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PRACTICAL NO.

5
Aim: To install the internal & external modem,
NIC & IP
Address
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT:

OS/Platform Windows XP
Drivers Internal Modem’s driver,
External Modem’s driver,
Network interface card’s
driver

HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:
COMPONENTS MINIMUM RECOMMENDED
REQUIREMENTS
Processor Pentium 133 MHz Pentium 166 MHz or
higher
Memory (RAM) 256 MB 512 MB or more
Hard Disk 8 GB 20 GB or more
Display (Resolution) VGA having 640 × VGA having 800 ×
480 resolution 600 resolution

Other Components External Modem,


Internal Modem,
Network interface card
Modem:
Installation Steps of internal Modem:
Step 1:
Unplug your computer, and remove any wires or other peripherals from
the ports at the rear of the tower.

Step 2:
Open your tower to reveal the motherboard and the available component
slots.

Step 3:
Locate the appropriate slot in the motherboard for your modem. It is
either a PCI or ISA slot. It should be easy to discern which is appropriate
for your modem based on the design of the connectors.

Step 4:
Press the modem firmly into place on the motherboard, making sure the
connectors are completely in contact with all of the pins.

Step 5:
Close the tower and plug everything in once more.

Step 6:
Turn on your PC.

Step 7:
Wait while Windows XP tries to detect any new hardware that has been
installed. Windows' database of hardware is extensive, and more 56k
modems are listed in the cache file. A bubble may appear, indicating that
new hardware has been found.

Step 8:
Click on the bubble to bring you to the "Add New Hardware" menu.
From there, Windows XP will walk you through the steps needed to both
install and troubleshoot your new modem.

Step 9:
Be sure to place any software provided by the modem's manufacturers
into the appropriate drive. Drivers for providing or improving modem
functionality are often provided on software CDs.

Installation step of External Modem:


The serial products of the external modems distinguish each
other with voice function and phone jack. When connection is finished,
power on your modem before you power on your PC.

Step1.
When Found New Hardware Wizard screen appears,
select Install from a list or specific location (Advanced)
and click Next.

Step 2.
With Search for the best driver in these locations selected,
select ONLY Include this location in the search. Click
Browse to locate the path of the driver: X:\Driver\WinXP
( where X is your CD-ROM drive letter) and click Next.

Step 3.
If compatibility prompt message appears, click Continue
Anyway.

Step 4.
Click Finish. When Found New Hardware screen appears,
wait for completing the installation.

NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC):-


A network interface controller (NIC) is a hardware
device that handles an interface to a computer network and allows a
network-capable device to access that network. The NIC has a ROM
chip that contains a unique number, the multiple access control (MAC)
Address that is permanent. The MAC address identifies the device
uniquely on the LAN. The NIC exists on both the 'Physical Layer'
(Layer 1) and the 'Data Link Layer' (Layer 2) of the OSI model.
Sometimes the words 'controller' and 'card' are used
interchangeably when talking about networking because the most
common NIC is the network interface card. Although 'card' is more
commonly used, it is less encompassing. The 'controller' may take the
form of a network card that is installed inside a computer, or it may
refer to an embedded component as part of a computer motherboard, a
router, expansion card, printer interface or a USB device.
A MAC address is a 48-bit network hardware identifier
that is permanently set on a ROM chip on the NIC to identify that
device on the network. The first 24-bit field is called the
Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and is largely manufacturer-
specific. Each OUI allows for 16,777,216 Unique NIC Addresses.
Smaller manufacturers that do not have a need for over 4096 unique
NIC addresses may opt to purchase an Individual Address Block (IAB)
instead. An IAB consists of the 24-bit OUI plus a 12-bit extension
(taken from the 'potential' NIC portion of the MAC address.)
There are four techniques used to transfer data, the NIC
may use one or more of these techniques.
Polling is where the microprocessor examines the
status of the peripheral under program control.
Programmed I/O is where the microprocessor alerts the
designated peripheral by applying its address to the system's address
bus.
Interrupt-driven I/O is where the peripheral alerts the
microprocessor that it's ready to transfer data.
DMA is where an intelligent peripheral assumes
control of the system bus to access memory directly. This removes load
from the CPU but requires a separate processor on the card.
A network card typically has a twisted pair, BNC, or
AUI socket where the network cable is connected, and a few LEDs to
inform the user of whether the network is active, and whether or not
there is data being transmitted on it. Network cards are typically
available in 10/100/1000 Mbit/s varieties. This means they can support
a notional maximum transfer rate of 10, 100 or 1000 Megabits per
second.
IP ADDRESS:-

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that


is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the
Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.[1] An IP
address serves two principal functions in networking: host identification
and location addressing. The role of the IP address has also been
characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address
indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."
In the early stages of development of the Internet protocol,
[1] network administrators interpreted an IP address as a structure of
network number and host number. The highest order octet (most
significant eight bits) was designated the network number and the rest
of the bits were called the rest field or host identifier and were used for
host numbering within a network. This method soon proved inadequate
as additional networks developed that were independent from the
existing networks already designated by a network number. In 1981, the
Internet addressing specification was revised with the introduction of
classful network architecture.[2]
Classful network design allowed for a larger number
of individual network assignments. The first three bits of the most
significant octet of an IP address was defined as the class of the
address. Three classes (A, B, and C) were defined for universal unicast
addressing. Depending on the class derived, the network identification
was based on octet boundary segments of the entire address. Each class
used successively additional octets in the network identifier, thus
reducing the possible number of hosts in the higher order classes (B and
C). The following table gives an overview of this system.

First octet in Range of Network Host Possible number of Possible number


Class
binary first octet ID ID networks of hosts

224 - 2 =
A 0XXXXXXX 0 - 127 a b.c.d 27 = 128
16,777,214

B 10XXXXXX 128 - 191 a.b c.d 214 = 16,384 216 - 2 = 65,534

C 110XXXXX 192 - 223 a.b.c d 221 = 2,097,152 28 - 2 = 254

Static and dynamic IP addresses


When a computer is configured to use the same IP address each time it
powers up, this is known as a Static IP address. In contrast, in
situations when the computer's IP address is assigned automatically, it
is known as a Dynamic IP address.