fo u r - p a r t

m usic ~ f o r m ale v o ic e s o n ly ; i t i s an u n n a tu ra l th in g — th e bare

id e a i s a m is -c o n c e p tio n ." 1 ^ The co n clu sio n o f th e male chorus

e p iso d e w i l l be r e l a t e d in th e c h ap te r on S c h u b e rt.

The chorus fo r mixed v o ic e s became more p o p u lar as th e m iddle

o f th e cen tu ry approached. Hauptmann, a c a n to r i n L e ip z ig , w rote a

l e t t e r to a c e r ta in Franz Hauser in 1846 which epitom ized th e c h o ra l

s i t u a t i o n in t h a t decade:

A L i e d e r t a f e l , c o n s is tin g of some e ig h ty la d ie s and gentlem en,


h a s j u s t been s t a r t e d h e re ; we owe i t c h ie f ly to M endelssohn.
The m eetin g s a re h e ld once a month, song and su p p er. P a r t songs
have t o be w r itte n s p e c ia lly fo r th e o c c a sio n . Only one was
a sk e d f o r , b u t when you b eg in , you may a s w e ll go on. L ots of
p e o p le would w rite a dozen, but I rem ained c o n ten t w ith h a lf
t h a t number, f o r a s e v ery th in g has a b e g in n in g , so must ev ery ­
t h in g have an e n d .1?

From t h i s tim e forw ard th e r e was a p a r a l l e l development of

m ixed ch o ru ses and male c h o ru se s. The d if f e r e n c e was t h a t th e mixed

^ B ro w n , E ssay s on S c h u b e rt, p . 59•

■ ^A lfred Schone and Ferdinand H i l l e r , ( e d s .) , The L e tte r s o f


a L e ip z ig C an to r: being th e L e tte rs of M o ritz Hauptmann (1792-1868),
2 v o ls , t r a n s . and a r r . by A. D. C o lerid g e (London: N ovello, Ewer &
C o ., 1 8 9 2 ), V o l. I I , p . 221.

^ I b i d . . p . 31.

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46

c h o irs te n d ed to c o n c e n tra te on th e l a r g e r o r a to r io s and c a n ta ta s

( th e H andelian t r a d i t i o n ) w h ile th e male c h o ru se s, being p rim a rily a

n o n - a r t i s t i c movement, worked m ainly i n th e a r e a of sm all one m inute

to th r e e m inute w orks. Because of t h i s c o n c e n tra tio n on la r g e r works

th e mixed c h o irs d id n o t f o s t e r many s h o rt c h o ra l songs, and f o r t h i s

re a so n b r i e f works f o r mixed chorus were n u m e ric a lly f a r below th o se

f o r m ale c h o ru s. " I t was th e male c h o ir t h a t gave th e movement i t s

t r u e stam p, and in t h i s f i e l d th e number o f com positions i s sim ply

in c a l c u la b le . Q u a lita tiv e l y th e r e la tio n s h ip i s i n v e r t e d . T h e

song f o r mixed chorus (mixed ensemble in c lu d e d ) o ffe re d a f i e l d f o r

th e am ateur which was n o t overrun w ith p r o f e s s io n a ls (Brahms b ein g

th e s in g le n o ta b le e x c e p tio n ). Some o f t h i s re tic e n c e to compose f o r

mixed choruses may have been due to th e q u a lity of music making which

th e composers h eard a t re h e a rs a ls o r in c o n c e r ts . Robert F ranz w rote

v ery few p ie c e s f o r mixed chorus "because o f h is t r i f l i n g e s tim a tio n

o f th e average c h o ra l d ir e c to r he doubted t h e i r f u l l e f f e c t would be

r e a l i z e d ." - ^

I f th e r e was a l e s s rew arding f i e l d th a n th e mixed c h o ru s, i t

would have been th e fem ale ch o ru s. Not o n ly were such o rg a n iz a tio n s

s c a rc e b u t th e l i t e r a t u r e f o r than was g e n e r a lly q u ite p o o r. P o s s i­

b ly each s i t u a t i o n (poor choruses and poor l i t e r a t u r e ) in flu e n c e d th e

l^ O s th o ff, p . 15.

19Hermann f r e i h e r r von d er P fo rd te n , R obert Franz (L e ip z ig :


V e rla g von Q uelle & M eyer, 1923), p . 103.

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47

o th e r. Much of th e problem la y in th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r perform ance

by women's g ro u p s. N orm ally such program s would have ta k e n p la c e in

a p r iv a te re s id e n c e fo r an audience of i n v ite d g u e s ts , o r i t would

have been g iven as p a r t o f th e a c t i v i t i e s of a la r g e r o rg a n iz a tio n

such a s a c o n se rv a to ry o r m usic s c h o o l. Of l e s s im portance were th e

r a r e o ccasio n s in a P r o te s ta n t church when women would be c a ll e d on to

s in g f o r a wedding, f u n e r a l o r a c h r i s t e n i n g . 2° Brahms w rote a

number of fo lk song arran g em en ts f o r a t r i o o f young g i r l s , th e t r i o

e v e n tu a lly grow ing in to th e Hamburger F ra u e n c h o r. U n fo rtu n a te ly ,

w ith but few e x c e p tio n s , th e s e arrangem ents and o th e rs by d i f f e r e n t

composers were sim ple to an extrem e d e g re e . They were alm o st a l l

homophonic th ro u g h o u t w ith th e melody i n th e to p v o ic e , a s ta n d a rd

v o ic in g and form which had n o t changed f o r a c e n tu ry , and w hich s t i l l

o b ta in s in many a rra n g e rs to d a y . As w ith m ost m u s ic a l f o m s , i t

rem ained f o r th e e s ta b lis h e d composers such a s Brahms and Schumann

t o develop th e choruses f o r m ale v o ic e s o r fem ale v o ic e s beyond th e

scope im agined by th e m u s ic a l am ateu rs.

V oicing in th e N in e tee n th -C e n tu ry V ocal Ensemble

C e r ta in v o ic in g s became more or l e s s s ta n d a rd iz e d as th e

n in e te e n th c en tu ry moved tow ard i t s m id p o in t. B efo re t h i s tim e th e

im p ro v ised n a tu re of many p ie c e s o f v o c a l chamber m usic was h e ig h te n e d

^ S o p h ie D rin k e r, Brahms and h is Women1s Choruses (M eriod,


P e n n sy lv a n ia : M usurgia P u b lis h e r s , 1952), p . 68.

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48

by th e u n u su a l c h a ra c te r o f th e v o ic in g . A tte n tio n has a lre a d y been

c a ll e d t o P e te r C o rn e liu s 's T ro s t in T ranen f o r b a rito n e s o lo /s o p r a n o /

t e n o r /b a s s i / b a s s I I . M ik h a il G lin k a 's a t t r a c t i v e Q u a rte t ("Sogna c h i

c re d e d 'e s s e r f e lic e " ) f o r fo u r v o ic e s and s t r i n g q u in te t u t i l i z e s a

m ezzo-soprano (o r a l t o ) / t e n o r i / t e n o r I l / b a s s . Since G lin k a a ls o

w ro te a Q u a rte t (" Ha /CHy&HIWM " ) f o r s o p r a n o /a lto /te n o r /b a s s w ith

p ia n o , and v i r t u a l l y a l l o f h is opera and c a n ta ta choruses were f o r

s o p r a n o /a lto /te n o r /b a s s v o ic in g , i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t he con­

s id e r e d v o c a l chamber m usic above th e re q u ire m e n ts o f a s ta n d a rd iz e d

v o ic in g . A lso , th e re i s th e d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he happened to

have f o u r good s o l o i s t s who chanced t o m atch th e v o ic in g o f m ezzo-

s o p r a n o /te n o r /te n o r /b a s s .

T h is l a s t re a so n a p p e a rs to be t h e m o tiv a tin g f a c t o r i n th e

w r i t i n g o f a la rg e number o f th e works f o r s o lo ensemble i n th e n in e ­

t e e n t h c e n tu ry , or a t l e a s t b e fo re a b o u t th e m id d le o f th e c e n tu ry .

T h is was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o u ts id e o f Germany. Whenever a work

a p p e a rs w ith some s in g u la r v o ic in g i t i s n o t to o f a r f e tc h e d to assume

th e composer had s p e c if ic m u sic ian s i n mind f o r th e p erfo rm an ce.

D o n i z e t t i ’ s "Ah, che i l d e s tin o " had th e s u p e r s c r ip tio n "D u etto e

T e r z e tto se s i vuole" (D uet o r T rio a s you w ish) on th e t i t l e p a g e .21

F ra n z Danzi* s Sechs d re istim m ie e G esange. Op. 16, were in te n d e d f o r

two so p ra n o s and a b a s s . Jo sep h H aydn's t r i o "An den V e tte r " from

h i s M ehrstim m ige Gesange i s f o r s o p r a n o /a lt o /te n o r . R o b ert

^ S e e Appendix I I I , page 263, of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o r an


e d i t i o n o f th e D o n iz e tti w ork.

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49

Schumann's 'Meerfey" from Gesange fur Frauenstimmen m s for three

sopranos and two altos, the rest of the set of six works being for

two sopranos and two altos.^2 it is unreasonable to believe that

this many different types of choruses existed, or that even that many

different types of solo vocal ensembles existed on a permanent basis.

Just as Heitor Villa-Lobos could write Eachianas Braziliarias No. 8

for eight celli and a soprano solo and Schumann could write Marchen-

erzahlungen, Op. 132, for clarinet, viola and piano, so could

Vincenzo Bellini compose Ombra Facifiche for a soprano and two tenors

and Berlioz could write Amitie. reprends ton empire for soprano,

mezzo-soprano and baritone.

Apparently there were times when such works for vocal ensem­

ble served as first drafts of larger works or as subsequent arrange­

ments of previous works. Berlioz's Sara la Baigneuse, Op. 11, was

originally conceived as a work for three choruses v/ith orchestral

accompaniment. He later reduced this to a vocal duet with piano.^3

Another work, Helene ("Ballade a deux voix") is mentioned as being

for six voices in various sources. Karl Loewe originally wrote

General Schwerin. Op. 6l, for solo voice and piano, then for tenor/

bass/piano, next for four male voices and finally for a military band.

22"rcaldmadchen,n No. 2 o f th e Gesange fU r Frauenstim m en. i s


also f o r s o lo v o ic e s , b u t i n th e more c o n v en tio n al v o ic in g o f SSAA.

^Hector Berlioz, Werke (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1904),


Vol. 16, p. 156. Berlioz said the work could be performed "by a
soprano and bass, a soprano and a contralto, or a tenor and bass,
but not by a tenor and contralto."

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50

There i s no in d ic a tio n i f each o f th e s e tra n s fo rm a tio n s caused any

change in th e b a s ic s tr u c t u r e o f th e w o rk .24 There v/as a ls o a

s e t t i n g o f 0 S a lu ta r is by F ra n c o is Gossec f o r th r e e unaccompanied

v o ic e s , which h is b io g ra p h e r, D ufrane, c a lle d " . . . l a s e u le pace

m u sic a le du com positeur qui a i t r e s i s t ^ aux in ju r e s du temps . . . " .

L a te r , d u rin g th e r e v o lu tio n , th e t r i o became a hymn o f l i b e r t y ,

Berved s t i l l l a t e r ( in a tr a n s c r i p t i o n ) a s an e x e rc is e f o r th r e e

horns a t th e c o n se rv a to ry , and f i n a l l y i t was used by L ach n itch and

K alkbrenner a s an in tr o d u c tio n to t h e i r o r a to r io S a u l.25 These works

may have been "ch ip s from th e com poser's workshop" which th e com­

p o se rs were lo a th to sweep o u t. Every composer h a s f e l t th e urge to

rew ork some p ie c e f o r d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s . Joseph Haydn w rote a l e t t e r

t o Z e lte r i n 1804 su g g e stin g t h a t Z e lte r ta k e "A b en d lied ," a n o th e r

o f H aydn's Mehrstimmige Gesange, and "a rra n g e i t f o r your whole

c h o ir , a l t e r n a t i n g fo u r s o l o i s t s w ith th e sem i-chorus and f u l l chorus.

N. B. I t i s a b s o lu te ly n e c e s s a ry , however, t h a t th e p ia n o fo rte

accompaniment be in c lu d e d JUST a s i t s ta n d s ." 26

At tim es th e v o ic in g may have been prompted by th e lo c a tio n of

2% ans E n g el, "K arl Loewe," in Die musik in g e sc h ic h te und


gegenw art« e d . F r ie d r ic h Blumo (K assel und B asel: B a r e n r e ite r - v e r la g ,
1 9 5 2-68), V o l. V III , p p . 1106-11.

^ L o u is D ufrane, G ossec: sa v i e , ses oeuvres ( P a r is : L i b r a i r ie


F is c h b a c h e r, 1927), p . 240.

2 % . C. Robbins Land on, The C o lle c te d Correspondence and


London Notebooks of Joseph Haydn (London: B a rrie and R o c k liff,
1959), P . 224.

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51

th e a n tic ip a te d p erfo rm an ce. M o ritz Hauptmann, w ith a m ild humor

w hich c h a r a c te riz e d many of h is l e t t e r s , w rote to Hauser in 1859:

I have f in is h e d tw elv e d u e ts which can be sung w ithout p ia n o ­


f o r t e accompaniment, in th e open a i r — alth o u g h th e occasion i s
n o t l i k e l y to a r i s e , e s p e c ia lly on th e d u sty Promenade h e re . I
was le d in to w ritin g them, by th e f a c t t h a t th e re was a p o et a t
A lexanderbad, and t h a t I had two s in g e rs — S u z e tte and F ra u le in
F r i d e r i c i — b e sid e s which th e r e was th e open a i r . I t i s my
whim to p r i n t th e s e d u e ts sim ply in two l i n e s , w ithout p ia n o ­
f o r t e accom panim ent.2 '

I t m ight n o t have been, however, m erely h is whim to w rite th e works

unaccom panied. He would have had no choice i f th e works were to be

perform ed in th e open a i r . We can only wonder a t th e number o f works

o f S ch u b ert fo r unaccompanied male t r i o and q u a rte t which were o r i g i ­

n a lly in te n d e d f o r perform ance in p la c e s where th e re m ight have been

no p ia n o . A s im ila r problem would have been encountered by composers

o f m usic f o r wind ensem ble b e fo re 1750 when w ritin g f o r seren ad in g

o u t- o f - d o o r s . A lthough th e p re sen c e o f co n tin u o in stru m en ts was

alm o st o b lig a to ry in th e m usic of t h a t tim e , th e s e s p e c if ic works

were designed in such a manner t h a t no such in stru m en t would be

needed where none would be a v a il a b le , such as in a co u rty ard o r on a

sid ew a lk .

T here were many works composed f o r which no d e f in it e v o ic in g

was in d ic a te d . U ndoubtedly many o f th e s e were composed by hack

composers i n an a tte m p t t o make t h e i r p ro d u c ts u s e fu l by more ensem­

b l e s , o r t o allo w one p ie c e o f m usic t o be used by any fam ily

27schone and H i l l e r , V o l. I I , p. 121.

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52

r e g a r d le s s of th e ty p e o f v o ic e s a v a i l a b l e . F . W. Rauch w ro te Y7here

go you, p r e t t y Maggie w ith th e only in d i c a tio n f o r th e v o ic in g b ein g

X, I I , and I I I . 2® A fo o tn o te on page 4 s u g g e s ts th e fo llo w in g

m ethods of sin g in g :

I , soprano
I I , a l t o , o r te n o r 8v a
I I I , b a s s , th e upper or low er n o te s ad l i b

or

I , te n o r I
I I , te n o r I I
I I I , b a s s , low er n o te s only

The work was sco red to in c lu d e a g u i t a r p a r t o f th e u tm o st s im p li c it y

and an urn-pa-pa piano p a r t . T h is s t y le of w r itin g was p ro m in en t i n

A m erica d u rin g th e m iddle t h i r d of th e n in e te e n th c e n tu r y . Even

Beethoven was not immune t o th e te m p ta tio n t o a llo w f o r some v a r i e t y

i n h is v o ic in g s . His L obkow itz-C antata has only th e i n d i c a t i o n " f u r

d r e i Singstim m en m it K la v ie r-B e g le itu n g ," and th e v o ic e s a r e shown a s

1 . , 2 . , and B ass. The c o lo r a tu r a cadenza j u s t b e fo re th e r e tu r n o f

th e f i r s t s e c tio n in d ic a te s a t l e a s t th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a soprano on

P a r t 1 , and th e r a th e r lim it e d range o f P a r t 2 ( e - f l a t * ~ d ") seems

t o s u g g e st a soprano I I o r a l t o v o ic e r a t h e r th a n a t e n o r . A lso ,

when a l l of th e v o ic e s e n te r f o r a t u t t i s e c tio n th e word "Chor" i s

2 8 f. Y/. Rauch, YThere go you, p r e t t y M aggie (D ie w ir th in


T o c h te r le in ) , f o r one, 2 o r 3 v o ic e s ( C in c in n a ti: J . J . Dotmeyer &
C o., 1867j L ib rary of C ongress No. M 1553 •&)• The m elody of t h i s
work i s a c o rru p tio n o f an o ld German s tu d e n t so n g , "Es zogen d r e i
B urscbe wohl uber den R h e in ," th e t e x t o f w hich i s p r i n t e d above
p a r ts I and I I , but n o t above p a r t I I I .

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53

w r itt e n and th e bass l i n e i s d iv id e d a t t i m e s . 29 As m entioned p r e ­

v io u s ly “Coro** seems to in d i c a t e " r e f r a i n , " and "Chor" seems t o mean

" c h o r u s ," but a g a in i t m ight i n d ic a t e only " t u t t i v o ic e s ." What a r e

a p p a r e n tly d i v i s i n o te s may be o p tio n a l n o te s f o r a l t e r n a t e u se on

r e p e a t s , one b ein g ta k e n th e f i r s t tim e th ro u g h , th e o th e r n o te on

th e f i n a l s in g in g of th e p a ss a g e . In h is arrangem ents o f E n g lis h ,

S c o tc h , I r i s h and V/elch a i r s , Beethoven l e f t th e v o ic e i n d ic a tio n s

o f f s e v e r a l of th e w orks. W ith in th e s e t of S c h o ttis e h e L ie d e r th e r e

a r e some works f o r soprano i/s o p ra n o I l / t e n o r / b a s s , w h ile o th e rs a r e

f o r opening s o lo , th e n v o ic e l /v o ic e 2 /v o ic e 3» 'M u sic, Love and

W ine," th e f i r s t work in th e s e t , u s e s t h i s l a t t e r v o i c i n g . 30 Where

a te n o r v o ic e i s in d ic a te d th e l i n e i s u s u a lly in th e b a ss c l e f , but

n o t a lw ay s. In "Ohl would I were but t h a t sweet L in n e t," w hich i s a

s o p ra n o /te n o r d u e t, th e te n o r l i n e i s in th e t r e b l e c l e f . These l a s t

problem s may have been e d i t o r i a l in e p titu d e s on th e p a r t o f th e

p u b lis h e r who commissioned Beethoven to tu r n out th e s e a rra n g e m e n ts,

o r , a g a in , th e y could b e -a tte m p ts by Beethoven a n d /o r th e p u b lis h e r s

to make th e arrangem ents u s a b le by a l a r g e r number of en sem b les.

As m entioned p re v io u s ly many works f o r s o lo ensem bles could

more r e a l i s t i c a l l y be c a ll e d so lo s w ith accompaniments f o r low er

v o ic e s . The dominance o f th e to p v o ic e was one o f th e m a jo r

29Ludwig van Beethoven, Werke (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel,


1866-68; Ann Arbor: J . W. Edwards, 1949), Serie 25, p. 247.

3^See Appendix I , A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y , page 1 3 0 , f o r


f u r t h e r d is c u s s io n on t h i s and s im il a r p ie c e s .

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54

w eaknesses o f ensemble m usic in th e n in e te e n th cen tu ry , a t l e a s t in

th e f i r s t h a lf of th e c e n tu ry . S c h u b e rt, who w rote so many charming

works f o r so lo en sen b le, was n o t a b le t o go as f a r a s he m ight have

gone.

I n one re s p e c t Schubert m ight have re v o lu tio n iz e d th e v o c a l


q u a r te t as Haydn and M ozart re v o lu tio n iz e d th e s tr i n g q u a r te t.
T h e ir aim was to make each in stru m e n t in th e q u a rte t of eq u al
im portance to th e m u sic al c o n trib u tio n . . . . S ch u b ert, r ig h t
t o th e end w rote h is v o c a l q u a rte ts and q u in te ts f o r a predom­
in a n t l y so lo te n o r v o ic e w ith th r e e o r fo u r accompanying v o ic e s .
He never to o k th e re v o lu tio n a ry s te p o f w ritin g a v o cal q u a rte t
i n which a l l fo u r v o ic e s were o f e q u a l i n t e r e s t and s ig n if ic a n t
t o th e p a tte r n of th e w hole; had he done so he might have
i n i t i a t e d a new, r i c h , and f r u i t f u l sp h ere in m usic a s he d id in
th e L ie d . In s te a d , i n h is hands, th e male v o ice p a r t song con­
g e a le d as i t w ere, and s in c e no composer who follow ed him attem p­
te d th e novel tre a tm e n t th e p a r t song fo r male v o ic e s came to an
ignom inious e n d .31

I t i s tr u e t h a t in h is Opus 11, each of th e th r e e s e p a ra te works

w hich make up t h i s opus number has a f i n a l canon where each v o ice

p a r t ta k e s th e theme in t u r n . A lso , th e r e a re o th e r s c a tte r e d

canonic p a ssa g es in h is ensemble works; b u t, by and la r g e , i f th e r e i s

any so lo s in g in g to be done, i t i s th e te n o r I who does th e s in g in g .

T h is does n o t in c lu d e h is c a n ta ta s , of c o u rse , where any v o ic e p a r t

may be dom inant, o r h is works f o r mixed v o ic e s .

Some v o c a l ensemble works to o k on th e e x te r i o r appearance o f

a c a n ta ta . B e r lio z 's A m itie. reo ren d s to n empire i s predom inantly a

soprano s o lo w ith a r e f r a i n ( c a lle d an " In v o c a tio n " i n th e s c o re ) fo r

a l l th r e e v o ic e s .32 Stephen F o s te r ’ s f a m il ia r Come where my lo v e

3lBrown, E ssays on S c h u b e rt, p . 62.

3 2 see Appendix I , page 134, f o r f u r th e r d is c u s s io n .

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l i e s dream ing i s b a s ic a lly scored f o r a l t o / t e n o r / b a s s , w ith th e

soprano used f o r d esc a n t work o r a s a fe a tu re d s o l o i s t . 33 th e

more extrem e examples th e soprano i s a f o r t h r i g h t s o l o i s t (as in th e

B e rlio z work m entioned above, and th e p re v io u s ly d isc u sse d fo lk song

s e t t i n g s of B eethoven). Johann S t e r k e l 's c a n ta ta - lik e L1A stro d i

V enere i s a work of about th r e e m inutes d u ra tio n which opens w ith a

le n g th y soprano so lo and th e n has s e v e ra l s e c tio n s by th e t u t t i

v o ic e s a l t e r n a t i n g w ith s h o r te r soprano s o lo s .3^ In some cases th e

p ia n o accompaniment only doubles th e low er v o ic e s , allo w in g th e to p

v o ic e , w hatever i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m ight be, to go i t s own s o l o i s t i c

way. These l a s t two c h a r a c te r i s ti c s of th e piano dou b lin g th e low er

p a r t s and th e to p v o ic e bein g an independent so lo p a r t a re i l l u s ­

t r a t e d by Anthony P h ilip H e in ric h 's E le g ia c Q u in te tto V ocale. a

c u rio u s work f o r so p ran o , a l t o , te n o r, b a rito n e and b a s s . 35 The

low er fo u r v o ic e s a c t a s an in tro d u c to ry chorus f o r th e soprano.

F ig u re 1 . shows th e c o lo r a tu r a which i s common t o th e soprano l i n e

and which ap p ears in s h o r t two and th r e e m easure in te r lu d e s .

^ S te p h e n F o s te r , Come where my lo v e l i e s dreaming (Q u a rte t)


(New York: F i r t h , Pond & C o., 1855; In d ia n a p o lis : p r iv a te ly p r in te d by
J . K. L i l l y , 1933» 3 v o l s . ) . See Appendix I , page 159*

34johann Franz X av ier S te r k e l, L*Astro d i V enere. Op. 4 (? )


(B e rlin : Rudolph VTerckmeister, c a. 1806; L ib ra ry o f Congress No.
M 1554 .S , c a s e ) . See Appendix I , page 18 8 .

35Anthony P h ilip H e in ric h , E le g ia c Q u in te tto V ocale (New York:


C. G. C hristm an, 1846; L ib ra ry of Congress No. M -l, .A 12 V, V ol. 19) .

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56

S h a ll th e

m a s -te r

® m as-ter

m a s -te r

m a s -te r

F ig . 1 . - - Anthony P h il ip H e in ric h , E le g ia c Q u in te tto


V ocale (New York: C. G. C hristm an, 1846; L ib rary o f Congress
No. Ml .A 12 V. V ol. 19^.___________ .__________________________

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57

"v-
WTTTTTrtBFa rn
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SI
r-5 —

mas te r pour h is

1 T -± j*
pour
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1 is:
pour h is

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pour h is

M TT
pour h is

s f t

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F i g . 1 . — ( c o n t.)

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58

The soprano l i n e a ls o has a wide range from a below M iddle c t o

g -s h a rp " .

In s tru m e n ta tio n i n th e N in e tee n th -C e n tu ry

V o cal Ensemble

A gain th e s t a r t i n g p o in t i s th e s o lo song w ith p ian o accom­


p a n im e n t. As th e re w ere no c h o ra l a s s o c ia ti o n s b e fo re 1809 who
dev o ted them selves to th e (ch o ral] song, a l l th e e a r l i e r songs
i n s e v e r a l p a r ts were p r im a r ily in te n d e d f o r s in g in g a t s o c i a l
g a th e r in g s of p r iv a te c i r c l e s .3®

By f a r th e predom inant in stru m e n t f o r accompanying th e so lo

v o c a l ensem bles was th e p ia n o f o r t e . By th e b e g in n in g o f th e n in e ­

te e n th c e n tu ry i t had a t t a i n e d a f a i r amount o f te c h n ic a l developm ent

and v i r t u a l l y u n iv e r s a l s o c i a l a c c e p ta n c e . As K urt S tephenson has

w r itt e n : "The p ia n o fo rte became th e m ost u n iv e r s a l 'cham ber' i n s t r u ­

ment and was soon th e c e n te r o f m usic a t h o m e . "37 Because o f i t s

unique q u a lity ( f o r keyboard in s tru m e n ts ) o f p la y in g b o th loud and

s o f t i t became th e epitom e o f ro m an tic s e n s u a l i t y . In a d d itio n th e

p iano could ta k e any p ie c e o f m u lti-v o ic e d m usic and supply a l l of

th e m is s in g p a r t s . Thus, th e works which were w r itte n f o r " e in e und

m ehrere Singstim m en" could be ad ap ted q u ite e a s i l y f o r any group o f

s in g e r s w hich happened to a sse m b le . M ention has p re v io u s ly been made

o f th e v a rio u s e n tr ie s i n D e u ts c h 's S ch u b ert Them atic C atalo g u e which

360sthoff, p . 14.

37stephenson, p. 21.

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59

in d ic a te t h a t an accompaniment may not be a u th e n tic . In a work f o r

f iv e m en's v o ic e s t i t l e d Mondenschein th e re i s ample p ro o f t h a t th e

o r ig i n a l perform ance was accompanied by a c e r ta in F rau Schm iedel,

th e w ife of th e co n d u cto r on th a t p a r t i c u l a r o c c a sio n . D e sp ite t h i s

h i s t o r i c a l p re c e d e n t some e d ito r s s t i l l b e lie v e th e accompaniment was

added by th e p u b l i s h e r . 38 j ust under th e heading of C o rn e liu s 's

T ro st in Tranen i s th e adm onition "The com position was conceived by

th e composer a c a p e lla and th e p ia n o fo rte accompaniment i s to be used

o r d is c a rd e d a c c o rd in g to th e needs of th e s in g e r s . "39

T h is p h ra s e , "ac c o rd in g to th e needs o f th e s in g e r s ," would

ty p if y many o f th e p ian o accompaniments t o v o c a l ensemble m usic i n

th e f i r s t h a lf of th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . As O sth o ff sa y s, " th e

p o s s i b i l i t y of a c a p p e lla sin g in g had to be r e d i s c o v e r e d . E a r l y

i n th e cen tu ry th e peo p le were not used to th e sound o f unaccompanied

s in g in g , n o r were th e y te c h n i c a lly a b le in a l l cases to f in d and h o ld

a s in g le v o ic e l i n e i n a polyphonic com position w ith o u t h e lp . T his

would be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t on in n e r v o ic e s b u t n o t so much so

f o r th e to p , m e lo d y -c a rry in g v o ic e . Thus th e h ig h in c id e n c e o f works

where th e to p v o ic e goes i t s own way w hile th e r i g h t hand o f th e piano

doubles th e in n e r v o ic e s and th e l e f t hand p la y s a broken chord

p a t t e r n w hich l i g h t l y to u c h es th e b ass n o te s .

T h is " G o e th e -g e n e ra tio n " was n o t always a b le to f u l f i l l

38Brown, Essays on Schubert, p. 261.

39cornelius, p. 153»

400 s th o f f , p . 14.

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6o

G o e th e's id e a l t h a t " th e accompaniment he handled w ith g re a t moder­

a t i o n , s in c e in m oderation alo n e th e r e i s r ic h n e s s ."41 The v o c a l

ensemble works of Schumann would be u n th in k a b le w ith o u t h is back­

ground in piano w r itin g . The upshot o f t h i s emphasis on th e piano

was t h a t i t became an e q u al p a r tn e r , and a s an eq u al p a rtn e r th e re

w ere tim es when th e p iano was supposed to speak w ith o u t th e h e lp of

th e v o ic e s . In Schumann's Spanische L ie b e s-L ie d e r. Op. 138, s e c tio n s

1 and 6, th e V o rsp ie l and th e Interm ezzo a re f o r th e p ian o , fo u r

h ands, o n ly , th e v o ic e s b ein g com pletely a b s e n t. In S c h u b e rt's works

th e piano was much more th e accompanying elem ent, and only in excep­

t i o n a l cases d id th e piano come anywhere n e a r th e v i r t u o s i t y which

can be seen in h is s o n a ta s o r o th e r chamber m u sic. Schumann, on th e

o th e r hand, in te n d e d h is "accompaniments" to p lay a new r o le a s

c o -p e rfo rm e r.

The accompaniment was not always lim ite d to th e p ia n o . There

a r e s e v e ra l works in b o th th e n in e te e n th and tw e n tie th c e n tu rie s fo r

s o lo v o c a l ensemble and s t r i n g ensem ble. The b e s t known would

p ro b ab ly be th e E le g i 3c h er Gesang. Op. 118, o f Beethoven. The

in s tru m e n ta l w ritin g i s su ch t h a t th e s u b s ti t u t io n of a p ian o f o r th e

s ta n d a rd s t r i n g q u a rte t j u s t does n o t work out w e ll. G linka a ls o

w ro te a q u a r te t w ith s t r i n g accompaniment, except t h i s work was

sc o re d f o r s t r i n g q u in te t (s ta n d a rd q u a rte t p lu s c o n tra b a s s ). One of

t h e most pow erful chamber works i s S c h u b e rt's Gesang d er G e is te r ub er

41johannes R ie d e l, M usic of th e Romantic P erio d (Dubuque,


Iowa: Wn. C. Brown C o., 1969) , p . 35*

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61

den W assern f o r a q u a rte t o f te n o rs , a q u a rte t o f b a ss e s, two v io la s ,

two c e ll o s , and a s t r i n g b a s s . With t h i r t e e n p erform ers th e work

alm o st goes beyond chamber m usic dim ensions. The v o ic in g alone shows

th e d a rk ro m an tic q u a lity o f th e co m p o sitio n .^2 Y/orks fo r v o cal

q u a r te t w ith an accompaniment of s tr in g q u a rte t and piano a re J o s e f

R h e in b e rg e r's Four Q u a rte ts . Op. 56 j and Henry W alford D a v ie s 's

r e l a t i v e l y w e ll known S ix P a s to r a ls , p u b lish e d by Curwen in 1897.

I n th e tw e n tie th cen tu ry Hugo Kauder, F r ie d r ic h M e tz le r, Georges

M igot and P h y ll is T ate have w ritte n works which u t i l i z e s t r in g

ensem bles. Appendix I I , th e Non-Annotated B ib lio g rap h y , of t h i s

d i s s e r t a t i o n g iv e s more in fo rm a tio n about th e s e w orks.

The E n g lis h , S co tch , I r i s h and Yfelch a i r s which Beethoven

a rra n g e d used an accompaniment o f v i o l i n , c e llo and p ia n o , but in

m ost c ase s th e s tr i n g s can be used ad lib itu m , th e piano p a r t alo n e

being e la b o r a te enough to c a rry th e work.

One o f th e most e n th u s i a s tic accompaniments i s found in

H e in ric h (F . E n ric o ) Himmol’ s T e r z e tto . ^3 The v o ic in g i s f o r two

sopranos and a te n o r , and th e t i t l e page shows an accompaniment o f

f l u t e , two oboes, t7/o h o rn s, bassoon and c e llo (a n d /o r) b a ss. In

^%>eutsch quotes H euberger (S ch u b ert. B e rlin , 1902, p . 48) as


c a llin g t h i s work th e F a u st among S c h u b e rt's works fo r male ch o ru s.
F erdinand S ch u b ert w rote a piano accompaniment to t h i s work in 1836.
T h is work i s d is c u s s e d f u r t h e r in th e A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y , Appen­
d ix I , p . 178.

^3]?. E n ric o Himmel, T e rz e tto (L eip z ig : C. F . P e te r s , n . d . ,


p l a t e No. 642; L ib ra ry o f Congress No. M 1553 .H65T4, c a s e ) . See
Appendix I , page 167, f o r f u r th e r d e s c rip tiv e in fo rm a tio n .

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62

a d d itio n to th e s e th e r e i s a p a r t f o r an A rm onica, an a n c e s to r o f th e

a c c o rd io n . T his l a s t named in s tru m e n t co v ered v i r t u a l l y a l l o f th e

n o te s p la y e d by th e o th e r in s tru m e n ts , an a p p a re n t a tte m p t to make

th e work a d a p ta b le t o any a v a il a b le r e s o u r c e s .

I n a t l e a s t one in s ta n c e a work o r i g i n a l l y d esig n ed f o r

chamber accompaniment had th e p ian o sc o re o r c h e s tr a te d f o r chamber

o r c h e s tr a . Brahms, a t t h e i n s is t e n c e of a f r i e n d , o r c h e s tr a te d

s e v e r a l of th e L ie b e s lie d e r W alzer. Op. 5 2 , and th e Neue L ieb 9s l ie d e r ,

Op. 65j f o r a sm all o r c h e s tr a , b u t a c c o rd in g t o G e irin g e r, Brahms

s t i l l w anted th e s o lo v o ic e s r e ta in e d in t h i s v e r s io n because a chorus

would have obscured th e l i g h t and tr a n s p a r e n t o r c h e s t r a t i o n . ^

S p e c ia l o c c a sio n s o f te n c a lle d f o r t h s p e c i a l works whose

in s tr u m e n ta tio n m ight have been d i f f e r e n t had th e work been perform ed

a month e a r l i e r o r a m onth l a t e r . I n 1838 th e R oyal S o c ie ty o f

M u s ic ia n s , London c h a p te r , commissioned Tommaso R ovedino, a member of

th e S o c ie ty , to w r ite an ode f o r t h e i r c e n te n a ry f e s t i v a l . The work,

w hich he p r o s a ic a lly t i t l e d An Ode, was p erfo rm ed by two l a d ie s and

s i x gentlem en a s v o c a l s o l o i s t s "w ith o b l i g a t i in s tru m e n ta l p a r t s by

M r. J . B a l s ir C h a tte r to n , h a rp ; M r. G. Key, c l a r i o n e t £ sicj ; M r. C.

H a rp e r, h o rn ; and M r. K in g s m ill, t r u m p e t . ^ The m usic a ls o has a

44jCarl G e irin g e r, Brahms. H is L ife and Work (London: George


A lle n and Unwin, L t d ., 1963) , p . 279•

^Tommaso R ovedino, An Ode, E x p re s s e ly W ritte n f o r th e Cen­


te n a r y F e s t i v a l of th e R oyal S o c ie ty o f M u sic ia n s on T hursday, A p ril
t h e 1 9 th , 1838, e t c . . . . (London: P u b lish e d by th e R oyal S o c ie ty o f
M u s ic ia n s , 1838 ( ? ) ; L ib ra r y o f Congress No. M 1554 .R ).

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63

p ia n o p a r t , b u t th e p i a n i s t i s n o t named on th e p r in te d copy. The

m usic i s H andelian w ith a vengeance, com plete w ith a f u g a l e x p o si­

t i o n on th e words "L et th e m easure be in c re a s e d , h e a r ts and cups

s h a l l o v erflo w t o th e Founders o f th e F e a s t an hundred y e a rs a g o ."

Ju st p re c e d in g t h i s fugue th e r e i s a t h i r t y m easure soprano so lo

which f e a tu r e s a c l a r i n e t cad en za.

One of th e m ost common in s tru m e n ta tio n s was f o r one p ia n o ,

fo u r h an d s. The w ritin g f o r t h i s com bination was r e l a t i v e l y w e ll-

known in th e e a r ly decades of th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . S c h u b e rt’ s

fo u r-h an d w a ltz e s , Op. 39j a r e c o n sid e re d by some w r ite r s to be th e

m u s ic a l g o d fa th e r o f th e S p an isch e L ie b e s-L ie d e r o f Schumann and th e

two s e ts o f L ie b e s lie d e r o f B ra h m s .^ Ludwig Spohr had a ls o w r itt e n

some v o c a l p ie c e s w ith fo u r-h a n d a c c o m p a n im e n t^ and th e r e w ere, by

th e tim e o f th e w ritin g o f th e L ie b e s lie d e r of Brahms a f a i r l y

e x te n s iv e number o f w orthy a n te c e d e n ts . F o llo w in g Brahms th e f u l l

d elu g e began in e a r n e s t. T here were dozens i f n o t hundreds o f im ita ­

t i o n s , many o f them u s in g some v a r i a t i o n o f th e term L ie b e s lie d e r

^6Hans G al, Johannes Brahms: H is Work and P e r s o n a lity (New


Y ork: A lfre d A. Knopf, 1963) , p . 178.

^ E d w in Evans, Brahms' V ocal M usic. V o l. I (Londons T5n.


R eeves, 1 9 1 2 ), p . 223.
^ C a r r y in g th e id e a o f t h e L ie b e s lie d e r f u r t h e r were H e in ric h
K. J . Hofmann's Lenz und L ieb et L i e d e r s p ie l, Op. 84, U. S c h a u s e il's
Bohmisches L ie d e r s p ie l, Iv a n K n o rr's U k ra in isc h e L ie b e s lie d e r . Op. 6,
Georg H e n s c h e l's S e rb is c h e s L i e d e r s p ie l , Op. 32, and i n th e tw e n tie th
c e n tu ry , H einz T ie s s e n 's T hree L i e b e s l ie d e r , Op. 4 8 . A ll were f o r
m ixed q u a r te t and p ia n o , ex cep t th e T ie s se n which was unaccom panied.
T here were a ls o s e v e ra l s o lo s and d u e ts w ith p iano fo u r-h an d accom­
panim ent ( J o s e f S u k 's Ten Songs f o r y/omen's V o ices. Op. 15, among
o t h e r s ) , b u t no t r i o s tu rn e d up w ith t h i s p a r t i c u l a r accom panim ent.

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A ugust R ie d e l's L iebesgesan g . Op. 1, Edward M acD ow ell's B a r c a ro lle .

Op. 44, Hans Huber’ s Funf G e sa n g sq u a rte tte . Op. 52 and Aus dein w est-

O s tlic h e n Divan were a l l f o r mixed q u a rte t and fo u r-h an d p ia n o .

T here were s e v e ra l works w ith u n u su al in s tru m e n ta tio n . Max

Bruch added a v i o l i n to h is v o c a l q u a r te t and p ia n o , Op. 54, No. 5»

Wie m ochte .ie m ir w ohler s e i n . V e rd i's lone p ie c e of v o c a l chamber

m u sic, th e t r i o Guarda che b ia n c a lu n a: n o ttu rn o . u se s only a f l u t e

f o r accompaniment. R o s s in i's N otturno a Tre Voci i s f o r e i t h e r p iano

o r h a rp , v i r t u a l l y th e only tim e a harp i s l i s t e d in co n ju n ctio n w ith

v o c a l chamber m usic, a lth o u g h th e in stru m e n t seems a n a tu r a l c h o ic e .

Johann B a p tis t Schenk w rote N octurnen fo r q u a rte t and wind i n s t r u ­

m en ts, b u t th e in s tru m e n ta tio n i s n o t l i s t e d . Franz B erw ald's King

C harl e s X I I 's V ic to ry a t N arva, because of th e triu m p h a l n a tu re of

th e t e x t , added b ra s s in s tru m e n ts to th e v o c a l fo rc e s of fo u r te n o r

s o lo is ts . Giacomo M eyerbeer, p o s s ib ly remembering th e e f f e c t o f wind

in s tru m e n ts used in a s s o c ia tio n w ith male v o ic e s i n some o f h is

s ta g e d w orks, w rote Das d eu tsch e V a terlan d and K o n ig slied e in e s

f r e i e n Volkes f o r male q u a r te t and b ra ss in s tru m e n ts . There were

undoubtedly many o th e r works whose in s tru m e n ta tio n was so u n u su al

t h a t no p u b lis h e r would r i s k th e money to cut th e p l a t e s . These a re

l i s t e d because th e y i l l u s t r a t e th e wide span of th e a v a ila b le o r

o n c e -a v a ila b le l i t e r a t u r e .

The g u i t a r was hav in g a re n a iss a n c e i n Germany in th e e a r ly

decades o f th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . A lthough few p ie c e s were s p e c i­

f i c a l l y d e sig n a te d as o r ig i n a lly f o r v o ic e s and g u i t a r , many had th e

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65

g u i t a r g iv en a s an a l t e r n a t i v e in th e accompaniment. S e v e ra l of th e

works f o r m ale v o ic e s by S ch u b ert have q u e stio n a b le a l te r n a t e g u i ta r

accom panim ents.

The T exts

The beginning of th e rom antic e ra of m usic co in cid ed w ith

one of th e peaks of German l i t e r a t u r e . Composers had a v a ila b le to

them th e works o f G oethe, M orike, E ic h e n d o rff, M Uller and o th e r

German p o e ts as w e ll as th e p o e ts o f o th e r c o u n trie s in German t r a n s ­

la tio n s . Of c o u rse, composers in o th e r c o u n trie s had th e German

p o e ts in t r a n s l a t i o n s in to t h e i r own lan g u ag es.

One m a tte r which cannot be overlooked i n re g a rd to in flu e n c e s


upon S ch u b ert i s h is unique and s in g u la rly fo r tu n a te h i s t o r i c a l
p o s itio n , f o r he happened to be born in to one o f th e g r e a t e s t
p e rio d s in German l i t e r a t u r e . German song would no lo n g e r be
h in d e re d by a la c k o f i n s p ir a ti o n a l p o e tr y . Not only d id
S ch u b ert i n h e r i t th e t r a d i t i o n of K lopstock and H’o’l t y , b u t he
became a younger contem porary o f Goethe and S c h i l l e r . F u r th e r ­
m ore, he liv e d throug h th e expansion of th e Romantic movement
i n p o e try — w ith T ie c k , th e S ch leg el b r o th e r s , N o v alis, and
H e in ric h H eine. In a d d itio n , O ssian, P e tr a r c h , 7 /a lte r S c o tt,
and Shakespeare were made a v a ila b le t o him th ro u g h e x c e lle n t
t r a n s l a t i o n s — a ls o a p ro d u c t of th e Romantic e r a . ^9

O bviously not a l l composers a v a ile d them selves o f t h i s la rg e

re p o s ito ry o f t a l e n t . P a r t i c u l a r l y in th e m usic f o r m ale v o ic e s was

th e r e a tendency to p ic k t e x t s which w ere, f i r s t , em o tio n al, and then,

i f p o s s ib le , of some l i t e r a r y s ta n d in g . The a re a o f p a t r i o t i c te x ts

was p a r t i c u l a r l y b a rre n ground f o r th e composers t o p ic k o v e r. A

4 8 R ie d el, p . 31.

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66

t e x t m ight be chosen because of a s in g le p h rase o r word which evoked

a unique th o u g h t or which o ffe re d th e o p p o rtu n ity fo r a c u rio u s tu r n

o f melody o r harmony. Some te x ts were chosen because th ey were

p s e u d o -fo re ig n , t h a t i s , th ey sounded as i f th e y came from a country

w hich was co n sid ered e x o tic . The O rie n t, A fric a , and p a r t i c u l a r l y

th e warn c o u n trie s o f I t a l y and Spain caught th e fancy o f bo th p o ets

and com posers. U n fo rtu n a te ly , " l i b r e t t i s t s who promoted t h e i r te x ts

a s ' ro m a n tic ' sim ply and p u re ly because o f t h e i r s e t t in g i n some

s tr a n g e , e x c itin g co u n try , can be accused of m isle ad in g ad v er­

tis in g ." ^ ®

Sane o f t h i s pleb ian ism in te x tu a l choice was d ir e c tl y

a t t r i b u t a b l e to th e fo lk song movement. In an attem p t t o g e t away

from th e t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n opera l i b r e t t o s ty le o f la n g u a g e ^ f i r s t

th e p o e ts and th e n th e composers made a d e lib e r a t e attem p t to im ita te

th e u n le tte r e d populace. From t h i s and many of th e p o p u la r o p e r e tta -

s t y l e s ta g e works came t e x t s which were s tu d ie d examples of t r i t e n e s s .

O bviously, no t a l l of th e composers f e l l t o th e s e d e p th s, b u t i n t h e i r

unguarded moments even th e b e st were n o t above u sin g a s e lf - c a r p e n ­

te r e d t e x t . In th e canons, rounds, g le e s and s im ila r works th e

r e s u l t s were o fte n e x e c ra b le . M o z a rt's comic q u a rte t Caro m io. Druck

^ S te p h e n s o n , p . 13.

% n a l e t t e r to H auser, d ated January 10, 1877, M oritz


Hauptmann w rote concerning a v o c al p ie c e : " V i t o r e l l i 's p o e try to o
i s r e f r e s h in g , a f t e r a l l th e s e n tim e n ta litie s of th e p re s e n t ra c e of
v e r s i f i e r s , w ith t h e i r e v e r la s tin g , 'Could I b u t weep, and weep
a g a in '.1" (Sch’d ne and H i l l e r , p . 170).

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67

und Schluck a s w e ll as th e t r i o L ieb es M andel. wo i s ' s Bandel? have

been m entioned p re v io u s ly . The s p e c ia l o c c a s io n c a n ta ta s o f

B eethoven and S chubert seldom used in s p i r e d l i b r e t t i .

I n non-German c o u n trie s th e t e x t s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r . Each

co u n try could be counted on t o produce a few f i n e p o e ts , s e v e ra l

m a rg in a l p o e ts , and a la r g e body of w r i t e r s tu r n in g out tem porary

m a t e r i a l which was designed t o l i v e f o r t h e moment and th e n d i e . The

Germanic p o e ts were t r a n s l a t e d in to v i r t u a l l y ev ery language a v a i l ­

a b le . A la r g e p e rc e n ta g e of th e e n t r i e s i n t h e H o fm eister handbooks

lis t one o r two a l t e r n a t e la n g u a g e s. N a t i o n a l i s t i c tre n d s s t i l l

came o u t. I t a l i a n composers ten d ed t o choose t e x t s w hich sounded

l i k e o p era l i b r e t t i . R o s s in i's works f o r v o c a l ensem ble were i n

r e a l i t y sm a ll opera scenes f o r fo u r v o ic e s and p ia n o . S c h u b e rt, a

w r i t e r o f m o d erately good S in g s p ie l w orks, w ro te alm o st a S in g s p ie l

scen e in P e r H o c h z e its b ra te n which even in c lu d e s a c o n ce rte d f i n a l e .^2

The p u b lic a tio n s in America were s e n tim e n ta l and f u l l o f n a iv e t£ , and

a la r g e number s t a r t e d w ith th e e x c la m a tio n , "0 h ,. ,,. Many o f th e

p ie c e s w hich were a p p a re n tly f o r s o lo ensem ble may have been desig n ed

t o be used i n e i t h e r s ta g e p la y s o r m i n s t r e l - l i k e shows, a lth o u g h th e

t r u e m in s tr e l shows v i r t u a l l y n ev er had fem ale p e rfo rm e rs . George

Boweryem w rote b o th th e words and m usic f o r an Ode t o L ib e r ty , which

he " c o r d i a l l y d e d ic a te d to a l l t h e human r a c e . " W ith a t i t l e and

•5%ranz S c h u b e rt, P e r H o c h z e its b ra te n : T e r z e t t f u r S opran,


T enor und B ass, m it P ia n o fo r te (V/ien: A n t. P i a b e l l i & C o ., c a . 1829;
L ib ra ry o f C ongress No. M 3»3» .S 38) .

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68

d e d ic a tio n l i k e t h a t th e a u d ien ce would ex p ec t a triu m p h an t p ie c e . As

f a r a s th e t e x t w ent, th e y w ere n o t d is a p p o in te d ;

Of th y g l o r i e s , sa c re d L ib e rty '., th e lu s tr o u s s t a r s a re s in g in g
c h o ra l symphonies, d iv in e ly grand t h e i r theme tra n s c e n d in g
w ords; Liberty*. L ib e rty '. Liberty*. And E a rth th e melody h a th
c a u g h t: Hark*. Through h e r g ro v es * t i s rin g in g , and th e moun­
t a i n s t h r i l l deep b a ss e s to th e t r e b l e of th e b ir d s ; L ib e rty I
Liberty*. L ib e rty '.-^

U n fo rtu n a te ly th e m usic of t h e Ode t o L ib e rty i s s tra ig h tfo rw a rd ,

s t a i d f o u r - p a r t v o c a l w r iti n g w ith an overblow n p ian o l i n e . The

v o ic in g i s " so lo and q u a r te t , w ith p i a n o f o r t e .”

Keeping to th e e x o tic faraw ay la n d s co n ce p t, S ir Henry Bishop

w ro te Hark*. * tis t h e In d ia n drum which was p u b lis h e d in London by

N ovello & Company and i n New York by James L. H ew itt & Company. The

H ew itt p u b lic a tio n was a th r e e - v o ic e arran g em en t, th e N ovello being a

fo u r -v o ic e arran g em en t. The only d if f e r e n c e between th e two s e t t i n g s

i s t h a t b o th a re sim ple canons and th e fo u r-v o ic e d v e rs io n adds one

e n tr a n c e . The t o t a l t e x t i s , "Y es, * t i s th e In d ia n drum, th e woods

and ro c k s around echo th e w a rlik e sound, th e y come, th ey come, th ey

com e. ”54 George H olden, whose h i s t o r y i s l o s t i n th e m i s ts , w rote a

g le e f o r th r e e v o ic e s t i t l e d The W a tc h m a n . 55 xn t h i s work th e

^ G e o rg e Boweryem, Ode t o L ib e rty (New York: Horace W aters,


1858; L ib ra ry of Congress No. M 1, A13B).

^ H e n ry R. B ishop, H ark l * t i s th e In d ia n drum (London: N ovello


& C o., n . d . ; New Y ork: James L. H ew itt & C o ., n . d . ; L ib ra ry of
C ongress No. M 1554- .B ).

^ G e o rg e (Z. ?) H olden, The Watchman (New Yorks R. W. Tone,


1841; L ib ra ry of Congress No. M 1 , .A13H).

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Watchman, a b a ss , sin g s calm ly
r-------- O ------------
S F i - k ------ — ----- nr*-------- w......
r 1 - 1 . ____ J
P ast tw elv e o - clo ck I '

F ig . 2. — George ( Z. ?) H olden, The Watchman (New Yorks R. TUT.


Tone, 1841; L ib ra ry of Congress No. M 1, .A13H).

w h ile th e o th e r two s o l o i s t s , a woman and a man, s in g s h o r t, e x c ite d

b u r s ts o f "How f a s t th e moments f l y , " "Good n ig h t, my d e a r e s t’. , " and

” ’T is tim e to p a r t , thou h e a r e s t t h a t h a te f u l Watch-man1s c ry ." A

fo o tn o te su g g e sts t h a t " th e p erso n sin g in g th e p a r t of th e Watchman

sh o u ld be i n a room a d jo in in g th e one th e g le e i t s e l f i s sung i n . "

A p e r ip h e r a l ty p e o f t e x t which f lo u r is h e d alm ost e x c lu s iv e ly

in th e m ale q u a r te ts in th e e a r ly p a r t of th e c e n tu ry was th e comic

q u a r te t and t r i o . T his i s s t i l l a f u r t h e r p a r a l l e l between th e m ale

q u a r te t and t r i o m usic of t h a t e ra and th e b a rb e r shop q u a r te t move­

ment of th e p re s e n t c e n t u r y , ^ I t i s a ls o , to a c e r t a i n d e g re e ,

p ro o f t h a t some works were f o r v o c a l ensemble r a t h e r th a n c h o ru se s.

To w r ite som ething t h a t i s humorous to an au d ien ce i s one of th e m ost

d i f f i c u l t ty p e s o f c h o ra l co m p o sitio n . The w r itin g may be humorous

t o th e q u a r te t o r t r i o b u t l o s t to an a u d ie n c e . Because o f th e more

d i r e c t a p p e a l of a sm all group of s o l o i s t s some t e x t s v/ould be funny

when p re s e n te d t o an au d ien ce by a q u a rte t o r t r i o which would be.

lu d ic ro u s o r em barrassing when p re s e n te d by a c h o ru s . A p p aren tly

^ h e work t h a t seems most a p p ro p ria te t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s ty le


o f b a rb e r shop q u a rte t w ritin g i s A lim b u rg er sandw ich, a co o l g la s s
o f b e e r , a s l i c e of raw onion, and you.

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70

stm e composers made c a re e rs of w ritin g th e s e "komisches Solo-Q uar-

te tte ." August S c h a f f e r 's Op. 92, No. 1 , i s t i t l e d Die lan g e N ase:

la u n ig e s M arin erq u artett (The Long Nose: humorous m ale q u a r t e t ) .

S c h a f f e r 's Opp. 94 and 100 were a ls o t i t l e d "kom isches M annerquar-

t e t t , " and h is Opp. 95> 98 and 102 were d e sig n a te d "komisches D u e tt."

T here was a ls o a c o lle c tio n t i t l e d Auswahl d. b e l i e b t . komischen u .

la u n ig e n M an n er-Q u artette e i t h e r e d ite d o r composed by S c h a ffe r.

K a rl Kuntze a ls o found a c o n sid e ra b le m arket f o r h i s humorous works

because h is Opp. 95, 111, 112, 113, 114, 119, 120, 121, 127, 128,

129, 132, 135, 136 and 137 were a l l d e sig n a te d a s "komische M anner-

q u a r te tt." Even th e b e t t e r known composers were n o t above sm all

je s ts . G erald Abraham says o f Borodin, "His in tim a te f r ie n d s have

t o l d many s t o r i e s of th e amusing p a ro d ie s o f th e m usic o f h is c o l­

le a g u e s he used to in d u lg e in . . . . The most ty p ic a l examples of

comic m usic in h is p u b lish e d o u tp u t a re a Serenade o f fo u r sw ains to

a lad y and th e p a r t of th e j e s t e r s E roshka and Skula in I g o r ."57 xn

a l l ho n esty i t must be m entioned t h a t o th e r so u rces c h a r a c te riz e th e

f i r s t l i s t e d work a s m u sic al d r iv e l ( c . f . , H ab ets, B orodin, p . 1 9 2 ).

F o r tu n a te ly , most o f th e composers whose works rem ain to us

w ere more s e le c tiv e in t h e i r t e x t choice th a n th e am ateurs who were

w r iti n g m usic a s a p a stim e, o r th e p r o f e s s io n a ls who were only-

i n t e r e s t e d in s e l l i n g copies of t h e i r p ro d u c ts . Beethoven w rote an

57Gerald Abraham and M. D. Calvocoressi, Masters of Russian


M usic (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1936), p. 171*

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71

in tro d u c to ry n o te f o r an anthology which s t a t e d "A dm ittedly i t i s

th e duty of every composer t o know a l l th e o ld and modern p o e ts and

to be a b le h im s e lf to s e l e c t f o r sin g in g what a re th e b e s t and most

s u ita b le poems f o r h is p u rp o se . But t h i s i s not th e common p ra c -

^®Emily Anderson, The L e tte rs of Beethoven (3 v o l s . ; New Yorks


S t . M a r tin 's P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 6 l), p . 1415.

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72

CHAPTER IV

THE FOUNTAINHEADS OF THE VOCAL ENSEMBLE

T h ere was no d e f i n i t e "beginning p o in t f o r " n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry

m u s ic ." T here was a somewhat hazy d r i f t from one s t y l e to a n o th e r ,

p a r t i c u l a r l y i n in s tr u m e n ta l m usic and o p e ra , "but a ls o in v o c a l

ensem ble m u s ic . A long w ith th e w r itin g i n newer harm onic and

m e lo d ic s t y l e s th e r e were a l s o b a ld r e tu r n in g s to o ld e r s t y l e s o f

c o m p o sitio n . As th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry opened, th e E n g lis h g le e

was s t i l l b e in g u s e d , a lth o u g h i t was b a s i c a l l y th e same s ty le o f

work w hich was used d u rin g th e e n t i r e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry , and would

rem ain unchanged u n t i l i t s dem ise i n th e l a s t q u a r te r o f th e c e n tu ry .

F u l l e r M a it la n d 's d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e e a r ly n in e te e n th - c e n tu ry g le e

f i t s th e g e n re p e r f e c t ly s

S t r i c t l y s p e a k in g , i t i s f o r so lo v o ic e s in co m b in atio n , n o t f o r
a c h o ru s; an im p o rta n t f e a tu r e o f a l l g en u in e g le e s i s t h a t th e y
a r e c a s t i n s e p a r a te movements, more o r l e s s s tro n g ly in con­
t r a s t w ith one a n o th e r ; s h o r t so lo p a ssa g e s f o r a s in g le v o ic e
a r e p r e s e n t in many o f th e b e s t specim ens; and f i n a l l y th e gen­
e r a l c h a r a c te r o f th e m usic i s f a r l e s s e la b o r a te th a n t h a t o f
th e m a d rig a l, a f a r o ld e r and n o b le r form , w hich has been re v iv e d
i n m odern p r a c t i c e a s th e g le e w i l l p ro b a b ly n e v er be a g a in . The
g le e h a s i n l a t e r days g iv en p la c e to th e p a r t song, which
d i f f e r s only from a s o lo song in b ein g l o c a l l y harm onized; h e re
th e to p p a r t n e a r ly alw ays h as th e m e lo d ie s w h ile th e o th e rs
p ro v id e an accom panim ent.

^ F u lle r M a itla n d , p . 83*

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73

T h is does n o t mean th e g le e was a u s e le s s form . W illiam H o rsley

(1 7 7 4 -1 8 5 8 ), a g le e w r i t e r o f some a b i l i t y , became a c q u a in te d w ith

M endelssohn and in flu e n c e d th e l a t t e r enough so t h a t th e g le e form

i s f a i r l y c le a r in many o f M endelssohn1s p a r t so n g s. However, when

th e d e s ir e f o r m assed c h o irs and m assive v o c a l e f f e c t s became th e

vogue in England i n th e m id d le p o r tio n of th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry ,

th e g le e , because o f i t s u t t e r la c k o f s e v e r ity o r d e p th , f e l l

from f a v o r .

The same can be s a id f o r rounds and canons on th e C o n tin e n t.

These humble l i t t l e works had alw ays been p re v a le n t among th e m u si­

c a l l y l i t e r a t e , b u t t h e i r v a lu e as a v e h ic le f o r p u b lic perform ance

was s e v e r e ly lim ite d . Canons were o fte n w r itte n a s e x e r c is e s by

n o v ic e com posers, as w itn e s s th e numerous canons f o r th r e e v o ic e s

w hich S c h u b e rt w rote u n d er th e tu t e la g e o f Salieri.^ B e rlio z ,

sp ea k in g o f th e tim e when he was a b eg in n in g composer, s a id :

One of L eS u eu r's p u p ils . . . su g g ested t h a t I should t r y to


o b ta in adm ission to h i s m a s t e r 's com position c l a s s , and o ffe re d
t o in tro d u c e me to him . I was d e lig h te d a t th e id e a , and went
t o M. LeSueur one m orning, armed w ith th e sco re o f my c a n ta ta
and th e canon f o r t h r e e v o ic e s , w hich I re g a rd e d as an ap p ro ­
p r i a t e s e le c tio n f o r t h i s solemn o c c a sio n . ->

Canons were a ls o w r itt e n f o r c e r t a i n s o c i a l o c c a s io n s, when

i t was known t h a t m u sic a l f r ie n d s were go in g to a tte n d , o r when a

% rown, E ssays on S c h u b e rt, p . 64.

3Ernest Neman, Memoirs of Hector Berlioz, trans. Rachel


(Scott Russell) Holmes and Eleanor Holmes (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1 9 3 2 ), p . 24.

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74

m u sic ian was th e h o s t. M o ritz Hauptmann w rote some canons f o r th re e

sopranos s p e c i f i c a l l y fo r a p i c n i c .^ Brahms, who had a f a i r l y h ig h

re g a rd f o r canons, s a id t h a t "canon s in g in g i s , above a l l , a s o c ia l

e n te rta in m e n t and must be a b le to be im p ro v ise d . They a re n o t ad ap ted

f o r la r g e choruses . . . • He c o n sid ered th e w idespread s in g in g o f

q u a r te ts in p r iv a te fam ily o r s o c ia l s i t u a t i o n s a s p a r t i a l l y due to

h is e f f o r t s and he w ished t h a t th e s in g in g of canons m ight a ls o

re c e iv e th e same tre a tm e n t.

At th e b eginning of th e n in e te e n th c en tu ry th e canon was

o c c a s io n a lly used a s a s o c ia l g i f t , som ething one p re se n te d t o a h o s t

t o show t h a t th e occasio n was worthy o f e f f o r t on th e p a r t o f th e

v is ito r. On th e o th e r hand, B eeth o v en 's canons were n o t rounds f o r

c o n v iv ia lity . P aul Bekker c h a r a c te r iz e s each one a s "a l e a f from an

album, a sn ap sh o t, sometimes a p o in te d ly humorous, o r p en siv e c ry s ­

t a l l i z a t i o n of a momentary mood, a f a r e w e ll, a welcome, a New Y e a r's

o r b irth d a y g r e e tin g , a jo k e on p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a p r o v e r b . B e e t h o v e n

w rote a t l e a s t f o r ty o f th e s e canons, tw o -th ird s o f them in th e f i n a l

decade of h is l i f e , and they were s e r io u s ly produced w orks. Even in

h is humor he could not do sloppy work.

^Schone and H i l l e r , V o l. I , p . 227. W ith h is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c


lig h th e a r te d n e s s , Hauptmann commented co n cern in g th e canons, " I
a c c id e n tly came a c ro ss them t h e o th e r day among my m u sic al ru b b is h .
A bowl o f punch m ight serv e a s an accom panim ent."

^D rin k e r, p . 83.

^Paul Bekker, B eethoven, t r a n s . and ad ap ted by M. M. Bozman


(London: J . M. Dent & Sons, L t d ., 1939)> PP» 260-61.

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75

E a rly in th e cen tu ry i t was a d e s ir e by a s iz a b le m u sic al

audience f o r e a s ily perform ed works which caused th e flo o d o f i n ­

s ip id c h o ra l works. The problem of th e low l e v e l of m usic f o r th e

m ale chorus has a lre a d y been d is c u s s e d . F or some reaso n th e m edioc­

r i t y of c h o ra l music d id n o t re a ch in to m usic f o r th e so lo v o c a l

ensemble to q u ite th e same e x te n t. C e rta in ly th e r e were b o rin g

p ie c e s', j u s t as th e re a re b o rin g examples in any a r t form , but

m easure a f t e r measure o f homophonic w ritin g was n o t a sta n d a rd p ro ­

cedure w ith ensemble p ie c e s a s i t o fte n was w ith c h o ra l p ie c e s . P a rt

o f t h i s h ig h e r m usical le v e l may have been due to th e v o c a l ensemble

p ie c e s being designed f o r th e m u sic a lly a b le r a t h e r th a n th e r e l a ­

t i v e l y u n le tte r e d am ateur s in g e r s , as was th e case w ith many c h o ra l

w orks. When th e music was w r itte n e x c lu s iv e ly f o r m u sic ian ly p e r ­

form ers th e composers would be more in c lin e d t o do b e t t e r work theui

when w ritin g f o r an anonymous chorus which would be perform ing f o r an

anonymous au d ien c e . S c h u b e rt's l i t t l e work Das D orfchen. Op. 11,

No. 1, i s an innocent p ie c e v/hose s ty le was q u ite s im ila r to th e

s t r e e t serenades of th e day. When t h i s work was f i r s t perform ed on

th e same concert w ith S c h u b e rt's m a g n ific e n t work f o r e ig h t male

s o l o i s t s and fiv e s trin g e d in s tru m e n ts , Gesang d e r G e is te r ttber den

W assern. th e audience much p re fe rre d th e fo rm e r. They could u n d er­

sta n d th e easy p ie ce a t f i r s t h e a rin g . In a g a th e rin g o f tr a in e d o r

even s e m i-tra in e d m usicians t h i s requirem ent o f s im p lic ity would n o t

be a s s e v e re , e ith e r f o r th e perfo rm er o r f o r th e few l i s t e n e r s who

m ight be p r e s e n t.

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76

I t would be d i f f i c u l t to conceive of some of th e m usic b ein g

perform ed a t s i g h t . Many o f th e works were exceedingly d i f f i c u l t :

th e q u a r te ts of R o s s in i, f o r in s ta n c e . Each o f th e s e v o c a l ensem ble

p ie c e s by R o ssin i i s a type of opera scene r e q u irin g tr a in e d s in g e r s

cap ab le of long v o c al lin e s and s u sta in e d h ig h s in g in g . I t would be

d i f f i c u l t to imagine s in g e rs p ic k in g up th e s e q u a rte ts and s in g in g

them once o r tw ice and th e n p u ttin g them down w ith anything l i k e a

m u sic a l e x p e rie n c e . The same a p p lie s to th e cy cle s of Schumann and

th e c y c le s and s e ts of q u a rte ts by Brahms. No in fo rm atio n co n cern in g

th e p r a c tic i n g of th e s e works has come down to u s . Presumably th e

works were e s ta b lis h e d f a v o r ite s which were perform ed s e v e ra l tim e s ,

much on th e o rder of f a v o r ite s t r i n g q u a rte ts of M ozart or Haydn.

I t i s a ls o to be presumed t h a t th e r e were e s ta b lis h e d am ateur v o c a l

q u a r te ts j u s t as th e re were e s ta b lis h e d am ateur s t r in g q u a r t e t s . The

am ateur v o c a l q u a rte t needed a l i t e r a t u r e which was somewhat more

c irc u m sc rib e d as f a r as te c h n ic a l req u irem en ts were concerned, b u t

such a need would n o t have kept th e am ateurs from a tte m p tin g an

o c c a s io n a l am bitious v o c al work.

From th e l i t e r a t u r e which rem ains to us we know t h a t n o t a l l

o f th e works were meant fo r th e humble n o v ic e . D esp ite G e o th e 's

sta te m e n t in 1819 t h a t "th e s i l l i e s t s t u f f sounds w e ll, as lo n g a s i t

goes o f f sm oothly,"^ th e re were s t i l l in s ta n c e s o f demanding m usic

Ta.. D. C o lerid g e, G o e th e's L e tte r s t o Z e l t e r (London: George


B e ll & Sons, 1887), p . 184-.

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77

g e t t i n g a h e a r in g . On R o b ert Schumann's f o r t i e t h b irth d a y h is

U in n e s p ie l, Op. 101, a work o f some d i f f i c u l t y , was sung by a q u a r te t

a t a f r i e n d ' s home. B eethoven w ro te a wedding hymn f o r t e n o r , u n iso n

m e n ' s v o ic e s and p ia n o to pay back a s o c i a l d e b t t o a frie n d .® The

•w ritin g o f th e work i l l u s t r a t e s a n o th e r ev en t w hich could c .a ll f o r

a b r i e f v o c a l w ork.

N othing h a s been m entioned th u s f a r i n t h i s p ap er c o n cern in g

th e e f f e c t s of "R om anticism '' on th e v o c a l ensem ble. Donald G rout h as

t h e fo llo w in g t o say ab o u t ro m an ticism :

Y/hen th e word ro m an tic f i r s t came i n to u s e around th e m id d le of


th e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry i t c a r r ie d th e c o n n o ta tio n o f som ething
f a r o f f , le g e n d a ry , f i c t i t i o u s , f a n t a s t i c , and m arv elo u s, an
im ag in ary i d e a l w orld v/hich was c o n tr a s te d w ith th e a c t u a l w orld
o f th e p r e s e n t.^

B ecause th e medium of an ensem ble o f s o lo v o ic e s was so in tim a te and

t r a n s p a r e n t , t h i s a p p e a l to th e Im a g in a tio n and th e em o tio n s, and

p a r t i c u l a r l y th e s t r e s s upon th e f a n t a s t i c , was alm ost more th a n

th e s m a ll v o c a l ensemble co u ld b e a r . A lth o u g h a s in g le not.e on th e

R o m a n tic is t’ s f a v o r i t e in s tru m e n t, th e h o rn , co u ld evoke com plete

w o rld s of dream like f a n ta s y , such f a n t a s i e s a lm o st n ev er to u ch ed th e

re a lm of th e v o c a l ensem ble.

K u rt S tephenson l i s t s th r e e p h ases o f rom anticism i n m u sic .

I n th e f i r s t phase th e l i s t e n e r l i s t e n s f o r m essages from o th e r

re a lm s , from m usic where m u s ic a l a s s o c ia ti o n s a r e only h in te d a t . In

^A lexander Y,r. T h a y e r, L ife o f B eethoven, r e v is e d and e d ite d by


E l l i o t F o rb es (P rin c e to n , N. J . : P rin c e to n U n iv . P r e s s , 19&4), p . 732.

^G rout, A H is to ry o f W estern M u sic, p . 492.

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78

th e second phase (Y/eber to Schumann) ro m an tic p o e try i s added to

in s tr u m e n ta l m usic, and th e l i s t e n e r 's im a g in a tio n i s lim ite d more

s tric tly . In th e f i n a l phase ( L i s z t , V/agner and o th e rs ) th e composer

works tow ard th e g r e a te s t a s s o c ia tio n between m usic and th o u g h t. The

l i s t e n e r 's im a g in a tio n m ust th e n fo llo w th e com poser's w i l l . 10 T his

m eant p r o g r e s s iv e ly more c o n tr o l over th e n o te s , and th u s p ro g r e s ­

s iv e ly g r e a te r re q u irem en ts f o r th e s in g e r s . Even am ateur i n s t r u ­

m e n t a l i s t s w ith modest t r a i n i n g could perform th e ro u la d e s and th e

harm onic and m elodic e x te n s io n s asked f o r by th e com posers, but

s in g e r s sound im p o ssib ly bad v/ith o u t p ro p e r d i s c i p l i n e and t r a i n i n g .

S te p h e n s o n 's p h ra se t h a t " th e sounds now app eared a s th e magic wand

to r e le a s e th e b e a u ti f u l p o e tic ra p tu re which drowns a l l doubt and

sorrow s in a s e a of sound"11 would be p r a c ti c a b le f o r t h a t m ost

ro m a n tic o f in s tru m e n ts , th e p ia n o , but n o t f o r th r e e m id d le-ag ed

s in g e r s m eeting o c c a s io n a lly t o enjoy ensem ble s in g in g . They would

p ro b a b ly have p re f e r r e d to rem ain w ith th e l e s s co m p licated works

w hich were more im m ediately a c c e s s ib le . T hree men were of p i v o t a l

im p o rta n c e . S c h u b e rt's works were alm o st a summation o f th e v o c a l

ensem ble s t y l e which v/as handed down to th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry . H is

q u a r t e t s f o r mixed v o ic e s e s ta b lis h e d a norm f o r v o c a l ensem bles w ith

o b b lig a to p iano and o fte n p a ir e d v o ic e s . Schumann c o n tin u ed th e

developm ent o f t h i s s t y l e , and in a d d itio n p la c e d th e works in s e t s

10FCurt S tephenson, Romanticism in M usic, t r a n s . R obert Kolben


(Kolr.s Arno Volk V e rla g , 1961) , P» 17.

^ I b i d . , p . 9*

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79

u s in g s o lo s , d u e ts and q u a r te ts in c lu d in g th e use o f one p ia n o , fo u r

h a n d s. Brahms, in h is L ie b e s lie d e r s e t t i n g s , in flu e n c e d a v a s t

au d ien ce o f p erfo rm ers a s w e ll as a s iz a b le l i s t o f com posers.

The Three M ainstream s

I t h as been proven t h a t numerous o f S c h u b e rt's c re a tio n s have


t h e i r r o o ts in th e c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . H ere he was s tim u la te d ,
h e re he was p ra is e d . . . . I n th e s e t t i n g s f o r mixed v o ic e s
th e s o l o i s t i c concepts a re more a f f e c te d by im p o rtan t s o c io ­
lo g i c a l a s p e c ts th a n a re th e c h o r a l .12

S chubert began w r itin g t r i o s f o r th r e e male s o l o i s t s ( t e n o r /

te n o r /b a s s ) in 1813, when he was only s ix te e n . In th e above quoted

w ork, P er k la s s ik e r S c h u b e rt, V e tte r g iv e s a h ig h p la c e to th e s e

e a r ly works, n o t because of t h e i r m u s ic a l v a lu e b u t because of th e

en su in g com positions which used th e s e e a r ly v o c a l sk etc h e s as

fo u n d a tio n m a te r ia l.

H is a - c a p p e lla - [songs] and e s p e c ia lly h is accompanied songs


have numerous p re d e c e ss o rs in Germany, in A u s tr ia , in V ienna.
E s p e c ia lly s tro n g a re th e so lo q u a r t e t s . T h e ir s ig n if ic a n c e
l i e s in th e f a c t t h a t t h i s s o r t o f work, p a r t i a l and t r i v i a l and
s e n tim e n ta l, im m ediately caused new c r e a tiv e im p u lse s. The
e a r ly developm ents o f h is s e r io u s a r t i s t i c n a tu re a re u n th in k ­
a b le w ith o u t h is com positions f o r m ale v o i c e s . ^

From 1813 to 1815 S c h u b e rt’ s only v o c a l ensemble works were t r i o s f o r

two te n o r s and a b a ss , m o stly unaccom panied. These works were

u s u a lly q u ite s h o r t, com pletely homophonic and based e n t i r e l y on th e

s t y l e of v o c a l w ritin g of t h a t tim e . The t r i o w ritin g g ra d u a lly gave

12V e tte r , p . 4-23.

^ I b i d . , p . 401.

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8o

way to quartet writing during the next two years, and from 1817 to

the end of his life he wrote only quartets or quintets, the cantata

settings being obvious exceptions. Most of these were for male

voices, but he also wrote several for female voices and mixed voices.

These break down as follows:

Male voices, unaccompanied: 26 total, 1813-28.


M ale v o ic e s , accompanied (piano o r in s tru m e n ts , e i t h e r genuine
o r sp u rio u s ): 22 t o t a l , 1813-27 (2 have te n o r s o lo s ) .
Mixed v o ic e s , piano accompaniment: 13 t o t a l , l8 l5 "2 8 (one has
a soprano s o lo ) .
Female v o ic e s , p iano accompaniment: 7 t o t a l , 1815-27.

S c h u b e rt's works f o r fem ale v o ic e s and mixed v o ic e s a c tu a l ly

form about o n e -th ird of h is t o t a l o u tp u t o f s o lo ensemble w orks, n o t

c o u n tin g th e c a n ta ta s . The works f o r fem ale v o ic e s a re n e g lig ib le

from a m u sic al s ta n d p o in t, but th e mixed v o ic e q u a r te ts have some

f i n e m in ia tu re w ritin g , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e B e g ra b n is lie d , D. 168 and

An d ie Sonne. D. 439• Four o f th e s e works f o r mixed v o ic e s a re

examined in more d e t a i l i n th e A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y , Appendix I o f

th is d is s e rta tio n . B e g ra b n islie d i s q u ite in te n s e d e s p ite th e r e l a ­

t i v e l y lim ite d v o cal ra n g e s, and m ature v o ic e s and i n t e l l e c t s a re

re q u ire d f o r a p ro p e r r e a l i z a t i o n . An d ie Sonne re q u ir e s e x c e lle n t

v o c a l c o n tr o l because o f th e slow tempo and th e long m elo d ic l i n e s .

The idiom of Schubert's writing was completely of that period

in musical history. His works were influenced to a considerable

extent by the soldier songs and patriotic songs of Weber, Spohr,

Kreutzer and Marschner. Vetter calls the majority of his songs for

male voices "casual compositions," and "as such they immediately

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81

document h is p e r s o n a lity , h i s s p i r i t and h i s s t y l e . T h e r e a re

two vantage p o in ts from which to view th e songs f o r m ale so lo v o ic e s :

f i r s t , th e s o c io lo g ic a l; second, th e p e rs o n a l.

P o l i t i c a l l y , th e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n form ing a s s o c ia tio n s

f o r male v o ic e s in A u s tria a t t h i s tim e . "As th e fo rm atio n of a l l

ty p e s of a s s o c ia tio n s was impeded by p o l i t i c a l c o n s id e ra tio n s in

A u s tria , [Schubert] composed most o f h is songs in s e v e r a l p a r ts f o r

so lo s in g e rs w ith in s tru m e n ta l (m ainly p ian o ) accompaniment f o r use

i n th e home."*--’ This p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n may have been one more

c o n s id e ra tio n in th e w ritin g f o r so lo r a th e r th a n c h o ra l p erform ance.

More l i k e l y , Schubert j u s t happened t o l i k e th e to n e , th e Klang, th e

tim b re of grouped male v o ic e s . He had a h ig h sen se of p a tr io tis m and

t h i s sound o f groups of men s in g in g would have been th e sound of

Viennese/German t r a d i t i o n .

The q u e stio n a r i s e s as t o w hether th e works were in te n d e d

p rim a rily f o r s o l o i s t s , o r w hether th e y were composed f o r male chorus

and th e e a r ly perform ances j u s t happened t o be by s o l o i s t s . Brown

sa y s :

I t i s n o t alw ays p o s s ib le to judge from th e t i t l e o f h is manu­


s c r i p t , or h is p u b lish e d work, o r from th e a c tu a l m usic o f any
p a r t i c u l a r p a r t song what h is w ishes may have been in th e m a tte r .
The doubt e x i s t s , of c o u rse , only in th e case o f th e s t r a i g h t ­
forw ard homogeneous s e t t i n g s ; c e r ta in p a r t songs . . . c o n ta in

14I b i d . , p . 401.

^ O s t h o f f , p . 15.

^ V e t t e r , p . 401.

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i n te r lu d e s w ith in th e q u a r te t s e t t i n g to be sung by " te n o r I " o r


" te n o re I and I I , " and th e s e in te r lu d e s a r e , i t i s c e r t a i n ,
in te n d e d f o r s o lo v o ic e s , a s a p le a s in g c o n tr a s t to th e massed
v o ic e s o f th e main s e c tio n o f th e p a r t s o n g .^7

T h ere a r e e x p la n a tio n s o r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r alm o st any in d ic a tio n

i n a p r in t e d or m a n u sc rip t s c o r e . The " te n o r I " in d ic a tio n m ight

have been a sh o rth a n d s ig n i n th e m a n u sc rip t t o show t h a t only one

s o lo s in g e r i s to p e rfo rm , and n o t b o th te n o r s o l o i s t s in u n is o n .

F u r th e r , p u b lis h e r s a re n o to rio u s f o r w anting to p u t t h e i r p ro d u c ts

i n t o a s many hands o f p o t e n t i a l u s e rs a s p o s s ib le , and th e a d d itio n

o f " te n o r I " or " s o lo " o r any of s e v e r a l such in d ic a tio n s could be a

bow tow ard su g g ested c h o ra l p erfo rm an ce.

H i s t o r i c a l l y , we know t h a t S ch u b ert w rote many o f h is v o c a l

ensem ble works f o r s p e c i f i c men. At one tim e he and Vogl l iv e d w ith

a m erchant named F e rd in a n d T raw eger. T h is m erchant was fond o f

s in g in g i n male q u a r t e t s , so w h ile s ta y in g as a g u e s t o f T raw eger,

S c h u b e rt w ro te two m a le -v o ic e p a r t so n g s, Nachtmu3ik ( to a t e x t by

K a rl S eckendorf) and a ra c y L a tin d rin k in g song, E d it Nonna, e d i t

C le r u s . A lso , we know t h a t perform ances o f S c h u b e r t's p a r t songs by

q u a r t e t s w ere fre q u e n t d u rin g h is l i f e t i m e . R e c it a ls o f p ia n o m usic

o f te n in c lu d e d such q u a r te t s as th e s e a s in te rm is s io n n o v e l t i e s .

L e o p o ld in g B la h etk a , a young p ian o v ir tu o s o , in c lu d e d a v o c a l q u a r te t

o f S c h u b e r t's i n a r e c i t a l in 1830, and two v i o l i n i s t s , H e llin esb erg er

and Schuppanzigh, d id th e same somewhat l a t e r . -*-8 V ir t u a lly a l l of

17Brown, E ssay s on S c h u b e rt, p. 63 .


l^Jaurice J. E. Brown, Schubert: A Critical Biography (London:
Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1 9 5 8 ), p . 153*

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83

S c h u b e rt’ s b io g ra p h e rs c o n s id e r th e b u lk o f h is w r itin g f o r male

v o ic e s a s being f o r s o l o i s t s . The Gesang d e r G e is te r uber den

W assern, Op. 167, D. 714, i s spoken o f as b ein g f o r a q u a rte t o f

te n o r s and a q u a rte t of b a sse s w ith an accompaniment of f iv e s trin g e d

in s tru m e n ts . T h is work i s f u r t h e r d e s c rib e d and an aly zed in th e

A nn o tated B ib lio g ra p h y , Appendix I , o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . O sth o ff

su g g e s ts t h a t th e tr u e beau ty of many of th e s e works i s endangered

in c h o ra l perform ances because th e y were o r i g i n a l l y conceived as

“home m u sic.

The t e x t s of many o f th e p a r t so n g s, p a r t i c u l a r l y th o se

composed in th e f i n a l y e a rs o f h is l i f e , a r e more p e rs o n a l and sub­

je c tiv e . P e r G o n d e lfa h re r, Op. 28, P . 809, concerns a g o n d o lie r who

s in g s a s h is b o at g lid e s over th e m o o n -lit w a ter and shrugs a s th e

m id n ig h t b e l l sounds from S t . M ark 's — everyone i s a s le e p , he is

th e only one who i s w orking. The p ian o accompaniment re p re s e n ts th e

dance o f th e gondola over th e w aters of th e c a n a l, o r p o s s ib ly th e

p lu c k in g of a g o n d o lie r 's l u t e . Both th e t e x t and th e m usic a re

d e s c r ip ti v e of a s in g le p e rso n a lo n e w ith h i s th o u g h ts , and a c h o ra l

p r e s e n ta tio n would be l e s s a c c u ra te from a p s y c h o lo g ic a l p o in t of

v ie w . A lthough th e r e a re fo u r s in g e rs p re s e n tin g th e te x t th ey a re

8t i l l s o lo v o ic e s and n o t an im personal g ro u p . In th e p re v io u s ly

m entioned L a tin d rin k in g song, E d it Nonna, e d i t C le ru s. th e words a re

r i b a l d , and th e u n in h ib ite d perform ance of th a n su g g e s ts a group of

^ O s t h o f f , p . 15.

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84

c o m p atrio ts s i t t i n g around a b eer h a l l rin g in g out b lu e jo k e s and

so n g s. I t m ost a ss u re d ly i s not a work f o r a s t a i d c h o ra l c o n c e rt.

From th e sta n d p o in t o f form, Schubert had only one o r two

in c l i n a t i o n s which s e t h is work a p a r t. He was n ev er a b le to make th e

t r a n s i t i o n from th e t r a d i t i o n a l Germanic concept o f a p a rt-s o n g a s

b ein g o th e r th a n a melody in th e to p v o ice w ith th e rem ain in g v o ic e s

b ein g in a d e cid e d ly s u b se rv ie n t r o l e . Schubert had th e chance to

com pletely re v o lu tio n iz e th e v o c a l q u a rte t and make i t th e v o c a l

e q u iv a le n t of th e s t r i n g q u a r te t, w ith each v o ic e b o th independent

and in te g r a te d . I n s te a d of t h i s he allow ed th e t r a d i t i o n a l te x tu r e

t o p r e v a i l , and th e song fo r male v o ic e s s o l i d i f i e d to be changed no

m ore. I t was because of t h i s homogeneous s t y l e o f w ritin g t h a t

S ch u b ert (and o th e rs ) worked in sm all key s h i f t s and m od u latio n s to

g iv e th e e f f e c t o f v a rie ty .^ ® The m eter could be 2 /4 , 3 /4 , 4 /4 o r

6/ 8, b u t th e f i r s t and l a s t m entioned seemed to p red o m in ate. O ften

th e works were s e c tio n a l w ith a s t r i c t a l t e r n a t i o n between two con­

t r a s t i n g m e te rs, such as 3 /4 and 6/ 8. This a l t e r n a t i o n o f m e te rs

betw een s e c tio n s i s used in S c h u b e rt’ s Op. 11 where No. 1 o f th e s e t ,

Das D orfchen. has th e opening s e c tio n in 3 /4 and th e concluding canon

i n 6/ 8. In No. 3 of th e s e t , G e ist d er L ieb e , th e m eters a re r e ­

v e rs e d w ith th e opening homophonic s e c tio n in 6/8 and th e concluding

^®Brown, E ssays on S c h u b e rt, p . 84. ’’Only one sm all f a c to r


i n h is songs may d e riv e from h is p a r t song 3s th e n e c e s s ity f o r sudden
sw erves in to new keys, w ith o u t p re p a ra tio n , i n o rd e r to p ro v id e con­
t r a s t and im petus to th e unaccompanied v o ic e s , may_have le d to th o se
s im ila r s h i f t s , so w onderfu lly e f f e c t iv e , i n h is so n g s, f o r example,
i n "Nacht und Traume" and "Der Musensohn, . . . ."

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85

canon in 3 /4 . There a re obvious problem s in m a in ta in in g i n t e r e s t in

a long p assag e which u ses th e same bold m e te rs o f 2/4 o r 6/ 8. Brown

c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to Das D orfchen where th e m eter c o n trib u te s to a

"mere strumming w ith v o ic e s ."

I t was in th e c a n ta ta s f o r so lo v o ic e s and p iano t h a t Schu­

b e r t used m e te r changes most e f f e c t i v e l y . These h a l f dozen works

were composed s p e c if ic a lly to honor p a r t i c u l a r in d iv id u a ls who were

c e le b r a tin g a n n iv e r s a r ie s , b irth d a y s o r name d a y s. In h is works fo r

so lo ensemble Schubert used two main approaches (th e same approaches

he used w ith h is solo so n g s); th e s tro p h ic and th e through-com posed.

A lthough b o th forms go many c e n tu r ie s back beyond th e n in e te e n th

c e n tu ry , f o r t h i s study we a re in te r e s t e d f o r th e most p a r t in imme­

d ia te p r e c u r s o r s . The o r ig in of th e s tro p h ic form can be tr a c e d back

to th e f o lk song ex p lo sio n in th e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry , and th e th ro u g h -

composed form i s lik e w ise tr a c e a b le back t o th e in d iv id u a l scen es in

o p e ra . S ch u b ert used b o th of th e s e ty p es o f fo rm ats w ith c o n sid e ra b le

freedom . He was h ig h ly a f f e c te d by both in f lu e n c e s . There was th e

immense h e r ita g e of German fo lk m usic and f o l k - l i k e m usic, and

S ch u b ert was a ls o an accom plished w r ite r o f S in g s p ie l. The d i f f e r ­

ences between th e s e two ty p e s o f w ritin g v/as b a s ic a lly lim ite d to

th e d if f e r e n c e between s ta n z a ic p o e try as opposed to p ro se o r b lank

v e rse. Of th e two ty p e s th e through-com posed i s o b v io u sly th e more

d ra m a tic s t y l e .

S c h u b e rt’ s C antate zum G e b u rtstag des S angers M ichael V ogl.

Op. 158, i s a good example of th e g e n re . I t was w r itte n in 1819

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86

when Schubert was 22. The e ig h t m easure in tr o d u c tio n h a s a fo u r

m easure f a n f a r e - lik e opening p assage fo llo w ed by a more l y r i c a l

melody accompanied by sim ple chords in th e l e f t hand. The sound i s

h ig h ly re m in isc e n t o f th e b r i e f in tr o d u c tio n s to o p e r a tic s o lo s of

th e p e rio d . The v o ic in g i s f o r soprano, te n o r and b a s s , w ith th e

soprano c a rry in g th e bulk o f th e c o lo r a tu r a m elo d ic m a te r ia l, and

th e male v o ic e s e ith e r echoing a p h ra se from th e soprano o r a c tin g as

a s ta c c a to accompanying g ro u p . The opening m oderato s e c tio n i s in

common tim e w ith ra p id a l te r n a t io n o f f o r t e and p ian o p a ss a g e s , and

i s f o r t y - s i x measures long exclu d in g th e e ig h t m easure in tr o d u c tio n .

The second s e c tio n i s a l l e g r e t t o , in 3 /4 m e te r, and i s p rim a rily an

extended l y r i c a l solo by th e so p ran o , w ith a co n clu d in g b r i e f te n o r

s o lo . The piano accompaniment i s of th e approxim ate s ty le of some

o f th e b e t t e r so lo so n g s. In th e f i n a l .s e c tio n , m oderato i n common

tim e a g a in , th e piano i s reduced to mere broken chord f ig u r e s except

a t cad en ces. The v o ices a r e in a p u re accom panied canon th ro u g h th e

com pletion o f th e theme by th e b ass ( th e t h i r d v o ic e to e n t e r ) . Then

two s h o rt a tte m p ts a t c a n o n -lik e m a te r ia l and a b r i e f c o n ce rte d

f i n a l e i n homophonic te x tu r e b rin g s th e work t o a c lo s e .

A nother work w ith s im ila r fo rc e s i s D er H o c h z e itb ra te n , Op.

p o s t. 104, D. 930, which i s a comic, m o d e ra tely r i b a ld scen e, a g a in

much l i k e a c u ttin g from an o pera o r S in g s p ie l, w ith anim al n o is e s

and w h isp e rin g s, a la rg e number of s e c tio n s i n c o n tr a s tin g m e te rs

and a co n certed f i n a l e . Brown c a l l s th e s e c a n ta ta s " th e backw aters

i n th e m ainstream of S c h u b e rt's m u sic ," i n d ic a ti n g a somewhat

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87

PI
condescending a t t i t u d e . * When compared w ith S c h u b e rt’ s la r g e r v o c a l

w orks, h is H a sses i n A - f l a t and E - f i a t , h is f i n e r songs o r even some

o f h is opera s c e n e s , t h i s may be a v a lid s ta te m e n t. However, when

p la c e d in th e p e r s p e c tiv e o f S c h u b e rt’ s p r i v a t e l i f e , th e s o c ie ty of

S c h u b e r t's V ienna and th e c o n g e n ia lity o f th e accom plished m u sic ian s

who would h e a r th e s e w orks, we see t h a t th e s e c a n ta ta s have a

v a l i d i t y which tra n s c e n d s th e b a ld , n a iv e image th e y have on co ld

p ap er.

Schum ann's v o c a l ensem ble o u tp u t was a lm o st th e d i r e c t oppo­

s i t e o f S c h u b e r t's , and h is harm onic language in th e s e v o c a l ensem ble

p ie c e s te n d s t o be somewhat r i c h e r . I t i s a ls o o f sane im portance

t h a t Schum ann's p ro se s e t him in a prom inent p la c e i n m u sic a l

s o c ie ty . H is w ife , C la ra V/ieck, was a c o n c e rt a r t i s t w e ll known

th ro u g h o u t th e C o n tin e n t. S ch u b ert was much more of a r e t i r i n g

p e r s o n a lit y , e x c e p t f o r a s m a ll c i r c l e o f c lo s e f r i e n d s . F i n a ll y ,

Schumann was n o t p r im a r ily a v o c a l w r i t e r , d e s p ite th e e x c e lle n c e of

many o f h is so n g s. V/hen Schumann re la x e d he d id n o t w rite f o u r - p a r t

songs f o r m ale q u a r te t, a s d id S c h u b e rt. Alm ost a l l of th e v o c a l

ensem ble p ie c e s Schumann d id compose were a s c a r e f u l l y c r a f te d as

t h e s o lo so n g s, p a r t i c u l a r l y in th e pian o l i n e s .

T h is i s n o t to say t h a t e v e ry th in g he w rote was spun from th e

dream s of th e g o d s . There were tim e s when he had to "make p o l i t e

m u s ic a l c o n v e r s a tio n ," a s i t w ere, and a t th e s e tim e s h is c h o ra l

2l3row n, E ssays on S c h u b e rt, p . 110.

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88

w r itin g "bogged down. In h is D re i L ie d e r f u r d r e i Frauenstim m en. Op.

114, th e f i r s t work in th e s e t , "N an ie ," i s co m p letely homophonic,

h a s th r e e i d e n t i c a l s ta n z a s (a lth o u g h th e y a re w r itt e n out as i f th e

p ie c e was through-com posed) and i t has a pian o p a r t which does l i t t l e

more th a n double th e v o ice p a r ts and add a sim ple b ass l i n e . T h is

p ie c e a p p ea rs to be l i t t l e more th a n an in tr o d u c to r y p ie c e to th e

o th e r two works i n th e s e t , b o th of which a re more co m p licated

h a rm o n ic a lly and m e lo d ic a lly and of a c o n sid e ra b ly h ig h e r l e v e l of

m u s ic a lit y .

The cause o f no a r t i s t i s serv ed by co v erin g h is w eaknesses, and


i f Schumann was a very g r e a t s o n g -w rite r he was a ls o a very bad
s o n g - w r ite r . In d eed , a s a whole h is songs do n o t b e a r com parison
w ith h is p ia n o fo rte w orks .^2

I t i s to Schumann's c r e d it t h a t th e p e rc e n ta g e of su b -av erag e works

was c o n sid e ra b ly l e s s th a n t h a t o f m ost o th e r composers o f v o c a l

chamber w orks. Some of t h i s may be due to h is determ ined e f f o r t to

te a c h h im s e lf th e c r a f t o f m u s ic a l com position and sc o rin g i n a re a s

where he was d e f i c i e n t . He made d e ta ile d s tu d ie s o f th e m u sic a l

tim b re s which were u n fa m ilia r t o him , and t h i s in c lu d e d th e v o c a l

idiom f o r b o th so lo and m assed v o ic e s . I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t th e D re i

L ie d e r f tir d re i Frauenstim m en. m entioned above, was j u s t such an

experim ent in v o c a l s c o rin g . I t i s a ls o p o s s ib le t h a t "N an ie ," No.

1 o f th e s e t , was an e a r l i e r work r e s u r r e c te d f o r t h i s c o l l e c t i o n .

22P e r c y l i . Young, T ra g ic Muse: th e L ife and Works of R obert


Schumann (Londons Dennis Dobson, 1961), p . 121.

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89

Young s t a t e s t h a t p a r t- w r i ti n g , as su ch , does n o t f e a tu r e

v e ry p ro m in en tly in th e p a r t s o n g s .23 More o fte n th e works were

s t r a i g h t homophonic s e tt in g s r e lie v e d w ith s h o rt b u rs ts o f tw o -p a rt

w r itin g (u s u a lly s o p ra n o /a lto a l t e r n a t i n g w ith te n o r/b a s s ) o r an

o c c a s io n a l f u g a to - lik e s e r ie s o f e n tra n c e s . The f i n a l s e c tio n of

th e S p an isch es L ie d e r s p ie l. Op. 74, t i t l e d " Ic h b in g e l i e b t ," i s f o r

fo u r mixed v o ic e s . I t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r e d ile c t io n f o r tw o -p art

w ritin g . A lthough only th r e e m inutes in le n g th , i t i s a c tu a lly an

e i g h t - p a r t rondo, ABABABAB, d iv id e d as fo llo w s:

A. S pan ish gypsy-type m elodic m otive in A m ajo r, 2/4 m e te r,


s e h r le b h a f t, 9 m easu res.
B. A lto s o lo , 4 m easu res, w ith a 4 m easure t u t t i c o n clu sio n ,
3 /4 , langsam er.
A. The same m elodic m a te r ia l only in F -sh a rp m inor extended by
in s e r tin g a fu g ato s e c tio n which ends w ith a t u t t i u n iso n
p a ssa g e , 2 /4 , e r s t e s Tempo, 23 m easu res.
B. E x a c tly as b e fo re , 3 /4 , langsam er, 8 m easures.
A. Development s e c tio n i n th e p ia n o , w ith th e v o ic es commenting
a f t e r th e sta te m e n t i n th e p ia n o , 2 /4 , e r s te s tempo,
40 m easures.
B. E x a c tly as b e fo re , 3 /4 , langsam er, 8 m easu res.
A. In F -sh a rp m inor, e x a c tly as i n th e second A s e c tio n , 2 /4 ,
e r s t e s Tempo, 23 m easu res.
B. O rig in a l melody, ex cep t now in th e soprano l i n e , w ith a
homophonic s e t t i n g in th e low er v o ic e s . A c o d e tta
utilizing paired voices end3 the piece.

The e n t i r e S panisches L ied e rB p ie l em phasizes th e p a ire d v o ic es concept

w ith th e f i r s t , t h i r d and e ig h th s e c tio n s b e in g d u e ts f o r soprano and

a l t o , th e second s e c tio n a duet f o r te n o r and b a s s , and th e f o u r th

s e c tio n a lo n g , l e is u r e l y d u et f o r soprano and te n o r . S e c tio n s

number f i v e and n in e a re f o r fo u r v o ic e s and s e c tio n s s ix and seven

2 3 lb id ., p . 161.

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90

a re s o lo s f o r soprano and te n o r r e s p e c tiv e ly .

Throughout th e S p an isch es L ie d e rs p ie l and i t s two companion

v/orks, S panische L ie b e s-L ie d e r. Op. 138, and M in n e sp ie l. Op. 101,

th e r e i s th e obvious foreshadow ing o f th e v o c a l q u a rte ts of Brahms.

There a re many s i m i l a r i t i e s between th e s e th r e e s e t s and th e L iebes-

l i e d e r s e t t i n g s o f Opp. 52 and 65 of Brahms. Schumann's Spanische

L ie b e s-L ie d e r i s scored f o r one p ia n o , fo u r hands, w ith mixed so lo

v o ic e s . The v o ic in g of th e te n d iv is io n s i s a s fo llo w s:

1. " V o rsp ie l" — piano s o lo .


2. "Lied" — soprano s o lo .
3. "L ied" — te n o r s o lo .
4. "D uett" — soprano and a l t o .
5. "Romanze" — b a rito n e s o lo .
6. "Interm ezzo" ~ p ian o so lo ( s u b t i t l e d " N a tio n a lta n z " ).
7. "L ied" — te n o r s o lo .
8. "L ied" — a l t o s o lo .
9. "D uett" — te n o r and b a ss.
1 0. " Q u a rte tt" — so p ran o , a l t o , te n o r and b ass ( b a r ito n e ) .

The p o e t fo r t h i s s e t was Emanuel G e ib e l, th e same p o e t- tr a n s la t o r

o f th e S p an isch es L ie d e r s p ie l. The M in n e sp ie l, on poems of R uckert,

h as a s im ila r form, u sin g a mixed q u a rte t b u t only two hands on th e

p ia n o . The v o ic in g of M in n esp ie l i s a s fo llo w s:

1. "L ied" — te n o r s o lo .
2. "Gesang" — soprano s o lo .
3. "D uett" — a lto and b a ss .
4. "L ied" — te n o r s o lo .
5. " Q u a rte tt" — so p ran o , a l t o , te n o r and b a s s .
6. "L ied" — a l t o s o lo .
7. "D uett" — soprano and te n o r .
8. " Q u a rte tt" — so p ran o , a l t o , te n o r and b a ss .

M oser m entions t h a t th e s e th r e e s e t s , a lo n g w ith th e s e tt in g s by

R e ic h a rd t u sin g s im ila r re s o u rc e s , a re d i r e c t a n c e s to rs of Brahm s's

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91

so lo q u a r te ts , and th e four-handed accompaniments go hack to th e

German Dances of S c h u b e rt. 24

The p iano w ritin g of th e s e v o c a l ensemble works of Schumann

i s of i n t e r e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e four-handed w r itin g in th e L ie b e s -

L ie d e r. E in s te in n oted t h a t :

I t was h ig h ly im p o rtan t f o r Schumann th e song-com poser t h a t he


a lre a d y had in h is background tw e n ty -th re e p ian o works — a
w orld of in s tru m e n ta l p o e try and p i a n i s t i c , v ir tu o s o p e r f e c t io n
and o r i g i n a l i t y . From th e beginning on, th e p ia n o , th e "accom­
p a n im e n t,” had to p lay a d i f f e r e n t r o le in h is songs th a n i t had
done in S c h u b e r t's . In S ch u b ert, an e q u ilib riu m p r e v a i l s , in
every g e n tle f lu c tu a tio n o f th e b a la n c e , th e word alw ays le a d s ,
th e piano su b o rd in a te s i t s e l f . In Schumann, from t h e v e ry
b eg in n in g , th e piano p la y s a new r o le : i t i s more r e f in e d i n
s o n o r ity , more cunning in te c h n iq u e , a lth o u g h i t seems t o be
sim p le ; to i t f a l l s th e ta s k o f em phasizing " th e f i n e r t r a i t s
o f th e poem," of c re a tin g t r a n s i t i o n s i n th e s o n g -c y c le s , o f
rounding out a group o f songs, of su p p ly in g a commentary i n th e
p re lu d e and p a r t i c u l a r l y in th e p o s tlu d e , of g iv in g f i n a l ex ­
p r e s s io n to th e s u rp lu s f e e l in g . ?

E i n s t e i n 's o b se rv a tio n t h a t th e piano p a r t "seems t o be sim p le" i s

c o rre c t. The p iano n o te s seem t o grow from th e te x tu r e o f th e

p a r t i c u l a r work, w ith th e p ro v iso being t h a t th e p ian o h as an o b b li­

g a to p a r t and does more th a n m erely double th e v o c a l l i n e s . I t is

i n th e b r i e f one-m easure and two-m easure in te r lu d e s t h a t th e p ia n o

w r itin g o f Schumann has i t s g r e a te s t v a lu e . F u r th e r , Schum ann's u se

of s ile n c e i s n o tew o rth y . R ath er th a n a llo w in g th e p ia n o to go

C l o s e r , Das deu tsch e L ied , p . 330. M oser s u g g e s ts t h a t th e


concept of th e s e works a s w e ll a s Brahm s's L ie b e s lie d e r s e t t i n g s may
have sprung from th e piano sound r a th e r th a n th e v o c a l sound.

^ A l f r e d E in s te in , M usic i n th e Romantic E ra (New Y ork: W. W.


N orton & C o., 1947), p . 187.

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92

t i n k l i n g th ro u g h a l l o f th e v o c a l sound, he allow ed each tim b re ,

v o c a l and in s tru m e n ta l, to s ta n d a lo n e o c c a s io n a lly to c a l l a t t e n t i o n

t o th e i d e n t i t y o f e ac h . F ig u re 3 shows a p assag e from "Schon i s t

d a s F e s t des Lenzesf " No. 5 i n M in n e s p ie l.

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93

d re i. der Ta

d re i, der Ta -

d re i, der Ta - ge

d r e i , d er Ta - ge

-e-

F i g . 3. — R obert Schumann, *'Schon i s t das F e s t des


L e n z e s ," No. 5 from M in n e sp ie l. Op. 101 (Werke, L e ip z ig :
B re itk o p f & H a r te l. 1887). P. 100.___________________________

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94

d re i Schon i s t das

d re i Schon i s t das

d re i Schon i s t das

d re i S chon i s t das

- & ■

F i g . 3. — ( c o n t.)

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95

As has been s ta t e d , th e im portance o f Schumann in th e h is to r y

o f t h e v o c a l ensemble i s n o t only in what he c re a te d , but a ls o in h is

b ein g a c o n n ec tiv e lin k between Schubert and o th e r e a r ly n in e te e n th -

c e n tu ry composers w ith th e High Romantic v o c a l composers o f th e l a s t

h a l f o f th e c e n tu ry . In form ing such a li n k Schumann a ls o formed a

m a tr ix f o r th e s e l a t e r com posers. The w ritin g f o r mixed q u a rte t and

p ia n o , a lth o u g h explored by o th e r com posers, became alm ost a fix e d

form w ith Schumann whereby each se p a ra te v o ic e p a r t could be fe a tu re d

a s a s o l o i s t a lo n e , o r as p a r t of a d u et o r q u a r te t.

Through perform ances by c h o ra l gro u p s, both li v e and on

re c o rd in g s , th e L ie b e s lie d e r W alzer, Op. 52, and th e Neue L ieb e s­

l i e d e r , Op. 65, o f Brahms have become more or l e s s stan d a rd item s in

th e v o c al re p e rto ire . I t i s u n fo rtu n a te t h a t B rahm s's o th e r v o c a l

ensem ble w orks, th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r, Op. 103, "the Q u a rte tte . Opp. 31,

64, 9 2 , 112 (1 1 3 ), and h is d u e ts a re so com pletely e c lip s e d . In

th e s e works we see him a s a p a t r i o t , a s a re la x e d o b serv er of n a tu re ,

a s a p a r t i c i p a n t in Gypsy c e le b ra tio n s and a s a p h ilo s o p h e r. The

L i e b e s l ie d e r , Z ig e u n e rlie d e r and th e o th e r q u a r te ts of Opp. 31, 64, 92

and 112 a re th e m u sic al e q u a l o f any o th e r fo rn Brahms u sed . Niemann,

w ith h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e rb o s ity , says

The im m ortal th a n e of lo v e s , p a in s and p le a s u re s which form th e


s u b je c t of th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r, tem pts one to a comparison w ith
th e two s e ts of L ie b e s lie d e r w a ltz e s . The Z ig e u n e rlie d e r
n a t u r a l l y su rp a sse s them b o th in t h e i r d i r e c t and s t i r r i n g
e f f e c t , in te n s e l o c a l c o lo r, and d e lic io u s fr e s h n e s s . But in
o th e r r e s p e c ts , to o , th e y a re q u ite d i f f e r e n t and f u l l o f con­
t r a s t s . In th e L ie b e s lie d e r w a ltz e s , as in th e w altzes f o r
p ia n o d u e t, Op. 39, we have th e easy , gay o ld Vienna of Schubert,

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96

L anner and S tr a u s s . In th e o th e r , th e b ro ad H ungarian p l a i n s .


I n th e one, an i d y l l i c p ic tu r e — q u ite a n a c re o n tic i n s p i r i t ,
t h e d e lig h ts of l i g h t and lo v e . In th e o th e r , p a s s io n a te and
s u f f e r in g . In th e one th e rhythm and m easure of th e V iennese
w a ltz , i n th e o th e r a d i v e r s i t y of tempo and a d i f f e r e n t
m easure and key in every number.2°

W ithout th e s e glim pses in to h is p s y c h o lo g ic a l makeup o ur view o f

Brahms would be in c o m p le te , g iv in g a s th e y do some i n s i g h t s in t o

h is ch o ice of l i t e r a t u r e a s w e ll a s h is id e a s on H ausmusik.

The L ie b e s lie d e r were f a v o r it e s o f BrahmB from t h e i r v ery

in c e p tio n . In a l e t t e r to th e p u b lis h e r , Sim rock, Brahms s a i d , " I

m ust c o n fe ss t h a t i t was th e f i r s t tim e I sm ile d a t th e s ig h t o f a

p r in te d work — o f mine'. I w i l l r i s k b ein g c a l l e d an a s s i f o u r

L ie b e s lie d e r d o n 't g iv e p le a s u re to a few p e o p l e T h e o d d ity i s

t h a t Brahms c o n fin ed h im se lf co m p letely t o th e m ixed q u a r te t a s f a r

a s v o c a l chamber m usic was c o n c e r n e d . ^8 In h i s o th e r chamber m usic

he could w rite s o n a ta s f o r th r e e in s tru m e n ts , th e s t r i n g q u a r te ts a r e

2 6 $ a lte r Niemann, Brahms, t r a n s . C a th e rin e A. P h i l l i p s (New


York: Tudor P u b lis h in g C o ., 1937)* p . 388.

27K arl G e irin g e r, Brahms, H is L ife and Work (Londons George


A lle n and Unwin, L td ., 1963) , p . 105.

28ihe e x c e lle n t d u e ts o f Opp. 20, 28, 6 l , 66 and 75 a re


obvious e x c e p tio n s , b u t s in c e d u e ts a re n o t covered i n t h i s stu d y
th e s e w r itin g s a re unhapp ily n o t covered to any e x t e n t . However,
th e r e a d e r 's a t t e n t i o n i s c a lle d p a r t i c u l a r l y to th e B allad e n und
Romanzen f u r zwei Singstim m en m it P ia n o f o r te , Op. 75 (Johannes Brahms,
S am tlich e Tferke. V o l. XXII, p . 7 9 ). T his s e t o f fo u r d u e ts u s e s th e
fo llo w in g v o ic in g : No. 1 , a l t o / t e n o r ; No. 2, s o p r a n o /a lto ; No. 3,
s o p ra n o /te n o r ; No. 4 , s o p ra n o /so p ra n o . Thus th e s e t i s a c tu a l ly f o r
a v o ic in g of 5SAT. The o th e r s e t s o f d u e ts a r e a l l f o r a c o n s ta n t
p a ir in g of v o ic e s , u s u a lly s o p ra n o /a lto (Op. 28 i s f o r a l t o / b a r i t o n e ) .
No. 4 o f Op. 75, "W a lp u rg isn a c h t," i s a d ia lo g u e betw een two so p ran o s
w hich i s re m in is c e n t of th e d ia lo g u e i n "Der E r l K o n ig ," e x c e p t in
t h i s d u e t th e two v o ic e s a l t e r n a t e on th e d ia lo g u e .

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97

j u s t l y fam ous, th e c l a r i n e t q u in te t i s a s ta p l e of th e l i t e r a t u r e and

t h e two s t r i n g s e x te ts a re models of th e l a r g e r ensem ble, b u t in b o th

th e v o c a l ensem ble and c h o ra l idiom s he p r e f e r r e d t o s ta y w ith th e

v o ic in g o f two m ale and two fem ale p a r t s . G e irin g e r e x p la in s i t th u s :

Brahms, i n h is m a tu r ity , p r a c t i c a l l y co n fin ed h im se lf t o th e


m ixed c h o ir , and p u b lish e d n o th in g f o r m ale o r fem ale c h o irs
e x c lu s iv e ly . At th e h e ig h t of h is powers he avoided a u n ifo rm ly
h ig h o r low to n a l c o lo r . H is e f f o r t s were d ir e c te d tow ard
a c h ie v in g a c a r e f u lly c a lc u la te d e q u ilib riu m betw een m ale and
fem ale v o ic e s . . . , 29

A f u r t h e r in flu e n c e m ight have been th e p ro x im ity o f th e Op.

52 L ie b e s lie d e r to th e two s t r i n g q u a r te ts o f Op. 51• Brahms was a

p ro d u c t o f German c u ltu r e a t i t s b e s t, and t h i s c u ltu r e h e ld t h a t

f o u r v o ic e s formed a l o g i c a l , w e ll-b a la n c e d s t r u c t u r e . T hinking i n

t e m s o f fo u r m u s ic a l l i n e s was as n a tu r a l f o r Brahms (and o th e r

German and G erm an-influenced composers o f th e l a t e n in e te e n th century)

a s f o r an E nglishm an of 1700 to th in k in te n n s o f a c o u n te r -te n o r,

te n o r and b a ss w ith a con tin u o accompaniment. In keeping t h i s e q u i­

lib r iu m Brahms e x h ib ite d many of th e t r a i t s o f Schumann as f a r as

s c o r in g i s co n cern ed . The i n c lin a ti o n tow ard w r itin g f o r d u e ts

w ith in th e l a r g e r framework o f a q u a r te t i s im m ediately n o tic e a b le .

Not only a r e th e L ie b e s lie d e r f i l l e d w ith d u e ts a s s e p a ra te e n t i t i e s ,

b u t th e q u a r te ts u se a l t e r n a t i n g d u e ts f e a tu r in g u s u a lly th e women's

v o ic e s a g a in s t th e m en 's v o ic e s a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e s t r u c t u r e .

I n "Rede, M adchen," No. 1 o f Op. 52, th e te n o r and b a ss e n te r i n th e

2 9 l b i d ., p. 300 .

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second m easure i n a pure homophonic duet which l a s t s fo r th ir ty - tw o

m easu res, follow ed hy a homophonic d u et by th e soprano and a l t o fo r

tw e lv e m easu res. The f i n a l elev en m easures a re fo r th e com plete

q u a r te t d u rin g w hich th e women sin g as a u n it and th e men do th e same.

Only i n th e f i n a l s e c tio n o f Op. 65, "Nun, i h r Musen, g en u g i," does

t h e w ritin g become t r u l y p o ly p h o n ic, and even here th e re i s th e

e f f e c t of duet w r itin g .

Much has been made o f th e f a c t t h a t th e Op. $2 was o r ig i n a ll y

p u b lis h e d w ith an in d ic a tio n t h a t th e v o c a l p a r ts were o p tio n a l.

Hans Gal opines t h a t such a d e s ig n a tio n was th e r e s u l t o f and a

co n ce ssio n to a c a u tio u s p u b lis h e r . Brahns w rote to Simrock t h a t

under no circu m stan ces could th e p ie c e s be p rin te d th e f i r s t tim e

v /ith o u t th e v o ic e p a r t s . "T h is i s how th ey m ust be brought b e fo re

th e p u b lic e y e. And l e t us hope t h a t th e y w i l l become r e a l fam ily

m u sic, and w ill soon be sung a l o t . "30

Brahms a f f e c t io n f o r th e L ie b e s lie d e r and th e o th e r q u a r te ts

i s due to two b a s ic in flu e n c e s : h is lo v e and u n d erstan d in g o f th e a r t

o f th e p e a s a n try , and h is re sid e n c y in a Vienna which was s m itte n

w ith a n in o r d in a te a p p re c ia tio n o f S tra u s s w a ltz e s . I t was Brahms*

a b i l i t y t o jo i n th e s e two s t r a i n s o f rough-handed p e a sa n try and

urbane s lic k n e s s which made h is works so p o p u la r. T h is tw o-pronged

in flu e n c e i s shown b e s t by th e b a s ic d if f e r e n c e s between th e

30Hans G al, Johannes Brahms: His Work and P e rs o n a lity (New


York: A lfre d A. Knopf, 1963) , p . 178.

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99

L ie b e s lie d e r c o lle c tio n s and th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. In th e f i r s t

m entioned th e r e a re s o lo s , d u e ts and q u a r te ts , im ita tin g th e e le g a n t

s a lo n p ie c e s and p o lite m usic found i n s o c ie ty a l l over E urope. The

Gypsy Songs a re a l l q u a r te ts , p o s s ib ly a subconscious su g g estio n of

th e group p a r tic ip a tio n i n a r o a rin g , f a m ilia r song around a cam pfire.

The Love Songs a re a l l 3 /4 (ex cep t th e f i n a l one in Op. 65, which is

9 /4 , a d e r iv a tiv e of 3 /4 ) , and th e Gypsy Songs a re 2 /4 , w ith pow erful,

storm ing rh y th n s . Brahms h im se lf c a lle d th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r "a s o r t

of Hungarian Liebeslieder."3^-

Even in th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. w ith th e o p p o rtu n ity to "go

n a t i v e ," Brahms was s t i l l th e c o n tro lle d German. There was no

s t r a i n i n g to sound ty p ic a lly Gypsy. R a th e r,

. . . th e accompaniment no lo n g e r su g g e sts th e dulcim er and th e


f i d d l e , no lo n g er im ita te s th e s t r i k i n g and clan k in g , th e
w hining and c la t t e r i n g of th e H ungarian band, but g a in s i t s
fo lk s y e f f e c t by i t s l u t e - l i k e , tr a n s p a r e n t p i a n i s t i c sound and
a v o id s th e monotony of th e u n av o id ab le 2 /4 tim e by th e h a p p ie st
d e v ic e s of c o n tr a s t.32

Edouard H a n slic k , th e noted c r i t i c , devoted c o n sid e ra b le space to a

com parison of th e L ie b e s lie d e r and Z ig e u n e rlie d e r in h is work

M u sik a lis c h e s und L i t t e r a r i s c h e s . He c h a ra c te riz e d th e Gypsy Songs

a s " a sm a ll n o v e l, whose occurance i s n o t l i s t e d , whose p e rso n n el i s

n o t.g iv e n , and which we n e v e rth e le s s u n d e rstan d p e r f e c tly and which

3lNiemann, p. 386 .

3?Richard Specht, Johannes Brahms, trans. Eric Blom (London:


J . M, Dent & Sons, L td ., 1930), p . 329*

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100

we w i l l n e v er fo r g e t ."33 i t should a lso he m entioned th a t numbers

th r e e th ro u g h s ix of th e Sechs Q u a rte tte . Op. 112, use te x ts which

w ere, l i k e th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. tr a n s la t io n s from Hungarian by Hugo

C o n ra t. These a r e o c c a s io n a lly given a s e p a ra te opus number, Op.

113, a re commonly c a lle d V ie r Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. and must be considered

to be of th e same lin e a g e as th e Op. 103.

M oser b rin g s up a unique c r itic is m when he quotes from a book

t i t l e d Aus d e r Tonw elt. by Louis E h le rts "The lo v e w altzes have,

n e v e r th e le s s , a g r e a te r d e fe c t: th ey demand s ix eq u al and symmet­

r i c a l l y tu n ed s o u ls . P la y e rs a s w ell as s in g e r s must have an earth y

o u tlo o k jx rd isc h e a b g e s tr e if t] and in t h e i r a r t have a se ra p h ic o u t­

look which i s not gained by in n o cen ce."3^ From a te c h n ic a l s ta n d ­

p o in t t h i s demand f o r " s ix equal and sym m etrically tuned so u ls" i s

a v a l i d s u g g e s tio n . I f th e s e were, as Brahms in d ic a te d in v a rio u s

p la c e s , "home m u sic ," th en th e perform ers o f t h a t tim e must have been

e x ce e d in g ly ta le n te d s in g e rs and p la y e r s . I t i s tr u e th a t a p ro p e r

r e a l i z a t i o n of a deeply moving work such a s An d ie Heimat. Op. 64-,

No. 1, would r e q u ir e b o th an em otional and v o c a l m a tu rity found only

in g i f t e d am ateurs who kept t h e i r v o ic e s in to p c o n d itio n . The o th e r

s id e o f th e argument i s t h a t n o t a l l perform ances must be id e a lly

c o rre c t. I n An d ie Heimat Brahms was t e l l i n g o f h is ab id in g lo v e

f o r th e s o i l o f h i s low-German homeland. An i d e a l perform ance would

33Edouard H a n slic k , M u sik alisch es und L i tte r a r is c h e s (B e rlin :


A lgem einer V erein f u r deutsche L i t t e r a t u r , 1889) , p . 148.

3 % o s e r, Das deutsche L ied , p . 331*

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have re q u ire d n o t only " s i x e q u a l and sy m m e tric a lly tu n e d s o u ls ,"

b u t a ls o s ix Germans.

The q u a r te ts o f Opp. 31» 64, 92 and 112 a r e g e n e r a lly c u t

from d i f f e r e n t c lo th th a n e i t h e r th e L ie b e s lie d e r T felzer. th e Neue

L ie b e s lie d e r o r th e Z ig e u n e r lie d e r . They a r e u s u a lly much lo n g e r

th a n any o f th e s e c tio n s o f t h e above l i s t e d s e t s , and th e form i s

o fte n more in v o lv ed (b u t n o t a lw a y s ). A ls o , th e High Romantic s p i r i t

comes th ro u g h more r e a d ily i n c e r t a i n w orks. "Der A bend," No. 2 from

D re i Q u a r te tte . Op. 64, s u s t a i n s a mood o f g e n t l e , n o s ta l g ic y e a rn in g

f o r qu ietu d e s e t in a c l a s s i c a l la n d sc a p e p e o p led by a n c ie n t gods o r

h e ro s . " F ra g e n ," No. 3 from D rei Q u a r t e tt e . Op. 64, i s p r im a r ily a

te n o r so lo a l t e r n a t i n g w ith th e rem ain in g v o ic e s on a Daumer poem

which i s a p a s s io n a te o u tc ry a s k in g i f t h i s sorrow and b u rn in g i s

a c tu a lly lo v e and b ein g lo v e d . T h is ty p e o f r h e t o r i c a l q u e s tio n in g

was a f a v o r ite d ev ice w ith Rom antic p o e ts . " N a c h te n s," No. 2 from

Sechs Q u a r te tte . Op. 112, i s i n 5 /4 m e te r, a d e v ic e which e f f e c t i v e l y

d e s tro y s a p r e d ic ta b le re p e a te d downbeat t o r e f l e c t th e t e x t which

s a y s , "N ig h tly a l l o f t h e ly in g , in sa n e e v i l s p i r i t s awaken which

confuse your mind . . . and w ith sorrow th e m orning aw akens."

From th e s ta n d p o in t o f f o r a t h e r e can be no g e n e r a liz in g

concerning th e s e q u a r te ts o f Opp. 31 > 6 4 , 92 and 112. The f o r a m ig h t

be as sim ple a s th e AA' o f " S p a th e r b s t," No. 2 o f Op. 92, o r a s

u n u su al as th e ABB'CA o f "0 schone N a c h t," No. 1 o f th e same s e t .

A ll th r e e works in Op. 64 a r e ABA, th e o n ly opus number which u s e s

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102

th e same b a s ic form f o r each p ie c e in th e s e t (a lth o u g h th e s im i la r ­

i t i e s end v /ith t h i s b a s ic fo rm al s t r u c t u r e ) . Nos. 3 th ro u g h 6 o f

Op. 112 a r e a ls o c a lle d V ie r Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. and lik e th e Z ig eu n er­

l i e d e r of Op. 103 a re a l l i n 2 /4 . Each of th e works o f th e s e fo u r

opus num bers, p lu s Op. 103, a r e d is c u s s e d i n th e A nnotated B ib lio ­

graphy, Appendix I , of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .

As w ith Schumann, so w ith Brahms. I t was n o t only th e f in e

m u s ic a l works which came from B rahm s's workshop by which he i s

remembered, but a ls o th e in flu e n c e he had over younger w r i t e r s . With

th e ad v en t of th e L ie b e s l ie d e r . Op. 52, in 1869, th e r e began a flo o d -

t i d e of im i t a t i v e works o f v a rio u s a r t i s t i c l e v e l s . Herman G otz, a s

a young man o f 22 o r 23, had begun a fr ie n d s h ip w ith Brahms i n th e

e a r ly l8 6 0 ’ s , and soon a f t e r he w rote h i s S ieb en L ie d e r f u r Sopran.

A lt, T enor, und B ass. Op. 21, which were p u b lis h e d in 1880. O ther

d i r e c t in flu e n c e s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e , b u t th e la r g e number

o f works l i s t e d i n b o th th e A nnotated B ib lio g rap h y and th e Non-

A nnotated B ib lio g ra p h y of t h i s study a t t e s t to th e p o p u la rity o f th e

v o c a l q u a r te t w ith p ia n o . Hans H u b e r's Sehn Q u a r te tte , Op. 65, f o r

p ia n o , fo u r han d s, and fo u r s o l o i s t s , a re d i r e c t l y descended from th e

L ie b e s lie d e r co n ce p t, a lth o u g h th e a c tu a l co m p o sitio n al s t y l e i s

c o n s id e ra b ly d i f f e r e n t . H uber, S w itz e rla n d 's m ost famous composer o f

th e l a t e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , had one b a s ic d e fe c t i n h is v o c a l

chamber m usic: he t r i e d to keep everyone busy, p a r t i c u l a r l y th e

p i a n i s t s , t o th e d e trim e n t o f m u sic a l v a r i e t y . O scar Weil w rote a

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103

s e t of seven p ie c e s t i t l e d Im M aien. Op. 35» w ith th e s u b t i t l e

"W alzer fiir G e sa n g sq u a rte tt (Sopran, A lt, Tenor, und Bass).'* No. 5

o f th e s e t i s an a l t o s o lo , th e only so lo p ie c e o f th e s e t . A ll of

th e seven p ie c e s have an easy l i l t and g ra c io u s v o c a l lin e s re m in is ­

c en t o f b o th th e L ie b e s lie d e r and th e Z ig e u n e rlie d e r o f Brahms and

th e two S panish s e tt in g s o f Schumann.

V ocal ensemble m usic o u tsid e Germany in th e l a s t q u a rte r of

th e n in e te e n th century was i n a much l e s s prom inent p o s itio n . German

e x p o rts a p p a re n tly took care of any needs in th e s e o th e r c o u n trie s

f o r such m u sic . E in s te in d ism isse s F ran ce w ith th e statem en t t h a t

A genuine song-com poser d id not ap p ear in France d u rin g th e


f i r s t h a l f o f th e c e n tu ry . B e rlio z , of c o u rse, a ls o w rote
l i e d e r and v a rio u s o th e r kinds o f songs, but only a s somewhat
m is c e lla n e o u s m inor works a lo n g sid e h is symphonies, o p e ra s, and
d ra m a tic church com positions . . . .52

By th e end of th e century th e composers in F ran ce were more i n t e r ­

e s te d in w ritin g f o r so lo v o ic e or f o r in s tru m e n ta l chamber ensemble

th a n f o r v o c a l ensem ble. G a b rie l Faure w rote a s in g le work f o r so lo

ensem ble, th e M ad rig al a q u a tre v o i x . ^ C am ille S a in t-S a en s w rote

Des pas dans l ' a l l e e and T rin q u o n s. Op. 141, which were m entioned by

a contem porary a s being worthy o f b eing sung by a so lo q u a r te t.

I n England th e r e was s t i l l th e g re a t demand f o r la rg e c h o ra l

3-^Alfred E in s te in , M usic in th e Romantic E ra (New York: W. W.


N orton & C o., 1947), p . 184.

S^This work i s based on th e l i t u r g i c a l theme from B ach's


c a n ta ta Aus t i e f e r Noth. p o s s ib ly to p a r a l l e l th e " s e c u la r” an g u ish in
th e t e x t which Faur£ u se d . The men s in g , "Women, your way i s c r u e l­
t y , " and th e women answ er, "Men, you a re h e a r tl e s s and u n ro m an tic."

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104

works f o r th e m ajor f e s t i v a l s of Leeds, B im in g h an , and o th e r c i t i e s

and a r e a s . The " p a rt-s o n g s ’* were ambiguous l i t t l e works u s u a lly

designed f o r th e s m a lle r ch o ru ses, o r th ey co u ld , o f co u rse, be sung

by s o l o i s t s . The works s p e c if ic a ll y d e sig n a te d f o r s o l o i s t s were

extrem ely r a r e . The cy cle In a P e rsia n Garden, by L iza Lehmann

(1862-1918) had a wide d is se m in a tio n . These s e tt in g s of th e R ubaiyat

were sco red f o r fo u r v o ic e s and piano w ith th e v o ic es being used both

s e p a ra te ly and to g e th e r , i n th e form of a c a n ta ta . Edward E lg a r w rote

two p a r t songs f o r fem ale v o ic e s in h is Op. 26, The Snow and F ly .

S in g in g B ird . Both of th e s e a r e fo r th r e e fem ale v o ic e s , two v io lin s

and p ia n o , b u t a g a in , th e r e i s some am biguity in th e t i t l e " p a r t

so n g ," and th e y may have been in ten d ed f o r fem ale c h o ir. Concerning

th e W orcester Glee Club, E l g a r 's b io g rap h er w rote:

On o ccasio n s young E lg a r w rote music n o t only fo r th e s o l o i s t s


and th e band, b u t a ls o f o r th e g le e p a r t y . These . . . p a r t
songs have a l l th e a i r of having been w ritte n fo r one of th e se
alm ost M asonic o ccasio n s . . . . As com positions t h e i r r e l a t i o n
to th e sum of E l g a r 's achievement i s s im ila r to t h a t of Brahms'
le s s e r c h o ra l works to t h a t com poser's com plete o u tp u t.37

Henry W alford Davies w rote S ix P a s to ra ls f o r v o cal q u a r te t, s t r i n g

q u a rte t and piano s h o rtly b e fo re th e tu r n o f th e c e n tu ry . The t i t l e s

o f th e s e s ix works show th e e f f e c t s of se v e n te e n th -c e n tu ry E n g lish

l i t e r a t u r e and m usic on D av ies.

M orning Song w ith Hymn to Pan (F le tc h e r)


The S h e p h e rd 's W ife 's Song (Greene)
Sweet C ontent (Dekker)

3 ? B a s il M aine, E lg a r. H is L ife and Works (London: G. B e ll &


Son, L t d ., 1933), p . 227.

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105

D ialogue of C orinda and Damon (M arvell)


D ialogue of D orinda and T h y rsis (M arvell)
E vening Song (F le tc h e r)

U sing th e same ty p e o f p o e try , E rn e st W alker w rote F iv e Songs from

"E ngland’ s H elicon ( l6 0 0 ) . H Op. 10. The t i t l e s were:

The S h e p h e rd 's C onsort (o u t o f M o rle y 's m a d rig a ls)


Damelus’ s Song t o h is D iaphenia (H. C .)
Love th e Only P r ic e of Love (an o n .)
W o d en frid e's Song in P r a is e o f Amargana (W. H .)
A Sweet P a s to r a l (N. B reton)

C h a rle s V i l l i e r s S ta n fo rd , th e composer o f so many la rg e s c a le works

f o r th e m ajor f e s t i v a l s , w rote h is V ocal Q u a rte ts . Op. 68, on Tenny­

s o n 's The P r in c e s s . These q u a rte ts were p u b lish e d in 1898, th e same

y e a r a s D a v ie s 's S ix P a s to r a ls .

I n th e U nited S ta te s th e s itu a t i o n o f th e v o c a l ensemble was

much more homely and n a iv e . Stephen F o s te r had used what appear to

be s o lo ensembles in s e v e ra l of h is m in s tr e l songs, and of co u rse, he

had many im ita to r s in t h i s a r e a . F o s te r w rote one q u a rte t f o r so lo

v o ic e s , Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming. 3^ Many o f h is so lo songs

had b r i e f fo u r and e ig h t measure c o d e tta s f o r fo u r v o ices in th e same

hym n-like homophonic te x tu r e as Come Where My Love L ies Dreaming.

S in c e many o f th e s e songs were d e sig n a te d a s m in s tr e l songs, and were

o fte n in tro d u c e d through m in s tre l perform ance, i t i s p o s sib le th ey

had o r ig i n a lly been conceived w ith a m in s tr e l chorus in mind. How­

e v e r, th e m in s tr e l choruses were always m ale ch o ru ses, and F o s t e r 's

38 t M s work i s analyzed and d e sc rib e d in th e A nnotated B ib lio ­


grap h y , Appendix I , of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 159.

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106

s o lo -w ith -c h o ru s works w ere alw ays f o r m ixed v o ic e s .

I n th e c o n c e rt songs f o r v o c a l ensem ble in America th e m u s ic a l

l e v e l was v a r ie d , b u t i t was a ls o alm o st t o t a l l y d e riv e d from European

m o d e ls. T here were such p ie c e s a s Anthony P h i l i p H e in r ic h 's E le g ia c

Q u in te tto V o cale. a s p e c ta c u la r work f o r s o lo c o lo r a tu r a soprano

su p p o rte d by fo u r low er v o ic e s . T here was a ls o Edward M acD ow ell's

B a rc a ro le . Op. 44, f o r fo u r m ixed v o ic e s and p ia n o , fo u r h a n d s.

MacDowell had s p e n t tw e lv e y e a rs i n F ran c e and Germany and he could

n o t b u t be in flu e n c e d by su ch t r a i n i n g and m u s ic a l c o n ta c ts . Some­

where i n th e c e n te r were th e works of F o s te r and h i s c o m p a trio ts w ith

t h e i r humble l i t t l e w orks w hich f i t th e f r o n t i e r a t t i t u d e s o f th e

A m erican p eo p le as no E uropean im p o rts c o u ld .

The works f o r s e c u la r so lo v o c a l ensem ble by American com­

p o s e rs in th e n in e te e n th c en tu ry a re f o r p r a c t i c a l p u rp o ses non­

e x is te n t. The p ro b a b le re a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t th e concept o f "home

m usic" f o r v o c a l ensem ble o f t r a i n e d s in g e r s was n e v er a m ajo r f a c to r

i n American m u s ic a l l i f e . W ith such lim ite d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p e r ­

formance th e composers would n a t u r a l l y be r e l u c t a n t to produce such

w orks. The h a b it of Sunday a fte rn o o n " s in g s " aro u n d th e p ia n o a re

n o t i n th e same c a te g o ry , n o r a re th e r e l i g i o u s t r i o s and q u a r te ts

fo r litu r g ic a l u se. The b a rb e r shop q u a r te t i s a ls o r e je c te d a s an

a r t form .

A quote from P ercy Young i s a summation o f th o v o c a l ensemble

m usic o f b o th America and B r i t a i n , and t o a c e r t a i n e x te n t i t a p p lie s

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107

t o th e whole of W estern m u sic .

I n th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry m usic to u ch ed l i f e a t more p o in ts
th a n i s now th e c a s e , and c h o ra l m usic was f o r many th e f u l f i l l ­
m ent o f p o p u lar p h ilo so p h y w ith i t s a s p i r a ti o n s and i n h i b i t i o n s .
Thus i n th e p a r t songs and s e c u la r c a n ta ta s of th e p e rio d may be
d is c o v e re d th e m u s ic a l c o u n te rp a rt to th e p a in tin g s of F r i t h ,
L an d seer and L e ig h to n . A s e n tim e n ta l re g a rd f o r lo v e and b e au ty ,
f o r co u n try l i f e , f o r an id e a liz e d p a s t ; an in d u lg en ce in th e
f a n t a s t i c ; a due r e s p e c t f o r c o n v e n tio n a l p i e t i s t i c s , w ith a
c o m fo rtin g b e l i e f i n an e t e r n a l l i f e sp e n t in a p a r a d is a l r o s e -
g a rd e n : a l l th e s e , d u ly r e l a t e d t o th e dom estic v i r t u e s , were
t h e progeny of th e m a rria g e of ag ein g Romanticism and v ig o ro u s
m a te r ia lis m .39

39young, T rag ic M use, p . 159"60.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

M usic f o r th e v o c a l §nsemble in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry was

d iv id e d in to two more o r l e s s d e f i n i t e ty p e s : Germanic and non-G er­

m anic. A lthough t h i s may ap p ear an o v e r - g e n e r a liz a tio n , th e b o rd e rs

a r e a c t u a l l y so stro n g ly drawn between th e two s t y l e s t h a t each

s ta n d s o u t in stro n g c o n tra s t to th e o th e r . T h is s p l i t between th e

two in flu e n c e s was le s s obvious a t th e beg in n in g o f th e c e n tu ry , but

th e d iv is io n widened w ith th e i n f l u e n t i a l work o f Schumann and Brahms

u n t i l th e r e were only th e s e two s t r a i n s of v o c a l ensemble m usic:

G eraan (in c lu d in g G erm an-influenced), and a l l of th e r e s t .

I n G erm an-influenced music we would need to in c lu d e m ost of

th e v o c a l ensemble com position from England and A m erica, p lu s th e

o u tp u t of th e Scandinavian c o u n tr ie s . Under non-Germanic c o u n trie s

th e m ost im p o rtan t would be France and I t a l y , w ith R u ssia occupying

an ephem eral p o s itio n somewhere between th e two b a s ic g ro u p s. By

"G erm an-influenced” we do n o t mean t h a t a l l of th e m usic of th e s e

c o u n trie s was modeled on German a r t , only t h a t in th e realm o f v o c a l

en sa n b le m usic th e r e were some obvious t r a i t s found in German,

E n g lis h and American m usic which were found only in a sm all m in o rity

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109

o f F rench or I t a l i a n v o c a l chamber m usic. I t should be emphasized

t h a t A u stria n m usic i s in c lu d e d under th e term "Germanic m u sic ."

The predom inant m a trix f o r Germanic v o c a l ensemble w ritin g

was th e f o lk song and th e male chorus h e r ita g e . T his same ty p e of

fo lk song h e r ita g e in flu e n c e d E n g lish w ritin g and to some e x te n t

th e music o f A m erica. The r e g u la r ly r e c u rrin g s t r e s s and th e

s ta n z a ic form of th e f o lk songs were n a tio n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which

overpowered alm ost a l l d e s ir e to w rite in an o p e ra tic o r o p e ra -

d e riv e d s t y l e . B alance and form al c o n tro l were th e watchwords

o f German, E n g lis h and (some) American w r itin g . The apex of such

w ritin g came w ith th e Schumann/Brahms/descendants lin e a g e . The mixed

q u a r te t of soprano, a l t o , te n o r and bass w ith piano accompaniment had

a v e n e ra b le h is to r y re a c h in g back in to th e se v e n te e n th cen tu ry to th e

German Hausmusik. A lthough th e r e were thousands o f d u ets and hun­

dreds of q u a r te ts w r itte n i n Germany and A u s tria in th e n in e te e n th

c e n tu ry , t r i o s (e x c e p tin g th e immature stu d e n t works o f Schubert and

th e c a n ta ta - lik e works o f s e v e ra l w r ite r s ) and q u in te ts were only

found in i s o la te d s p o ts e a r ly in th e c e n tu ry . Schumann w rote only

f b u r f o r women's v o ic e s , and Brahms w rote none. A f te r about th e m iddle

o f th e cen tu ry th e v o ic in g was alm ost always e i t h e r a duet or q u a rte t

(w hich a s o fte n a s n o t was a com bination o f two d u e ts f o r two male

and two fem ale v o ic e s ) . E a rly i n th e cen tu ry th e to p v o ic e was th e

predom inant m elo d y -carry in g v o ic e , but a s th e cen tu ry p ro g re sse d th e

in n e r v o ic e s came to assume more of th e m elodic lo a d . T h is was

e s p e c ia lly e v id e n t in th e double duet w ritin g of many q u a r te ts .

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110

T his q u a rte t of mixed v o ic e s , w hile c e r ta in ly not unknown,

was by no means th e stan d a rd v o ic in g in non-German c o u n trie s . The

t r i o was e q u a lly as h ig h ly th ought o f, and th e r e was no way to p r e ­

d i c t what th e v o ic in g m ight b e . Given th e fo u r b a sic v o ice ran g es of

soprano, a l t o , te n o r and b a s s , p lu s th e two m iddle ranges of mezzo-

soprano and b a rito n e , th e r e was a v a s t number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r

com binations of v o ic e s in t r i o s .

One s im ila r ity between Germanic and non-Germanic v o c a l

ensemble w ritin g was th e p la c in g of th e dominant melody in th e to p

v o ic e , re g a rd le s s of th e v o ic in g . T his was th e s itu a t i o n e a r ly in

th e c e n tu ry . As in G em anic c o u n trie s , t h i s changed as th e cen tu ry

developed. F a u re 's M ad rig al has fo u r t o t a l l y independent v o c a l l i n e s .

U nlike th e Germanic p ie c e s , th e in flu e n c e o f opera on v o c a l

chamber m usic in France and I t a l y was much more pronounced. R o s s in i's

e x c u rsio n s in to v o cal ensemble w ritin g was marked by a predom inantly

o p e r a tic t h r u s t , u s u a lly w ith a mixed q u a rte t o f soprano, a l t o , te n o r

and b a s s . Such p ie c e s as La P a s se g g ia ta (The Prominade) and Les

amants de S e v ille (The Lovers of S e v ille ) a re sn ip p e ts from h is

o p e r a tic s ty le e a r l i e r i n h is l i f e . In th e G erm anic-influenced

c o u n trie s th e re were a number of o p e ra tic s t y le works (u s u a lly c a lle d

some ty p e o f c a n ta ta ) , b u t th e y were much in th e m in o rity a s compared

t o th e p a r t songs. The E n g lish b a lla d o p era, based as i t was on th e

E n g lis h fo lk song s t y l e , had no re a d ily d is c e r n ib le e f f e c t on v o c a l

ensemble music w ith th e p o s s ib le ex cep tio n of a secondary in flu e n c e

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I ll

th ro u g h t h e German Hausmusik o f th e e ig h te e n th cen tu ry and from

th e n c e hack t o E ngland i n th e n in e te e n th c e n tu r y .

W hile th e r e was a wide v a r i e t y o f m o tiv a tio n s f o r w r iti n g a

p ie c e of v o c a l ensem ble m u sic, th e y g e n e r a lly f e l l under th r e e

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : th o s e w r i t t e n f o r f r ie n d s ( a s a g i f t o r f o r s p e c i f i c

p e rfo rm a n c e ), f o r money ( a commission o r a s a house com poser), and

fo r a r t i s t i c s a tis fa c tio n . The e x te n t of th e f r i e n d 's m u s ic a l s o p h is ­

t i c a t i o n in f lu e n c e d , t o some e x te n t , th e q u a l i t y of th e w ork. Those

p ie c e s w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r pay ( e i t h e r from a commission o r from

a n t i c i p a t e d r o y a lty ) were o f te n o f a m ed io cre q u a l i t y . B e e th o v e n 's

f o l k song a rran g em en ts a r e th e b e s t known exam ples o f commissioned

v o c a l chamber m u s ic . The w orks w r itt e n from in n e r u rg in g s a r e , a s

m ig h t be e x p e c te d , th e b e s t w orks. R o s s in i, who composed h is S in s o f

My Old Age, a s he c a ll e d th e s o ir e e p ie c e s from th e tim e of h i s P a r i s

r e s id e n c e , d id n o t a llo w slo p p y w r itin g t o e n t e r h is work. I n th e b e s t

w orks, Schum ann's S p a n ish s e t t i n g s , B rahm s's q u a r te t s and R eg er’ s D re i

C h5re, th e m u s ic a l e x c e lle n c e i s a s h ig h a s i n any o f th e f i n e works

i n o th e r c o m p o sitio n a l s t y l e s o f th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry .

The t e x t s came from every c o n c e iv a b le s o u rc e . Haydn o c ca ­

s i o n a l l y used e x c e rp ts from lo n g e r poems, S ch u b ert used t e x t s which

h a d , on o c c a s io n , s t r i c t l y p e rs o n a l m eanings to th e p eo p le who m ight

be p e rfo rm in g th e w orks, Brahms and Schumann used t r a n s l a t i o n s of

f o l k o r f o l k - l i k e p o e try s e v e r a l tim e s , and o f c o u rse th e r e w ere th e

w orks o f th e g r e a t German p o e t s . In th e non-G erm anic c o u n tr ie s th e

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112

t e x t s were o f te n m audlin and cheaply t h e a t r i c a l , coming as th e y d id

w ith an o p e r a tic in f lu e n c e . R o s s in i's M usique Anodine i s a p e c u lia r

s i x - p a r t work f o r s ix s o l o i s t s which has s ix s e p a ra te so lo s e t t i n g s

(one each f o r each v o ic e p a r t ) on th e fo llo w in g t e x t : " I w i l l b ew ail

i n s ile n c e my b i t t e r f a t e ; b u t t h a t I sh o u ld n o t love you, d e ar one,

do n o t e x p ec t t h a t o f mel C ru e ll How have I o ffen d ed you? Why do

you make me s u f f e r ? " The in flu e n c e of R en aissan ce and Baroque

m a d rig a l and o p e ra t e x t s i s o b v io u s. G lin k a even used an I t a l i a n

t e x t o f t h i s ty p e f o r h is q u a r te t Sogna c h i cred e d 'e s s e r f e l i c e .

The accompaniment f o r th e s e works was u s u a lly a s in g le p ia n o ,

e i t h e r tw o-hands o r fo u r -h a n d s . There were a ls o accompaniments f o r

v a r io u s o th e r in s tru m e n ts , p r i n c i p a l l y s t r i n g in s tru m e n ts . Works f o r

unaccom panied v o c a l ensem ble were c o n c e n tra te d i n th e e a r ly p a r t o f

th e c e n tu ry , and th e s e were u s u a lly f o r m ale v o ic e s a s an e x te n s io n

o f t h e m ale chorus movement. C o rn e liu s ’ s T ro st i n Tranen i s th e only

unaccom panied work from th e l a s t t h i r d of th e c en tu ry which appeared

i n t h i s s tu d y .

The fo llo w in g s ta te m e n ts can be made from t h i s stu d y :

1. M usic f o r th e so lo v o c a l ensemble has been alm ost t o t a l l y

f o r g o tte n by o th e rs th a n m u sic a l h i s t o r i a n s , m ost of whom

r e l e g a t e such works t o a s t a t e o f limbo in th e c a ta lo g u e o f

th e works o f th e v a rio u s composers (Schumann and Brahms

g e n e r a lly e x c e p te d ).

2. The v a r i e t i e s o f v o c a l ensemble works ( i . e . , t r i o s ,

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
113

q u a r t e t s , q u in te ts o r s e x te ts , f o r male v o ic e s o n ly , fem ale

v o ic e s only o r mixed v o ic e s , unaccompanied or accompanied by

p ia n o or o th e r o b b lig a to in s tru m e n ts , easy o r d i f f i c u l t

v o c a l l i n e s , in E n g lis h , German, I t a l i a n , F ren c h , R u ssia n

o r o th e r languag es) were a s e x te n s iv e as any o th e r g e n e ric .

g ro u p in g o f works, such as v o c a l s o lo s , works f o r v i o l i n and

p ia n o , o r wind ensem ble.

3. The le v e l of m u sic ian sh ip was d ic ta te d by th e i n t e g r i t y of

th e composer and th e reaso n f o r w r itin g th e in d iv id u a l work.

A, T here a re many e x c e lle n t works which sh o u ld be r e s u r r e c te d

and used on c o n c e rt program s. T here i s a much la r g e r body

o f v o c a l ensemble m a te r ia l which sh o u ld rem ain in h id in g

where i t has been f o r a c en tu ry o r m ore.

T here a re s e v e r a l p o s s ib le causes fo r th e n e g le c t o f th e s e

chamber com positions f o r s o lo v o ic e s . One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t th e y

have no n a tu r a l champion o th e r th a n t h e i r c r e a to r o r an o c c a s io n a l

m u s ic o lo g is t. A s o l o i s t u s u a lly p r e f e r s to e x h ib it h is o r h e r a b i l ­

i t i e s w ith o u t th e encumbrances of o th e r s o l o i s t s . There a re a ls o th e

problem s en co u n tered when s o l o i s t s of d i f f e r i n g tem peram ents a tte m p t

a s o lo ensemble work. Time and energy i s consumed fin d in g th r e e o r

fo u r o r f i v e s in g e r s w ith a t l e a s t ap p ro x im ately th e same ty p e s o f

v o ic e s and e q u iv a le n t a b i l i t i e s . In th e case o f t r i o s t h i s o fte n

means changing v o ic in g s w ith each s e l e c t i o n . M ost c h o ra l d i r e c t o r s

a r e n o t o v e rly in te r e s t e d in working w ith a group o f fo u r s in g e r s

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114

and a p i a n i s t on an extended b a s is . F in a lly , am ateur s in g e rs a re

seldom aware o f th e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e so lo v o c al ensemble t o an

e x te n t t h a t would encourage them to o rg an ize an ensemble cap ab le o f

p erfo rm in g th e s e works a d e q u a te ly . Thus th e v o c a l ensemble i s l e f t

i n a n o -m a n 's-la n d between th e s o l o i s t and th e c h o ra l d i r e c t o r .

I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study and l i s t i n g of a v a ila b le works

w i l l p ro v id e conductors w ith both th e in c e n tiv e and th e b ib lio g ra p h y

f o r exam ining some of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e .

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115

BIBLIOGRAPHY

R eference Works

A llo r t o , R iccardo and F e r r a r i , A lb e rto . D iz io n a rio d i m u sica.


M ilano: Casa E d i tr ic e C eschina, 1959*
More v a lu a b le f o r m inor composers, s in c e th e m ajor
composers a re covered i n la r g e r p u b lic a tio n s .

A ltm ann, W ilhelm. Kammermusik-Katalog: e in V e rzeich n is von s e i t 1841


v e r o f f e n tlic h te n Kammermusikwerken. Bis August 1944 e rg a n z te
A u fla g e . L e ip zig : F . H o fm eister, 1945.

B aker, Theodore. Baker*s B io g ra p h ic al D ic tio n a ry o f M u sic ia n s. 5 th


e d . com pletely re v is e d by N ico las Slonim sky. New York:
G. S c h im e r, 1958. Supplement, 1965-
L is tin g s of works o fte n omit th e sm a lle r w orks, o r group
them so t h a t in d iv id u a l t i t l e s a re u n a v a ila b le .

Blume, F r ie d r ic h ( e d .) . Die Musik in G esch ich te und G egenw art. 14


v o l s . K assel and B asel: B a r e n r e ite r - v e r la g , 1949-68.
Q uite thorough i n l i s t i n g sm a lle r works by le s s prom inent
com posers, although th e in fo rm atio n g iv en about each work
i s m inim al.

British Broadcasting Corporation. Central Music Library. "Choral


and Opera C atalo g u e." 2 v o ls . London: B r iti s h B ro ad castin g
C o rp ., 1967.
I n two volumes, "Composers" and " T i t l e s , " t h i s i s a
c a ta lo g u e o f th e c h o ra l and v o cal ensemble m a te r ia l in th e
BBC l i b r a r y of perform ing e d itio n s . I t does n o t d i f f e r ­
e n t i a t e between works f o r chorus and f o r s o l o i s t s . Each
l i s t i n g in c lu d e s th e com poser's name and d a te s , th e t i t l e and
v o ic in g o f th e work, th e p u b lis h e r 's name and number and,
where a v a ila b le , th e d ate of p u b lic a tio n . There i s a ls o a
com prehensive l i s t of i n te r n a tio n a l p u b lis h e rs w ith ad­
d re s s e s a s w e ll as a b ib lio g rap h y of books r e l a t e d to c h o ra l
and opera re s e a rc h .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
116

Brown, James D ., and S t r a t t o n , Stephen S . B r i t i s h M u sic a l B iograohy:


a D ic tio n a ry of M u sic a l A r t i s t s , A uthors and Composers Born
i n B r i t a i n and i t s C o lo n ie s. Birmingham: S t r a t t o n , 1897.
A lso , London: W illiam Reeves B o o k s e lle r, L t d ., 1897.
The b e st l i s t o f composers who were p o p u la r in th e l a s t
q u a r te r o f th e n in e te e n th cen tu ry but who a r e n o t a s h ig h ly
c o n sid e re d now.

C a ta lo g o d e lle opere m u s ic a l i. Parma: O f f ic in a G ra fic a F re s c h in g ,


1934.

E i t n e r , R o b e rt. B io g ra p h is c h -b ib lio g ra p h is c h e s C u e lle r-L e x ik o n der


M u sik e r und M u sik g e le h rte n d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n Z eitrec h n u n g b is
z u r M itte des 19. J a h r h u n d e rts . 10 v o l s . L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f
& H a r te l, 1898-1904.

E n c ic lo p e d ia d e l l a M u sic a . D i r e t t o r e : C laudio S a r t o r i ; V ic e -
d i r e t t o r e : R ic ca rd o A l l o r t o . 4 v o l s . M ila n o : R ic o rd i,
1963-64.

E n c y c lo p e d ia de l a M usique. P u b lish e d under t h e d i r e c t i o n of


F ra n g o is M ich el in c o lla b o r a tio n w ith F ra n g o is L esure and
V la d im ir F e d e ro v . 6 v o l s . P a r is : F a s q u e lle , 1958-61.
T here a r e l i s t s o f works by m ajo r com posers, b u t th e s e
a r e n o t alw ays c o m p lete, p a r t i c u l a r l y re g a rd in g s m a lle r works.

E n c y c lo p e d ic de l a M usique e t D ic tio n n a ir e du C o n s e rv a to ire . Founded


by A lb e rt L avignac, and d ir e c te d by L io n e l de La L a u re n c ie .
2 p a r t s in 11 v o l s . P a r i s : C. D e la g ra v e , 1913“31»
S in c e th e tre a tm e n t i s by c o u n trie s i t i s d i f f i c u l t to
u s e , and th e l i s t i n g s o f works a r e n o t c o m p lete.

F e t i s , F ra n c o is J . B io g ra p h ie u n iv e r s e ll e des m u sic ie n s e t b i b l i o ­
g ra p h ic g £ n £ ra le de l a m usique. 2nd e d i t i o n , w ith Supplement
e t complement. P u b lish e d under th e d i r e c t i o n o f M. A rth u r
P o u g in . 8 v o l s . P a r i s : F iim in D idot F r l r e s , 1866-70.
Supplem ent, 2 v o l s , P a r i s : same firm , 1878-80.
V in c en t D uckies (M usic R eferen ce and R ese arch M a t e r i a l s .
New Y ork: The F re e P r e s s , 1967, p . 64) m e n tio n s th e "com plete
l i s t s o f w orks," b u t i n a c t u a l i t y th e y a r e q u ite in c o m p le te .
They do, how ever, m ention some works o m itte d i n o th e r l i s t s .

G rove, S i r George ( e d . ) . G rove’ s D ic tio n a ry o f M usic and M u s ic ia n s .


5 t h e d ., 10 v o l s . New York: S t . M a r tin 's P r e s s , I n c . , 1955*

H ir s c h , P a u l and M eyer, K a th i. K atalo g d e r M u s ik b ib lio th e k P a u l


H ir s c h . 4 v o l s . , V o l. I l l , "Vokalm usik b i s etw a 1 830," pp.
1 7 7 -3 5 4 . F ran k fu rt-am -M ain : p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g , 1936. A lso ,
Cam bridge, E nglan d : Cambridge U niv. P r e s s , 1947.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
117

H o fln e iste rs Hand bitch d e r M u s i k l i t e r a t u r . V o ls. 1 th ro u g h 13.


L e ip z ig : F r ie d r ic h H o fin e ister, 1844-1909.
These volumes l i s t m usic p u b lish e d in G em an-speaking
c o u n tr ie s , a s w e ll a s most b o rd e rin g c o u n trie s , but th e
l i s t i n g s a re n o t lim ite d t o German-language t e x t s n o r t o
German com posers.

H ughes-H ughes, A ugustus. C atalo g u e of M an u scrip t Music in th e


B r i t i s h Museum. 3 v o l s . , V o l. I I , " S e c u la r V ocal M u sic .”
London: Longmans and C o., 1908.
The bulk of th e m a n u sc rip ts a re p re-1800 v in ta g e , b u t
s e v e r a l were s t i l l a p p lic a b le to t h i s stu d y .

M endel, Hermann. M u sik a lis c h e s C o n v ersatio n s-L ex ik o n . 11 v o l s .


B e r lin : L. Heimann, 1870-79*
T h is work i s u s e f u l f o r obscure names, b u t because th e
l i s t i n g s o f works o f m ajo r composers a r e incom plete we m ust
assume t h a t l i s t i n g s fo r m inor composers a re a ls o in c o m p le te .

M u lle r, E r ic h H. ( e d . ) . D eutsches M usik er-L ex ik o n . D resden:


W ilhelm L im p ert-V erlag , 1929*

New York P u b lic L ib ra r y . M usic D iv is io n . D ic tio n a ry C atalog o f th e


M usic C o lle c tio n . 35 v o l s . p lu s supplem ent. B oston: G. K.
H a ll & C o., 1964.
Volume 32 c o n ta in s a s e c tio n beg in n in g on page 54-8 t i t l e d
"V ocal t r i o s , q u a r t e t s , q u in t e t s , e t c . "

P e n a , J o a q u in . D ic c io n a rio de l a mdisica L abor. 4 v o ls . B arcelo n a:


L ab o r, 1954-•
As w ith m ost n a t i o n a l i s t i c en cy clo p ed ias t h i s one i s b e s t
i n th e a re a o f l i t t l e known com posers. The l i s t i n g s o f works
a r e n o t thorough enough.

R e f a r d t, E d g a r. H is to ris c h - b io g ra p h is c h e s M u sik erlex ik o n d e r


S chw eiz. • Z u rich : Hug & C o., 1928.
Thorough tre a tm e n t o f even m inor composers from S w itz e r­
la n d , in c lu d in g d e t a i l e d c a ta lo g u e s o f t h e i r w orks.

R ic h te r , Johannes F r i e d r i c h . Kammermusik-Katalog. V e rz e ic h n is d e r
von 1944 b is 1958 v e r o f f e n tli c h t e n Vferke f u r Kammeimusik und
f u r K la v ie r v i e r - und sech sh an d ig sowie fu r zwei und mehr
K la v ie r e . L e ip z ig : VEB F r ie d r ic h H o fm eister M u sik v erlag ,
I 960.
S a in s b u ry , John S . A D ic tio n a ry o f M u sician s from th e E a r l i e s t Tim es.
2 v o l s . London: S a in sb u ry , 1824; r e p r i n t by Da Capo P r e s s ,
New Y ork, 1966.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
118

S c h e rin g , A rnold. G eschich te d e r Musik in B e is p ie le n . Leipzig*


VEB B re itk o p f & H a rte l M u sik v erlag , 1931.

Schuh, W i lli. Schw eizer M usikbuch. 2 v o l s . Z u rich : A tla n tis


V e rla g , 1939•
An expanded v e rs io n of V o l. I I h as appeared as Schw eizer
M usiker-L exikon. p u b lish e d by th e same fir m . The l i s t s of
m usic a re only f a i r .

Thompson, Oscar ( e d . ) . The I n t e r n a tio n a l C yclopedia of Music and


M u sic ia n s. E d ito r , 9t h e d itio n , R obert S a b in . New York:
Dodd, Meade & C o., 1964.
The l i s t i n g s of works by m inor composers a re u s u a lly
q u ite sk etc h y , and l i s t i n g s of works by m ajor composers a re
n o t alw ays com plete, a lth o u g h an o c c a s io n a l work i s in c lu d e d
w hich i s om itted by o th e r p u b lic a tio n s .

U niversal-H andbuch d er M u s ik li te r a tu r A lle r Z e ite n und V o lk e r. 14


v o l s . V/ien: P a z d ire k & C o., 1904-10.

V a sc o n c e llo s, Jo aq u in A. da Fonseca E . Os m tisicos p o rtu g u e z e s. 2


v o l s . P o rto : Im prensa p o rtu g u eza, 1870.
The l i s t s of com positions g e n e r a lly in c lu d e only th o s e
w ith opus numbers o r in lo n g er fo rm s. S m aller works a re
o fte n ig n o re d .

Books and P e r io d ic a ls

Abraham, G erald ( e d . ) . The Age of Humanism: 1540-1630. V ol. IV o f


The New Oxford H isto ry of M usic. London: Oxford U niv. P r e s s ,
1968.
T his book vas most v a lu a b le f o r i t s d is c u s s io n o f th e
p re c u rs o rs of th e s o lo v o c a l ensemble i n th e s e v e n te e n th ,.
e ig h te e n th and n in e te e n th c e n tu r ie s .

. B orodin, th e Composer and h i s M usic. London; W illiam


R eeves, Book S e l l e r , 1947.

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119

A lb re c h t, O tto E . A Census o f Autograph M usic M anuscripts of


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120

Blom, E r i c . M o zart. London: J . M. Dent & Sons, L t d ., 1935.

Blow, John. Amphion A n g elicu s. A Work of Many C om positions, f o r


One, Two, Three and Four V oices With s e v e ra l Accompagnements
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_______. S chubert: A C r i t i c a l B iography. London: M acm illan & C o.,


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lo g ic a l O rder. New York:- W. W. N orton & C o., I n c . , 1951*

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121

D rin k e r, S o p h ie . Brahms and h is Women*s C h o ru ses. M eriod, P e n n .:


M usurgia P u b lis h e r s , 1952.

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U n iv . P r e s s , 194-5*

_______ . M usic in th e Romantic E r a . New Y ork: W. W. N orton & C o.,


1947*

________ . S c h u b e rt: A m u s ic a l P o r t r a i t . New York: Oxford U niv.


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________ . Havdn: A C re a tiv e L ife in M usic. Garden C ity , New York:


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122

G ilm an, Lawrence. Edward MacDowell: A S tu d y . New York: John Lane


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Kastner, Georges. Trait4 general d*Instrumentation. Paris: Prillip


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Newman, E r n e s t. Memoirs o f H ector B e rlio z : 1803—1865. T ra n s. by-


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Young, Percy M. Tragic Muse: the Life and Works of Robert Schumann.
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128

APPENDIX I

A nno tated B ib lio g rap h y

The p u rp o se of t h i s a n n o ta te d b ib lio g ra p h y i s to p ro v id e i n

one lo c a t io n an a n a ly s is and b r i e f d e s c r ip tio n o f one-hundred-tw enty

s e p a ra te works o r ig i n a l l y sco red f o r so lo v o ic e s . The m ost f a m ilia r

works o f th e g e n re , th e L ie b e s lie d e r W alzer and th e Neue L ie b e s lie d e r

o f Brahms, have n o t been an aly zed sin c e s e v e ra l e d itio n s o f each o f

th e s e works a r e r e a d ily a v a i l a b le . R a th e r, th e em phasis has been on

l i t t l e known o r unknown w orks, o r works which a re n o t c u rre n tly

a v a il a b le i n p erfo rm in g e d i t i o n s . O cca sio n ally th e m u sic al v a lu e o f

th e s e works i s m a rg in a l, b u t u n t i l one u n d e rsta n d s th e e n ti r e scope

o f an a r t form i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say t h a t t h i s o r t h a t p ie c e of

m usic i s o f no v a lu e .

The g u id e lin e s f o r t h i s a n n o ta te d b ib lio g ra p h y a re r e l a t i v e l y

c irc u m sc rib e d : th e p h y s ic a l a t t r i b u t e s such a s number of m easu res,

range and number o f v o ic e s , key, tempo in d ic a ti o n s , th e accompaniment

and o r i g i n a l t e x t , and th e approxim ate d u ra tio n w i l l h elp d e sc rib e

th e m u sic . I n th e Comments s e c tio n an e f f o r t has been made t o be a 3

o b je c tiv e a s p o s s i b l e . I n s e ts o f works w ith each in d iv id u a l p ie c e

more o r l e s s o f th e same co m p o sitio n al s t y l e , th e f i r s t e n try f o r th e

s e t w i l l c o n ta in th e b u lk o f th e e v a lu a tio n , and each succeeding e n try

w i l l be d ir e c te d back to th e f i r s t e n tr y . The d u ra tio n s g iv en a re

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
129

e i t h e r e x a c t tim in g s from re c o rd ed perform ances o r e stim ate d tim in g s .

T here a re some sm all problem s i n th e mamberings of m easu res.

Some ■works a re s ta n z a ic o r s t r o p h ic . Some have re p e a ts w ith in th e

m usic which have d if f e r e n t words on th e r e p e a t. Of c o u rse , some have

no r e p e a ts , and a t l e a s t one work (B eeth o v en 's "M usic, Love and

Wine") has ambiguous m ark in g s. These e x c e p tio n a l cases a r e d isc u sse d

i n th e Comments s e c tio n of each e n tr y . I t would be c o n fu sin g to

count a 24 m easure work w ith th r e e id e n t i c a l s ta n z a s a s a 72 m easure

work i f th e m usic i s p r in te d b u t once. I f , however, th e m usic i s

w r itte n out i t w i l l be counted f o r th e f u l l number o f m easures even

i f i t i s in f a c t a s tr o p h ic work.

Thus, th e d e s ig n a tio n s w i l l be "no re p e a ts " f o r a th ro u g h -

cCmposed work; "XX m easures f o r each o f XX s ta n z a s " f o r a s tr o p h ic

work; " co u n tin g re p e a ts " f o r works where th e re p e a ts have e i t h e r

d i f f e r e n t t e x t s or s l i g h t l y a lte r e d m usic.

I n c e r ta in s e ts of w orks, p r in c ip a lly th o s e by A ugust B erg t,

Hans Huber and F e lix M endelssohn-B artholdy, only a s e le c t io n o f works

from th e t o t a l number i n th e s e t h a s been exam ined. T his d e c is io n

was due p r im a rily t o th e la r g e number o f s i m i l a r i t i e s between th e

works which were analyzed and th e rem aining works i n th e s e t . In

alm ost every case th e v o ic in g s of th e o m itted works were th e same,

th e ran g es were alm ost i d e n t i c a l , th e accompaniment ( i f any) were by

th e same in s tru m e n t and th e s t y l e of t e x t was th e same a s th e works

which had been a n aly z e d .

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130

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van (1770-1827)


"Music, Love and Wine" (" 0 , l e t me m usic h e a r " ) , from S c h o ttis c h e
L ie d e r, Op. 108, Nr. 1.
Ludwig van Beethoven. Werke. L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l,
1866-68 (Ann A rbor: J . W. Edwards, 1 9 4 9 ), S e r ie 24, p . 2 .

V oicing: Opening Solo d* — g"


1 . Voice a ' — g"
2 . Voice d ' — g"
3 . Voice d ' — d"
O rig in a l t e x t : S c o ttis h f o lk song (w ith German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: v i o l i n , v io lo n c e llo , p ia n o .
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e tto p iu t o s t o v iv a c e , C.
Number of m easures: 27, no re p e a ts (s e e : Comments).
D u ra tio n : 0:45 f o r each s ta n z a w ith no r e p e a ts , 0 :5 4 f o r each
s ta n z a w ith a s in g le re p e a t (s e e : Comments).
T ex tu re: s ix measure unnamed s o lo , s ix m easure t u t t i chorus of
1 . V oice, 2 . V oice, 3* V o ice.
Comments: th e re p e a ts a re u n c le a r . Should th e opening s o lo be
re p e a te d , and th e n th e co n clu d in g STB (2) (SAB?) chorus
sung, or should Voice I s in g a s ta n z a , th e n V oice I I , and
f i n a l l y Voice I I I , w ith th e chorus to follow ? The l a t t e r
i s probably th e method b e s t s u ite d t o t h i s p ie c e . There
i s a ls o a fo u r th and f i f t h s ta n z a w ith 1 . V oice and 2 .
V oice in d ic a tio n s r e s p e c tiv e ly .

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


"0 s w iftly g lid e s th e bonny b o a t," from S c h o ttis c h e L ie d e r.
Op. 108, N r. 19.
I b i d . . p . 45.

V oicing: Soprano I c -s h a rp ' — f- s h a rp "


Soprano I I c -s h a rp ' — c -sh a rp "
Tenor (bass c le f ) f - s h a r p — d '
Bass A — b
O rig in a l t e x t : S c o ttis h fo lk song (w ith Geiman t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: v i o l i n , v io lo n c e llo , p ia n o .
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Andante poco A lle g r e tto , C.
Number of m easures: 40, f o r each o f t h r e e s ta n z a s .
D u ration: 1:56 (a p p ro x .).
T ex tu re: extended Soprano I s o lo , o th e r v o ic e s e n te r a l t e r n a t e l y ,
th e n a homophonic fo u r m easure c h o ru s.
Comments: a f t e r th e e ig h t m easures of Soprano I s o lo th e Bass e n te r s
t o form a d u e t, th e rem aining two v o ic e s e n te r in g j u s t
b e fo re th e CORO. The work i s e a sy , w ith "S cotch sn ap s"
prom inently used f o r rhythm ic v i t a l i t y .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
131

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


"The H ighland Watch” ("O ld S c o tia , wake th y m ountain s t r a i n " ) ,
from S c h o ttis c h e L ie d e r, Op. 108, N r. 22.
I b i d . . p . 56.

V o ic in g : Opening s o lo d ' — g"


Soprano d ' — g"
Tenor f- s h a rp — e - f l a t 1
B as 3 B -fla t — b - f la t
O r ig in a l te x ts S c o ttis h song (w ith German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: v i o l i n , v io lo n c e llo , p ia n o .
Key: G m inor
Tempo and tim e : S p ir itu o s o e m a rz ia le , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 44 f o r each o f th r e e s ta n z a s .
D u ra tio n : 0:48 f o r each s ta n z a , 2:24 f o r t h r e e s ta n z a s .
T e x tu re : s ix te e n m easure opening s o lo , e ig h t m easure homophonic
c h o ru s, in s tru m e n ta l p o s tlu d e .
Comments: one of th e b e s t o f th e s e t , due m ain ly to th e i n t e r e s t i n g
in s tru m e n ta l p o s tlu d e w hich g ra d u a lly d im in ish e s w ith a
m a r t i a l s t r a i n u n t i l i t fa d e s o u t. The r i g h t hand o f th e
p ia n o doubles th e s o lo o r to p v o ic e th ro u g h o u t th e w ork.

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


E le g is c h e r Gesang (" S a n ft wie du L e b te s t " ) , Op. 118.
I b i d . , S e r ie 22, N r. 214, p . 7 7 . B o sto n : E . C. S c h i r ^ r (No.
1630), 1932.

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — f-sh a rp ”


A lto a — c”
Tenor d -sh a rp — e*
Bass E (A) — e 1
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (E n g lish t r a n s . i n S ch iim er e d i t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: V io lin I , V io lin I I , V io la , V io lo n c e llo .
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsam und s a n f t, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 85, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*50 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e form of th e work i s ABA, w ith th e A s e c tio n s b ein g
homophonic and th e B s e c tio n f u g a l . T here i s a 20
m easure in tr o d u c tio n f o r s t r i n g s a lo n e . When th e v o ic e s
a r e s in g in g homophonic m a te r i a l th e in s tru m e n ts a r e more
o b b lig a to , w h ile i n th e fu g a l s e c tio n s th e in s tru m e n ts
double th e v o ic e s alm ost n o te f o r n o te . T h is deeply
e m o tio n a l work sh o u ld be a b a s ic p a r t o f every c h o ra l
lib ra ry .

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132

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


" C h a rlie i s my d a r lin g ," from V o lk s lie d e r, no opus number, N r. 3.
B eethoven’ s Werke. S e rie 24, N r. 259, P» 6.

V o ic in g : Soprano I d ' — f"


Soprano I I c ' — d"
Bass c — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : S c o ttis h f o lk song (w ith German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: v i o l i n , v io lo n c e llo , p ia n o .
Key: D m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto con anim a, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 29 f o r each o f th r e e s ta n z a s , p lu s a s e p a ra te
e ig h t m easure in tr o d u c tio n and s ix m easure p o s tlu d e .
D u ra tio n : 1:45 (a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e u n usual v o ic in g ( f o r th e s e s e t s o f arran g em en ts) of
SSB adds i n t e r e s t , b u t th e te x tu r e and o v e r a ll appearance
i s th e same a s o th e r p ie c e s i n o th e r s e t s . The r ig h t
hand of th e p ia n o doubles th e melody an o ctav e h ig h e r,
and th e l e f t hand g e n e ra lly d oubles th e Bass l i n e . The
v i o l i n p la y s an ornamented v e rs io n of th e m elody.

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


"Save me from th e grave and w is e ," from I r i s c h e L ie d e r, no opus
number, N r. 8 .
I b i d . . N r. 258, p . 24.

V o icin g : Opening Solo f* — e - f l a t "


Soprano f ' — e -fla t"
T enor g — b -fla t
B ass c — g
O rig in a l t e x t : I r i s h song (w ith German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: v i o l i n , v io lo n c e llo , p ia n o .
Key: F major.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto m olto g ra z io s o , 6/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 42 f o r each o f th r e e s ta n z a s , p lu s a f i v e
m easure p o s tlu d e .
D u ra tio n : 2:15 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : t e n m easure in s tru m e n ta l in tr o d u c tio n , s ix te e n m easure
unnamed s o lo , e ig h t m easure homophonic STB, e ig h t
m easure in s tru m e n ta l p o s tlu d e .
Comments: extrem ely sim p le , w ith a la c k of m elodic i n t e r e s t i n th e
lo w er v o ic es (th e Tenor has a range o f a m inor t h i r d ) .
The s t r i n g w r iti n g i s a c o n sta n t stream o f e ig h th n o te s
alm o st e n t i r e l y on th e dominant a f t e r th e so lo b e g in s,
p o s s ib ly in an a tte m p t to im ita te a bagpipe d ro n e.
The bouncy rhythm and lim ite d ranges i n a l l p a r t s make
t h i s an e x c e lle n t work f o r younger v o ic e s .

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133

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van


A bachiedsgesang ("D ie Stunde s c h la g t " ) , no opus number.
I b i d . . S e r ie 25, N r. 273, P- 244.

V b ic in g : T enor I d — g'
T enor I I c — f*
Bass A — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Jo sep h R i t t e r von S e y fr ie d ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Andante ma non tro p p o , C.
Number o f m easures: 78, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:25 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : ornamented homophonic.
Comments: th e form i s ABA, v /ith th e A s e c tio n s in B - f la t m ajo r and
4 /4 , and th e B s e c tio n i n G m a jo r, 6/8 and a tempo
in d ic a tio n of "L ebhaft (doch n ic h t zu s e h r ) ." The B
s e c tio n i s canonic u n t i l a l l v o ic e s a re s in g in g , and th e n
h a s two v o ices accompanying th e t h i r d v o ic e .

BERGT, August (1772-1837)


"Die G unst des A ugenblicks" ("Und so fin d e n w ir uns w ieder in den
h e i t e r n " ) , from T e rz e tto f u r d r e i Singstimmen. H e ft V I,
N r. 1 .
L e ip z ig : F r ie d r ic h H o fiaeister ( p l a te N r. 3 4 5 ), c a . 1819; L ib ra ry
o f Congress No. M 1549«3, B5 2 .

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — a"


T enor e — g'
Bass F -sh a rp — e '
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h von S c h i l l e r ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro , 6/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 178, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3 s48 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: t h i s work i s s im ila r to B e r g t's Freundschaft*. in having
a c a n ta ta - lik e ap p earan ce, w ith s o lo s in a l l v o ic e s
in te rm ix e d th ro u g h th e m iddle and f i n a l s e c tio n s . The
p ia n o p a r t i s not d i f f i c u l t , n o r a re th e v o c al l i n e s •
d i f f i c u l t except f o r a h ig h t e s s i t u r a . Most of th e
s in g in g i s homophonic when a l l th r e e v o ic es a re sounding.

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134

EERGT, August
"Frounds c h a f t'.," from T e rz e tte f u r drey fsicl Singstimmen. H eft V,
N r. 3 . J
L e ip z ig : C. F . P e te r s ( p la te No. 3 1 8 ), n . d . ; L ib rary of Congress
No. M 1549.3, B52.

V o icin g : Soprano d -s h a rp ' — a"


Tenor e — a'
B ass A — e'
O rig in a l t e x t : German.
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A dagio, (j).
Number o f m easures: 131. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*55 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: a c a n ta ta - lik e work w ith an Adagio in tr o d u c tio n o f fo u r
m easu res, th e n an extended A lle g ro s e c tio n of 112
m easu res, and a concluding Andante s e c tio n of 15
m e a su re s.

BERLIOZ, H e cto r ( 1803- 1869)


A m itie , re p re n d s to n em pire, no opus number.
H e cto r B e r lio z . Werke. L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a rte l, 1904, Band
16, A b teilu n g I , p . 156.

V o ic in g : Soprano c 1 — f"
M ezzo-Soprano c 1 — dM
Bass B - f la t — f
O rig in a l t e x t : French (German tr a n s l a t i o n by Emma K lin g e n fe ld ,
E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by P ercy P in k e rto n ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Andante s o s te n u to , C.
Number o f m easures: 83, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*05 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : Soprano s o lo , th e n homophonic.
Comments: t h i s work i s predom inantly a soprano so lo w ith a r e f r a i n
( c a l l e d an In v o c a tio n i n th e sco re) f o r a l l th re e v o ic e s .
F o rm ally , th e r e a re two s ta n z a s w ith id e n t i c a l m usic
c o n s is tin g o f a le n g th y Soprano s o lo , th e In v o c a tio n ,
and a concluding p re s to s e c tio n f o r th e piano a lo n e .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
135

BLANGINI, F e lix (1781-1841)


" Io d ico a l l ' a n tro a d d io ," from Dix n o c tu rn e s a t r o i s v o ix . No. 3 .
P a r i s : Chez M ile s F ra rd (Rue du M a il, N. 37) ( p l a t e No. 5 0 7 ),
n . d . , ( c a . l 8l 5 ) , p . l 8.

V o icin g : Canto I ( t r e b l e c l e f ) f ' — e -fla t"


Canto II ( t r e b l e c le f ) d ’ — b - f l a t ’
Canto I I I (b a ss c le f ) B -fla t — f '
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (F rench t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: E - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: M elan co lico non tro p p o a d a g io , 6/ 8.
Number of m easures: 43, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:55 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : predom inantly homophonic.
Comments: each o f th e works in t h i s s e t has a gimmick, t h i s one
b ein g an echo e f f e c t whereby th e v o ic e s s in g a few n o te s
unaccompanied, a f t e r which th e p ia n o p la y s v i r t u a l l y th e
same n o te s l i k e an ech o . T h is s t y l e c o n tin u e s th ro u g h o u t
th e p ie c e . The Canto I I I i s a c tu a ll y a te n o r range v o ic e .
A ll v o c al l i n e s a re q u ite s im p le .

BLANGINI, Felix
"Ch 1io m ai v ip o s sa la s c ia r d 'a m a r e ," from D ix n o c tu rn e s a t r o i s
v o ix , No. 4 .
I b i d . . p . 22.

V o icin g : Canto I ( t r e b l e c le f ) a ' — g"


Canto I I ( t r e b l e c l e f ) c ' — f"
Canto I I I (b a ss c le f ) B - f l a t (A) — f 1
O r ig in a l te x t : I t a l i a n (F rench t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: B - f la t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e tto a l i a B o le ra , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 78, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:55 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: th e b o le ro rhythm c o n tin u e s th ro u g h o u t th e w ork. The
v o ic in g could be SST, STB, ATB (v /ith th e Canto I ta k e n
down an o c ta v e ), o r TTB, and th e r e would be no harm done
to th e m u s ic a l c o n ce p tio n o r c ro s se d v o ic e s . The u p p e r
two v o ic e s move m o stly i n t h i r d s , s i x t h s , o r t e n t h s .
The form i s AA’BAA', w ith th e B s e c t io n i n B - f l a t m in o r.

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136

BRAHMS, Johannes (1833-1897)


"Wechsellied zum Tanze" ("Komm rait, o Schemer"), from Drei
Quartette, Op. 31, Hr. 1.
Johannes Brahms: Setmtliche Werke, L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l
(Ann A rhor: J . W. Edw ards, 1949)» Band 20, Tiiehrstimmige
G esange," p . 17.

V o ic in g : Soprano e - f l a t ' — f"


A lto c - f l a t ' — d"
T enor e -fla t — a - f la t1
Bass c — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (G o e th e ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: C m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Tempo d i M en u etto , con m oto, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 225, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 5*47 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3249).
T e x tu re : one male and one fem ale v o ic e i n d u e t f o r long s e c tio n s ,
follo w ed by th e rem ain in g two p a r t s s in g in g in a s i m i l a r
fa s h io n , w ith a l l fo u r p a r t s s in g in g to g e th e r o n ly on
th e f i n a l n in e m e a su re s.
Comments: th e form i s ABABC, th e A s e c tio n s b ein g in C m in o r, th e
B s e c tio n s in A - f l a t m a jo r, and th e C s e c tio n (a
v a r i a t i o n on th e A s e c tio n ) b eg in n in g i n A - f la t m inor
and ending in A - f l a t m a jo r. A m arv elo u sly e m o tio n al
work.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"N eck ereien " ("Furw ahr, mein L ie b c h e n " ), from D rei 1Q u a r te tte ,
Op. 31, N r. 2.
I b i d . . p . 25.

V o ic in g : Soprano f-sh a rp ' — a w


A lto c - s h a r p ' — e"
T enor e — f-sh a rp '
Bass A — e'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (M ah risch ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto con g r a z ia , C.
Number o f m easures: 67, no r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 2:14 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3249).
T e x tu re : two m en's v o ic e s a l t e r n a t i n g in lo n g s e c tio n s w ith two
fem ale v o ic e s , a l l fo u r s in g in g to g e th e r only on th e
f i n a l sev en teen m e asu re s.
Comments: th e form i s ABABA, w ith th e men s in g in g th e f i r s t A
s e c tio n s , th e women b o th B s e c tio n s , th e f i n a l A s e c tio n
u s in g th e men on th e melody and th e women s in g in g a
tw o -p a rt o b b lig a to l i n e .

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137

BRAHMS, Johannes
"Der Gang zum Liebchen" ("Es glanzt der Mond nieder"), from Drei
Quartette, Op. 31, Nr. 1.
Ibid.. p. 32.

Voicing: Soprano f' — a-flat"


Alto d' — b-flat*
Tenor f — f'
Bass F — b-flat
Original text: German (Bohemian).
Accompaniment: piano, two hands.
Key: E-flat major.
Tempo and time: Con moto e grazioso, 3/4.
Number of measures: 8l, counting repeats.
Duration: 2:50 (Gregg Smith Singers, Everest 3249).
Texture: homophonic throughout.
Comments: apparently this work is designed as an ending piece for
the set. The distinct feeling of "finality" is due
mostly to the completely homophonic vocal writing. The
form is a simple AA with a 21 measure coda.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"An d ie Heimat" (" H e im a ti" ), from D rei Q u a r te tte . Op. 64, N r. 1 .
I b id . . p. 35.

V o ic in g : Soprano d* — g"
A lto a - f l a t — d"
T enor d - f l a t — g -s h a rp '
Bass G — e'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (C. 0 . S te rn a u ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two han d s.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Bewegt, doch n ic h t zu s c h n e ll, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 132, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 5*14 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3 2 49).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e a l t e r n a t i o n of te x tu r e and dynamics i s more
pronounced in t h i s work th a n i n th e o th e rs o f th e s e t .
T h ere a re two b r i e f unaccompanied p a ss a g e s . The ABA
form has th e B s e c tio n i n G m in o r, and i t i s com pletely
c o n tr a p u n ta l. Because o f i t s concern w ith a homeland
an d a man’ s love o f t h a t homeland, t h i s would be a f in e
work f o r a p a t r i o t i c program .

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138

BRAHMS, Johannes
"D er Abend" ("Senke, s tra h le n d e r G o tt" ) , from D rei Q u a rte tte .
Op. 64, N r. 2.
I b i d . , p . 45. New Yorks G. Schirm er, I n c . (No. 10134), 1953*

V o ic in g : Soprano c -s h a rp 1 — g"
A lto f- s h a rp — e - f l a t "
Tenor e — g1
Bass G — e -fla t1
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (F rie d ric h von S c h i l l e r ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: G m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : R uhig, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 111, no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 4 :4 4 (R obert Shaw C horale, RCA V ic to r IM-1784); 4:21
(G regg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re st 3 2 4 9 ).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d , w ith much tw o -p a rt w r itin g .
Comments: th e work i s m o stly an a l t e r n a t io n between tw o -p a rt and
f o u r - p a r t homophonic w ritin g w ith lo n g l i n e s . The form
i s ABA, w ith th e f i r s t A s e c tio n i n G m inor, th e B
s e c tio n in B - f la t m ajor and th e f i n a l A s e c tio n in
G m a jo r. T his i s Romantic em otionalism a t i t s best*.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"F rag en 11 ("Mein lie b e s H erz, was i s t d i r " ) , from D rei Q u a rte tte .
Op. 64, N r. 3.
S a m tlic h e Werke. Band 20, p . 52.

V o ic in g : Soprano e 1 — a"
A lto a — e -fla t"
Tenor e — a1
B ass A — d1
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Georg Daumer).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Andante con moto, 6/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 94, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3 :0 4 (Gregg Smith S in g e rs, E v e re s t 3249).
T e x tu re : SAB homophonic a l te r n a t in g w ith Tenor s o lo .
Comments: p r im a r ily a demanding Tenor so lo w ith th e rem aining
v o ic e s commenting on th e a c ti o n . The ABA form h as th e
f i r s t and l a s t s e c tio n s in A m ajo r and th e m iddle s e c tio n
i n F m a jo r. The l a s t A s e c tio n has a len g th y in tro d u c ­
t i o n w ith s h i f t i n g t o n a l i t i e s b e fo re i t s e t t l e s on A
m a jo r and a r e tu r n of th e opening m a te r ia l.

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139

BRAHMS, Johannes
"0 schone N ach t," from Q u a r te tte , Op. 92, N r. 1 .
I b i d . . p . 147.

V o icin g : Soprano b — g"


A lto g — e"
Tenor e — g'
Bass E — e’
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Georg Daumer).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Andante con m oto, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 76, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*21 (Gregg Smith S in g e rs , E v e re st 3249).
T e x tu re : homophonic opening and c lo s e , long so lo s by a l l fo u r
v o ic e s in th e m iddle s e c tio n .
Comments: e x h ib its th e a b i l i t i e s o f each s in g e r . The form i s ABB'CA
w ith A being only fo u r m easures long f o r a l l fo u r v o ic e s
i n chordal w r itin g , B b ein g f o r Bass and Tenor d u e t, B'
f o r A lto and Soprano d u e t, C fo r both p a ir s of v o ic e s in
C m a jo r, and th e f i n a l A s e c tio n an e x ten sio n o f th e
f i r s t s ta te m e n t.

BRAHMS, Johannes
" S p a th e rb s t" ( MDer graue Nebel t r o p f t so s t i l l " ) , from Q u a r te tte ,
Op. 92, N r. 2.
I b i d . . p . 153.

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' - - g"


A lto b — e"
Tenor f-s h a rp — g'
Bass A — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Hermann A llm e rs).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: E m inor.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 3A»
Number o f m easures: 33, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:45 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re st 3249).
T e x tu re : ornamented homophonic.
Comments: much s h o r te r th a n o th e rs of e i t h e r t h i s s e t o r o th e r s e ts
o f q u a r te ts . The form i s a sim ple AA' w ith th e c h ie f
d iff e r e n c e s b ein g a more f l o r i d Bass v o c al l i n e i n th e
f i r s t s e c tio n and a fo u r measure e x te n sio n a t th e end o f
th e second s e c tio n .

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140

BRAMS, Johannes
"A bendlied" ( " F r ie d lic h bekampfen N a c h t" ), from Q u a r te tte ,
Op. 92, Mr. 3 .
I b id ., p . 156.

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — gn
A lto c* — d"
Tenor e — g'
Bass A — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h H e b b el).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, C.
Number o f m easures: 60, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:37 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3 2 4 9 ).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: b o th th e v o c a l and p iano l i n e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a sy ,
p o s s ib ly so t h i s work w i l l c o n t r a s t w ith th e more
e x c it in g N r. 4 o f th e s e t , Warum? . The form i s AA‘AB.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"Warum?" ("Warura doch e r s c h a lle n him m elw arts d ie L ie d e r " ) , from
Q u a r te tte , Op. 92, N r. 2.
I b i d . . p . 160.

V o icin g : Soprano f*— a"


A lto a — e”
T enor d — g*
Bass A — e -fla t*
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Johann von G o e th e ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two han d s.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: L e b h a ft, C.
Number o f m easures: 55> no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:00 (Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3249)*
T e x tu re : b a s ic a lly homophonic.
Comments: q u ite e x c it in g , due p a r t i a l l y to th e m a r t i a l accom pani­
ment and th e ch ro m atics a t th e b e g in n in g . A tim e change
i n th e m iddle b reak s th e p ie c e in t o two c le a r ly d e fin e d
s e c tio n s , th e second b e in g much l e s s a g i t a t e d . At th e
change from C tim e to 6/8 th e t o n a l i t y becomes much more
c le a r ly d e fin e d th a n i n th e f i r s t s e c t i o n .

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141

BRAHMS, Johannes
"He, Z ig e u n e r," from Z ig e u n e r lie d e r . Op. 103, N r. 1 .
I b i d . . p . 165.

V o ic in g : Soprano d-sharp* — g"


A lto b — e"
T enor d -sh a rp — g '
Bass A — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s . from H ungarian by Hugo C o n ra t).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: A m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro a g i t a t o , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 93, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:22 (G achinger K a n to re i, Nonesuch H -71228).
T e x tu re : Tenor so lo a l t e r n a t i n g w ith homophonic SATB.
Com m ents:.a tw elve m easure Tenor s o lo i s fo llo w ed by a s t r a i g h t
homophonic s e t t i n g o f th e same words and m usic w ith th e
m elody in th e Soprano. The n e x t s e c tio n has th e same
o u tlin e w ith a f i f t e e n m easure so lo and c h o ra l s e t t i n g .
The f i n a l s e c tio n i s a c o n se c u tiv e j o i n i n g o f th e s e two
m e lo d ie s in a homophonic s e t t i n g .

BRAHMS, Johannes
"H ochgeturm te R im a flu t," from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r, Op. 103, N r. 2.
I b i d . , p . 170.

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' — g"


A lto c -s h a rp ' — d"
T enor d — b -fla t' v
Bass A — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: D m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro m o lto , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 56 , co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:13 (s e e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: v ery sim ple b o th in v o c a l and p ian o l i n e s . W ith th e
r e p e a ts th e form i s AABA'BA'. Much o f th e v o c a l w r itin g
i s i n u n iso n o r o c ta v e s . The A1 s e c tio n has th e u n u su al
s c o r in g ( f o r t h i s s e t) o f Soprano and B ass i n o c ta v e s ,
and th e A lto and Tenor accompanying in t h i r d s .

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142

BRARIS, Johannes
"W isst i h r , wann mein Kindchen am a lle r s c h o n s te n i s t ? , " from
Z ig e u n e r lie d e r , Op. 103, N r. 3 .
Ib id .. p . 172.

V o icin g : Soprano f - s h a r p ’ — g"


A lto c -s h a rp ' — b - f l a t '
Tenor f - s h a rp — o '
Bass F -sh a rp — a
O rig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 64, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:10 (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : Tenor s o lo , SATB homophonic, Soprano s o lo , SATB
, homophonic.
Comments: th e f i r s t h a l f i s e x a c tly l i k e th e second h a l f , ex cep t
th e so lo v o ic e changes from Tenor to Soprano. Both so lo s
a r e p ian o and A lle g r e tto , and b o th t u t t i s e c tio n s a re
f o r t e and A lle g r o . The t u t t i s e c tio n s a re re p e a te d .

BRAKMS, Johannes
" L ie b e r G o tt, du v /e is s t, wie o f t b e re u t ic h h a b ," from Z ig e u n e r-
l i e d e r . Op. 103, N r. 4 .
I b i d . , p . 174.

V o icin g : Soprano f ' — f '1


A lto e ' — b -fla t'
Tenor g — f
Bass B - f la t — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : (s e e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : V ivace g ra z io s o , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 5 2 , c o u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:50 (se e H r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : opening Soprano s o lo , th e n homophonic.
Comments: th e form i s AEB, w ith th e Soprano s o lo f o r e ig h t m easures
and t u t t i homophonic w r itin g f o r e ig h t m easu res, th e n
re p e a te d f o r a n o th e r e ig h t m easu res.

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143

BRAHiS, Johannes
"B rauner Bursche fiih rt zum T an ze," from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. Op. 103,
N r. 5 .
I b i d . . p . 176.

V o icin g : Soprano d ' — g"


A lto a — b‘
T enor f-s h a rp — f - s h a r p 1
Bass G- — d '
O rig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro g io co so , 2 /4 .
Number of m easures: 5l» c o u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:10 (se e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: t y p i c a l of th e g e n re . The form i s AA'BA", w ith th e A'
s e c tio n having th e melody up a t h i r d , and th e A" s e c tio n
u s in g a v a r ia ti o n of th e in v e rte d m elody.

BRAHMS, Johannes
" R o sle in d re ie in d e r R eihe bluhn so r o t , ” from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r,
Op. 103, Nr. 6 .
I b i d . . p . 178.

V o icin g : Soprano e - f l a t ' — g"


A lto b — b'
Tenor g — g'
B ass c — d*
O r ig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two han d s.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : V ivace g ra z io s o , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 92, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:09 (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : opening Tenor s o lo , SAT homophonic, ending SATB
homophonic.
Comments: th e a lte r n a t io n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n m arkings and dynamics i s
more pronounced in t h i s work th a n in most o th e rs o f th e
s e t o f Z ig e u n e rlie d e r . The opening e ig h t measure Tenor
s o lo i s re p e a te d by th e upper th r e e v o ic e s , and th e n
a l l fo u r v o ic e s s in g th e f i n a l tw elve measure s e c tio n ,
w hich i s th e n re p e a te d .

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144

BRAHMS, Johannes
"Kcmmt d i r manchmal in den S in n ," from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r, Op, 103,
N r. 7 .
I b i d . . p . 180.

V o icin g : Soprano d* — g"


A lto b - f l a t - - c"
Tenor d — a -fla t1
B ass A -fla t — e - f l a t 1
O r ig in a l t e x t : (see N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ian o , two hands.
Key: E - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Andante g ra z io so , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 37, no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:43 (see N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : two h a lv e s , each beginning w ith a Tenor so lo follow ed by
ornam ented homophonic s e c tio n s .
Comments: designed s p e c if ic a l ly to d is p la y th e T e n o r's a b i l i t i e s .
The form i s AA'BB1, w ith th e A and B s e c tio n s bein g f o r
Tenor a lo n e , and th e A* and B1 s e c tio n s f o r f u l l v o ic es
e x a c tly d u p lic a tin g th e so lo m a te r ia l in f o u r - p a r t
w r itin g but w ith th e piano p a r t v a r ie d .

BRAHMS, Johannes
"H orch, d e r Wind k la g t," from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r, Op. 103, N r. 8.
I b i d . , p . 182.

V o ic in g : Soprano f - s h a r p 1 — e"
A lto d ' — cH
Tenor e — g1
B ass F -sh arp — g
O r ig in a l t e x t : (see Nr. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: G m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Andantino sem plice, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 46, counting r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:10 (see N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : can o n ic, ending homophonic.
Comments: th e two s e c tio n s have s e p a ra te c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In th e
G m inor f i r s t s e c tio n th e T enor, A lto and Soprano ( in
t h a t o rd e r) have a canonic th r e e m easure theme w ith th e
B ass jo in in g f o r a f i n a l th r e e m easu res. Thef i n a l
s e c tio n in G m ajor has a b r i e f th r e e m easure Tenor so lo
and a concluding s ix measure t u t t i p assag e w ith th e
Soprano predom inating.

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1 45

BRAHMS, Johannes
"W eit und b r e i t sc h a u t Niemand mich a n ," from Z ig e u n e r lie d e r ,
Op. 103, N r. 9.
Ib id ., p . 184.

V o ic in g : Soprano d* — a**
A lto b — d"
T enor d — a'
B ass A — d*
O r ig in a l t e x t : (s e e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: 0 m inor.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g ro , 2 /4 .
Number of m easures: 95 , c o u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:40 (s e e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e f i r s t h a l f i s A lle g ro in G m in o r, th e l a s t h a l f Pifr
p r e s to in G m a jo r, syncopated and a c c e n te d . The f i r s t
s e c tio n i s a c t u a l l y two r e p e t i t i o n s o f th e same d e­
scen d in g melody w ith a s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d e n d in g . The
second s e c tio n c o n s is ts o f two i d e n t i c a l s ta c c a to
s e c tio n s f o r th e fo u r v o ic e s jo in e d by fo u r m easu res o f
f o r t e homophony.

BRAJMS, Johannes
"Mond v e r h u llt s e in A n g e s ic h t," from Z ig e u n e r lie d e r , Op. 103,
N r. 10.
I b i d . . p . 187.

V o ic in g : Soprano f ' — g"


A lto b - f l a t — d"
Tenor f — a’
Bass B -fla t — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: B - f l a t m ajor.
Tempo and tim e: A nd an tin o , 2 /4 .
Number of m easures: 74 , c o u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:50 (s e e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
• T e x tu re : a l t e r n a t i n g tw o -p a rt homophonic.
Comments: t h i s work h a s much more of th e l i l t o f th e L i e b e s l ie d e r
s e t t i n g s . The p a ir e d women's v o ic e s a l t e r n a t i n g w ith
th e p a ire d m e n 's v o ic e s rem ain u n t i l th e f i n a l cadence.
The form i s AAB, w ith each A s e c tio n h a v in g e le v e n
m easures and t h e B s e c tio n tw elv e m e asu re s.

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146

BRA1MS, Johannes
"R ote Abendwolken zieh n am Firm am ent," from Z ig e u n e rlie d e r. Op.
103, N r. 11.
I b i d . , p . 190.

V o ic in g : Soprano e -fla t* ~ a - f la t"


A lto d* — e"
Tenor e - f l a t —a - f l a t 1
Bass A — e*
O r ig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o h an d s.
Key: D - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro p a s s io n a to , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 76 , no r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : l.:1 3 .( s e e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : two h a lv e s , each c o n s is tin g o f opening Tenor so lo and
concluding SATB homophonic s e c tio n .
Comments: t h i s work u se s m u sic a l m a t e r ia l s im il a r to th e f i r s t
p ie c e i n th e s e t . The f i r s t so lo i s s ix te e n m easures
lo n g , e ig h t each in D - f l a t m ajo r and E m a jo r. The t u t t i
p a ssa g e d u p lic a te s t h i s e x a c tly . The second Tenor s o lo
i s tv/enty m e asu re s, c o m p letely in D m in o r.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"S eh n su ch t" ("Es rin n e n d ie W asser Tag und N a c h t" ), from Sechs
Q u a r te tte , Op. 112, N r. 1.
I b i d . . p . 193•

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — a"


A lto a - f la t — e -fla t"
T enor d — a*
Bass F — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (F ran z K u g le r).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: F m inor.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 8 l , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2?57 (Gregg S m ith S in g e rs , E v e re s t 3 2 49).
T e x tu re : v a rie d , opening w ith tw o - p a r t.
Comments: th e form i s ABB'A*. P a ire d fem ale and p a ire d m ale v o ic e s
dom inate th e te x t u r e o f b o th A s e c tio n s , w ith th e fem ale
v o ic e s e n te r in g f i r s t . The B s e c tio n i s canonic u s in g a
b r i e f fo u r n o te m otive and i t s in v e rs io n i n G m a jo r. The
B' s e c tio n u s e s th e same m u sic a l m a te r ia l in C m a jo r.

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147

BRAHMS, Johannes
"N achtens" ("N achtens wachen a u f d ie i r r e n " ) , from Sechs Q u a r te tte .
Op. 112, N r. 2 .
I b i d . . p . 198.

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' — a"


A lto a - - e"
T enor e — a’
Bass A — e -fla t'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (F ranz K u g le r).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: D m in o r.
Tempo and tim e: U nruhig bew egt, 5 / 4 .
Number o f m easures: 20 o f 5 /4 , 2 o f 2 /4 , 2 o f 3 /4 , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:25 (R obert Shaw C h o rale, RCA V ic to r IM -1784); 1:51
(Gregg Sm ith S in g e rs , E v e re st 32 4 9 ).
T e x tu re : much tw o -p a rt (one fem ale, one m ale) opposing th e
rem aining two v o ic e s .
Comments: except fo r b r i e f in te r lu d e s th e r i g h t hand of th e p ian o
has only ra p id th ir ty - s e c o n d n o te s . A m otive i s s t a t e d i n
th e opening one m easure p iano in tr o d u c tio n b e fo re th e
Soprano and Tenor s t a t e th e opening theme in q u a r te r and
h a l f n o te s . Two m easures l a t e r th e A lto and Bass p re s e n t
a second themo, an o s c i l l a t i n g m otive i n e ig h th and
s ix te e n th n o te s a s c o u n te rp o in t to th e f i r s t them e. The
p ia n o m otive i n t e r r u p t s f o r one m easure. The second
s e c tio n f e a tu r e s th e second theme w ith th e l a s t h a lf
in v e r te d . Again th e piano i n t e r r u p t s . The A lto and Bass
p r e s e n t th e B themo f o r th e t h i r d tim e , th e p ia n o s t a t e s
i t s m otive e lo n g a te d , and a l l i s s i l e n t .

BRAHMS, Johannes
" V ie r Z ig e u n e rlie d e r," N r, 1 ("Himmel s t r a h l t so h e lle und k l a r " ) ,
from Sechs Q u a r te tte , Op. 112, N r. 3 (0p« H 3» N r. l ) .
I b i d . . p . 203.

V o ic in g : Soprano d* ~ g"
A lto c -s h a rp ' — c -sh a rp "
Tenor f- s h a rp — g-sharp*
Bass A — d*
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s . from H ungarian by Hugo C o n ra t).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro con tro p p o , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 83, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:27 (G achinger K a n to re i, Nonesuch H -71228).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e form i s ABA'AB', th e A* u sin g o n ly th e u pper th r e e
v o ic e s . A ll o th e r s e c tio n s u se a l l fo u r v o ic e s .

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148

BRAHMS, Johannes
"V ier Z ig e u n e rlie d e r,” N r. 2 ("R ote Rosenknospen kiinden schon des
Lenzes T r ie b e " ), from Sechs Q u a r te tte . Op. 112, N r. 4
(Op. 113, N r. 2 ).
I b i d . . p . 208.

V oicing: Soprano g ' — a"


Alto c* — d"
Tenor g — a'
Bass B - f la t — d '
O rig in a l t e x t : (see N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e tto g ra z io so , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 38, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:58 (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : homophonic u n t i l th e f i n a l s ix m easures, th e n p a ire d d u e ts.
Comments: th e form i s AABA'. In th e f i n a l s e c tio n th e Tenor and
Soprano s in g a d u et v a r ia tio n on th e A s e c tio n m ostly
w ith o u t th e p ian o w hile th e rem aining two v o ic es s in g a
tw o -p a rt c o u n te rp o in t.

BRAHMS, Johannes
"V ier Z ig e u n e rlie d e r," N r. 3 ("B ren n essel s t e h t an Weges R and"),
from Sechs Q u a r te tte . Op. 112, N r. 5 (Op* H 3» N r. 3)*
I b i d . . p . 210.

V oicing: Soprano d - f l a t ' — g"


A lto c' — b -f la t’
Tenor f- s h a rp — g '
Bass A -fla t — c'
O rig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m in o r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g ro , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 60, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:02 (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : homophonic beg in n in g and ending, Tenor so lo in th e m iddle
s e c tio n .
Comments: th e w ritin g i3 t y p i c a l of Brahms'p a rt-s o n g s . The key
change from F m inor to F m ajor j u s t b e fo re th e so lo
d iv id e s th e work in to two m ajor d iv is io n s .

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149

BRAHMS, Johannes
" V ie r Z ig e u n e r lie d e r ,” N r. 4 ("Liebe Schwalbe, k le in e Schwalbe” ) ,
from Sechs Q u a r te tte , Op. 112, N r. 6 (Op. 113, N r. 4 ) .
I b i d . . p . 214.

V o icin g : Soprano d ’ ~ f-sh a rp "


A lto a — c"
T enor f-s h a rp — a '
Bass A — a
O r ig in a l t e x t : (se e N r. 1 o f th e s e t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: D m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : P r e s to , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 74, no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0 :4 0 (se e N r. 1 of th e s e t ) .
T e x tu re : A lto s o lo , SATB homophonic, A lto /T en o r d u e t, SATB
homophonic.
Comments: th e d u et i s th e same as th e so lo w ith only th e a d d itio n
o f th e Tenor l i n e . Both SATB s e c tio n s a re th e same,
u s in g an A lto /B a ss p ed al w ith th e Soprano and Tenor in
t h i r d s and s i x t h s . The so lo and d u et a re in D m inor,
th e t u t t i s e c tio n s in D m a jo r.

BRAHMS, Johannes
K le in e H o c h ze its-K an tate ("Zwei G e lie b te , tr e u v erbunden"), no
opus number.
I b i d . p . 226.

V o icin g : Soprano c ’ ~ g"


A lto b - f l a t — d"
T enor c — g'
B ass A — c*
O rig in a l t e x t : German (G o ttf rie d K e lle r ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Tempo d i lie n u e tto , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 37 > no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:55 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: a n o th e r work w r itte n f o r a s p e c if ic o c ca sio n . There was
no t i t l e on th e o r ig in a l m a n u sc rip t, th e only m ention i s
t h a t i t was w r itte n J u ly , 1874, on Lake Z*urich. The
form i s AA'BA", w ith a f i n a l b r i e f A statem en t a t th e
f i n a l cadence.

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150

CANNABICH, Carlo (1764-1806)


"Mi g i u r i che m 'a m i," No. 1 from S e i C a n z o n e tte . Op. 5 .
Monaco: M acario F a l t e r ( p l a t e No. 8 5 ), n . d . ; L ib ra ry o f Congress
No. M 1553*0, c a s e .

V o ic in g : Soprano f-sh a rp * — g**


Tenor e — g*
Bass c — c*
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g ro m o d erato , C.
Number o f m easures: 43, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:23 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: th e p ia n o p a r t i s ex trem ely s im p le , a s a r e th e Tenor and
Bass p a r t s . The Soprano i s th e dom inant v o ic e v /ith
d i f f e r e n t rh y th m ic s tr u c t u r e s from th e o th e r l i n e s . The
t e s s i t u r a s a re c o n sid e ra b ly more r e s t r a i n e d th a n
in d ic a te d ab o v e.

CANNABICH, C arlo
’•Come i l candors d 'i n t a t t a n e v e ," No. 2 from S e i C an z o n e tte .
Op. 5*
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' - - gH
T enor e — o'
Bass 0 — c*
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lla P o la c c a , 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 29, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1 :1 2 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic, w ith some o rn a m e n ta tio n .
Comments: some c o lo r a tu r a work in th e Soprano and B ass p a r t s , and
th e p ia n o p a r t has more v a r i e t y th a n i n th e o th e rs of
th e s e t . The form i s AAB.

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151

CANNABICH, Carlo
"A1 bosco c a c c i a t o r i , " No. 3 from S e i C an zo n ette. Op. 5«
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano f ' — f"


T enor d — e -fla t1
B ass B -fla t — b - f la t
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tiro h an d s.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A ll e g r e t t o , 6 /8 .
Number o f m easu res: 22, c o u n tin g r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 0 :3 2 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: t h i s work, in 6 /8 w ith a S ic i lia n o rhythm , ap p ears to be
d e sig n e d a s a f i l l e r o r change o f p ace p ie c e between two
3 /4 w orks. I t i s homophonic th ro u g h o u t w ith th e p ia n o
l i t t l e more th a n d o u b lin g th e v o ic e l i n e s .

CANNABICH, C arlo
"Sempre s a ro c o s ta n te ," No. 4 from S e i C an z o n e tte . Op. 5«
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano. d' — a -fla t"


T enor f — f*
B ass A -- d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndantino g ra z io s o , q u a si A lle g r e tto , 3/4*
Number o f m easu res: 42 , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1 :3 0 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: th e Soprano com pletely dom inates th e w ork. I n th e l a s t
h a l f of th e work th e Tenor and Bass m erely form an
accom panying homophonic u n i t . E x cep t f o r an opening
f o u r m easure in tr o d u c tio n and a c lo s in g fo u r m easure
p a ssa g e th e p ia n o does l i t t l e more th a n double th e
v o ic e l i n e s .

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152

CANNABICH, Carlo
"Q u ella T iran n a che m 'a p ia g a to i l c o r ," No. 5 from S ei C an zo n ette.
Op. 5 .
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — g"


Tenor e — d'
Bass G — g
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e t to , 2 /4 .
Number of m easures: 34, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:45 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic p r im a r ily .
Comments: see "Comments" on No. 1 , above. The Soprano has a
l i g h t l y ornamented l i n e , w ith th e o th e r two v o ic e s
accompanying.

CANNABICH, C arlo
"S cio g le ro l e m ie c a te n e ," No. 6 from S e i C an zo n ette. Op. 5»
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano I e - f l a t ' — g"


Soprano I I b -fla t — b - f la t1
Tenor f — f'
Bass G — b -fla t
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: E - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Andante con e s p re s s io n e , 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 40, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:15 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : th r e e - p a r t o r f o u r - p a r t homophonic.
Comments: th e same ty p e o f w ritin g a s th e f i r s t f iv e p ie c e s i n th e
s e t , b u t u n e x p lain ab ly f o r SSTB in s te a d o f STB. The
Soprano I i s s t i l l th e f e a tu re d s o l o i s t w ith some
m elism as and ornam ents, b u t no more th a n th e Soprano had
i n th e f i r s t f i v e numbers. M easures 9 th ro u g h 16 a re
sc o re d fo r SST w ith p ia n o , a t which p o in t th e Bass has
a sm all amount o f independent m elodic m a t e r i a l . The
p ia n o m ostly d oubles th e low er v o ic e s , a s was common in
th e f i r s t f iv e numbers o f th e s e t .

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153

CORNELIUS, P e te r (1824-1874)
T ro s t in Tranen ("Wie kommt's, dass du so t r a u r i g L i s t ? " ) , Op. 14.
P e te r C o rn e liu s . M u sic a lisch e s Werke. L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f &
H a r te l, Z w eiter Band: 'M ehrstimmige L ied e r und G esange,"
P . 153.

V oicin g : B arito n e d — f'


Mezzo-Soprano c ' — e”
Tenor f — g*
Bass I d -fla t — e - f l a t 1
Bass I I F — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) (E n g lish
t r a n s l a t i o n by M rs. B. S h a p le ig h ).
Accompaniment: o p tio n a l p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: MBssig langsam, le n to m oderato, 3/ 4.
Number o f m easures: 112. no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 4:42 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic accompanying th e B arito n e a s s o l o i s t .
Comments: th e B arito n e i s th e fe a tu re d s o l o i s t , w ith th e o th e r
v o ic e s v i r t u a l l y com pletely homophonic. A ccording to th e
composer "The com position was conceived by th e composer
a c a p p e lla and th e p ia n o fo rte accompaniment iB to be used
o r d isc a rd e d acco rd in g to th e needs o f th e s in g e r s ." The
p ian o lin e i s a c tu a lly a re d u c tio n o f th e low er fo u r
v o ic e s . This work i s No. 1 , page 210, i n th e m an u scrip t
s e c tio n of t h i s d is s e r t a t i o n .

DANZI, F ranz (1763-1826)


"0 che f e l i c i p i a n t i , " No. 2 from Sechs d reistim m ig e Gesange,
Op. 16, P a rt I .
L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l (no p la te num ber), n . d . ; L ib ra ry of
Congress No. M 1553»D.

V oicin g : Soprano I f - s h a r p 1 — gH
Soprano I I d ' — d"
Bass G— a
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: G m a jo r.
tempo and tim e : Andante, 3 /4 .
Number of m easures: 23, no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:56 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : m o stly homophonic.
Comments: th e piano p a r t i s u s u a lly d e riv e d from th e v o ic e p a r t s ,
ex cep t in th e m iddle s e c tio n where th e two Soprano v o ices
have echoing p h ra s e s .

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154

DANZI, Franz
"No non v e d re te mai cam biar g l ' a f f e t t i , " No. 3 from Sechs D re i-
stimmige G esange. Op. l 6 , P a rt I .
Ib id .

V o icin g : Soprano I g' — aH


Soprano I I d ' — d"
Bass G — b -fla t
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (Gennan t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tt o , 6 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 2G, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:52 (a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: each v o ic e p a r t has an o c c a sio n a l melisma to r e lie v e th e
homophonic sam eness. The p iano l i n e i s b a s ic a lly th e
" I t a l i a n g u i t a r ” s t y l e . The form i s a sim ple AB.

DANZI, Franz
"D el sen g l 'a r d o r i n essu n mi v a n t i , ” No. 1 from S e i Q u a r t e tti .
no opus number.
Bonn: N. Simrock ( p la te No. 1840), n . d . ; L ib rary o f Congress
No. M 1554.D, c a s e .

V oicin g : Soprano I f ' — a"


Soprano I I c' — b -fla t'
T enor g — g'
Bass A — d*
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: B - f la t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e tto , 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 5 7 , co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:48 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: in a l l of th e p ie c e s in t h i s s e t (ex cep t No. 2) th e
Soprano I h a s , in e f f e c t , a dominant so lo w ith th e low er
th r e e v o ic e s ( th e om nipresent STB) s e rv in g as an accom­
panim ent. The p ian o o fte n doubles th e s e low er th r e e
v o ic e s w h ile th e Soprano I weaves a c o lo ra tu ra l i n e above
t h i s . The e f f e c t i s alm ost t h a t of a t r i o so n ata
accompaniment f o r a s o l o i s t . The low er p a r ts a re easy
w h ile th e Soprano I l i n e i s r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
155

DANZI, Franz
"Se un core annodi se un alma accendi," No. 2 from Sei Quartetti.
no opus number.
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano I f - s h a r p ' ~ g"


Soprano I I e ' — g"
T enor d — g'
B ass B — b
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante con m oto, 6 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 82, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3:30 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : canonic and hom ophonic.
Comments: t h i s i s th e m ost i n t r i c a t e p ie c e i n th e s e t . The T enor
s t a t e s a s ix te e n m easure theme w hich i s fo llo w ed by an
easy homophonic s e c tio n f o r a l l fo u r v o ic e s . Then th e
Soprano I I s t a t e s th e e x a c t same theme a s o r i g i n a l l y sung
by th e T en o r, w h ile th e T enor has a sim p le c o u n te rp o in t
p a r t . The homophonic s e c tio n r e t u r n s , th e n th e Soprano I
s t a t e s th e m ain them e, th e Soprano I I ta k e s th e c o u n te r­
p o in t sung p re v io u s ly by th e T e n o r, w h ile th e T enor s in g s
new c o n tra p u n ta l m a t e r i a l . The r e t u r n o f th e homophonic
s e c tio n ends th e p ie c e . T h is work i s No. 2, p . 239
i n th e m a n u sc rip t s e c tio n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .

DANZI, F ran z
"So che p r e s to ognun s 'a w e d e , " No. 3 from S e i Q u a r t e t t i . no
opus number.
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano I g ' — b"


Soprano I I d ' — d"
T enor f-sh a rp — g '
Bass G — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: E m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A l l e g r e t t o , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 9 4 , c o u n tin g r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 3*00 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : ornam ented hom ophonic.
Comments: th e Soprano I has b o th a h ig h ra n g e and in v o lv e d c o lo r ­
a t u r a w ork. The form i s AAB, w ith th e A s e c tio n s b ein g
i d e n t i c a l , th e B s e c tio n b e g in n in g i n G m ajo r and
f in i s h in g i n E m in o r. The p ia n o keeps a b o le ro rhythm
th ro u g h o u t.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
156

DANZI, Franz
"Se intends s i poco che ho l'alma piagata," No. 4 from Sei Quar-
t e t t i, no opus number.
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano I f - s h a r p ’ — a"
Soprano I I d ’ — c"
T enor g — g'
B ass A — d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ll e g r e t t o , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 88, c o u n tin g r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 2:26 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: a lth o u g h a l l p ie c e s in t h i s s e t u se th e low er th re e
v o ic e s p r im a r ily a s an accompaniment f o r th e Soprano I ,
t h i s p ie c e does so alm ost c o m p le te ly . The Soprano I
l i n e i s q u ite f l o r i d . The form i s AAB.

DANZI, F ranz
" S o l puo d i r come s i t r o v a ," No. 5 from S e i Q u a r t e t t i . no opus
number.
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano I g - f la t' — b -fla t"


Soprano I I c* — e - f l a t "
T enor g — f'
B ass A -fla t — e - f l a t '
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: A - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : L a rg h e tto , 3/4-*
Number of m easures: 6 l , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:15 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e Soprano I i s s t i l l th e dom inant v o ic e , b u t th e
Soprano I I and Tenor have a d u e t r e l a t i o n s h i p , p a r tic u ­
l a r l y i n th e f i r s t h a lf o f th e work. Near th e end o f th e
work th e two Soprano p a r t s have echoing p h ra s e s .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
DANZI, Franz
"Se per tu tti ordisce amore," No. 6 from Sei Quartetti. no opus
number.
Ib id .

V o ic in g :' Soprano I e ' - - a”


Soprano I I c -s h a rp ’ — c -sh arp "
T enor f- s h a rp — f - s h a r p '
Bass A — c -s h a rp ’
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (German t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: P o la c ca , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 54, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:45 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : b a s ic a lly homophonic.
Comments: t h i s appears to be a c o n tin u a tio n o f th e m u sic a l id e a s of
No. 5 , w ith th e Soprano I dom inating b u t w ith th e Soprano
I I and Tenor s in g in g d u et m a te r ia l d e riv e d from th e
Soprano I l i n e .

DARGOMYZHSKY, A lexander ( I 813- I 869)


The F r a g il e J o y s , no opus number.
New Y ork: Southern M usic P u b lish in g C o ., I n c . , 1963*

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — f"


A lto c* — c -sh a rp "
Tenor e — f*
Bass A — c -s h a rp '
O r ig in a l t e x t : R ussian (E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n o n ly in t h i s e d i tio n ,
by John K lein and W ladimir Lakond).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m inor
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 2/2..
Number o f m easures: 37> no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:04 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic, two p a r t o r fo u r p a r t .
Comments: extrem ely sim ple in b o th v o c a l and p ia n o l i n e s . The
c o lle c te d d u e ts , t r i o s and q u a r te ts a r e i n one volume in
t h e L ib rary o f C ongress, No. M 1756.D, 28D8. The form
i s AABB', th e f i r s t A s e c tio n b e in g a u n iso n (o c ta v e )
d u et by th e Tenor and Soprano and th e second A s e c tio n
b ein g a fo u r - p a r t harm o n izatio n o f t h a t m elody. The
second B s e c tio n i s a reh a rm o n iz atio n o f th e f i r s t B
s e c tio n . T here i s a fo u r m easure hummed coda.

with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission
158

DARGOMYZHSKY, A lexander
T rio ("K'b a o c T o K .y "), no opus number.
Moscow: 11 IOptihcoh * ( p la te No. 10357 T . 3 7 7 ), n . d .

V o icin g : Mezzo-Soprano d ' — f"


Tenor a -fla t — a - f la t'
Bass G (E -fla t) — e - f l a t '
O r ig in a l t e x t : R ussian, no a u th o r l i s t e d .
Accompaniment: p ian o , two hands.
Key: E - f l a t m ajor.
Tempo and tim e: M oderato a s s a i , C.
Number o f m easures: 67, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:45 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : m o stly p o ly ph o n ic.
Comments: th e t i t l e t r a n s l a t e s as ''To th e E a s t ," or "7/e a l l go to
th e E a s t" . The p re lu d e , in te r lu d e and p o stlu d e a l l use
th e same m a te r ia l v i r t u a l l y unchanged. T his work i s
No. 3, page 254, in th e m an u scrip t s e c tio n o f t h i s
d is s e rta tio n .

DONIZETTI, Gaetano (1797-1848)


"D uetto e T e rz e tto " ("Ah, che i l d e s tin o mio b e l te s o r o " ) , no
opus number.
M an u sc rip t copy, holograph of th e o r i g i n a l in th e D o n iz e tti
L ib ra ry , Bologna, I t a l y ; L ib ra ry o f Congress No. ML
96.5 .D 68, c a s e .

V o ic in g : Soprano I g' — f"


Soprano I I b - f l a t — c"
Tenor e - f l a t ( A - f la t) — a - f l a t '
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: piano, two hands.
Key: A - f l a t m ajor.
Tempo and tim e: no tempo in d ic a tio n , 2 /4 .
Number of m easures: 37, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:10 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : m ostly homophonic.
Comments: th e two Sopranos move in sim ple t h i r d s v i r t u a l l y a l l of
th e tim e . The Tenor l i n e (presum ably) i s o p tio n a l,
s in c e an a d d itio n a l n o te on th e t i t l e page says "D uetto
e T e rz e tto , s i se v uole" (d u e t o r t r i o , a s you w is h ). The
v o c a l w ritin g i s re m in isc en t o f D o n iz e tt i's o p e ra tic
s t y l e . T his work i s No. 4 , page 263, in th e m an u scrip t
s e c tio n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
159

FAURE, G a b rie l (1845-1924)


M ad rig al ("Inhum aines q u i, san s m e rc i" ), Op. 35.
New York: Broude B ro th e rs ( p la te No. B. B. 1 3 4 ), 1954.

V oicing: Soprano d ' — g"


A lto a — b -fla t1
Tenor d — a*
Bass A — d'
O rig in a l te x t : French (Armand S il v e s tr e ) (E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n by-
P e te r J . S te p h e n s).
Accompaniment: p ian o , two h ands.
Key: D m inor.
Tempo and tim e : Andante q u a si A lle g r e tto , 3 /4 .
Number of m easures: 129, wo r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:40 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d , but m o stly tw o -p a rt p o ly p h o n ic.
Comments: th e poem concerns th e b a t t l e o f th e sexes w ith th e men
say in g "Women, y o u r way i s c ru e lty " and th e women
answ ering, "Men, you a re h e a r tle s s and u n ro m an tic."
Much of th e p ia n o li n e c o n s is ts o f broken chord f ig u r a ­
t i o n s , and a l l o f th e v o ic e s have extended s o lo s . The
fo m i s ABAB w ith th e second A s e c tio n being only a
re v o ic in g of th e f i r s t . The f i r s t B s e c tio n i s in F
m a jo r, th e second B s e c tio n ends w ith a coda i n D m ajor
a f t e r an extended s e r i e s of m o d u la tio n s.

FOSTER, Stephen (1826-1864)


Come where my love l i e s dream ing (Q u a r te t) , no opus number.
New York: F i r t h , Pond & C o ., 1855*

V oicing: Soprano e ’ — a"


A lto f* — d"
Tenor c — b -fla t
Bass F — g
O rig in a l t e x t : E n g lish (S tep h en F o s t e r ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: M oderato, C.
Number of m easures: 68, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:44 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : ornamented homophonic.
Comments: th e b a sic s c o rin g i s ATB, w ith th e Soprano used p r im a r ily
f o r d escan t work o r as a fe a tu re d s o l o i s t . A ll t e s s i t u r a s
a r e q u ite low, ex cep t f o r th e f i n a l Soprano m e asu re s. The
melody i s in th e te n o r (which was p la c e d n ex t to th e to p
o f th e s c o re ). The form i s AA'BA', w ith th e b r i e f e ig h t
measure B s e c tio n in th e dom inant. A lso a v a ila b le in
Songs. Com positions and Arrangem ents by Stephen C o llin s
F o s te r . In d ia n a p o lis : J o s ia h Kirby L i l l y , 1933* 3 v o ls .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
l6o

GLINKA, U ik h a il (1804-1857)
KflApTeT ("Sogna c h i cred e d 'e s s e r f e l i c e " ) , no opus number.
Moscow: Tocr^APCTSEHrtoEMyaBiKAAbHOE AATgAbcrso, i 960, p .

V o ic in g : M ezzo-Soprano o r A lto b — f"


T enor I g — g'
T enor I I c -s h a rp — f*
B ass G (F) — d - f la t*
O r ig in a l t e x t : R u ssia n (Po<AECT 8£«CKoFe ) , w ith I t a l i a n
tra n s la tio n .
Accompaniment: V io lin I , V io lin I I , V io la , V io lo n c e llo , B ass.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 169. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : $ : 4 5 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e work i s ex ten d ed and o r c h e s tr a te d l i k e an o p era scene
w ith d ra m a tic a c t i o n in b o th th e v o ic e s and in s tru m e n ts .
The t e x t u r e i s s h i f t e d t o a l l a v a il a b l e com binations o f
tw o , t h r e e o r fo u r v o ic e s . T here i s a m o tiv e u sed f i r s t
by t h e Bass and fo llo w e d a f t e r two m easures by th e A lto
w hich i s l a t e r u sed by th e Soprano and Tenor in th e sub­
dom inant t o in tro d u c e th e second s e c tio n o f th e w ork.

GLINKA, M ik h a il
TpHo C f t p r r 3 o.8£7Hfc/«"), no opus num ber.
Ib id ., p .

V o ic in g : A lto a — e"
T enor e — g*
B ass A — e -fla t'
O r ig in a l t e x t : R u ssia n (C.B. Thh3S£PT ) -
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: T m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante m osso, 3/ 8.
Number o f m easu res: 90, no r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 2:12 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : b a s i c a l l y hom ophonic.
Comments: a common te x t u r e i n t h i s work i s f o r th e v o ic e s t o s in g
unaccom panied, fo llo w ed by an in s tru m e n ta l i n t e r l u d e . As
w ith th e Q u a rte t above b o th th e v o c a l and in s tr u m e n ta l
l i n e s a r e q u it e e a s y .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
161

HARDER, August (1774-1813)


"An E l i s a " ("L ehnst du d e in e b le ic h -g e h a n n te Yfange"), N r. 1 from
I I I dreistim m ig e G esange, Op. 34.
B e rlin s lin K unst- und In d u s trie -C o m p to ir, n . d . ; L ib ra ry o f
C ongress No. M 1553.H.

V oicin g : Tenor I a — g'


Tenor I I e -fla t — e -fla t'
Bass F — g
O rig in a l t e x t : German (M a tth is o n ).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : M it A usdruck, C.
Number of M easures: 36, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:58 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e e n t i r e s e t o f th r e e p ie c e s a r e cu t from th e same
b o l t o f e a r ly n in e te e n th - c e n tu ry c lo th . The homophonic
t e x t u r e , th e TTB v o ic in g and in s tr u c t i o n s such as "In
m a ssig e r Bewegung; d ie l e t z t e H a lfte m it steigendem
A ffe k t" in d ic a te w r itin g f o r am ateur p ro d u c tio n . T his
p a r t i c u l a r work i s q u a s i- s tr o p h ic in t h a t th e same
m u s ic a l id e a s p r e v a il th ro u g h th e th r e e s e c tio n s b u t
s u b tle harmonic and m elo d ic changes keep th e i n t e r e s t
o f th e s in g e r s . T h is work i s No. 5 , page 269, i n th e
m a n u sc rip t s e c tio n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .

HARDER, August
"S erenade" ("L ass m ein er L iebe S o rg e n " ), N r. 2 from I I I d r o i -
stim m ige G esange. Op. 3 4 .
Ib id .

V oicin g : Tenor I g — a'


T enor H e — d*
Bass G— g
O rig in a l t e x t : German (A. A p e l).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : In m a ssig e r Bewegung; d ie l e t z t e H a lfte m it
steigendem A ffe k t, 3 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 36, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:02 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: see f i r s t e n tr y . Somewhat more rh y th m ic v i t a l i t y th a n
in th e f i r s t o r t h i r d p ie c e s o f th e s e t . Because o f
th e r e l a t i v e ease of th e m elodic l i n e s and th e lim ite d
ra n g e s of th e v o ic e p a r t s t h i s e n t i r e s e t o f th r e e
w orks would make e x c e lle n t l i t e r a t u r e f o r h ig h sc h o o l
o r c iv ic c h o ir s . A lthough h a rm o n ic a lly conceived each
v o ic e l i n e i s q u ite m e lo d io u s.

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162

HARDER, A ugust
"S tandchen” ("Durch d e r Nacht b e tr a u te S t i l l e ” ) , N r. 3 from
I I I drei3tim m ige Gesange. Op. 34*
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Tenor I a — b -fla t'


Tenor I I f — e - f la t*
Ba3S F —g
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (C . A. H. C lo d iu s ).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : N icht zu langsam , doch a u sd ru c k s v o ll, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 16, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:42 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: t y p i c a l of th e g e n re . See th e f i r s t e n try f o r f u r t h e r
in fo rm a tio n . A ll th r e e works have very easy v o c a l l i n e s .

HAYDN, Franz Joseph (1732-1809)


"D er A ugenblick" (" In b ru n 3 t, Z a r t l i c h k e i t , V e rsta n d " ), No. 1 from
M ehrstimmige Gesange.
F ran z Jo sep h Haydn. 7/erke. Munchen: G. H enle V erlag (1 9 5 8 ),
V o l. XXX, "Mehrstimmige G esange,” p . 1 .

V o ic in g : Soprano e ' — a"


A lto a — d”
T enor c -sh arp — f - s h a r p '
Bass A — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (R am ler).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (fig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Poco A dagio, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 90, no re p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:45 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : s e c tio n a l, each s e c tio n beg in n in g w ith c o u n te rp o in t and
end in g w ith homophony.
Comments: th e form i s ABACAC, w ith th e A s e c tio n s a p p earin g a t
m easures 1 , 26 and 59* The B s e c tio n b eg in s a t m easure 8
and i s f u g a l. The two C s e c tio n s begin a t m easures 39
and 66, and both a re i d e n t i c a l except t h a t th e f i n a l
C s e c tio n has a f iv e measure e x te n s io n .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
163

HAYDN, F ranz Joseph


"Die Hannonie in d er Ehe" ("0 w underbare H arm onie"), No. 2 from
M ehrstim mige Gesange.
I b id ., p.

V oicing: Soprano c ' — g"


A lto a — e -fla t"
Tenor c — g*
B ass A — d*
O rig in a l t e x t : German ( J . N. G o tz ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (f ig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: B - f la t m ajo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , C.
Number of m easures: 5 4 , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:56 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e t e x t c o n sid e rs th e b l i s s t h a t occurs when a mar and
h i s w ife a p p re c ia te th e same s i l l y th in g s . As w ith most
p ie c e s in t h i s s e t , th e p ian o p a r t i s p rim a rily a re d u c ­
t i o n o f th e v o c a l l i n e s .

HAYDN, Franz Joseph


" A lle s h a t sein e Z e it" ("Lebe, li e b e , t r i n k e , l a m e " ) , No. 3 from
M ehrstimmige Gesange.
Ib id . . p . lo .

V o icing: Soprano c* - - a"


A lto b -fla t ~ e"
Tenor c — g'
Bass F — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Aus dem G rie c h is c h e n ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (f ig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , C.
Number o f m easures: 4 0 , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:32 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d
Comments: each v o ic e p a r t has long c o lo r a tu r a p a ssa g es re q u ir in g
above averag e v o ic e s f o r p ro p e r r e a l i z a t i o n . As w ith
s e v e r a l p ie c e s i n t h i s s e t a sen se o f humor h e lp s in th e
p erfo rm an ce. A lso , as w ith o th e r p ie c e s in t h i s s e t ,
th e w r itin g i s o fte n two p a r t s homophonic a l t e r n a t i n g
w ith th e rem aining two p a r t s homophonic. The f o u r - p a r t
w r itin g i s alm ost alw ays p u re ly homophonic.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
164

HAYDN, F ranz Joseph


"D ie B eredsam keit" ("F reunde, Wasser m achet stumm"), No. 4 from
Mehrstimmige Gesange.
I b i d . , p . 22.

V o icin g : Soprano f ' — g"


A lto b -fla t — e -fla t"
T enor f — g'
Bass F — e -fla t'
O rig in a l te x t : German (L e s s in g ).
Accompaniment: p ian o , two hands (fig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: B - f la t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , C.
Number of m easures: 55» no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:10 ( a p p r o s .) .
T e x tu re : v a rie d , but m ostly tw o -p a rt to f o u r - p a r t homophonic.
Comments: a d e lig h tf u ll y comic p ie c e on th e b e n e f its o f Rheinwein
i n o p p o sitio n to w ater "which makes one s i l e n t (dum b)."
Much of th e w ritin g i s tw o -p a rt a l t e r n a t i n g w ith th e
rem aining two p a r t s . When th r e e p a r ts s in g i t i s
u s u a lly in c o u n te rp o in t, and fo u r v o ices u s u a lly have a
homophonic te x t u r e .

HAYDN, F ranz Joseph


"Der G re is" ("Hin i s t a l l e meine K r a f t" ) , No. 5 from M ehrstim mige
G esange.
I b i d . . p . 29.

V oicin g : Soprano d* — f-s h a rp "


A lto a — d"
Tenor e — f-sh a rp *
Bass A — d*
O rig in a l t e x t : German (G leim ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (fig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : (M olto) ad ag io , C.
Number of m easures: 42, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3:00 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d , w ith m o stly tw o -p art and f o u r - p a r t homophonic
w r itin g .
Comments: th e poem concerns th e musings of an aged man, "The Grey
O ne," as he says th a t "Gone i s a l l my power. D eath
knocks on my d o o r." The te x tu r e t o t h i s p o in t i n th e
poem has been a duet by th e women's v o ic es a l t e r n a t i n g
w ith a duet by th e m en's v o ic e s , b o th le a d in g ■*nto f o u r -
p a r t homophony. When th e t e x t say s "My l i f e has been an
harmonious song" th e m usic i s com pletely homophonic.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
165

HAYDN, F ranz Jo sep h


"An den V e tte r " ( " J a , V e tte r , j a " ) , No. 6 from M ehrstimmige
G esange.
Ib id . . p . 34.

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' — g"


A lto c* — e"
T enor c — g'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Johann G o ttf r ie d R am ler).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands ( f ig u r e d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : (A lle g ro ) , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 118. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:05 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e t e x t s a y s : "Yes, C ousin, lo v e and fo o lis h n e s s a r e
one and th e same, and I am n o t n e c e s s a r ily a f o o l." The
form i s ABA*B', th e f i n a l B s e c tio n having a t h i r t e e n
m easure e x te n s io n . The f i r s t th r e e s e c tio n s begin
c o n tra p u n ta lly and end hom ophonically.

HAYDN, F ran z Jo sep h


"Daphnens e in z i g e r F e h le r" (" S ie h a t das A uge"), No. 7 from
M ehrstim m ige G esange.
Ib id .. p . 40.

V o icin g : T enor I f-sh a rp — a '


T enor I I d — g'
Bass G — e’
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (p o e t unknown).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands ( f ig u r e d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 105. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:28 (a p p ro x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: a s in a l l o f th e t h r e e - p a r t songs th e p ian o p a r t i s
a lm o st t o t a l l y a re d u c tio n of th e v o c a l p a r t s e x cep t f o r
a n o c c a s io n a l o ctav e d isp la c e m e n t o r an i n t e r l u d e . The
ABA, BIA"B" form w ith a coda has th e second A s e c tio n
a l t e r n a t i n g w ith th e rem ain in g two p a r t s .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
166

HAYDN, F ranz Jo sep h


" B e tra c h tu n g des Todes” ("D er Ju n g lin g h o f f t d es G re is e s Z i e l " ) ,
No. 9 from Mehrstimmige Gesange .
I b id . . p . 57.

V o ic in g : Soprano c -s h a rp ' ~ f n
Tenor e — g*
B ass G -sharp — f '
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( G e l l e r t ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (f ig u re d cembalo l i n e ) .
Key: A m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 6 /8 .
Number of m easu res: 6 l , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:15 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e t h r e e - p a r t s e t t in g s a re c o n s is te n tly more c o n tra ­
p u n ta l th a n th e f o u r - p a r t s e t t i n g s . Each of th e th r e e
v o ic e s in t h i s s e tt in g ta k e s a p a r t i c u l a r im p e rso n a tio n ,
th e Soprano th e p a r t o f a young man ( J u n g lin g ), th e
T enor th e p a r t of a m ature man (d e r Mann) and th e Bass
th e r o le o f a g re y -h a ire d old man (Der G r e is ) .

HAYDN, F ranz Joseph


"An d ie F rauen" ("N a tu r gab S tie r e n H o rn er") , No. 11 from
M ehrstim mige G esange.
I b i d . . p . 69.

V o ic in g : T enor I c — a'
T enor I I c — g'
Bass F (C) — d*
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s l a t i o n o f th e second ode o f Anakreon
by G. A. B u rg e r).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , C.
Number of m easures: 62, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:45 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: a comic work poking fun a t undue re v e re n c e f o r womanly
b e a u ty . "N ature gave b u lls h o rn s , r a b b it s f a s t f e e t ,
h o rs e s hooves, e t c . , and men wisdom, b u t women re c e iv e d
b e a u ty ," and a t t h i s p o in t Haydn b u rle sq u e s th e word
" S c h o n h e it."

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
167

H3MMEL, F . E n rico (1765-1814)


T e r z e tto ("Q uesto e suono d 'am o re'."). no opus number.
L e ip z ig : C. F . P e te r s ( p l a t e No. 6 42), n . d . ; L ib rary o f Congress
No. M 1553-H 65T4, c a se .

V o ic in g : . Soprano I e - f l a t ' — g"


Soprano I I c' — g -fla t"
Tenor B - f la t — a - f l a t '
O r ig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: (s e e : Comments).
Key: E - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A dagio, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 84, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:55 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e t i t l e page re a d s " T e rz e tto a 2 S oprani e Tenore c o l l '
A nnonica e B asso ," th e arm onica b ein g an a n c e s to r of th e
a c c o rd ia n , b u t a t th e bottom o f th e page i s th e in d ic a ­
t i o n " c o ll'a c c o m p . d i F la u to , Oboi, C o rn i, F a g o tto e
B asso ," w ith p a r t s f o r f l u t e , oboe I and I I , horn I and
I I , bassoon and b a s s /v io lo n c e llo . These in s tru m e n ta l
p a r t s double a l l of th e n o te s in th e Armonica p a r t .
Himmel was a p p a re n tly co v erin g a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s as to
th e p la y e r s who would be a v a ila b le to p la y t h i s work.
The m usic i s re m in isc e n t o f M o zart, w ith sim ple v o c a l
l i n e s except f o r th e wide range o f th e Tenor p a r t . The
m usic i s d iv id e d in to th r e e s e c tio n s : Adagio. M olto
a d a g io , and A l l e g r e t t o .

HUBER, Hans (1852-1921)


"H ochbegluckt in d e in e r L ie b e ," N r. 2 from Sehn Q u a r te tte , Op. 65*
L e ip z ig : F r . K is tn e r ( p l a t e No. 6235)» L ib ra ry o f Congress
No. M1554.H.

V o ic in g : Soprano d -s h a rp ' — g -sh a rp "


A lto a -s h a rp — b '
Tenor e — f-sh a rp '
Bass F -sh a rp - - c -s h a rp '
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (G oethe: W est-O stlichem D ivan) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , fo u r hands.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsames W alzertempo, 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 102, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*12 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : predom inantly homophonic.
Comments: t h i s s e t of te n q u a rte ts i s s im ila r i n s p i r i t to Brahms
q u a r te t s e t t i n g s . The p ian o l i n e s a re th e w eakest a s p e c t
o f th e w orks. I n t h i s work th e Tenor has an extended so lo
i n th e m iddle s e c tio n in th e r e l a t i v e m in o r. The rem ain­
d e r o f Op. 65 i s s im ila r in alm o st every r e s p e c t to Nos.
2, 3> 8 and 10.

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168

HUBER, Hans
"Was v/ird m ir je d e Stunde so la n g ? ," N r. 3 from Zehn Q u a r te tte .
Op. 65.
Ib id .

V oicin g : Soprano c ’ ~ gw
A lto a -fla t — e -fla t”
Tenor c — g'
Bass A — e -fla t'
O rig in a l t e x t : German (se e e n try f o r N r. 2 ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , fo u r hands.
Key: C m inor.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g ro con fuoco, C.
Number of m easures: 37» no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:55 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: p o s s ib ly in te n d e d as a c o n tr a s tin g p ie c e in th e s e t , t h i s
work opens and c lo s e s w ith t u t t i unison v o ic e s . T here i s
more chrom aticism in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work th a n in m ost o f
th e o th e r s e c tio n s of th e s e t o f t e n . I t i s th ro u g h -
composed w ith th e v o ic in g form ing a ty p e of a rc h form .

HUBER, Hans
"Deinem B lick mich zu bequemen," N r. 8 from Zehn Q u a r te tte . Op. 65.
Ib id .

V oicing: Soprano f - s h a r p ' — a"


A lto a — b'
Tenor f- s h a rp — f - s h a r p ’
Bass F -sh a rp — c -s h a rp '
O rig in a l t e x t : German (s e e e n try f o r N r. 2 ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , fo u r hands.
Key: F -sharp m inor.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e tto , M enuetttem po, 3/4-*
Number of m easures: 6 l , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:28 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: b a s ic a lly a t h r e e - p a r t work, w ith th e opening and c lo s in g
s e c tio n s homophonic and a b r i e f c o n tra p u n ta l m iddle
s e c tio n . Because of i t s s e c ti o n a l q u a lity , chorus
d ir e c to r s m ight lik e t o t r y th e m iddle s e c tio n w ith
s o l o i s t s , and th e f i r s t and l a s t s e c tio n s by th e f u l l
c h o ir . T his does no v io le n c e to th e form , and g iv e s
some needed c o n tr a s t to th e f u l l s e t .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
169

HUBER, Hans
"L ieb urn L ieb e , Wort urn W ort," N r. 10 from Zehn Q u a r te tte . Op. 65.
Ib id .

V oicing: Soprano d -s h a rp ' — g -sh a rp "


A lto g -sh a rp — d -s h a rp "
Tenor e — f-sh a rp ’
B ass A (E) — e '
O rig in a l t e x t : German (s e e e n try f o r N r. 2 ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , fo u r h an d s.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Z iem lich langsam e con m olto e s p re s s io n e , 6 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 48, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:30 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic excep t f o r a fu g a l b e g in n in g .
Comments: a s w ith o th e rs in t h i s s e t , th e p ian o w ritin g te n d s t o be
somewhat m onotonous. There i s a fifte e n -m e a s u re unaccom­
p a n ied s e c tio n which begins th e p ie c e . This work i s
No. 6 , page 276, i n th e m a n u scrip t s e c tio n o f t h i s
d is s e rta tio n .

LAUER, A. B. d i (d a te s n o t a v a ila b le )
Q u a rte tto a Canone ("Amar f r a m ille un co re in l u i " ) , Op. 7 .
B e r lin : P re s so T . T rautv/ein ( J . G u tte n ta g ), c a . 1845; L ib ra ry of
C ongress No. M 1554.L.

V oicin g : Soprano e ' — a"


A lto b — e"
T enor © — a*
B ass A — e'
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : L a rg h e tto , 3/4-•
Number o f m easures: 102. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*46 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d , w ith an opening canon.
Comments: t h i s i s a p u re accompanied canon v /ith th e v o ic e s e n te r in g
TASB, and each v o ic e ta k in g th e m a te r ia l p re s e n te d by
th e p re v io u s ly e n te re d v o ic e . A fte r th e f i n a l sta te m e n t
o f th e t h i r t e e n m easure theme th e p ie c e ta k e s on th e
appearance o f an I t a l i a n o p era s c e n e .

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170

MENDELSSOHN-BARTKOLDY , F e l i x (1809-1847)
"D ie N a c h tig a ll" ("D ie N a c h tig a ll s i e war e n t f e r n t " ) , N r. 4 from
Sechs L ie d e r f u r S opran, A lt. Tenor und B ass. Op. 59 •
New York: W alton M usic C orp. (No. 7010), 1962. E d ite d by G eoffrey
M. Mason.

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' — g"


A lto a — c"
T enor d — g’
Bass G — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by G eo ffrey M. M ason).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 3/8*
Number o f m easures: 44, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:42 (C am erata V ocale o f Bremen, Nonesuch H -71081).
T e x tu re : tw o -p a rt o r f o u r - p a r t homophonic.
Comments: th e form i s AA'A", w ith th e f i r s t s e c tio n f o r women's
v o ic e s , th e A' s e c tio n u s in g th e same m a te r ia l i n th e
m e n 's v o ic e s w ith th e women s in g in g a tw o -p a rt o b b lig a to
l i n e , and th e t h i r d s e c tio n a f o u r - p a r t s e t t i n g o f th e
o r i g i n a l melody w ith an e x te n s io n a t th e f i n a l cad en ce.

MENDELSSOHN-BARTKOLDY, F e l i x
" R u h e ia l" ("wann im l e t z t e n A b e n d stra h l" ) , N r. 5 from Sechs L ie d e r
f u r S opran, A lt. Tenor und B ass. Op. 59*
O stb 'o ff, H elm uth. German P a r t Song. K8ln: Arno Volk V e rla g ,
1955, p . 5 6 .

V o ic in g : Soprano d ' — f - s h a rp "


A lto a — b'
T enor e — f-sh a rp '
B ass G —a
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Ludwig U h lan d ).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A dagio, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 35> no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:25 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e ran g es i n a l l v o ic e s a re c o n s e rv a tiv e , th e form i s
ABB'C, a lth o u g h th e C m ight be c o n sid e re d a coda o r
extended cad en ce. The A s e c tio n i s homophonic, th e B
s e c tio n i s a d u e t between th e A lto and Tenor w ith
Soprano o b b lig a to , and th e B' s e c tio n i s a d u et by th e
men w ith th e women s in g in g a tw o -p a rt o b b lig a to l i n e .
The rem ain d er o f th e s e t o f Op. 59 i s s im ila r i n alm o st
ev ery r e s p e c t t o Nos. 4 , 5 nn^ 6.

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171

MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY, F e lix
" J a g d lie d " ("Durch schwankende W ipfel s c h ie s s t g o ld en er S t r a h l " ) ,
N r. 6 from Sechs L ie d e r f u r Sopran, A lt. Tenor und B ass.
Op. 59.
New Y ork: Sam Fox P u b lis h in g C o., I n c . (No. RC 9 ) , 1968.

V o ic in g : Soprano e* — f- s h a rp "
A lto b 1 — e"
T enor e — f*
Bass A — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by A rnold F re e d ).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: A m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro m o lto q u a si P r e s to , C.
Number o f m easures: 110, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:4-5 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: th e form iB ABCCA', w ith th e AB re p e a te d th r e e tim e s
w ith e x a c tly th e same m usic i n A m inor, th e C s e c tio n s
i n A m ajo r, and th e A' s e c tio n b e g in n in g in A m inor and
e n d in g i n A m a jo r.

MONIUSZKI, S ta n is la v
"Pow inshow anie J . W. H ercu lan o n i Abramowiczowi," no opus number.
M a n u s c rip t, L ib ra ry of C ongress No. ML 96.M94.

V o ic in g : Soprano e* — a w
A lto b — b’
Tenor e —* e '
B ass A — c -s h a rp '
O r ig in a l t e x t : R u ssia n (S . Skw arozynshiego).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands (s c o re : O rpheon).
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : M oderato, 4 / 4 .
Number o f m easures: 36, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1 :1 0 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e t i t l e t r a n s l a t e s a s " C o n g ra tu la tio n s to J . W.
H ercu lan Abramowicz." T his was a p p a re n tly a work f o r a
s p e c ia l o c c a s io n . The m usic i s a k in to th e fo lk so n g
s e t t i n g s of e a r ly n in e te e n th cen tu ry w r i t e r s . The t i t l e
page c a ll s i t a " c o n g r a tu la tio n song f o r mixed q u a r te t
w ith p iano accom panim ent," and re a d s " C o n g ra tu la tio n s to
J . W illiam H erk u lan o n i Abramowiczowi, C olonel of th e
Im p e ria l R u ssia n Army, c h e v a lie r o f D e c o ra tio n s, P ro ­
t e c t o r of T h e a tre s , e t c . , sung Nov. 7 , 1852, p o e try by
Skw arzynshiego, m usic by S t . M o n iu sz k i."

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172

REGER, Max (1873-1916)


" T ro s t" ("E s i s t k e in Weh a u f E rd e n " ), N r. 1 from D rei Chore. Op. 6.
Max R eger S am tliche Werke. W iesbaden: B re itk o p f & H a rte l ( p la te
No. M. R. 3 0 ), n . d . , p . 1.

V o icin g : Soprano d ’ — a"


A lto a - f la t — e -fla t"
T enor e — a -fla t1
Bass F -sh a rp — e - f l a t ’
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Anton M u lle r) (E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by
C. Hugo L aubach).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o h an d s.
Key: C m in o r.
Tempo and tim e: L ento, 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 115, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3:5 0 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : p o ly p h o n ic, ex cep t f o r th e f i n a l two p a g e s.
Comments: c o n s is te n t w ith o th e r v o c a l works of R eger, th e te x tu r e
o f th e s e th r e e works i s q u ite complex, w ith each v o ic e
p a r t and th e piano l i n e b ein g th o ro u g h ly in d ep en d en t.
The form i s AAB w ith th e f i r s t and second s e c tio n s u sin g
th e same m u sic a l m a te r ia l e x ce p t t h a t i t i s rev o ic ed and
th e piano l i n e i s a l t e r e d . The f i n a l s e c tio n begins w ith
a fu g a to s e c tio n and ends w ith th e te x tu r e th in n in g to
th r e e , th e n tv/o, and f i n a l l y one v o ic e , th e n piano a lo n e .
The f i n a l s e c tio n i s i n C m in o r, w ith s h o rt p h ra se s of
unaccompanied homophonic v o c a l w ritin g a l t e r n a t in g w ith
b r i e f ch o rd al sta te m e n ts by th e p ia n o .

REGER, Max
"Zur N acht" ("Nun f a l l e n d ie Augen m ude"), N r. 2 from D re i Chore,
Op. 6.
I b i d . . p . 11.

V o ic in g : Soprano d ’— g - f l a t "
A lto g — c"
Tenor d — g - f la t*
Bass G —c
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r . E n g el) (E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by
C. Hugo Laubach).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: A - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : L ento, 3 /2 •
Number o f m easures: 25, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:35 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : polyphonic th ro u g h o u t, except f o r th e f i r s t and l a s t
two m easures.
Comments: a t th e con clu d in g n in e m easures th e Tenor and Soprano
s in g in o ctav es w h ile th e p ian o p la y s broken chord
p a tte r n s u s in g r i c h ro m an tic harm onies.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
173

REGER, Max
"A bendlied" ( " F r ie d lic h e r Abend sen k t s ic h a u fs G e f ild " ) , N r. 3
from D rei C hore, Op. 6 .
I b i d . . p . 14.

V o icin g : Soprano d -s h a rp ’ — g -sh a rp "


A lto b -sh a rp — e"
Tenor c -sh a rp — a '
Bass A — d -s h a rp '
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (N. Lenau) (E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n by C. Hugo
L aubach).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: T r a n q u illo , 3/4-.
Number of m easures: 67, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*20 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d .
Comments: much of th e sc o rin g i s Soprano/T enor in o ctav es and
o c c a s io n a lly A lto /B ass in o c ta v e s , s im ila r to th e
w r itin g in some of Brahms v o c a l q u a r te ts . There i s a te n
m easure p iano in te r lu d e begin n in g a t m easure 24.

RHEINBERGER, Jo sep h (1839-1901)


Lockung ("H orst du n ic h t d ie Baume ra u s c h e n " ), Op. 25.
L e ip z ig : C. F . W. S i e g e l 's M usik alien h an d lu n g , 1869; L ib ra ry of
Congress No. M 1554-.R.

V o ic in g : Soprano b — g"
A lto g -sh a rp — c -sh a rp "
Tenor d — f-sh a rp '
Bass E — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : German ( J . v . E ic h e n d o rff ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m ajo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 3/4-.
Number of m easures: 88, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*50 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d .
Comments: th e t i t l e page says "Fur v i e r Singstimmen oder k le in e n
gem ischten C hor." There i s an opening fo u r m easures f o r
th e piano a lo n e , th e n fo u r m easures f o r th e unaccompanied
s in g e r s . A fte r th re e more unaccompanied homophonic
m easures by th e v o ic e s , th e p ian o e n te r s w ith continuous
accompaniment. The form i s ABABC, w ith both A s e c tio n s
b eing i n th e to n i c , b o th B s e c tio n s i n th e dom inant, and
th e f i n a l s e c tio n form ing alm o st a coda w ith co m p letely
new m elodic m a te r ia l in th e v o ic e s w h ile th e p ian o u ses
p re v io u s rhythm ic m a te r ia l. A lthough R h ein b erg er i s
l e s s w e ll known th a n in th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , h i s
v o c a l ensemble works, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Lockung. a r e w e ll
w orth p erfo rm in g .

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174

ROSSINI, G ioacchino (1792-1868)


" I G o n d o lie ri" ("Voghiam s u ll* a g i l v e l a " ) , No. 1 from L*Album
Ita lia n o .
Q uaderni R o s s in ia n i. P e s a ro ; Fondazione R o s s in i, 1958, V o l. V II,
"C o ri a v o c i p a r i o d i s p a r i , " p . 1 .

V oicing: Soprano e ' — a"


A lto b — e"
Tenor g -sh a rp — a '
Bass F -sh a rp — c -s h a rp ’
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o h an d s.
Key: E m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndantino, 6/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 88, no r e p e a ts .
D u ratio n : 4:57 (S o c ie ta C a m e ristic a d i Lugano, Nonesuch H -71089).
T ex tu re: v a rie d , b u t m o stly e i t h e r a s in g le so lo o r homophonic.
Comments: th e v o ice p a r t s a r e , p r e d ic ta b l y , re m in isc e n t of
R o ssin ia n o p era s c e n e s . The form i s ABA, th e f i n a l A
s e c tio n having a s ix m easure e x te n s io n . The B s e c tio n
i s p rim a rily a showplace f o r each v o ice p a r t . The p ia n o
p a r t i s q u ite demanding.

ROSSINI, G ioacchino
”La P a s s e g ia ta (Q u a r te ttin o ) " ( ’’F inche seren o e i l c i e l o " ) , No. 12
from L1Album I t a l i a n o .
Ib id .. p . 16.

V oicing: Soprano e ' — b"


A lto c -s h a rp ' — d”
Tenor e — a'
Bass G — d'
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o h an d s.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndantino g ra z io s o , C.
Number of m easures: 70, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 4:5 8 (se e e n try ab o v e).
T e x tu re : b a s ic a lly tv /o -p a rt, th r e e - p a r t and f o u r - p a r t hom ophonic.
Comments: a lo n g , in v o lv ed tw enty-tv/o m easure in tr o d u c tio n s e t s th e
s ta g e f o r an in te n s e opening s e c tio n , s o t to v o c e . The
work i s in a s o n a ta form w ith th e B theme in th e
dom inant, th e developm ent s e c tio n in A - f l a t and E - f l a t ,
and th e A s e c tio n r e tu r n in g a t m easure 57 w ith a more
e la b o r a te p ia n o t e x t u r e . T hese two works o f R o s s in i,
a lth o u g h somewhat d i f f i c u l t , a re d e l i g h t f u l when p e r ­
formed by s o l o i s t s . They a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r c h o ra l
perform ance a t a l l .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
175

RUNGENHAGEN, C. F . (1778-1851)
Lebensm elodien ("Auf den W assem wohnt m ein s t i l l e s Leben” ) ,
W echselgesang f u r Zwei S o p ran -, T en o r- und Bassstimraen
m it B e g le itu n g des P ia n o f o r te .
B e r lin : E . H. G. C h r i s t i a n i , c a . 1825; L ib ra ry o f Congress No.
U 1554.R .

V o ic in g : Soprano I g ' — a"


Soprano I I d ' — d"
T enor d — g'
B ass d — d - f l a t ' ( f 1)
O r ig in a l t e x t : German.
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: B - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : S a n ft und ru h ig , 9 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 15 of 9 /8 , 13 o f C, 42 o f 6 /8 .
D u ra tio n : 4 :5 0 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : s o lo or tw o - p a r t.
Comments: t h i s i s a s e t o f s o lo s and d u e ts u s in g two S opranos, a
T enor and B ass v o ic e , w ith th e Soprano I I b ein g a c tu a lly
i n th e a l t o ra n g e . In th e f i r s t d u e t th e Tenor ( a swan)
s in g s a l t e r n a t e l y w ith th e Bass (a n e a g le ) in d ialo g u e
f o r fo u r s ta n z a s , w hile a co n clu d in g d u et between th e two
Sopranos u s e s t h r e e s ta n z a s t o t e l l th e s to ry of two
d o v e s. The p ia n o a tte m p ts to m ir r o r th e a t t r i b u t e s of
eac h o f th e t h r e e b i r d s . The work i s c o n s tru c te d on th e
o rd e r o f a c a n t a ta .

SCHUBERT, F ra n z (1797-1828)
Q u a r te tt ( " S c h ic k s a ls le n k e r , b lic k e n ie d e r " ) , D. 763* A lso c a lle d
by D eutsch GeburtBtagshymne o r Hymne zu r Genesung des
H ernn R i t t e r .
F ran z S c h u b e rt. Complete vforks. New Y ork: Dover P u b li c a tio n s ,
1965. R e p rin t of B re itk o p f & H a r te l e d itio n o f 1884-97,
S e r ie XVII, p . 212.

V o ic in g : Soprano e - f la t' — a -fla t"


A lto c' — e -fla t"
T enor e -fla t — g -fla t'
B ass A -fla t ~ e - f l a t '
O r ig in a l t e x t : German
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e ; L a rg h e tto , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easu res: 92, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:40 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : opening 15 m easure Bass s o lo , th e n b a s ic a l ly homophonic.
Comments: t h e form i s AABA, w ith th e B s e c tio n more o f a d ev elo p ­
m ent s e c tio n i n th e p a r a l l e l m in o r.

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176

SCHUBERT, Franz
Begrabnislied ("Begrabt den Leib in seiner G ruff), D. 168.
Ibid.. Serie XVII, p. 241.
V o ic in g : Soprano d' — e -fla t”
A lto b -fla t — b - f la t'
Tenor c -- f
Bass F — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h G o ttlie b K lopstock: v a r ia n t o f
th e hymn, "Nun l a s s e t uns den L eib b eg rab en ").
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two han d s.
Key: C m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsam, e r n s t , C.
Number o f m easures: 31, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:00 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic, tw o -p a rt o r f o u r - p a r t .
Comments: th e tw o -p a rt and f o u r - p a r t homophonic w r itin g i s t y p i c a l
o f S c h u b e rt's w r itin g f o r h is S in g s p ie l o r o p e ra s. The
form i s ABA', w ith th e A s u r p r is in g ly cadencing in
B - f l a t m a jo r.

SCHUBERT, F ranz
An den F rtih lin g ("Willkommen, sch o n er J u n g lin g " ), D. 338.
I b i d . . S e rie XVI, p . 196.

V o icin g : Tenor I a — g'


T enor I I g —f
Bass I d — d'
Bass I I 6 —g
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h von S c h i l l e r ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Etwas geschw ind, 6/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 16 f o r each o f fo u r s ta n z a s .
D u ra tio n : 2:37 (R obert Shaw C h o rale, RCA V ic to r IM 1800).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t except n e a r th e end.
Comments: th e upper v o ic e c a r r ie s th e bu lk o f th e m elodic m a te r ia l
f o r th e f i r s t h a lf of th e work, w ith th e f i n a l f iv e
m easures g iv e n to th e upper th r e e v o ic e s in te rw e av in g
on a broken chord f i g u r e . T h is s p r i t e l y work h as a
b itte r s w e e t q u a lity of remembered sp rin g tim e r a t h e r .
th a n a n t ic ip a te d s p rin g tim e .

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177

SCHUBERT, Franz
An die Sonne ("0 Sonne, Konigin der Welt"), D. 439.
Ibid., Serie XVII, p. 218.
V o ic in g : Soprano c ' ~ g"
A lto a — e -fla t"
Tenor e -fla t — g'
B ass F — e -fla t'
O r ig in a l te x ts German (Johann P e te r U z).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h ands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Adagio m o lto , $.
Number of m easures: 122, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 6:06 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: ty p ic a l of th e g e n re . The form i s ABA w ith th e B
s e c tio n alm ost a developm ent s e c tio n in a so n a ta form .
The second A s e c tio n i s an ex act d u p lic a te o f th e f i r s t ,

SCHUBERT, Franz
La P a s t o r e l l a ("La p a s t o r e l l a a l p ra to c o n te n ta " ), D. 513*
I b i d . . S e rie XVI, p . 134.

V o icin g : Tenor I g — g'


Tenor I I e — d'
Bass I c — e'
Bass I I F —g
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n (C a rlo G o ld o n i).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndante, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 48, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:03 (R obert Shaw C horale, RCA V ic tp r Ut 1800).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e re i s some m elo d ic independence in th e Tenor I . The
t e x t has a common theme concerned w ith n a tu re and a
s h e p h e rd e ss. The poem i s from G oldoni’ s opera l i b r e t t o
I I F ilo s o fo d i Campagna, f i r s t perform ed i n V enice in
1754. The form i s ABA w ith th e B s e c tio n i n th e
dom inant.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission
178

SCHUBERT, Franz
Cant a te zum G eb u rtstag des Sangers M ich ael Yogi ("S anger, d er von
H erzen s i n g e t " ) , Op. p o s t. 158, D. 666.
I b i d . . S e rie XIX, No. 3 , p . 37.

V o icin g : Soprano c* — gH
Tenor c — g'
Bass G — e*
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (A lb e rt S t a d l e r ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : M oderato, C.
Number o f m easures: 223. no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 7:15 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : s o lo , d u e t, and homophonic.
Comments: th e bulk of th e sin g in g i s g iv en to th e Soprano and
T enor, w ith th e Bass e n te r in g only a t th e beginning and
a t th e end. The m iddle s e c tio n has th e Soprano and Tenor
a l t e r n a t i n g s o lo s , th e n th e s e two s in g a d u e t. A ll th re e
v o ic e s s in g th e c lo s in g s e c tio n .

SCHUBERT, F ranz
Gesang d e r G e is te r u b er den Wassern ("Des Menschen S eele g e lic h t
dem W asser"), Op. 167, D. 714.
I b i d . . S e r ie XVI, p . 24.

V o icin g : Tenor I d — a' Bass I F — e'


Tenor I I d — g' B ass I I F — e*
Tenor I I I c — g' Bass I I I E — e -fla t'
Tenor IV c —f' B ass IV E — e -fla t'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Johann Wolfgang von G o eth e).
Accompaniment: two v i o l a s , two c e l l o s , s t r i n g b a s s .
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Adagio m o lto , C.
Number o f m easures: 172, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 10:00 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d .
Comments: t h i s extended work ranges from a te x tu r e of one o r two
s o lo v o ic es to th e fo u r Tenors i n fo u r p a r ts accompanying
th e fo u r B asses i n u n is o n . O ften th e fo u r Tenors form one
c h o ir and t h e fo u r B asses th e o th e r c h o ir, sin g in g a n t i -
p h o n a lly . The form i s ABCA. Both th e B and C s e c tio n s
have th e fo u r B asses in u n iso n opposing th e Tenors in
tw o, t h r e e , o r fo u r p a r t s . The C s e c tio n (measure 68)
h as a rem arkable p assag e w ith a l l B asses sin g in g ra p id
s ix te e n th n o te s doubled by th e c e l l o s and b a s s .

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179

SCHUBERT, Franz
Der Tanz ("Es redet und traumet die Jugend so viel"), D. 826 .
Ibid.. Serie XVII, p. 228.
V oicing: Soprano e ' ~ a"
A lto c ' — cM
Tenor f-sh a rp — g 1
Bass G — c*
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Kolumban S c h n itz e r v o n M e e ra u ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h an d s.
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g ro g iu s to , 6 /8 .
Number of m easures: 26, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 0:45 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: a humorous q u a r te t w r itte n to warn a c e r t a i n F r a u le in
I r e n e von K ie se w e tte r to r e f r a i n from dan cin g f o r h e r
h e a l t h 1s s a k e . The work i s in sim p le tw o -p a rt f o r a .

SCHUBERT, Franz
W iderspruch ("77enn ic h d u rch Busch und Zw eig") , Op. 105, No. 1,
D. 865.
I b i d . . S e rie XVI, p . 93.

V oicin g : Tenor I c -sh a rp — a*


Tenor I I c -sh a rp — f - s h a r p '
Bass I B — d'
B ass I I F -sh a rp — d 1
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Johann G a b rie l S e i d l ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Z iem lich geschw ind, 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 133* no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*15 (R obert Shaw C h o rale, RCA V ic to r IM 1 8 0 0 ).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: t y p i c a l of S c h u b e rt's (and o t h e r s 's ) homophonic s e t t i n g s
f o r male v o ic e s . Most o f th e v a r ie ty comes from
dynamic changes and key ch an g es. The form i s ABA. The
A s e c tio n i s i n two d i s t i n c t h a lv e s . The B s e c ti o n u se s
th e v o ic e s i n u n iso n f o r h a lf o f th e s e c tio n . An e le v e n
m easure piano s e c tio n a p p ea rs a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e
work and fo llo w in g b o th A s e c t i o n s . T h is work would be
an e x c e lle n t ch o ice f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g th e y e a rn in g f o r
n a tu r e and n a t u r e 's e f f e c t on a s e n s i t i v e human.

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180

SCHUBERT, Franz
G rab und tlond ( " S ilb e r b la u e r M ondenschein f a l l t h e ra b " ) , D. 893*
I b i d . . S e rie XVI, N r. 14, p . 197.

V o ic in g : Tenor I e - f la t — g'
Tenor I I e - f l a t — d'
Bass I B - f l a t — c*
B ass I I E -fla t — f
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (Johann G a b rie l S e i d l ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: A m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsam, 3 /4 .
Number of m easures: 46, no r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 2:05 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e harmonic in g e n u ity l i f t s t h i s p ie c e above th e
av erag e f o r th e g e n re . The form i s ABA'3 ' , w ith th e A
b ein g in A m in o r, B cadencing in C m ajor but w ith an
e x te n s io n en d in g i n E - f l a t m ajo r a s a dom inant le a d in g
to th e A - f l a t m inor of th e A' s e c t io n . The B' s e c tio n
has an e x te n s io n s im i la r t o th e B s e c tio n which
cadences i n A m a jo r.

SCHUBERT, Franz
"L iobe" ("L ieb e ra u s c h t d e r S ilb e rb a c h " )* N r. 2 from V ie r
Q u a r te tte , Op. 17, D. 983.
I b i d . . S e rie XVI, N r. 21, p . 138.

V o ic in g : Tenor I. a — g’
T enor I I f — e’
Bass I d — b
Bass I I G— e
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h von S c h i l l e r ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A ndantin o , 6 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 20, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:02 (a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: an example o f th e s im p lic ity o fte n employed i n w r itin g
t h i s s t y l e of m u s ic . The lim ite d ra n g e s made f o r e ase
o f p erfo rm an ce. Y /ithin th e 20 m easures th e form i s
AA'BA w ith th e B s e c tio n in th e dominant m in o r. There
i s a fo u r m easure c a d e n tia l e x te n s io n .

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181

SCHUBERT, Franz
T e r z e tte ("U nendliche Freude d u rc h w a lle t das H a rz "), D« 51.
I b i d . , S e r ie XXI, N r. 37, p . 330.

V oicing* Tenor I d — f-sh a rp '


T enor H c -sh a rp — d '
B ass F -sh a rp — b
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h von S c h i l l e r : E ly s iim ) .
Accompaniment: none.
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: A lle g r e tto , 6 /8 .
Number o f m easures: 35, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:10 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic, w ith th e low er two v o ic e s o c c a s io n a lly accom­
pan y in g th e Tenor I .
Comments: th e a c tu a l d e s ig n a tio n should be T en o r/B a rito n e /B ass
because of th e range o f th e m iddle v o ic e . The Tenor I i s
o c c a s io n a lly given two o r th r e e n o te s a lo n e to allo w i t
t o sta n d out as a fe a tu re d s o l o i s t . The form i s ABAB
w ith th e s e c tio n s ending r e s p e c tiv e ly i n F -sh arp m ajo r,
A (on a f i r s t in v e rs io n c h o rd ), A and D.

SCHUBERT, F ranz
Das D orfchen (" Ic h ruhme m ir m ein D orfchen h i e r " ) , Op. 11, Nr. 1 ,
D. 641.
I b i d . . S e r ie XVI, N r. 4, p . 41.

V o ic in g : Tenor I d — a*
T enor I I d —a'
B ass I c -s h a rp — f - s h a r p '
Bass I I G ~ d'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( G o ttf r ie d August B u rg e r).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands, o r g u i t a r .
Key: D m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : A lle g r e t to , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 132, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 4:53 (Akademie Kammerchor, Vox PL 6 8 70).
T e x tu re : tw o -p a rt o r f o u r - p a r t homophonic, w ith canonic s e c tio n .
Comments: th e t h i r d p a r t , from m easure 97, i s a p u re accompanied
canon. The d e d ic a tio n o f th e f i r s t e d i tio n (V ienna:
Cappi & D ia b e l l i, 1822) i s to J o s e f B a rth , one o f th e
te n o r s who sang th e f i r s t perfo rm an ce. A ccording t o
D eutsch (S chubert Them atic C atalo g u e, p . 283), "The
f i r s t e d itio n c o n ta in s accompaniments f o r p f . o r g u ita r ;
th e f i r s t i s d u b io u s, th e l a t t e r s p u rio u s ."

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182

SCHUiANN, Robert (1810-1856)


"L ied 11 ( " I n meinem G a rte n " ), No. 2 from D re i G e d ich te . Op 29.
R obert Schumann 7ferke. L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l, 1887, S e rie
X, Z w eiter Band, p . 6 .

V oicing: Soprano I f-sh a rp 1 — f ”


Soprano I I b - f l a t — d"
A lto a — b -fla t1
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Emanuel G e ib e l).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two han d s.
Key: G m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsam, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 64, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:48 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : m o stly p o ly p h o n ic .
Comments: th e extrem e ease of th e piano p a r t and th e lim ite d
ra n g e s of th e v o ic e p a r ts in d ic a te th e p o s s i b i l i t y of
t h i s work b ein g designed f o r am ateur perform ance. The
f o r a i s AAB, th e B s e c tio n going f a r t h e r a f i e ld
h a rm o n ic a lly th a n th e f i r s t two s e c tio n s .

SCHUMANN, R obert
Die Rose s ta n d im Tau. Op. 65, No. 1 .
New York: T e tra Music Corp. (A lexander Broude, I n c . ) (No. A. B.
2 4 1 -3 ), 1969.

V oicing: Tenor I g — a1
Tenor I I e — e1
B a rito n e c — d1
Bass I c — c1
Bass I I G —g
O rig in a l t e x t : German (F rie d ric h R iickert) (E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n by
K urt S to n e ).
Accompaniment: none.
Key: A m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Lang3am und s a n f t, C.
Number o f m easures: 31, co u n tin g re p e a ts ( th r e e s ta n z a s ) .
D u ra tio n : 2:32 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : homophonic w ith b a rito n e s o lo .
Comments: th e b a rito n e p a r t i s an independent so lo lin e which i s
accompanied by th e o th e r fo u r p a r t s . The t e x t i s
t y p i c a l Romantic p o e try concerned w ith a ro se disco v ered
in th e dew. A ll ranges a re r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d . The
form i s AA1 w ith only th e f i n a l cadence changed.
Because of i t s form , t h i s i s a good work f o r TTBB chorus
w ith b a rito n e s o lo .

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183

SCHUMANN, Robert
"M eerfey" ( " S t i l l b e i N acht f a h r t manches S c h if f " ) , No. 5 from
Romanzen f u r Frauenstim m en. Op. 69.
R obert Schumann Yferke. S e rie X, Z w eiter Band, p . 25.

V oicing: Soprano I d 1 — g”
Soprano I I d ’ — e"
Soprano I I I b — f"
A lto I a - - d"
A lto I I e — c"
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Johann von E ic h e n d o rff).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o hands (ad l ib it u m ) .
Key: C m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Sehr l e i s e , 3 /4 .
Number of m easures: 3 6S no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:30 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a rie d .
Comments: th e Soprano I I I and A lto I move in canon most o f th e
tim e , w ith th e Soprano I and I I u s u a lly in a sim ple
homophonic d u e t. The form i s AAB, w ith th e opening
canon m otive r e s ta te d once each by th e Soprano I I I and
A lto I . The p ian o l i n e , marked "ad lib itu m ," m erely
doubles th e slow er v o ice l i n e s but ig n o res th e more
ra p id s ix te e n th n o tes of th e canon m otive.

SCHUMANN, R obert
"Waldmadchen" ("B in e in Feuer h e l l " ) , No. 2 from Romanzen f u r
Frauenstim m en, Op. 69.
I b i d . , p . 18.

V o icin g : Soprano I d* — a"


Soprano I I c -s h a rp 1— f-s h a rp "
A lto I g -sh arp —d"
A lto I I g -sh arp —b 1
O rig in a l t e x t : German (Johann von E ic h e n d o rff ).
Accompaniment: p iano, two hands (ad lib itu m ) .
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: F lu c h tig , sch lu p fen d , 3/ 8.
Number o f m easures: 54, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:15 (a p p ro x ,).
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e piano lin e i s im ag in ativ e in th e use o f r e s t s and
v a rio u s d e v ic e s , alth o u g h th e a c tu a l n o tes do n o th in g
more th a n double th e v o c a l n o te s . The work i s a c tu a lly
a tw o -p a rt form w ith th re e s ta n z a s , w ith th e f i r s t
s e c tio n tw elve m easures long in 3/8 and th e second
s e c tio n only s i x m easures lo n g and in 2 /4 .

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184

SCHUMANN, Robert
wE r i s t v e rra te n " ( MDass i h r s t e h t in L ie b e s g lu t" ) , No. 5 from
S p anisches L ie d e r s p ie l. Op. 74.
Ib id .. p. 59*

V oicin g : Soprano f* — g w
A lto c ' ~ d"
T enor f — f'
Bass G — e -fla t'
O rig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s . from th e S p a n ish by Emanuel G e ib e l) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: B - f la t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Im B olerotem po, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 71 j no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:45 (Chor des u n g a risc h e n R undfunks, Q u a lito n IPX-1 2 3 6 ),
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: t h i s i s th e f i r s t o f two q u a r te ts among th e n in e
in d iv id u a l p ie c e s i n th e Op. 7 4 . A lthough th e Soprano
has th e dominant v o c a l l i n e th e p ian o i s on an e q u a l
b a s is as f a r a s m u s ic a l im portance i s co n cern ed . The
form i s ABAB i n two i d e n t i c a l p a r t s , w ith th e B s e c tio n
i n and out of G m in o r.

SCHUMANN, R obert
" Ic h b in g e lie b t" ("Mogen a l l e bosen Z ungen"), No. 9 from
S p an isch es L i e d e r s p ie l, Op. 7 4 .
I b i d . , p . 76.

V o icin g : Soprano c-sh arp * — a "


A lto b — d"
Tenor c -s h a rp — a '
Bass G — d*
O rig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s . from th e S p a n ish by Emanuel G e ib e l),
Accompaniment: p ia n o ,'tw o h a n d s.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: Sehr l e b h a f t , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 138, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:59 (s e e a b o v e ).
T e x tu re : m o stly homophonic, tw o -p a rt o r f o u r - p a r t , w ith b r i e f
fo u r-m easu re A lto s o lo s .
Comments: th e work i s s e c t i o n a l , w ith a l t e r n a t i o n s betw een 2 /4
Sehr le b h a f t and 3/4 Langsam er. The form i s a ty p e o f
rondo, A B A ^A ^A 'S, w ith th e A s e c tio n s in 2 /4 and th e
B s e c tio n s in 3 /4 and in tro d u c e d by th e A lto a lo n e
ex cep t in th e f i n a l s e c t i o n .

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185

SCHUMANN, R obert
" Q u a r te tt" ("Schon i s t das F e s t des L e n z e s " ), No. 5 from
M in n e s p ie l, Op. 101.
I b i d . . S e rie X, N r. 9 , P« 100.

V o icin g : Soprano c*— b - f l a t ”


A lto a — e”
Tenor f — g*
Bass F — e -fla t1
O rig in a l t e x t : German ( F r ie d r ic h R iick ert: L ie b e 3 fru h lin g ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: B - f la t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : L e b h a ft, 6 /8 .
Number of m easu res: 146, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3:35 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : p redom inantly f o u r - p a r t homophonic.
Comments: th e p ia n o p ro v id e s much o f th e m u s ic a l i n t e r e s t o f t h i s
v/ork. There a re s e v e ra l r e p e t i t i o n s o f one b a s ic p ian o
f i g u r e , much l ik e a fa n fa re c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to th e
fo llo w in g v o c al s ta te m e n t. The form i s AAB, w ith only
s l i g h t changes from th e f i r s t A s e c tio n to th e second.

SCHUMANN, R obert
" Q u a r te tt” ("So wahr d ie Sonne s c h e in e t” ) , No. 8 from M in n e s p ie l.
Op. 101.
I b i d . . p . 114.

V oicin g : Soprano e ' — a"


A lto b — c"
Tenor f — a'
Bass G — c'
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (se e a b o v e).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: G m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : I n n ig , n ic h t s c h n e ll, C.
Number of m easu res: 56, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 3*35 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : v a r ie d , bu t b a s ic a lly homophonic.
Comments: much th e e a s i e s t p ie c e in th e s e t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n th e
p ia n o p a r t , but one of th e m ost a t t r a c t i v e . A fte r a
homophonic opening w ith b r i e f s o lo s by th e Soprano and
T en o r, th e v o ic e s have a fu g a to p a s s a g e , w ith each voice
e n te r in g w ith th e sim ple them e.

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186

SCHUMANN, R obert
"N anie" ("U n ter den ro th e n Blumen schlum m ere"), No. 1 from D rei
L ie d e r f u r d r e i Frauenstim m en. Op. 114.
I b i d . . p . 118.

V o icin g : Voice I e ' — e"


V oice I I b — b'
V oice I I I g — g’
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (L . B e c h s te in ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: E m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : Langsam, C.
Number of m easures: 13 in each of th r e e s ta n z a s , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:5 5 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic th ro u g h o u t.
Comments: th e s e t of th r e e works becomes in c re a s in g ly more
complex from a te x tu r e s ta n d p o in t a s each p ie c e a p p e a rs .
The s t y l e i s ty p i c a l o f th e " L ie d e r ta f e l” movement.

SCHUMANN, R obert
" T r i o l e t t ” ( ’’Senkt d ie Nacht den s a n fte n F i t t i g n ie d e r ” ) , No. 2
from D re i L ie d e r f u r d r e i Frauenstim m en. Op. 114.
I b i d . , p . 120.

V o ic in g : Voice I f-sh a rp ’ — f-sh a rp w


V oice I I e ' — e"
V oice I I I b — a’
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (C. L 'e g r u ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Z iem lich langsam , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 27, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:08 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : m ostly homophonic, but w ith some ornam entation of
in d iv id u a l l i n e s .
Comments: th e only dynamic le v e l above p ian o o r p ian n issim o i s one
f p . As w ith No. 1 (N anie) th e v o c a l ranges a re an
o c tav e o r l e s s . The p ian o has more o b b lig a to m a te r ia l
th a n i n No. 1 . The form i s ABA, w ith th e f i n a l A
s e c tio n somewhat a b b re v ia te d .

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187

SCHUMANN, R obert
"Spruch” ("0 b lic k e , wenn den Sinn d i r w i ll d ie Welt v irv /irre n ” ) ,
No. 3 from D re i L ied er fu r d r e i Frauenstim m en, Op. 114.
I b i d . . p . 122.

V o icin g : Voice I b ~ g"


Voice I I b — g"
V oice I I I a ~ g" #
O rig in a l t e x t : Geman (F r ie d r ic h R u c k e rt).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: F m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: In n ig , C.
Number o f m easures: 36, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:48 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : c an o n ic.
Comments: th e music i s a pure accompanied canon, which e x p la in s th e
wide range of th e A lto l i n e . At th e end of th e t h i r d
statem e n t o f th e th en e th e re i s a f r e e ly w r itte n p o s t-
lu d e . This i s th e most com plicated o f th e th r e e p ie c e s
i n th e s e t .

SCHUMANN, R obert
"Q uartett** ("D unkler L ic h tg la n z , b lin d e r B lic k " ) , No. 10 from
Spanische L ie b e s-L ie d e r. Op. 138.
I b i d . . p . 160.

V o icin g : Soprano d* — g"


A lto b - f l a t — d"
Tenor f — g*
Bass F -sh a rp ™ d*
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( t r a n s . from th e Spanish by Emanuel G e ib e l).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , fo u r hands.
Key: G m in o r.
Tempo and tim e : N icht ra s c h , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 60, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:05 (a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : predom inantly homophonic.
Comments: th e f i r s t n in e s e c tio n s of th e Op. 138 c o n s is t o f fiv e
s o lo s , two d u e ts and two p iano s e c tio n s , w ith th e piano
p la y in g an im p o rtan t p a r t in a l l s e c tio n s . The Q u a rte tt
i s meant to b rin g a l l perfo rm ers t o a "co n c e rte d f i n a l e . "
T h is work i s No. 7 , page 291, in th e m an u scrip t s e c tio n
o f th is d is s e rta tio n .

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188

STERKEL, Johann Franz X a v ier (1750-1817)


L 'A stro d i V enere. Op. 4 ( ? ) .
B e rlin : Rudolph Yv'erckmeister, ca. 1806 (B e ro lin o : p re sso Rudolpho
W erckm eister); L ib rary o f Congress No. H 1554.S , c a se .

V oicin g : Soprano e - f l a t 1 — gM
A lto c* — d - f l a t "
Tenor e -fla t — e - f la t1
Bass A -fla t — c‘
O rig in a l t e x t : I t a l i a n .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: A - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e: L a rg h e tto con e s p re s s io n e , 2 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 101, no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 2:55 (a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : so lo soprano o r homophonic.
Comments: t h i s i s a sim p le c a n ta ta - lik e work w ith a tw enty measure
Soprano so lo a t th e beginning and s e v e ra l o th e r b r i e f
s o lo s f o r th e Soprano a l t e r n a t i n g 7/i t h f o u r - p a r t homo­
ph o n ic p a s s a g e s . The piano m o stly doubles th e v o cal
p a r t s . The v o c a l ranges a re a c tu a lly much more
c o n se rv a tiv e th a n th e above l i s t i n g i n d ic a te s .

VEIL, O scar ( d a te s n o t a v a ila b le )


’’N icht Tranen uns e rw e c k t," No. 3 from Im K aien , Op. 35*
L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r t e l, 1905; L ib ra ry o f Congress No. M 1554.
W 42.I.

V oicin g : Soprano d* — g"


A lto b -fla t — e - f la tM
T enor d — g‘
Base 6 — b -fla t
O r ig in a l t e x t : German (F . H. S chneider) (E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n ) .
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two hands.
Key: G m in o r.
Tempo and tim e: L1i s t e s s o tempo, 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 74, co u n tin g r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:33 ( a p p ro x .).
T e x tu re : tw o -p a rt and f o u r - p a r t homophonic.
Comments: th e s e t i s a d i r e c t descendant of th e Brahms L ieb es-
l i e d e r . No. 5 o f th e s e t i s an A lto s o lo , th e only so lo
work o f th e s e t . The s u b t i t l e i s "Walzer f u r G esangs-
q u a r t e t t (S opran, A lt, Tenor, und Bass) m it P ia n o fo rte
b e g le itu n g ." The form i s ABA w ith th e opening s e c tio n
f o r S oprano/A lto duet a l t e r n a t i n g w ith Tenor/B ass in two
m easure p h ra s e s . The m iddle s e c tio n i s p rim a rily a duet
between th e Soprano and Tenor ending w ith a l l fo u r
v o ic e s in a b r i e f homophonic p a ssa g e .

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189

1JEIL, O scar
"Schmerz i s t e i t e l , ohn1 Grund d ie Q u a il," >. 4 from Im M aien.
Op. 35.
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano e 1 — g”
A lto d 1 — d”
Tenor g — g'
Bass G — e1
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( s e e e n try a b o v e ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , tv/o h a n d s.
Key: A m inor
Tempo and tim e : Poco a l l e g r o , 3 /4 .
Number o f m easures: 32 , no r e p e a t s .
D u ra tio n : 0:52 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic e x c e p t f o r th r e e v ery b r i e f s o l o s .
Comments: see above f o r f u r t h e r in fo r m a tio n . A ll o f th e v o c a l
l i n e s a r e e a s y . The Tenor i s f e a tu r e d i n tv/o b r i e f
s o lo s .

TKEIL, O scar
"Wenn Lieb* wie Lenz so g in g a l s kam,” No. 6 from Im M aien. Op. 35<
Ib id .

V o ic in g : Soprano e -fla t1 — a -fla t”


A lto d -fla t1 — e -fla t”
T enor e -fla t — g - f la t1
B ass G — d -fla t1
O r ig in a l t e x t : German ( s e e e n try a b o v e ).
Accompaniment: p ia n o , two h a n d s.
Key: A - f l a t m a jo r.
Tempo and tim e : Non tro p p o le n to , 3/4*
Number o f m easures: 72 , no r e p e a ts .
D u ra tio n : 1:32 ( a p p r o x .) .
T e x tu re : homophonic.
Comments: an o f f s p r in g o f Brahms1 ”Es b e b e t das G e s tr a u c h e ,” frcm
L ie b e s lie d e r Y /alzer. Op. 5 2 . The work i s in s i x
s e c tio n s , th e m id d le fo u r b e g in n in g w ith homophonic
d u e ts by th e fem ale v o ic e s , and th e f i r s t and l a s t
s e c tio n s b e in g alm o st i d e n t i c a l homophonic w r i t i n g .
T h is e n t i r e s e t h a s been w e ll r e c e iv e d by a u d ie n c e s
when p e rfo rm ed by a tw e lv e v o ic e chamber c h o ru s .

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
190

APPENDIX I I

Non-Arm otated B ib lio g rap h y

The in fo rm a tio n f o r t h i s n o n -a n n o ta te d b ib lio g ra p h y o f works

f o r s o lo v o c a l ensem bles comes from many s o u rc e s . These in c lu d e

l i s t s of works in b io g ra p h ie s and a u to b io g ra p h ie s of com posers, from

l i s t s o f works in e n cy c lo p e d ia and d ic tio n a r y a r t i c l e s on composers

o r groups of com posers, from p u b lis h e rs* l i s t i n g s , from h i s t o r i c a l

w orks and i n is o l a t e d m e n tio n in g s of such p ie c e s . Due t o such a

w ide v a r i e t y o f so u rces th e r e was alm o st no method of com piling

th e s e works so t h a t each e n try had com plete b ib lio g r a p h ic m a t e r i a l .

Many tim e s only th e t i t l e , composer and th e v o ic in g was a v a i l a b l e .

I n o th e r in s ta n c e s th e p u b lis h e r and s u b - t i t l e o r f i r s t l i n e o f t e x t

m ig h t be p r e s e n t .

Due t o th e s e c irc u m sta n c e s i t was d e cid e d to p re s e n t a l l o f

t h e in fo rm a tio n a v a ila b le and n o t s t r i v e f o r a u n ifo rm ity o f e n tr y ,

s in c e t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n would e n t a i l m erely g iv in g th e t i t l e ,

com poser and v o ic in g . F o r th o s e e n t r i e s w hich a re in co m p lete o r a re

presum ed o u t - o f - p r i n t , a name o r a b b re v ia tio n h as been p la c e d in

p a r e n th e s e s w hich w i l l e n a b le t h e re a d e r to lo c a t e th e so u rc e o f th e

e n tr y i n th e b ib lio g ra p h y . Grove*s in d ic a te s G rove’ s D ic tio n a ry o f

M usic and M u sician s e d ite d by E r i c Blom, and MGG i n d ic a te s D ie M usik

i n G e sc h ic n te und Gegenwart e d ite d by F r ie d r ic h Blume.

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191

T rio — Mala V oices

Bach, Wilhelm F r ie d r ic h E r n s t . Der P fad des Lebens. TTB/piano.


(Hughes-Hughes, V ol. I I , p . 657)

Baumann, J . (J. Die d r e i V ogel, oder Schwab, T y ro le r und A lt b a ie r .


Op. 10. Kom. T e r z e tt f . T ., B r. u . B. m. P f t e . Augsburg:
Bohm. (H o fm eister, V o l. V I, p . 387)

B eethoven, Ludwig v an. Gesang d e r Monche. Op. 197 ("R asch t r i t t d e r


T o d " ). TBB/unaccompanied. (G ro v e 's , V ol. I , p . 579;
B eethoven: Werke, S e rie 23, p . 175)

C o rn e liu s , P e t e r . Der Tod des V e r r a te r s . TBB/piano. (C o rn e liu s :


Werke, Z w e ite r Band, p . 79)•

Curschmann, K a rl F ra n z . D itiram b o , Op. 1 0 . TTT/piano. B e r lin :


T ra u tw e in . (H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 57)

H a rd e r, A ugust. Wein und L ieb e : L ie d e r f u r M annerstimmen, Op. 4-7.


H e ft 1, H eft 2. B e r lin : S c h le s in g e r. (H o fm eister, V o l. I ,
p . 63)

Haydn, M ic h a e l. Gesange f u r Mannerstimmen ohne b e g le itu n g : 10


d e u tsc h e f u r 3 Stimmen. (MGG, V o l. X I, p . 1940)

K uhlau, F ra n z . Die F e ie r des W ohlwollens. C an tate von S ander, f u r


3 Mannerstimmen m it P f t e . Op. 36. Hamburg: C ranz. (Hof­
m e is te r , V ol. I , p . 67)

M ehul, E tie n n e N ic o la s . " L 'I r a to " ("Femme J o l i e , e t du bon v i n " ) .


TT B /piano. C o p y is t's m an u scrip t w ith German t e x t in th e New
York P u b lic L ib ra r y . (N. Y. P u b lic L ib ra ry No. NN R 12 .6 1 )

S c h u b e rt, F ra n z . B ardengesang, D. 147. TTB/unaccompanied. Oxford


U n iv . P re s s No. 7251.

________ . D essen Fahne Donnersturme w a l l t e . D. 641. TTB/unaccom­


p a n ie d . Oxford U niv. P re s s No. 7254.

________ . H ie r unarmen s ic h g e tre u e G a tte n , D. 93O, Op. 104.


TTB/unaccompanied. Oxford U niv. P re s s No. 7256.

. T o d te n g ra b e rs lie d , D. 38. TTB/unaccompanied. O xford


U n iv . P re s s No. 7255*

________ . T r in k lie d im M ai, D. 427. TTB/unaccompanied. Oxford


U niv. P r e s s No. 7259*

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
192

S c h u b e rt, F ra n z . T r in k lie d Im W inter. D. 242. TTB/unaccompanied.


Oxford U niv. P re s s Ho. 7260.

________ . V oruber d ie St*ohnende Klage, D. 53* TTB/unaccompanied.


Oxford U niv. P re ss No. 7252.

________ . Die zwei Tugendwege, D. 71. TTB/unaccompanied. Oxford


U niv. P re s s No. 7257*

T rio — Female Voices

A bt, F ra n z . L ie d e r u . Chore, f u r 3 Frauenstimmen m it P ia n o fo r te ,


Op. 186. 3 H e fte . Offenbach: A ndre. (H o fm eister, V ol. V I,
p . 384)

A lkan, C h a rle s -H e n ri. S tan ces d e M ille f o y e . T hree women's v o ic e s /


p ia n o . (G ro v e 's . V ol. I , p . 113)

A ndre, Johann August ( ? ) . K leine C antate f u r 3 Sopranstimmen m it


P ia n o f o r te , Op. 55« Offenbach: A n d rl. (H o fm eister, V ol. I ,
p . 52)

B e n e d ic t, J u l i a n . D rei dreistim m ige L ied er f u r 2 Sopran und e in A lt


m it P ia n o fo r te , Op. 5 2 . L eip zig : S e n ff . (H o fm eister, V ol.
V I, p . 388)

B e n n e tt, W illiam S te rn d a le . To a N ig h te n g ale . T rio of women's


v o ic e s . (G ro v e 's. V ol. I , p . 628)

M eyerbeer, Giacomo. La P r ie r e des E n fa n ts . T rio o f women's v o ic e s .


( F ^ t i s , V o l. V I, p . 129)

N is le , J . 12 fre u n d lic h e Gesange f u r d r e i Sopranstimmen m it P ia n o ­


f o r t e , Op. 43. Bunzlau: Appun. (H o fm eister: V ol. I , p . 75)

T rio — Mixed V oices

A r d i t i , L u ig i. A V itto r io Emanuele Re d * I t a l i a . STB/piano.


M ailan d : R ic o rd i. (H ofm eister, V o l. V I, p . 387)

B ecker, J u l i u s . 5 dreistim m ige L ieder f u r M ezzo-sopran (o d er A l t ) ,


Tenor und Bass m it P ia n o fo rte , Op. 3°» L e ip z ig : P e te r s .
(H o fm eiste r, V ol. I , p . 54-)

B e l l i n i , V incenzo. Qmbra P a c if ic h e . ST T /piano. ( S a r to r i, V ol. I I ,


p . 227)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
193

B erg er, L. 6 C anzonette. STB/piano. O ffenbach: Andre. (Hof­


m e is te r , V ol. I , p . 54)

B e rg t, A ugust. T e rz e tte f u r Sopran, Tenor und Bass m it P ia n o f o r te .


L e ip z ig : P e te r s . (H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 54)

B o m h a rd t, ( ? ) . Gesang und L ieb e . e in m u sik a lisc h e s In term ezzo ,


Op. 125. STB/piano. Hannover: Bachmann. (H o fm eister, V o l.
I , p . 56)

B runner, C. T . 4 L ie d e r. Op. 42. STB/piano. Hannover: Bachmann.


(H o fm eiste r, V ol. I , p . 56)

Campana, F a b io . S p ira p ro p iz io i l vento ( t e r z e t t i n o ) . STCon(or


B ass)/unaccom panied. M ailand: R ic o rd i. (H o fm eister, V ol.
V I, p . 392)

D o n iz e tti, G aetano. " C lo ri i n f i d e l . ” SConB/piano. U npublished,


(tfeinstock: D o n iz e tti, p . 402)

. ”Di g io ja d i pace l a doIce s p e ra n z a .” STB/piano.


U npublished. (W einstock: D o n iz e tti, p . 402)

Fanna, A. Romanza ("E ra m ite " ) . STB/piano. M ailand: R ic o rd i.


(H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 5 9 )

G erald y , J e a n . N o ttu rn o . SSB /piano. L e ip z ig : B reitk o p f & H a r te l.


(H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 6l )

G o rd ig ia n i, G iovanni B a t t i s t a . 4 T e rz e tte n , Op. 12. STB/piano.


P rague: B erra . (H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 62)

G u r r lic h , Joseph A ugustin . F estg esan g zur F e ie r des 1^. J u l i 1815.


von Levezow. STB/piano. B e rlin : S c h le s in g e r. (H o fm eister,
V o l. I , p . 62)

Hauptmann, M o ritz . 12 canons in German and I t a l i a n , Op. 5 0 . Three


v o ic e s ( u n lis te d ) /p ia n o and unaccompanied. (Schone and
H i l l e r , V ol. I I , p . 294)

________ . W einachslied.. SAB/piano. L e ip z ig : D u rr. (Schone and


H i l l e r , V ol. I I , p . 296)

H uth, L . Die beiden A ngefiihrten. Komisches T e rz e tt f u r Sopran,


T enor, und Bass m it P ia n o fo r te , Op. 27. B e rlin : S c h le s in g e r.
(H o fm eister, V ol. I , p . 64)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
194

L isc h k e , K. H. 50 L ie d e r . SAB/unaccompanied. G u te rs lo h : B e r t e l s ­
mann. (H o fm e iste r, V o l. V I, p . 410)

H i l l e r , J . 6 T e r z e t t i n i i t a l i a n i . S T B /p ian o . L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f
& H a r t e l . (H o fm e is te r, V o l. I , p . 72)

M oroni, L. N o tti e s t i v e a F r a s c a t i . 2 M elo d ie p . S . , Ca . e T . c .


P ia n o f o r te . Ho. 1 , " I I R o s ig n o lo ;" No. 2 , " I C a n ti d e l
L ago." M ailan d : R ic o r d i. (H o fm e is te r, V o l. V I, p . 414)

Nageli, Hans G. 30 Gesange. STB/no accompaniment mentioned. Zurich:


Nageli. (Hofmeister, Vol. I, p. 73)

R o s s in i, G io a cc h in o . "H o ttu rn o a T re V oci (A rg en e. M e la n ia . F i l e n o ) "


( " I n G iorno s i B e l lo " ) . S S T /p ia n o . M ailan d : R ic o r d i.
(H ughes-H ughes, V o l. I I , p . 6595 H o fm e is te r, V o l. I , p . 78)

S c h u b e rt, F ra n z . Der F ru h lin g sm o rg e n . D. 666, Op. 158. ST B /piano.


P e te r s No. 5800.

S ie b e r , F e rd in a n d . In R iv a a l Lago d i Como. Op. 6 5 . Album v o c a le ,


R a c c o lta d i q u a ttr o D u e tti e due T e r z e t t i c . P f t e . L e ip z ig :
R ie te r-B ie d e rm a n n . No. 5> "Senza p a r l a r , " SSCa/p ia n o ; No.
6 , " I I Congedo d e l Q u e r r ie r o ," SCa B /p ia n o . Nos. 1 th ro u g h
4 a re d u e ts f o r v a rio u s co m b in atio n s of v o ic e s . (H o fm e iste r,
V o l. V I, p . 425)

Sussm ayr, F ran z X a v ie r. E in e k le in e C a n ta te (Aus dankgefiihl v e r -


a n s t a l t e t und h erau sg eg eb en von den V e r f a s s e r n ) . ST B /piano.
P u b lish e d by R en ard , no c it y g iv e n . L ib ra ry o f C ongress No.
M 1553 case.

V e rd i, G iu se p p i. G uarda che b ia n c a lu n a : n o t t u m o . S T B /flu te ,


( G ro v e 's . V o l. V I I I , p . 746)

W eber, C a rl M aria v o n . E in G artch en und e in H auschen. STB/unaccom­


p a n ie d . ( G ro v e 's . V o l. IX, p . 222)

T r io — U n lis te d V o ic in g

B r e s c ia n i, P i e t r o . I I P e lle g r in o , i l C a v a lie re e i l T ro v a to re .
N o ttu rn o a 3 V oci con P f . M ailan d : L u cca. (H o fm e iste r,
V o l. I , p . 56)

C h e ru b in i, L u ig i. Chant s u r l a M ort de J . Haydn. T hree v o ic e s /p ia n o .


B e r lin : S c h le s in g e r ; L e ip z ig : P e t e r s . ( B e l l a s i s , p . 392)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
195

D o n iz e tt i, G aetano. " Io m o rro ," s o n a ta ^ l ' o r a . T hree v o ic e s /p ia n o .


U n p ublished. (V feinstock: D o n iz e t t i , p . 402)

________ • "Qui s t a i l m ale" ( t e r z e t t o ) . T hree v o ic e s /p ia n o . Un­


p u b lis h e d . (W einstock: D o n iz e tt i, p . 402)

Dupuy, ( ? ) . L* Amour. T hree v o ic e s /p ia n o . Copenhagen: Lose e t 0 .


(H o fin eiste r, V ol. I , p . 58)

Hoffmann, E . T. A. 3 C an zo n ette a 2 e t 3 V o ci, con P f . B e rlin :


S c h le s in g e r . (H o fm e iste r, V o l. I , p . 64)

K n y v e tt, C h a rle s . Lady o f B eau ty . A s e re n a d e . 1 s t V oice/2nd v o ic e /


B a s s /p ia n o . B oston: O liv e r D itso n Co. (n . d . ) . (L ib ra ry o f
C ongress No. M l.A 13K, case)

R e ic h a rd t, Johann F r ie d r ic h . Hexenscene aus M acbeth. Three v o ic e s /


p ia n o . B e rlin : S c h le s in g e r. (H o fm e iste r, V o l. I , p . 77)

W eber, C arl M aria von. Wo nehm* ic h Blumen h e r ? T hree v o ic e s /p ia n o .


( G ro v e 's . V o l. IX , p . 222)

Z e l t e r , K a rl. Die Neu.iahr S a n g e r. 1 s t V o ice/2 n d V o ic e /3 rd V o ic e /


p ia n o . B e rlin : E . H. G. C h r is tia n i ( n . d . ) . (L ib ra ry of
Congress No. M 1553 .Z41, case)

Q u a rte t — Male V oices

A b t, F r a n z . 6 S o lo -O u a rte tte n , Op. 297• V ie r M annerstimmen. 2


H e f te . L e ip z ig : S ie g e l. (H o fm eiste r, V o l. V I, p . 386)

B ath , E . 6 R hein— . Wein— , und W an d e rlie d e r, Op. 14. Male q u a r te t


( u n li s te d ) /n o accompaniment m en tio n ed . B e r lin : T rau tw ein .
(H o fm eiste r, V o l. V I, p . 387)

B ecker, V a le n tin E douard. 2 h e i t e r e M a n n e rq u a rte tte . Op. 27. No. 1 ,


"D er Sprung iiber den G raben;" No. 2, "M a g iste r B o ta n ic u s ."
M ainz: S c h o tt. (H o fm e iste r, V ol V I, p . 387)

B e l la , J . L. Slovenske S tv o rsp e v y . Four m ale v o ic e s ( u n l i s te d ) /n o


accompaniment m e n tio n e d . Wien: S p in a . (H o fin eiste r, V o l. VI,
p . 388)

B iz e t, G eorges. S a in t- J e a n de Pathm os. Four m ale v o ic e s ( u n l i s t e d ) /


unaccom panied. Choudens ( p u b l i s h e r ) . (Dean, p . 151; C u r tis s ,
p . 468)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
196

B orodin, A le x an d re. Serenade f o r Four C a v a lie rs t o one Lady. Four


m ale v o ic e s (u n liste d )/u n a c c o m p a n ie d . (Abraham: B orodin, p .
174)

B ru ck n er, A nton. P e r Abendhimmel, Op. 5 7 . No. 59 in th e o rd e r of


h i s com posing.T T B B /n o accompaniment m en tio n ed . (A ver, p .
452)

D o n iz e tt i, G aetano. "La Campana" ( " I I s o le d is c e n d e " ) . TTBB/piano.


From th e C o lle c tio n M a tin le s m u s ic a le s . (W einstock:
D o n i z e t t i , p . 402)

. "R a ta p la n , o r La P a rte n z e d e l re g g im e n to ." TTBB/piano.


From th e c o lle c tio n s M atinees m u sic a le s and F i o r i d i s e p o lc ro .
(Y feinstock: D o n iz e tti, p . 402)

Haydn, M ic h a e l. V ierstim m ige G esange. TTBB/unaccompanied. Two


c o l l e c t i o n s , V ienna: E der (1799) and S a lz b u rg : H acker (1 8 0 0 ).
(MGG, V o l. X I, p . 1940)

Hummel, Johan Nepomuka. In g u t- g e s in n te r F r e u n d e -k re is e . Four male


v o ic e s (u n l i s t e d )/n o acccmpaniment m en tio n ed . M an u scrip t in
th e B r i t i s h Museum. (Hughes-Hughes, V o l. I I , p . 459)

I p p o lito v -Iv a n o v , M ik h ail M ik h a ilo v ic h . T hree o u a r te ts f o r m ale


v o ic e s . Op. 75* TTBB/piano. Moscow:Myar« 3 , 1932.
(L ibrary o f Congress No. M 1554.1)

J u s t, J . S o ld a te n lie d ("Burgen m it hohen Mauern und Z in n en "), aus


G oethe’ s F a u s t. Four male v o ic e s ( u n lis te d ) /n o accompaniment
m e n tio n e d . F r a n k f u rt: F is c h e r . (H o fm eiste r, V ol. I , p . 64)

K re u tz e r, C onrad. 6 Q u a rte tte n , Op. 85. TTBB/no accompaniment


m e n tio n e d . H eft 1, P a tr i o t is c h e L ie d e r; H eft 2, Y Jaldlieder
von V o g el. Coin: Eck e t C. (H o fm eiste r, V o l. I , p . 66)

Kiicken, F ra n z . S o ld a t9 n lie b e , Op. 22. No. 1, "Im W aldej" No. 2,


"Der J a g e r ;" No. 3 , "Das R eg en w etter." TTBB/unaccompanied.
Hamburg: S chuberth e t C. (H o fm eiste r, V o l. I , p . 67)

K untze, K a rl. Wo du n ic h t b i s t , H err O rg a n is t. Op. 95* Komische


M a n n e rq u a rte tt. L e ip z ig : S ie g e l. (H o fm eiste r, V o l. V I,
p . 408)

A p p a ren tly th e r e was a c o n sid e ra b le demand f o r comic q u a r te ts


because Kuntze had f i f t e e n o th e r opus numbers l i s t e d a s
"Komische Manner q u a rt e t t . "

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
197

L an g e-M u ller, P e te r Erasm us. Chor— og K v a rte tsa n g e . f u r M anner-


stim m en, Op. 10. (MGG. V ol. V III , p . 188)

Loewe, C a r l. G eneral Schw erin. Op. 6 l . Four m ale v o ic e s ( u n l i s t e d ) /


unaccom panied. (MGG, V ol. V III , p . 1108)

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. Lieder fur vier Mannerstlmmen., Op. 50.


No. 1, "Turkisches Schenkenlied;" No. 2, "Der Jager
Abschied;" No. 3» "Wasserfahrt;" No. 4 , "Sommerlied;" No. 5,
"Liebe und Vfeinj" No. 6, "Wanderlied." (Grovel. Vol. V,
p . 701)

________ . L ie d e r f u r v i e r Mannerstimmen, Op. 75* No. 1, "Wem G ott


w i l l ; " No. 2, "A bendstandchen;" No. 3 , "So la n g man n u ch tern
i s t ; " No. 4 , "So ru c k t d en n ." ( G ro v e 's , V ol. V, p . 701)

M ey erb eer, Giacomo. A m itie . Q uatuor pour v o ix d'hommes. (F e tis ,


V o l. V I, p . 129)

O berneder, F ra n z . Mein l i e b s t e s Tanzchen. P o lk a f u r M a n n e rq u a rte tt.


Wein: S p in a . (H o fm eister, V o l. V I, p . 416)

R echenberg, E r n s t . P re u s s e n lie d von Z e is ig e r , Op. 12. Fiir Manner­


q u a r t e t t und Solostimmen m it P ia n o f o r te . B e rlin : C h a llie r e t
C. (H o fm eister, V o l. I , p . 77)

Reissiger, Chr. G l. Chorgesange und Quartetten fur frohe Lieder-


tafler. Op. 157. TTBB/unaccompanied. Berlin:' Schlesinger.
(Hofmeister, V o l. I , p . 77)

Rungenhagen, K a rl F r ie d r ic h . V ie r Gesange d er Z e lte rsc h e n L ie d e r-


t a f e l i n B e r lin , Op. 21. A lso, Sechs Gesange d er Z e lte r ­
sch en ( e t c . ) . Op. 4 0 . B e r lin : T rautw ein & C. (H o fm eister,
V o l. I , p . 79)

S c h a f f e r , A ugust. Die la n g e Nase. Op. 92, No. 1 . Launiges Manner­


q u a rte tt. L e ip z ig : K is tn e r . (H o fm eister, V o l. V I, p . 422)

S c h a ffe r a ls o p u b lis h e d Opp. 94 and 100 as "Komischen Manner­


q u a r t e t t " and Opp. 95» 98 and 102 a s "Komischen D u e tt."

Schnyder von W artensee, X a v ie r. Die v i e r Temperaments. Komisches


Q u a r t e t t . TTBB/piano. Bonn: Sim rock. (H o fm eister, V o l. I ,
p . 8 l)

S c h u b e rt, F ra n z . B ootgesang, D. 835, Op. 52, No. 3 . TTBB/piano.


B re itk o p f & H a r te l No. 10747.

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
198

S c h u b e rt, F ra n z . Die E i n s ie d e le i . D. 337. TTBB/unaccanpanied.


P e te r s No. 5801. Also c a lle d Lob d e r W insam keit.

________ . Die E n tfe r n te n . D. 331* TTBB/unaccompanied. P e te r s No.


5801 .

________ . F is c h e r lie d , D. 364. TTBB/unaccompanied. B re itk o p f &


H a r te l No. 10748.

________ . F ru h lin g sg e san g , D. 740, Op. 16, No. 1 . TTBB/piano.


P e te r s No. 5801.

________ . Iin gegem vartigen V ergangenes, Op. 710. TTBB/piano.


P e te r s No. 5801.

________ . N aturgenuss. D. 422, Op. 16, No. 2. TTBB/piano. P e te r s


No. 5801.

. T rin k lie d aus dem XVII. J a h rh u n d e rt, D. 847, Op. 115.


TTEB /optional p ia n o . P e te rs No. 8359*

________ . Wehmut. D. 825, Op. 64, No. 1 . TTBB/unaccompanied. P e te rs


No. 1904.

S il c h e r , F r ie d r ic h . T ubinger L i e d e r ta f e l. Op. 1 5 . Chore und Quar­


t e t t e f u r Mannerstimmen. Tubingen: Laupp. (H o fm eister,
V ol. I , p . 82)

S o l l e , F ra n z . Komische und h e it e r e M a n n e rq u a rte tte . Op. 36, No. 3,


"Das H aschen;" Op. 37, No. 4 , "Die S to ru n g ." L e ip z ig : S t o l l .
(H o fm eister, V o l. V I, p . 426)

S te in a c k e r, ( ? ) . Sieben Gesange f u r 3 Tenore und B ass. Op. 11.


L e ip z ig : B re itk o p f & H a r te l. (H o fln eister, V o l. I , p . 83)

Wedemann, 7/ilhelm . Q uartett*M agazin la u n ig e n und e rn s te n I n h a l t s ,


f u r M annergesang. 1 — 3 te L ie f . Weimar: V o ig t. (Hof­
m e is te r , V o l. I , p . 87)

Z o lln e r , J . D rei V o c a l-Q u a rte tte . No. 1, " T rin k lie d aus F a u s t;"
No. 2, "Der S tr a u s s , den ic h g e p flu c k e t;" No. 3> "P o la c ca a .
L ib u ss a ." Pour male v o ic e s (u n liste d )/u n a c c o m p a n ie d .
F r a n k fu rt: F is c h e r . (H o fm eister, V o l. V I, p . 432)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
199

Quartet — Mixed Voices

Abt, Franz. Eine Maiennacht. Op. 99, No. 2 (poem: Lunecke). SATB/
piano. Leipzig: Hofmeister. (Hofmeister, Vol. VI, p . 384)

Opp. 212, 235, 241, 244, 256, 288, 291 and others are for se ts
o f works for SATB/piano by various publishers, but mostly by
S ie g el in Leipzig.

Adam, Carl Friedrich. Sechs vierstimroigen Lieder. Op. 4. SATB/


unaccompanied. Dresden: R otter. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 52)

Anthes, J . A. FrUhlingsfeier. 6 Lieder fur 2 Sopran and 2 Manner­


stimmen (oder fur eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte), Op. 4.
Mainz: Schott. (Hofmeister, V ol. I , p. 52)

Appel, Karl. Sechs einfache Lieder, Op. 25. No. 1, "Freude in


Ehren;" No. 2, "Treues Herz;’1 No. 3, "Die Rose;” No. 4, "Die
einsame Thrane;" No. 5 , "Liebesheimath;" No. 6, "Abendglbck-
le in ." SATB/unacccmpanied. Leipzig: Kistner. (Hofmeister,
V ol. VI, p. 387)

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Cantata campestre (Un lie t o B rin d isi), no


opus number. STTB/piano. Winterthur: Jahrbuch der L itera-
rischen Vereinigung, 1945* (Grove1s . Vol. I , p. 579)

Bergt, August. Seht den Fruhlingsblick, Op. 16. Arie fiir Sopran mit
Tenor und 2 Bassstimmen und P ianoforte. Leipzig: Hofmeister.
(Hofmeister, Vol. I , $4)

Bulow, Hans Guido Freiherr von. Funf Gedichte von R. Pohn, Op. 15.
SATB/unaccompanied. (MGG. Vol. I I , p. 45o)

_______. Abend am Meer. SATB/unaccompanied. (MGG. Vol. I I , p. 450)

Chaikovskii, Peter. Die Nacht (HoHb). SATB/unaccompanied. Moscow:


P. Jurgenson, n. d ., p la te No. 18923 . (Library of Congress
No. M 1554 .C)

"Die Musik i s t der Phantasie No, 4 von Mozart entlehnt und


arrangirt von P. Tschaikovsky." Ten pages of music with
Mozartean harmonies, but Tchaikovskian texture and arranging
technique.
Cook, T. J . The Sleighing G lee. TASB (reading from the top of the
page) / unaccompanied• New York: F irth, Pond and Co., 1859*
(Library of Congress No. M 1.A13C)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
200

Costa, Michele (Michael). Trova un so l mia b e lla . quartetto a


canone. SATB/piano. Berlin: Trautvrein. (Hofmeister, Vol.
VI, p. 392)
Davies, Henry Walford. Six Pastorals. No. 1, "Morning Song vdth
Hymn to Pan;" No. 2, "The Shepherd's Wife's Song;" No. 3»
"Sweet Content;" No. 4, "Dialogue of Corinda and Damon;"
No. 5, "Dialogue of Dorinda and Thyrsis;" No, 6, "Evening
Song." SATB/string quartet/piano. London: Curwen, 1897.
(Grove's, Vol. I I , p. 613; Altmann: Kammermusik-Katalog,
P. 390)

_______ . Song of Nature, Op. 24. SATB/string quartet/piano.


London: Curwen, 1897. (Altmann: Kammermusik-Katalok. p. 390.

Gabussi, V. La Festa. SCTB/piano. Mainz: Schott. (Hofmeister,


Vol. I, p. 60)

D on izetti, Gaetano. "Cede la mia costanza, Irene, al tuo rigor."


SCTB/unaccompanied. Unpublished. (V/einstock: Donizetti,
p. 402)

_______ . "Strofe di Byron." No. 1, "Sien l'onde placide;" No. 2,


"Per noi la vita;" No. 3> ”Ma poi passati stragi e orror."
STBB/piano. Unpublished. (Weinstock: Donizetti, p. 402)

Hamraa, B. Sechs Lieder in Volkston. SATB/unaccompanied. 3 Hefte.


Leipzig: Schafer. (Hofmeister, Vol. VI, p. 400)

Hauptmann, M oritz. Sechs Lieder von Goethe, Op. 25. No. 1, "Im
Sommer;" No. 2, "Wanderers Nachtlied;" No. 3> 'Mailied;"
No. 4, "Heidenroslein;" No. 5> "Frtthzeitiger Frilhling;" No.
6, "Geistergruss." SATB/unaccompanied. (Schone and Hiller,
V ol. I I , p. 291)

Opp. 32 and 47 are both t i t le d Six Four-part Songs vdth


various dedications but a l l for SATB/unaccompanied.

Henschel, Georg. Serbisches L iederspiel, Op. 3 2 . Cycle of ten songs


for one or more voices^ SATB/no accompaniment indicated.
(Grove's. Vol. IV, p. 243)

________. Five Quartets, Op. 51 • Russian poems in German trans­


la tio n s. (Grove's, Vol. IV, p . 243)

Hering, Karl. Vier Lieder in Volkston, Op. 9 6 . No. 1, "Der Jager;"


No. 2, "Die Nonne;" No. 3, "Das Klosterfraulein;" No. 4,
"Abschied." Hamburg: Fr. Schuberth. (Hofmeister, Vol. VI,
p. 402)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
201

Hofmann, Heinrich Karl Johann. Lenz und Liebe: Liederspiel. Op. 84.
SATB/piano. (Grove's. Vol. IV, p. 318 )

Huber, Hans. Funf 'Gesangsquartette. Op. 52. SATB/piano, four hands.


(MGG. Vol. VI, p. 810)

Jackson, William Exeter. Six Quartets for Voice. SSTB/fig. bass.


Londons Longpan & Broderip, ca. 1800. (Library of Congress
No. M 1554 .A2J, case)

Knorr, Ivan. Ukrainische Liebeslieder. Op. 6 (text by composer).


SATB/piano. (Grove's. Vol. IV, p. 790)

Loews, Carl. Gesang der Geister Uber den Wassern (poem by Goethe),
Op. 88~ SATB/piano. Berlin: Schlesinger. (Hofmeister, Vol.
I , P. 69 )
MacDowell, Edward. Barcarolle. Op. 44. SATB/piano, four hands.
(Grove's. Vol. V, p. 465)

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, F e lix . Sechs Lieder. Op. 59• No. 1, "Im


GrUnenj" No. 2, "Friihzeitiger Fruhling;" No. 3, "Abschied vom
Walde;" No. 4, "Die Nachtigal;" No. 5, "Ruhethal;" No. 6,
"Jagdlied." SATB/unaccompanied. (Grove's. Vol. V, p. 701)

Mendelssohn's Opp. 48, 88 and 100 are also sets of Lieder


for SATB/unaccompanied chorus.

Rheinberger, Josef. Wasserfee. Op. 21. SATB/piano. (Grove's.


V ol. VII, p. 149)
________. Four Quartets. Op. 24. Vocal quartet/piano. (Grove's.
V ol. VII, p. 149)

________. Four Quartets. Op. SATB/piano/strings (u n listed ).


(Grove's. Vol. VII, p. 149)

R icci, Luigi. I I Tresette. SSTB/piano. Mainz: Schott. (Hof­


m eister, Vol. I , p. 78)

R iedel, August. Liebesgesange. Op. 1. Seven poems from Lenz und


Liebe. by Omar Chajjam. SATB/piano, four hands. (From an
advertisement by C. F. W. Siegel, Leipzig, Library of
Congress No. M 1554.R)
R ossin i, Gioacchino. Ridiamo. cantiamo. STTB/piano. Hannover:
Nagel; Munchen: Falter; Wien: M echetti. (Hofmeister, Vol.
I , P. 78)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
202

R ossini, Gioacchino. Dal Orients l 1Astro del Giorno. STTB/piano.


Mailand: RicordiT [Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 78)

Saint-saens, Camille. Two part song's for mixed voices. Op. 141.
No. 1, "Des pas dans l'allee;" No. 2, "Trinquons." (Grove's.
Vol. VIII, p. 368, p. 370)

S a lie r i, Anton. Herzliche Empfindung. SSTB/piano. Wien: Pietro


Mechetti, n. d ., plate No. 359. (Library of Congress No.
M 1554 .A2s, case)

Schauseil, W. Bohmisches Liederspiel. SATB/piano. Leipzig: S iegel.


(From an advertisement by C. F. W. S ieg el, Leipzig, Library
of Congress No. M 1554.R)

Schnyder von Wartensee, Xavier. Der Friede. SSTB/piano/clarinet (or


f lu t e ) . Bonn: Simrock. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 8l)

Schubert, Franz. Gebet. D. 8l5> Op. 139* SATB/piano. Peters No.


5800 .

Schumann, Robert. Die Orange und Myrte. no opus number (text by the
composer). SATB/unaccompanied. (Grove's. Vol. VII, p. 638)

Shield, William. Poor Barbara. SATB/piano. London: Preston & Son,


1795 (?)• (Library of Congress No. M 1554 .S, case)

Included with th is publication is an SSB settin g without the


piano, the la tte r having a heading: "The same in a higher
key adapted for three voices, by particular desire."

Spohr, Ludwig. Sechs vierstimmige Lieder. Op. 120. No. 1, "Sonnen-


schein;" No. 2, "Vesper;" No. 3, "Wanderlust;" No. 4, "An die
Sterne;" No. 5> "Ergebung;" No. 6, "Fruhlingsgedanken."
Leipzig: Schuberth & Co. (Hofmeister, Vol. VI, p. 426)

Stanford, Charles V. Vocal Quartets. Op. 68. Cycle of quartets


from Tennyson's Princess (1898). SATB/piano. (Grove's.
Vol. VIII, p. 55)
Walker, Ernest. Five Songs from "England's Helicon." Op. 10.
No. 1, "The Shepherds' Consort;" No. 2, "Damelus's Song to
h is Diaphenia;" No. 3> "Love the only Price of Love;" No. 4,
"Vfodenfride's Song in Praise of Amargana;" No. 5» "A Sweet
Pastoral." SATB/piano. (Grove's, Vol. IX, p. 143)

Weber, Carl Maria von. Quartet, without words. Written for Danzi.
(Saunders, p. 264)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
203

Weber, Carl Maria von. Zur freude ward geboren, Op. 26, No. 6.
STTB/unaccompanied. (Grove’s. IX, p. 222)

_______ . Leis' wandeln wir, m e geisterhauch. Op. post. 6. S solo/


TBB/wind instruments (unlisted). (Grove's. Vol. IX, p. 222)

Quartet — Unlisted Voicing

B e llin i, Vincenzo. Canone lib ero. Four solo voices. Composed for
L'Album di Zimmermann. l827“35» (Sartori, Vol. II , p. 227)

Boieldieu, Fran. Adrien. L'Ange des premiers Amours. Four v o ic e s/


piano. Berlin: Schlesinger. (Hofmeister, Vol. I, p. 55)

Bruch, Max. Wie mochte .ie mir wohler sein . Op. 54, No. 5» Quartet/
p ia n o /v io lin .L e ip z ig : Breitkopf &Hartel, 1886. (Altmann:
Kammermusik-Katalog, p. 339)

Bruckner, Anton. Du bist wie eine Blume. Mixed quartet/unaccompanied.


(Auer, p. 452)

D onizetti, Gaetano. ”Finch£ fedele tu mu se i stata." Four v o ice s/


piano. Unpublished. (Weinstock: D onizetti, p. 402)

Eberwein, Traugott Maximilian. Die Friihlingsnacht. Vier Sing-


stimmen/Pianoforte. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, l8 l8 .
(Library of Congress No. M 1554 .E, case)

Hummel, Johan Nepomuka. Choeur patriotique avec canon. Op. 62.


Vocal quartet/piano. (Grove's, Vol. IV, p. 409)

________. Nel mirarvi. 0 bos chi amici. Four voices/unaccompanied.


Manuscript in the British Museum (Hughes-Hughes, Vol. I I ,
p. 458)
Mackenzie, Alexander Campbell. Bonnie B e ll. Four voices/unaccom­
panied. (Grove's. Vol. V, p. 476)

Reicha, Anton. Vokalauartett. (MGG. Vol. XI, p. 148)

Schenk, Johann Baptist. Nocturnen. Italian te x t. Four voices/wind


instruments (no lis t in g ) . (MGG. Vol. XI, p. 1668)

Vogler, Georg Joseph (Abbe). Per Alterberg. Four voices/piano.


(Grove*s. Vol. IX, p. 4l)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
204

Wallace, William. Spanish Songs. Vocal quartet (1893)• (Grove’s


Vol. IX, p. 148)

Quintet — Various Voicings

A e io li; Bonifacio. Sei notturni a 5 voci s o le . Op. p ost. Leipzig:


Breitkopf & H artel. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 53)

Blum, Karl L. Jucunde, Op. 124. Drei Gesange. STTBB. Leipzig:


Breitkopf & H artel. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 55)

Bornhardt, (?). Musikalischer Spass, ein tolles Quintett unter


Lebendigen und Leblosen, mit Pianoforte. Hannover: Bachmann.
(Hofmeister, Vol. I , p . 56)

D on izetti, Gaetano. Se schiudi i l labbro. o F illid e . Five voices


(u n listed )/p ia n o . Included in the c o llectio n D onizetti per
camera. (Weinstock: D on izetti, p. 402)

Heinrich, Anthony P h ilip . E legiac Quintetto Vocale. SATBB/organ.


New York: C. G. Christman, 1846. (Library of Congress No.
Ml .A 12 V, Vol. 19)

H ille r , Friedrich von. Sechs Gesange. Op. 25• STTBB/unaccompanied.


Bonn: Simrock. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 64)

Hummel, Johan Nepomuca. Placa g l i sdegni tu o i. Five voices (no


listing)/unaccom panied. (Hughes-Hughes, Vol. I I , p. 459)

Kucken, Franz. Gesang aus "Viel Larmen urn n ich ts" (Shakespeare),
Op. 53a» SSTTB/unaccompanied. Berlin: Schlesinger.
(Hofmeister, Vol. VI, p. 406)

Mair, Franz. Die Lotosblume. TTBBB. Wien: Tendler & Co. (Hof­
m eister, Vol. VI, p . 410)

Mathieux, J . Die Vogel-Cantate: musikalischer Scherz, Op. 1. Five


v oices (no lis tin g )/p ia n o . Berlin: Trautwein e t C. (Hof­
m eister, Vol. VI, p . 410)
P e lle sc h i, Gasparo (? ). 3 q u in tetti notturni. SCTTB/unaccompanied.
Mailang: R icordi. (Hoftaeister, Vol. I , p. 76)

R eichel, A dolf. Vier Lieder. Op. 22. No. 1, "Abendlied;" No. 2,


Fruhlingslied;" No. 3» "Bundeslied;" No. 4, "Vanitasl
Vanitatum vanitas." Breslau: Leuckart. SSATB. (Hof­
m eister, Vol. VI, p. 418)

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
205

Schubert, Franz. Mondenschein. D. 875, Op. 102. TTBBB/piano


(o p tio n a l). Peters No. 8354-•
. Sehnsucht, D. 656. TTBBB/unaccompanied. Breitkopf &
Hartel No. 10743.

Truhn, F. H. Champagnerlied (poem: Eckardt vom Berge). T solo/


TTBB. Leipzig: Hofmeister. (Hofkeister, Vol. I, p. 85)

Wesley, Samuel Sebastian. I wish to tune my quiv'ring ly r e , a g lee .


ATTBB/unaccompanied. (Grove1s . Vol. IX, p. 266)

Sextet — Various Voicings

C alvisiu s, Sethus. A ltes Vfiegenlied (Joseph, lieb er Joseph mein).


SSTBBB/no accompaniment mentioned. Berlin: Trautwein et C.
(H ofkeister, Vol. I , p. 56)

Lortzing, Albert. Elisabethen-Walzer von Joh. Strauss. SSTTBB/


no accompaniment mentioned. Leipzig: Hofmeister. (Hof­
m eister, Vol. I , p. 69 )

Marschner, August E. Drei Gesange. Op. 55* No. 1, "Die S e lig -


keiten;" No. 2, "Brautgesang;" No. 3> "Der Troubadour."
SSTTBB/no accompaniment mentioned. Leipzig: Breitkopf &
H artel. (Hofmeister, Vol. I , p. 70)

M uller, Adolf (Sohn). I r r lic h t. Op. 5> No. 1. SSAATB/no accom­


paniment mentioned. Wien: Spina. (Hofmeister, Vol. VI,
p . 414)
Weber, Carl Maria von. Lenz erwacht. SSTTBB/no accompaniment
mentioned. (Saunders, p. 264)

________ . Natur und Liebe (poem: Friedrich Kind), Op. 6 l. SSTTBB/


piano. (Grove*s. Vol. IX, p. 222)

Twentieth Century — Various Voicings

Beekhuis, Hanna. Dormeuse. Three female voices (unlisted)/flute/


violin/harp. Donemus (publisher), 1948. (Richter, p. 226)

Berg, Alban. Vocal quartet: An das Frankfurter Opernhaus. 1930*


(Grove's. Vol. I. p. 639)

This piece wa3 written for the fiftieth anniversary of the


Frankfurt opera house, and was based on the twelve-note

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206

theme of Schonberg's opera Moses und Aron, which was the


featured work at that event.

Berkeley, Lennox. Three Songs. TTBB. London: Chester.

Bernstein, Leonard. S o ld ie r s Song, from "The Lark." For f u ll


chorus of mixed voices or septet of solo voices, with drum.
SSE-sTBB/drum. New York: G. Schiraer, 1964 , No. 11708.

B inet, Jean. Three Vocal Quartets. No. 1, "Princes de la Chine,"


(1941)3 No. 2, "Deux Chansons," (1942); No. 3> "Serenade
nautique," (1943)• (Grove’s . Vol. I , p. 712)

B ritten, Benjamin. The Ballad of L ittle Musgrave and Lady Barnard.


TBarB/piano. 'New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1952.

Canteloube, J. Chansons galantes du XVIIIme 3 ie c le . Paris: Au


M enestrel, Huegel. (Library of Congress No. M 1554 .C)

Capdevielle, Pierre. Les amours de Pierre de Ronsard. Three


madrigals. Solo voices (number and voicing u n lis te d )/flu te /
h a r p /v io lin /v io la /c e llo . Paris: Rouart. (Richter, p. 226)

Caplet, Andre. Le miroir de Jesus. Soprano, 3 other female v o ices/


2 v io lin s/c e llo /h a r p . Paris: Durand & Cie, 1910.

________. Septuor. 3 women's v o ice s/str in g quartet. (MGG. Vol.


I I , p . 806)

Cui, C^sar Antonovich. Seven Vocal Quartets. Op. 59* (Grove's.


V ol. I I , p. 559)
Dieren, Bernard van. Marginalia to 'Viurder as One of the Fine Arts"
(text: DeQuincey). Bar solo/TTBB/piano. (Grove's. Vol. II.
p. 704)

Elgar, Edward. Inside the Bar. Four baritones. (MGG. Vol. I l l ,


p . 1276)
Gerstberger, Karl. Kammer-Kantate: Gesang von der Lowengrube (poem:
Goethe). SAB/2 oboes (optional bassoon and English horn).
BSrenreiter. (Richter, p. 227)

Gretchaninoff, Alexandre. Two Vocal Quartets. Op. 30 (1902). No


voicing indicated. (MGG. Vol. V. p. o3o)

. Two Male Quartets. Op. 56 (1911), and Two Female Quartets.


Op. 57 (l91l)» No voicing indicated. (MGG. Vol. V, p. 838 )

R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
207

Heiss, Hermann. Sieben dreistimmige Sentenzen (texts Gunther M ichel).


SAB/string tr io . Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1952.
(Richter, p. 226)

Hindemith, Paul. Lieder fKr Singkreise. Op. 43, No. 2. Three


voices (u n listed ), 1927. (Grove’s . Vol. IV, p. 291)

Janacek, Leos. Z^pisnik zmizel^ho (Diary of One who Vanished).


Tenor solo/Conti'alto solo/three female voices/piano.
(Grove's. Vol. IV, p. 583)

Kauder, Hugo. Ten Poems from James Joyce's "Chamber Music." SAB/
string quartet. Fronm Foundation S eries, New York: Boosey
& Hawkes.

Koechlin, Charles. Unaccompanied Modal Trios (1932), Op. 118b.


(Grove's. Vol. IV, p. 811)

_______ . Unaccompanied Modal Quartets (1932), Op. I l 8 c. (Grove's,


Vol. IV, p. 811)

Lehmann, Lisa. In a Persian Garden. Song cycle for four solo voices
with piano. London: Metzler & Co., Ltd., 1909. (Thompson,
p . 1183)
Metzler, Friedrich. Bei Tag und Nacht: eine Eichendorff-Kantate.
Four voices (unlisted)/flute/horn/viola/piano (optional).
Hofmeister, 1955* (Richter, p. 228)

_______ . Mit Lieb bin ich umfangen: eine Kantate mit deutsche
Volksliedern. SATB/flute/string quartet. M itteld t. Verlag,
1952. (Richter, p. 228)

Migot, Georges. Le cortege d'Amphitrite sur un texte de Albert


Samain. Four voices (u n listed )/strin g q u a rtet.L ed u c, 1934.
(Altmann: Kammermusik-Katalog. p. 340)

Milhaud, Darius. L'Eglise h a b illle de f e u ille s . Vocal quartet (un­


lis t e d ), 1916 . (Grove's. Vol. V, p. 766)

. Deux Poemes tupis (tex t translations from Indian te x ts ).


Four women's voices (unlisted)/handclapping, 1918. (Grove's,
Vol. V, p. 766)
_______ . 6e symphonic, pour Soprano, Contralto, Tenor, Basse,
Hautbois et V ioloncelle. Vienna: Universal-Edition A-G, ca.
I 929 . (Richter, p. 228)

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208

Rogowski, Ludcmir Michal. Five Old Canzonets from Dubrovnik. TTBB/


no accompaniment mentioned, 1935* (Grove's, Vol. VII, p. 207)

Sanchez, Bias. Vingt chants de France et d 'a ille u r s, a 2, 3> 4 et 5


voix avec accompagnement de guitars. Paris: Editions
Choudens (C. F. Peters No. C-414).

This i s a compilation of tv/enty works for various combin­


ations of solo voices and guitar.

Shostakovitch, Dmitri. Songs after Jewish Folk Poems. Op. 79*


Edition Peters No. 4727.

In addition to fiv e solos and four duets, there are two SAT
tr io s .

Taneyev, Sergey. Three Terzetti (poems: Tuchev), Op. 23, ca. 1908.
No. 1, "Sonnet by Michelangelo;" No. 2, "Rome at Night;" No.
3, "Silent Night." SAT/no accompaniment mentioned. (Grove's,
Vol. VIII, p. 304)

________. Two Quartets (poems: Pushkin), Op. 24, after 1908. No. 1,
"The Monastery on the Kazbek;" No. 2, "Adele." SSAT/no
accompaniment mentioned. (Grove1s . Vol. VIII, p. 304)

Tate, P h y llis. Nocturne for Four Voices (text: Sidney Keyes).


STBarB/string quartet/double bass/bass c la r in e t/c e le sta .
London: Oxford Univ. Press.

Thomson, V ir g il. Capital. Capitals (Gertrude S tein ), 1927. Four


men's voices/piano. (Grove1s . Vol. VIII, p. 434)

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209

APPENDIX III

Seven Works for Solo Vocal Ensemble

These seven works by seven d ifferen t composers were chosen

because they illu s tr a te the trends of solo vocal ensemble w riting in

the nineteenth century. Six are from published ed ition s, only the

D o n izetti work being in manuscript. The e d ito r ia l procedure was to

reproduce everything exactly as written as far as p ossib le, and any

e d ito r ia l changes were placed in brackets. These occurred only in the

works by D on izetti and Harder, and were lim ited almost e n tir e ly to

dynamic and accent markings.

page

P eter Cornelius, Trost in Tranen . . . . . . . . . ......................... 210

Cornelius (1824-1874-), much lik e Wagner (whom he id o liz e d ),


preferred to write h is own lib r e t t i for his operas. He
studied at Dresden, and la ter with Y/agner at Vienna and
Munich, and is best remembered for h is many solo songs.
Trost in Tranen i s only one example of the hundreds of
nineteenth-century compositions which employ unusual
v o ic in g s.

Francesco Danzi, MSe un core annodi,w No. 2 from Sei Q uartetti 239

Franz Danzi (1763-1826) i s primarily remembered for his


works for wind ensemble, and for a few dramatic works.
MSe un core annodi” i s an example of the Ita lia n influence
on vocal ensemble works.

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209a

Alexander Dargomyzhsky, Trio 254

Dargomyzhsky ( I 813 - I 869 ), although taught by a German


(Schoberlechner) v/as much influenced by the Ita lia n style
of w riting for the vocal ensemble. In th is Trio the piano
does l i t t l e more than double the bass lin e in the l e f t
hand while the right hand has the "Italian guitar" sound.

Gaetano D on izetti, "Ah, che i l d e s t i n o " ............................ 263

The influence of Ita lia n opera (particu larly h is own) on


t h is l i t t l e work i s obvious. D onizetti (1797-1848)
composed at lea st 67 operas, plus several masses, a
requiem, cantatas and many songs.

August Harder, "An E lisa," No. 1 from I I I dreistimmige Gesange 269

Harder was born at Schoenstadt in 1774 and died in 1813.


He was best known for his vocal works, particularly songs
fo r solo voice and piano. His early studies were for the
m inistry, but at both Dresden and Leipzig U niversities his
musical studies guided him toward a musical career. His
work, "An E lisa," i s only one example of the hundreds of
nineteenth-century works for three male v o ice s.

Hans Huber, "Lieb urn Liebe, Wort um Wort," No. 10 from Zehn
Q uartette. Op. 65 ............................................... . . . . . . . . 276

This se lectio n is an example of the works for four mixed


vo ices with piano, four hands, which came in the wake of
Brahms' success with the Liebeslieder s e ttin g s. Huber
(1852-1921) v/rote in a l l forms, cantatas, sonatas, concertos,
overtures, as w ell as operas.

Robert Schumann, "Quartett," No. 10 from Spanische Liebes-


Lieder. Op. 138 291

Just as the work by Huber shov/s the aftermath of the


L iebeslieder popularity, th is work by Schumann illu str a te s
the source of Brahms' inspiration with the paired voices
in the middle section and the use of piano, four hands.
Schumann also v/rote two other cycles for vocal ensemble,
M innelied, Op. 101, and Spanisches L ied ersp iel. Op. 74.
Schumann was born in 1810 and died in 1856.

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210

P e te r C o r n e liu s . T ro st in Tranen. fiir fiin f S o lo sticm en m it P ia n o fc r te b e g le itu n g .


M u sik a lisc h e s V.'erke. Z w eiter Band, N r. 8 . L e ip z ig : B r e itk o p f & H firte l, 1904.

lie kommt's, daes du so tr a u r ig b i s t , Da

k o o n t's d a ss du 30

Wie kommt's, d ass du so tr a u r ig b i s t , Di

Wie kommt's d ass du so tr a u r ig b i s t , Da

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211

A I -I ob fro] er sch e in t? Uan s ie h t d i r ' 6 an d en lu -g en an.

■* ....

t r a u - r ig b i s t , Da A l- l e s froh i h i l n t , w ie kctnmt'o? s ie b t ,

A l-le s fr o h er so h ein t? s ie h t d i r ' s an den Au-gon an. nan

A l-le s fr o h er so h ein t? Man sie h t d i r ' s an den Au-gen

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212

IT"
L^sT- - ^ - -l \ m
Uan s i e h t d i r ' s an den Au gen an, G e-w iss,d u h a s t

sie h t d i r ' s an den Au-gen an, du h a s t g e - weixrfc.

sie h t d i r ' s an den Au-gen an. du h a s t g e - wein t .

sie h t d i r ' s an den Au-gen an. du h a s t g e - w e in t,

B = J 3 s £ B = i)=

kJU

• *

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213

Und hab* ic h e in sam aucli g e -w ein t So i a t ' s m u ia a ig - n n r

35 n r~
1~ ■

[u h a st g e - w ein t Man a ie h t man a ie h t

du h a st g e 1 w ein t Uan a ie h t man


lo tto n e tt

w ias du h a st ge' w ein t Man s ie h t

du h a st g e - w ein t lan s ie h t d ir 's art

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214

m• .
E g
Schm erz, Und Tra - n en f l i e - s e e n g a r so s u s s , Und TrS - nen f l i e -
p ^— " seen

%
an deu Au-gen an, Uan s i e h t d i r ' s Au-gen an,
P
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8 den Au-gen an, Uan s i e h t d i r ' s
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den Au-gen an, Uan s i e h t d i r ' s
nn dftn Au-gen an,
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den Au-gen an, Uan s i e h t d i r ' s
an den Au-gen an .

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215

cre&t.
m
gar bo bubs, Er - l e i c h - te r n m ir das H erz, Er - le ic h - tera

Uan s i e h t -d ir 's
Au-gen an. w eint^
art i t

Uan s i e h t dir*_
an_de» A u-gen a n , Du h a st ge - w e in t,
f — ^ w«it-
la•* ~^~H3E
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an den Au-gen an, Du h aet g e — |w e in t, G e -w isa , g e—
crt&t-
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an den A u-gen an, Du h a st ge - w e in t, G e -w isa , g e -

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cr*se.
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A s fc -iL s :
m £

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216

Zti*mlith ••nth

m ir das Hers

du h a st w ein t D ie f r o - hen F reu n -d e l a - den d ich .

0 w is e , du h a s t ge w ein t D ie fr o - hen F reun-de l a - den d ic h . 0

w n r r .
D ie fr o - hen F reu n -d e l a - den dich.

w is s , du h a st ge w e in t. D ie fr o -h e n Freun de l a - den d ic h . 0
Zi‘«bJitk Mth
P n fa A llt f t r o ___________ ___________

■ 4

* 9
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217

kanm an uns re Brust lu auch v e r ■■ l o - ren h a st or'

kosm an une re Brust Und was du auch ver l o - ren h a s t , Ver-

komm an une re Brust Und du auch ver l o - ren h a s t , Ver-

uns re B ru stt Und was du auch v e r - l o - ren h a s t , Ver-

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218

Ih r

tra u - re den V er lu s t Ver - t r a u - r e den Ver- ■l s s t l

tr a u re ver tr a u re Ver tr a u -' r e den Ver- - l n s t l

la—------ __----

tr a u re ver tr a u re V er tr a u - re den Ver- - In s -tl

tr a u - re den V er - l u s t Ver - t r a u - r e den V er - l n s t t

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I - '- - z± = = }=

larm t und r a u sc h t, und ah net n ic h t , Vaa

Sdb
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v»e«,
rvlT =5
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D ie Freun - de l a - den d ic h , 0 lcarm nn una — r e 4-1
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220

mich den Ar men q u alt Ach

Kamm an une re Bruat Kansu an une re Bruat

konrn' kcnm,

Komm an uns r e ■ B rust Kcosn an une re Bruat

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221

g £
n e in , ver - lo ren hab' ic h 's n ic h t , So
_______ joit% vott._______________
M z

* = Fdu 3=
Ver - tr a u - re
Und was auoh v e r - l o - r e n , den V e r - l u s t ,

±:
konm, Und was du auch v e r - l o - r e n , Ver - tr a u - re den V e r - l u s t ,

----

konm, Und was du auch v e r - l o - ren Ver - tr a u - r e den V e r - l u s t ,

1 1 1 £ 5=
konm, Und was du auch ver - =fl o= - ?x*e
ren, Ver - tr a u - r e den V e r - l u s t ,

kfc 4 -

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A
P :5 = 4 =? nil i

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222

08 m ir auch fe h lt
p o te lil’iHfr-

Konm an uns re B rust

Koran an une re

Koran an uns re B rust

Koran on uns re B rust

TP

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223

ren h a t' i c h ' e n ic h t

kctnml

kommi

k an m l

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22*

es mir auch fe h lt

So

T -j r j v '-U-
So r a i - f a darm. d ick e i - l i g

So r a f - f e ien n d: .ck e i - l i g

denn d ic h a u f, 5 r a f- fe denn d ic k
.Slhns.ll,
wtH.rCia.ls._________

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225

r a f - f e denn d ich e i - l i g ^ auf Du fe is t e in ju n -g e s B int,

a u f, R a f - f e d ic h a u f, Du feist e in ju n -g e s B lu t, So R af - f e d ic h a u f . In

a u f, R a f - f e d ic h a u f , Du fe ist e in ju n -g e s B lu t, So R af - f e d ic h a u f, In

a u f, R a f - f e d ich a u f, Du feist e in B lu t, In

~o

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226

r a f - f e d ic h a u f In d e i-n e n Jah -ren h a t man K raft Und

d e i-n e n J a h -ren h at man K raft Und sum wer - ben, sum Er-w er-ben

hat man K raft Und zura E r-tfer-ben Uut j

dei non Jah - ren hat man Er - Her - ben Hut;

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22T

bvM,U-t©

im Ach n e in i n e in i or - \?er - ban kann ic h 's


^uUckt
■i^ttu VOC.*
:fcfc
? 2=V ■ ■-*■ - fe
zub E r-w er-b en U u t; So r a f - f e denn d ic h e i - l i g auf1 So
$»deei&
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Mutj So raf - fe . , denn d ic h a u f , r a f - f e d ic h a u f 1 S o
bUjUrfceeo
jdtfco v o c e __________

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?/*hV» a«»urrP
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l.t t o v g t l _____ ______

§ W- =E fe ffe = -^ -f- N T-- 1* t-

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1 --- 3231
3=
T?

e V|* f e fe
= = * ?

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228

n ic h t Eb steh t m ir gar xu fe r n , Ee

J5H
r a f - f e denn" d ic h e i - l i g auf'. d e i- n e n J a h -ren h a t man

raf denn d ic h a u f , r a f - f e d ic h a u f! In d e i - nen Jah - ren

raf denn d ich au: r a f - f e d ic h a u f! In dei nen Jah - ren

raf denn d ic h a u f , r a f - f e d ic h a u f! In de:

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229

v s ilt 80 hoch. es so

K ra ft und Uut r a f - f e denn d ic h e i - l i g In dei

H ut, R a f-fe d is h e i - lig auf! In d e i - n en Jah — re n


_ _

h a t man R a f-fe d ie i e i lig a u fl In dei Jah — re n


K raft und Uut

hat man U u t, R a f-fe d ic h e i - lig auf In d e i - aea J ah — ra n

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230

o•

schon. V ie dro ben ner

Jah - ren hat man K raft und U u t, R a f-fe d ic h a u fl


hi ewe.

h at man Uut und R a f-fe d i :h a u fl R a f-fe d i d

hat man Uut und K r a ft, R a f-fe d ich a u fl komm, r a f-fe d ic h


wi e r t j e . _________________

hat man U u t, und Er wer ben

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S tern . sa

konm, R a f - f e d ich auf! R a f-fe d ic k an ft.

32Z
auf! a u fl R a f-fe d ic k mrflL

auf! R a f-fe d ich a u fl R a f-fe r^T a n f t

auf' auf! R a f-fe d ic k an£*

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232

b lin k t 80 s chon, dro - ben ner S tern .

R a f-fe d ic h auf! D ie

D ie
R a f-fe d ic h a u f

R a f - f e d ic h a u f l D ie

R a f - f e d ic h auf! D ie

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23*

S te r d ie S t e r - n e , d ie b e -;e h r t Man j'reu t s ie h i h - r e r


man n ic h t
C r t i t . _________

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