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Methodological approach

Methodological approach Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 25

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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The reference geographical unit: the river basin

terms used as synonymous of “river basin”:

watershed

catchment

river network groundwater/aquifer (saturated)
river network
groundwater/aquifer
(saturated)
catchment river network groundwater/aquifer (saturated)

http://research.ncl.ac.uk/shetran/images/ShetranProcesses.jpg

Process understanding

(measurement, observation)

ê

Mathematical Modelling

(simulation, prediction)

unsaturated soil zone

Modelling (simulation, prediction) unsaturated soil zone Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 26

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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Methodological approach

Physical Engineering Hydrology
Physical
Engineering
Hydrology

Hydrology

The watershed as hydrologic system

H y d r o l o g y The watershed as hydrologic system [Chow et

[Chow et al. 1998]

o l o g y The watershed as hydrologic system [Chow et al. 1998] Hydrology –
o l o g y The watershed as hydrologic system [Chow et al. 1998] Hydrology –

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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Physical Hydrology / System

= Process understanding, Monitoring, Measuring

Engineering Hydrology / System

= Modelling, Conceptualisation, Reproducing processes…

Potential input Catchment/ Catchment characteristics Influence of catchment characteristics on the hydrograph (e.g.
Potential input
Catchment/ Catchment characteristics
Influence of catchment characteristics on the hydrograph
(e.g. Relief, Land use, stream density etc.)
R
- R - Modelling
What is a catchment?
How to describe catchment characteristics?
e.g. Hypsometric curve, Drainage density
• Mechanisms
Precipitation
Frequency analysis
• Distribution in Switzerland
• Measurement (instruments, errors)
DDF / IDF
Design hyetograph
• Areal rainfall
• Storm rainfall
Generating
Snow hydrology
Measurement techniques
• Characterising variables
• Snowmelt
• Snowmelt
modelling
Modelling R - R - Transformation
Reasons for modelling
Time and space scales of R- R- Modelling
Precipitation
Modelling methods:
Evapotranspiration
Measurement/ Estimation/
Calculation
Evaporation
Lumped; Distributed, Semi- distributed
excess
AET vs. PET
Modelling approaches for runoff concentration:
Infiltration
-
• Measurement
Interception
• Mechanisms: Dunne, Horton
• Infiltration models:
Soil
Horton, SCS- CN, Phi- Index,
Percentage method
moisture
Surface flow
Subsurface flow
Potential input
Groundwater flow
Total runoff
Measurement
Influencing factors
Streamflow regimes
Hydrologic yearbook / flow duration curve
Hydrograph analysis / Hydrograph components/
Baseflow separation

Structure of a hydrological model / Model components? Types of models

SCS – method, Alternating block method, Triangular hyetograph, Chicago, Huff

Basin response function (via Nash- cascade, Isochrones method, etc. )

Estimation of model parameter (Method of moments, Least square)

Erosion & Sediment transport

Problems

Influencing factors

Estimation of erosion: U.S.L.E.

Types of sediment transport

of erosion: U.S.L.E. • Types of sediment transport Deterministic e.g. Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) Flood

Deterministic e.g. Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)

Flood frequency analysis

Using runoff data from measurements or via synthetic precipitation or runoff data

measurements or via synthetic precipitation or runoff data Probabilistic direct Extreme value analysis Hydrology –
measurements or via synthetic precipitation or runoff data Probabilistic direct Extreme value analysis Hydrology –

Probabilistic

direct

Extreme value

analysis

or runoff data Probabilistic direct Extreme value analysis Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 R-

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

R- R- Modelling

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Water balance

Water balance Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 29

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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How much water is available on our planet?

How much water is available on our planet? Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 30
How much water is available on our planet? Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 30

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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Water balance

The water balance defines the conservation of mass across the different compartments of the hydrological cycle (atmosphere, water bodies, soil and ground, vegetation, snowpack and ice, …)

it is computed with regard to a reference geographical unit / scale

Earth

continent

region

river basin

soil column

The concept of conservation of mass implies the identification of an incoming and an outgoing flux, and of a storage variation over a given unit of time.

flux, and of a storage variation over a given unit of time. Hydrology – Introduction -

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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The hydrological cycle

32 Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017
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Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

[Chow et al. 1998]

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Global annual water balance

[Chow et al. 1998]
[Chow et al. 1998]
Global annual water balance [Chow et al. 1998] Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 estimates

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

estimates and not measurements

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Water balance – continental scale

Water balance – continental scale average annual volumes estimates and not measurements average annual volumes per

average annual volumes

estimates and not measurements

average annual volumes per area

[L'vovich, 1973]

measurements average annual volumes per area [L'vovich, 1973] Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017 34

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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Water availability – continental scale

estimates and not measurements

continental scale e s t i m a t e s and not measurements Hydrology –
continental scale e s t i m a t e s and not measurements Hydrology –

Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017

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Water balance – fluxes Volumes and average residence time of water in the different compartments

Water balance – fluxes

Volumes and average residence time of water in the different compartments of the hydrological cycle

volumes

[km 3 ]

fluxes

[km 3 /yr]

estimates and not measurements

residence time in the atmosphere:

T

= V / Q

V

= 1410 3 km 3

Q = (416 + 108)10 3 = 52410 3 km 3 / yr

T = 14/524 0.027 yr 9.75 days

⋅ 10 3 km 3 / yr T = 14/524 ⋍ 0.027 yr ⋍ 9.75 days

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Water balance – country scale the water balance is computed for the hydrologic year (in
Water balance – country scale
the water balance is
computed for the
hydrologic year
(in CH starting in
October)
Hydrology – Introduction - Autumn Semester 2017
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Water balance – river basin scale

P = R + E + ΔS

– river basin scale P = R + E + Δ S [Hydrologie Skript ] Hydrology
– river basin scale P = R + E + Δ S [Hydrologie Skript ] Hydrology

[Hydrologie Skript ]

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