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Faculty : Faculty of Engineering & Science Course : UEMK3223 Particle

Course : BEng (Hons) Chemical Engineering Time : 5 pm to 6.30 pm
Year : Year 2&3 Date : 13 November 2018

Midterm Test

Name : Year / Trimester :

Student ID :

Instructions to Candidates :

Answer ALL questions.

Formula and useful data are given for your references in Appendix.
Total mark is 75 marks.
Please attach the front page with your answer script.

Question 1 /45

Question 2 /30

UEMK 3223 Particle Technology
Q1. (a) A particle of 2 mm in diameter and density of 2500 kg/m3 is settling in a stagnant
fluid in the Stokes’ flow regime. Determine the following:

(i) the viscosity of the fluid if the fluid density is 1000 kg/m3 and the particle
falls at a terminal velocity of 4 mm/s. (3 marks)

(ii) the drag force on the particle at these conditions (3 marks)

(iii) the particle drag coefficient at these conditions (3 marks)

(iv) the particle acceleration at these conditions (1 mark)

(v) the apparent weight of the particle (2 marks)

(b) 1.1 g of a powder of particle density 1800 kg/m3 are charged into the cell of an
apparatus for measurement of particle size and specific surface area by
permeametry. The cylindrical cell has a diameter of 1.2 cm and the powder forms
a bed of depth 1 cm. Dry air of density 1.2 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.4 ×10-6 Pa.s
flows at a rate of 25 cm3/min through the powder (in a direction parallel to the
axis of the cylindrical cell) and producing a pressure difference of 160 mm of
water across the bed. Assume that the pressure drop-flow relationship for this
packed bed of powder is described by the Carman-Kozeny equation.

(i) Determine the surface-volume mean diameter and the specific surface of
the powder sample. (11 marks)

(ii) Justify whether the assumption of Carman-Kozeny equation is correct.

(2 marks)

(c) In the settling of a rigid spherical particle falling under gravity through a fluid,
show that in the Stokes’ law region the terminal velocity is: (8

UEMK 3223 Particle Technology
Q1. (Continued)

(d) A height–time curve for the sedimentation of a suspension in a cylindrical vessel

shown in Figure 1. The initial concentration of the suspension for this test is 0.12

(i) the velocity of the interface between clear liquid and a suspension of
concentration, 0.12 m3/m3. (2 marks)

(ii) the velocity of the interface between clear liquid and a suspension of
concentration, 0.2 m3/m3. (4 marks)

(iii) the velocity at which a layer of concentration, 0.2 m3/m3 propagates

upwards from the base of the vessel. (2 marks)

(iv) the concentration of the final sediment. (2 marks)

(v) the velocity at which the sediment propagates upwards from the base.
(2 marks)

Figure 1: Height–time curve obtained in batch settling test.

UEMK 3223 Particle Technology
Q2 (a) A mud slurry is draining from the bottom of a large tank through a 1 m long
pipe with a 1 cm inside diameter. The open end of the pipe is 4 m below the level
in the tank. The mud behaves as a Bingham plastic with a yield stress of 10 N/m2,
an apparent viscosity of 0.04 kg/(m.s), and a density of 1500 kg/m3. Determine
the velocity of the mud slurry drain from the hose. (14

(b) Colloidal particles may be either “dispersed” or “aggregated”.

(i) Discuss ONE (1) method to create each type of “dispersed” or

“aggregated” colloidal particles. [Hint: relate the methods to the surface
forces between the particles]
(6 marks)

(ii) Discuss the differences in the behaviour of colloidal particles in “dispersed”

and “aggregated” form (including but not limited to rheological behaviour,
settling rate, sediment bed properties). (10


UEMK 3223 Particle Technology

Carmen-Kozeny equation

Drag coefficient

Newton’s law: CD ~ 0.44

Single particle Reynolds number

Packed bed Reynolds number

Reynolds number

Apparent weight weight – upthrust force

Richardson and Zaki relationship For Rep ≤ 0.3; n = 4.65

For Rep ≥ 500; n = 2.4

Terminal velocity

Mass of particles in bed


Drag force
Modified Bernoulli equation

Friction head loss

Pressure drop per length for Bingham-plastic
slurry (laminar flow)

UEMK 3223 Particle Technology
Hinkle’s correlation for the superficial
velocities of particles

UEMK 3223 Particle Technology