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Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W.

KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 l0 Sheets-Sheet l
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 10 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAWE. OSCELLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. l5, 1934 iO Sheets-Sheet 3

Azzerfor
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096 459
y

ULTRA SHORT WAWE OSCILLATION GENERATOR


Filed Sept. 15, 1934 l0 Sheets-Sheet 4
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAWE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 10 Sheets-Sheet 5
Fig.14 R 3-R.
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAWE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 0 Sheets-Sheet 6
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHOR WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 10 Sheets-Sheet 7

Fig. 22
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAWE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 10 Sheets-Sheet 8

Fig. 26 D1-R/B 10-d.

Receiver
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAWE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 10 Sheets-Sheet 9

Receiver
Oct. 19, 1937. E. E. W. KASSNER 2,096,459
ULTRA SHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR
Filed Sept. 15, 1934 l0 Sheets-Sheet lo
Patented Oct. 19, 1937
2,096,459

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,096,459


ULTRA SHORT WAVE OSC LLATION
GENERATOR,
Ernst Eduard Wilhelm Kassner,
London, England
Application September 5, 1934, Serial No.
44,1606. In Germany August 31, 1933
Claims. (C. 250-36)
The valve generators and electron space charge system whereby the detrimental effect of capaci
Oscillators for generation of undamped ultra ty, wave shock joints, etc. are reduced to a mini
short and quasi-optical waves of the centimetre
5
and decimetre wave spectrum which are well The transmitter valve may be connected to an
known in high frequency technics, generally do oscillating circuit in many alternative Ways as
not permit the extraction of a sufficiently large shown by the table in Fig. 5 and according to
amount of energy for many technical purposes, the type of connection used, can be excited to
except possibly within closely limited frequency oscillate at different frequency bands and is char
10 ranges. One of the main reasons for this fact, acterized by exceptional stability of Oscillation.
especially with respect to the generation of fre The intermediate electrode system is another O
quencies in the quasi-optical region is because feature of the invention and is used for the pur
of the internal and external distributed electrode pose of producing harmonics, wave sifting or for
capacities of the valve systems which effect the control of the space charge impulse. The in
l5.
resonant frequency of the system. termediate electrode system is inserted at the
These detrimental capacities, which form axis of the tube, preferably between a pair of 5
short-circuits and wave-bridges for quasi-optical symmetrically disposed cathodes.
waves can, as a rule, only be diminished by re Because the amplification factor or the grid
ducing the physical dimensions of the system. permeability and the grid diameters are factors
For instance, in cases where an Oscillation in in determining the frequency at which maximum
20 tensity of sufficient effective power is required, a power is produced the valve is made with differ 20
reduction in dimensions of the valve. electrodes ent grid diameters and grid spacings, as well as
and Supports results in a thermal overstraining smaller or larger central anodes. The effect of
of the materials of construction which causes such grid devices is analogous to the resonance
deformations of the electrodes or may result in
25 destruction of the valve.
curve of coupled Oscillation circuits in that the
valve is caused to operate efficiently over a wide 25
Moreover, the generation of waves in the quasi frequency band and is capable of delivering effec
Optical region requires far reaching consideration tive power by reason of the various coupling ar
of the conditions of excitation, coupling, Wave rangements.
Conduction and tuning, in addition to avoiding Another improved feature of the transmitter
30 the wave shock joints, so that in most cases no valve is represented by the linear geometric elec 30
optimum operating conditions can be effected trode structures which are advantageous mechan
with the hitherto existing types of valves. ically as well as electrically. The electrodes form
However, for numerous technical and scien or are connected to multiple wave conductors in
tific purposes as well as for extensive measuring which adverse wave shock joints are eliminated.
and laboratory-tests, it is necessary to provide a This construction: reduces the parasitic oscilla 35
simple means to establish OScillations in the tions to a minimum. All electrode systems are
quasi-optical band ranging over Several Octaves arranged to provide steady tunable controls of
which are stable and of high intensity. the space charge density under various operat
The change of frequency and wave length ing conditions so as to produce stable oscillations
should not, however, be effected by changing the of high intensity over the desired frequency band. 40
types of valves or by changing the construction Although the various novel features which are
of the transmitter, but should be effected by believed to be characteristic of this invention will
adjustment of the tuning means or of the Wave be pointed out more particularly in the claims
conductors which conduct the oscillation energy appended hereto, the broader aspects of the in
as well as by adjustment of the current and vention will be better understood by referring to 45
voltage. the following description taken in connection with
The presert invention, accordingly, provides the accompanying drawings, in which,
a valve and a coupling system which complies Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective illustrating
with the above mentioned conditions providing the principles underlying the present invention;
greater power. and maximum stable breadth of Fig. 2 is a schematic transverse Section of the 50
frequency band, especially in the quasi-optical electrodes of a duplex valve;
and the ultra-short Wave spectrum. Fig. 3 is a similar transverse section of the
A feature of the invention consists in the Sym electrodes of an “asymmetrical' valve;
metrical arrangement of the anode-grid Systems Fig. 4 is a schematic perspective of the inter
with respect to the axis of the common Cathode mediate electrode system; 55
2 2,096,459
Fig. 4a is a schematic transverse section of The following text explains an example of the
the electrode arrangement showing the interme simplex transmitter valve of Figs. 6, 7 and 8 and
diate electrode system inserted in a simplex the transmitter valve with intermediate electrode
valve; system in Figs, 9 to 13. The elliptical glass body
Fig. 5 is a chart of connections and manner 25, consisting of hard glass, which may be highly
of working illustrating the different tuning and resistant to heat, is fused with the cross-squeezed
working conditions of the valve with or without feet 26, 27 consisting of the same kind of glass.
the intermediate electrode system; The conductors 5, 6 and if to 8 and the supports
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the electrode sup 47, 4a and 48, 48a for the stabilization braces 28,
O ports of a valve embodying this invention; 29 (Fig. 6) are sealed into these cross-squeezed 10
Fig. 7 is a transverse section therethrough; feet as shown in Figs. 7 and 10.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section of the valve em The anodes 9, O in the shape of a sector of a
bodying the electrode system shown in Fig. 6 and cylinder are stiffened by welded backstraps and
taken at right angles to the plane of Fig. 6; equipped with muff-shaped sliding guides 30, 30a.
15 Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the electrode ar The latter are joined to the conductors 5 to 8 5
rangement including the intermediate electrode and are fastened thereto at One side by rivets Or
system; welding. At the other side the sliding guides 30,
Fig. 10 is a transverse section thereof; 30a, are split in such manner that they can slide
Fig. 11 is a longitudinal section of a valve en on the conductors 5 and in response to longi
20 bodying the electrode arrangement of Fig. 9 and tudinal expansion of the anodes caused by ther 20
taken at right angles thereto; mal Strain. s
Figs. 12 and 13 are top and side elevations, re The grids 7, 8, likewise in the shape of a sec
spectively, showing the electrode system and Sup tion of the cylinder consist of heat resisting metal
ports of Figs. 9 to 11 on a large scale; and rods, each welded together at the end by a band.
25 Figs, 14 to 35 are Schematic diagrams illustrat The grids are fastened to the claw-shaped grid 25
ing the different connections designated in the Supports 32, 33 by the grid holding rods 3, 3 a.
chart of Fig. 5 and showing the different working (Fig. 8). The slightly bent conductors 2, 4
conditions and tuning arrangements of the valve. and ff, 3 hold the grid structures in co-axial
Referring to the drawings more in detail, the and concentric position to the anodes 9, O and
30 simplex transmitter valve consists of the Cathode the cathode system f, 2. The grid supports 32, 30
filaments and 2 which are fastened to the linear 33 are rigidly connected with the lead-ins 2,
wave conductors 5 and 6 by means of the flexibly 4 by rivets or spot-welding, while the grid sup
formed clamps 3 and 4 as shown in Figs. 1, 6, 7. ports 32a, 33a are formed as sliding guides for the
and 8. This arrangement forms the axis of the same purpose as described in the anode connec
valve system in which the independent grids and tion sliding guides 30, 30d. 35
8 and the anodes 9 and 0 are concentrically ar The Cathode System arranged at the axis of
ranged around the cathode filaments and are con the electrode system consists in shells 34, 34d (Fig.
nected to linear Wave conductors to f4 and 5 6) to Which the clamp-shaped cathode tension
to 8, respectively. It is to be noted in this con Springs 35, 35a (Figs. 6 and 8) are fastened.
40 struction that the grids and anodes are formed These springs terminate in the cathode support 40
as Segments of cylinders and are arranged con ing bridges 3, 4, the bent over bonds of which hold
centrically and co-axially with respect to the the cathode filaments , 2 tightly wedged. The
axis of the Cathodes. devices forming the cathode supports, are by
Fig.2 shows a section of a similar electrode air
means of the shells 34, 340 rigidly fastened on
45 rangement as applied to a duplex valve. In this both sides to the wave conductor lead-ins 5, 6 by
figure the cathode filaments a, b and 2a, 2b are rivets or spot-welding. Since the clamp shape of
arranged around an axis 5a, and are supported by the cathode tension springs 35, 35a possess con
star shaped flexibly formed clamps 3 about siderable reflection effect for quasi-optical waves,
which the grid systems a, b and 8a, 8b and the movable tape wave conductors 36, 36a (Fig. 6) are
50 anode systems 9a, 9b and Oa, b are concentri provided for bridging these clamps. 50
cally disposed so that the duplex valve possesses Another cathode holding and tightening device
the same electrical characteristics as the simplex offering many practical advantages and which is
transmitter valve. especially adapted for cases of varied expansion
The same conditions apply to the asymmetrical of the two cathode filaments , 2 is shown in
55 structure shown in Fig. 3. The odd number of Figs. 12 and 13. The clamp 38, which is bent 55
electrode systems which does not result in a re four times and Which serves as a support and
flecting System justifies the expression “asym linear guide to the springs 39, 40 is fastened to
metrical” which can be applied to all odd elec the plug shell 37. The clamp 38 possesses two
trode arrangements. As with the above men borings in which the draw tubes 4, 42 slide. The
tioned arrangements, cathode filaments c, d. cathode filaments , 2 are led through these 60
and fle are supported by flexible clamps 3b about tubes and are protected against sliding out again
an axis 5b, a grid anode system being concen at the end of each tube by sharp-edged projec
trically arranged around each cathode filament. tions. The Springs 39, 40 are supported in the
If the intermediate system (Fig. 4) is inserted pot-shaped Spring plates 43, 43a fastened to the
65 within the axis of the simplex transmitter valve clamp 38 and which are centrally perforated for
of Fig. 1 as shown by the Schematic cross-section the passage of the draw tubes 4, 42. Their
of Fig. 4a, control of space charge impulses can movable end is situated in the centrally per
be effected within the transmitter valve. forated Spring plates 44, 44a. The transfer of
The intermediate electrode system consists of the flexibility to the draw tubes 4, 42 is effected
70 the rectangular grid ring 9 surrounding the either by the flattening of the tubes above the
cathode filaments , 2 with a helical arrangement plates 44, 45 or by a ring fastened to the tube at
9a and ending in oppositely disposed conductors that place. The tape wires 45, 45a serve as cur
20, 2. The system also includes the plane anode rent leads and are fastened to the draw tubes
22 which likewise is supported by two opposite 4, 42 and to the shell 37 by means of clips.
5 conductors 23, 24. With this cathode tension device the other ends 75
2,090,459 3
of the cathode flaments are wedged into a cath
ode supporting bridge Sb situated at the plug plained below. With different connections it is
advantageous to enlarge the natural coupling
shell T.
The stabilization braces 28, 29 (Figs. 13 and 6) existing between the systems or to tune the sep
arately tuned systems through additional coul
5 are provided in order to give the whole system an pling means. The variation of coupling can be
increased stability and resistance against unin achieved by changing the reciprocal position or
tended deformations which night occur during the diameters of the single wave conductors cou
the installation, the adjustment or during the pled
sealing in of the electrode system in the glass theseexternally, or, in case of a fixed position of
0. bodies. They consist of appropriately bent glass known coupling devices. by capacitive or other
wave conductors,
0.
rods or glass tubes 28, 29 into which metallic As separate enumerations and separate ex
connecting rods 28a, 29a are sealed in on each planations of the numerous variations of work
end. Owing to the connecting shells 48, 46a and ang, tuning and connection of the transmitter
the bent-off connecting supports 4, 4a and 48, valve would only befog the description, a sum
48a sealed in the cross-feet 26, 27, a rigid frame mary is given in Figure 5 explaining a combina 5
is obtained as a base for the electrode system. tion of those conditions of operation in which
The intermediate electrode system consists of the transmitter valve can be used. Out of each
a closed wire rectangle 9, to the longitudinal series a Special example is explained by means
sides of which are welded the spiral windings of wiring diagrams.
9a (Fig. 4), the course of which is concentric In Fig. 5 the column "tuning" is to be read as 20
to the cathode filaments , 2. The grid system follows:
is supported by means of the rigid connection A-G=Bridge between anode and grid wave
50 (Figs. 12, 3) and the spring connection 49, conductors of the main systems.
25
bridged in its turn by a tape wire 5 for the a-gs=Bridge between anode and grid wave
wave conduction. The joining shells 52, 52d, in conductor of the intermediate sys
this case Y-shaped, maintain the grid system in ten.
fixed position with respect to the other elec A-K=Bridge between anode and cathode
trodes while permitting longitudinal expansion. wave conductor of the main system.
30
The support for the plane anode 22 which lies a-k=Bridge between anode and cathode
in the mid-plane and is arranged in Symmetry to wave conductor of the intermediate 30
the whole system within the cathode system, is system. .
carried out in the same suitable manner. In G-K=Bridge between grid and cathode wave
this case, 53 is the rigid connection to the join conductor of the main system.
3.5
ing shell 54 which is connected to the conductor g-k=Bridge between grid and cathode wave
24, while the spring connection 55 bridged by conductor of the intermediate elec
wave-conductor, tape 56 leads to the conductor trode system.
23 through the Y-shaped shell 54a. A-A=Bridge between the anode wave conduc
Owing to the symmetrical structure and the tors of Systems I and II.
separate bilateral lead-ins which serve as wave G-G-Bridge between the grid wave conduc
40 conductors, there results a great variety of work tors of Systems I and II.
ing connection which may be effected externally 40
The tunings to be employed for a connection
for wave bands for different breadths. are designated by a tircle in the line of the tuning
The working variations consist in the type of series A, B and D marked with the ordinal
connection, the tunings and couplings. number.
Types of connection to be used are the foll In the group C of the summary the wave con
lowing:
1. The control connection for ultra-short ductors leading out at opposite sides of the tube
waves (anode high positive, grid negative or are affected by variation of tuning on the right
positive); and left. The designations are the following:
r=Bridge only on the right
50 2. The space charge oscillation connection for l=Bridge only on the left
quasi-optical waves (grid high positive, anode 50
more or less positive or negative); and r--l=Bridges on both sides of the generator
System.
3. The connection for mixed frequency re The designations "System I', 'System II' re
gions (grid and anode differently positive). fer to the two electrode systems of the sym
55 The Systems can be used metrical structure including their wave conduits 55
(a) with each of these types of connection: leading out on both sides to left and right.
1. Single;
2. Parallel; The column "type of connection' means:
3. In push pull; and (R) Connection for space charge oscillation, the
60 4. Combinations of the above.
grids getting a high positive positive tension as
against the cathode, while the anodes are 60
The tunings can be combined in the following biased more or less negatively or, as per the
manner: each system can be tuned independ present invention, weakly positively.
ently either unilaterally or bilaterally, while the
cathode axis can be tuned by plate bridges, either (S)anode
Connection of control with high positive
potentials and Suitable grid biases.
singly or in relation to the grids and anodes, (T) Connection for undamped oscillation. The
by means of its independent wave conductor, or grid gets a high positive tension while the
may be multiply combined by means of bridging anode is getting a slightly lower positive ten
capacities. The Systems can be joined to a mu Sion as against the Cathode (anode secondary
tual two- or three-Wave conductor system (par emission), or the anode gets the high positive
allel wire conduit or concentric tube arrange tension and the grid the lower positive tension 70
ment) where the mutual tuning is effected. (grid Secondary emission).
Common condenser bridges or metallic plate Within the series A, B, C, D each possibility of
bridges as well as bridge clamps can be used as tuning specified in the column "tuning' can be
tuning means. combined with each “type of connection' spe
5 . The couplings can be varied as will be ex cified in the next column. 75
4 2,096,459
Series A-Contains the combinations of the for... the cathodes as well as for nearly all the
connection for parallel operation of both the other connections, the regulation of this alternat
systems on a mutual multiple wave conductor ing current being suitably effected on the pri
tuning system joining both systems. The Con mary side of the transformer as shown in Fig
nection A-3-R is represented in Figure 14. On ure 16.
the triple wave conductors joining both Systems An extension of the frequency region. On slight
I and II right- and left-sidedly the anode wave ly diminished efficiency is obtained by applying
conductor is tuned against the grid wave conduc different manners of working for both systems.
tor by a capacitive wave short-circuit bridge Figure 17 reproduces such a connection of the
O A-G as per "tuning 3' and, on the other side, combination B6-e-B, System is operated in 10
the grid wave conductor is tuned against the connection of space charge oscillation, System
cathode wave conductor G-K. The nodal- and II in undamped oscillation. An alternating cur
phase-position of the resulting oscillation is de rent, of which only the positive half-wave is
fined by suitable shifting of these bridges which utilized in consequence of the rectifying effect of
5 are so constructed mechanically that they can the transmitter valve, serves as operating voltage. 5
slide past each other. In the given example The adjustment of the suitable voltages is
(type of connection R) space charge Oscillations achieved by tapping a resistance connected as a
are effected. For this purpose the positive ten potentiometer. Both systems are homogeneous
sion of the one battery is supplied to the grid ly Symmetrically tuned, i. e. between grid-cath
20 wave conductor at the bridging point, and the Ode and grid-anode conduction while the cou 20
supply of the negative or positive biasing poten pling bridge additionally couples the grid of
tial to the anode as well as that of the filament System I with the anode of System .
current from the other battery is likewise ef The extraction of energy from Oscillation sys
fected through these points as shown by Figure tems for quasi-optical and ultra-short Waves is
14. The free ends of the wave conduits can also generally effected by capacitive or inductive coul 25
be used as voltage supply. pling of the receiver system to the generator
A stationary wave condition arises on the System. Such transmission of energy can be used
cathode system in consequence of the resonance With the connections of the Series A and B as
tuning of the intermediate electrode system, the Well as with the series C and D mentioned below.
30 space charge oscillating within the space of the However, these usual manners of coupling have
grid cathode thereby being subjected to an addi the disadvantage of being more or less undefined
tional control of the Space charge. and difficult to be reproduced an only in ex
Another connection of series A, that is the ceptional cases allow for the attainment of an
combination A-4-T, is shown by Figure 15. advantageous coupling value. The solution of
35 The tuning is effected between the anode-cath the problem of an optimal coupling of the energy 35
ode wave conductors and the grid-cathode Wave receiving system to the generator system is found
conductors. In this case the excitation to oscil by the symmetrical structure of the electrode sys
lation is achieved within the anode-cathode tem,
space or, according to the distribution of voltage, Through work tests it was found that when
O within the grid-anode space, by means of the operating only one valve system, a considerably
“negative resistance'. arising in consequence of greater extraction of energy is possible from the
falling characteristics. other system than when using any other known
When working in control connection S it has manner of coupling of the receiver to the gen
to be taken into account that, with regard to the erator. This effect is caused by the fact that a
above-mentioned tuning series A, as well as to coupling system results in consequence of the ab
all the other tuning series, the multiple wave Solutely homogeneous structure of the systems
conductor systems, on generation of Waves of supplying and extracting energy as well as of the
the ultra-short wave range, are to be consid symmetrical coupling of both systems through
ered as more or less quasi-stationary Oscillatory their reciprocal capacities, on the one hand, and
50 circuits, which, instead of the capacitive short the direct conductive coupling of the cathode axes
circuit-bridges, possess variable condensers with On the other hand.
low maximum capacity as tuning or coupling Such a connection is shown by Figure 18. Sys
conductors. tem. I is Operated as generator as per connection
Series B.-Contains the conditions for Separate B8-g, while System II is not directly con
tuning of the Systems I-II. The connection nected but has the function of a coupling System. 55
B7-b-o, Figure 16 is given as example. Sys The connections B to B20 shown by the chart
tem I is both-sidedly tuned on the grid-anode of Figure 5 in combination with the three man
and grid-cathode wave-conduit, System II is ners of Working g-h-i allow for the utilization
likewise tuned on the anode-cathode and grid of the numerous applications of this new type
O cathode conduit. The stabilization coupling, of resonance coupling of the receiver to the
anode of System I to grid of System II, is an ad generator System. For this purpose the receiver
ditional stabilization or resonant coupling of both System can be bilaterally or unilaterally tuned
systems which are already loosely coupled (System II B-Bf 6) or need not be tuned (Sys
through the cathode axis. The waves of the ten I B-B2O).
ultra-short Wave spectrum can preferably be Figure 19 shows an unilaterally tuned receiver 65
produced in this type of connection b which has System according to connection BO-g. The
been shown and in which both Systems are con real receiver W can be situated among one of
nected with positive anode and positively or the three homogeneous Wave conductor Systems,
negatively biased grid and Where the Condenser anode-grid, anode-cathode or grid-cathode; also
bridges are replaced by variable capacities. The two receivers can be inserted between each two O
use of separate batteries or of operating Woltages systems as demonstrated. Adapted load resist
separately regulable from a mutual battery, in ances are sketched into the Figures 18-19 to
connection with the tuning adjustments permits represent receiver W.
adjustment for optimal manners of working. Al-, In the known manner dipole radiators can
5 ternating current can be used as heating current likewise be connected as energy receivers, i. e. 5
2,096,459 S
unilaterally in the above-explained coupling of rangements of push pull oscillations are collected
resonance as per invention, as well as twofold in the series C-C4. Figure 23 represents the
in case of Systems bilaterally operated by means connection C-R. The anode and grid wave con
of tension. These dipole radiators can for in duits of both Systems are bilaterally connected to
5 Stance be set up at the tuning bridges of One or the push pull arrangement by means of tuning 5
both Systems. In case of only unilateral tuning elements which in this case have the shape of
of the System I or II and unilateral use of the shiftable metallic clamps. A variation of cou
wave conductors situated at the other side of the pling between the grid and the anode push-pull
Valve as tuned or aperiodic wave energy conduc circuit can be effected either by mutual variation
O tors to the dipole radiators, concentrated elec of both the tuning wave conduits in such a man 10
tromagnetic radiation fields can be obtained. The ner that these conduits are moved out of the wave
Oscillations radiated from the dipole aerials can Conductor plane by a predetermined angle, or by
be used for varied purposes. Such an arrange Special coupling bridges between anode and grid
ment of dipole aerials is represented in Figure 20 wave conduits. The types of operating for these
Where the Wave conductors consist of supply cir push-pull Connections are connections of space 5
cuits which can be drawn out while the other charge or OScillation of control, the cathode sys
side of the transmitter system is tuned accord tem not being Subjected to turning. With the
ing to connection B9-a. For this purpose of above-mentioned connection a wave band of
bilateral tuning of the cathode system, in this larger oscillation-and effective power of about
Case a resonance choke tunable to the frequency 0.33-1.1 metres can be produced without a gap, 20
in question, is inserted on the radiation side (side the lengths 1 of the wave conductors measured
Of energy extraction). from the middle of the valve to the tuning bridge
The unilateral duplex tuning connection (Fig depending from the produced wave length as per
lure 20) can also be replaced by the unilateral Table 1.
parallel tuning according to the connection Table 2 gives a summary of the dependence of 25
A4-R (Figure 21) where the wave conductors of the Operating voltages from the regions of Wave
the Systems I and II are parallel connected to a length.
mutual energy conduit. In this arrangement the The connection C3-S (Figure 24) by which
cathode axis can also be tuned by means of re the wave lengths X=2.45 to A=4.5 metres can be
flection bridges as shown in Figure 21. Another obtained without gap is particularly appropriate 30
combination of connection with duplex-effect, di for the generation of ultra-short waves with
pole aerials is shown by Figure 22, according to especially high efficiency. Table 3, below, shows
connection B2 taken from Figure 5. the dependence of the tuning-system-lengths l
In Figure 21 alternating current is again used and r from the produced wave lengths.
as operating voltage. As such alterations of volt 35
age determine the frequency which is generated, Table it
especially in cases of the connection of space
charge Oscillation and of undamped oscillation, a
Series of juxtaposed frequencies arise within the
4 () generator instead of One constant frequency, that
is, Summarily speaking, a frequency band of 40
definite width which proves to be advantageous
in many cases, for instance for excitation of
molecular unions, and dipole liquids within the
region of anomalous dispersion bands. Low, 45
medium or high frequency currents may be used Table 2
for excitation according to requirements. In
every case an ultra-high frequency band of defi
nite width arises in the valve Oscillator simu Region Egvolt Ea volt A cm
taneously with modulation. 50
A more advantageous embodiment of the trans I-------- 125-300 - 45---5 110-45
II------- 50-300-00---25 45-30
mitter system with simultaneous duplicating of
the operating intervals per time unit is effected
by using the supply of push pull or double com Table 3
5 munication of both systems. This manner of con 55
nection which is shown in Figure 34 for a valve
connected as per B-c for undamped oscilla
tions only becomes possible by reason of the sym
()
metrical Structure of the transmitter valve sys
tem. The same manner of Working also permits the 60
The generation of a remarkably intensive and excitement of higher frequencies, that is if the
wide frequency band can be effected by excitation energy distribution on the oscillation systems do
of so-called “wild oscillations'. Its generation is not manifest themselves in the form
especially promoted by interpolation of vibratory
chokes or coils possessing no decided natural fre
quency as well as by Supply of alternating cur
rent of the valve. A connection for production
(2n-1),
where the alternating potentials of the anodes
and radiation of these oscillations by means of and grids lie in phase opposition, but in the form
this transmitter valve is given in Figure 35. In n.\ which means an equi-phase of anode and grid
() order to obtain an Optimal radiation of all fre
quencies produced, the dipole aerial carries reso tensions. This type of oscillation can be stabilized
nance radiators of varied length. by additional tuning of the cathode system.
Another quality of the transmitter valve lies
C5-G 4 are such connections working symmet
rically or asymmetrically push-pull-like, but in
in the fact that push pull oscillations can be gen equi-phase and which constitute an extended con
5 erated in a single valve of this type. Pure ar tinuation of the combinations cited in Series B as 75
6 2,096,459
the A-A and G-G bridges of the Series C in wave conductors of each valve are parallel con
nected and tuned in push-pull. The differential
varied connections with the other tuning bridges condenser which is arranged unilaterally and
effecting additional couplings of both Systems as
shown in Figure 25. If capacitive tuning bridges which can be situated in the grid or anode push
5 are used instead of the conductive tuning clamps pull wave conduit, allows for the adjustment of
At A and G-G, a separate Supply of voltage is the right phase position of the oscillations in the
given for each system. However, the character of cathode system, the supply-leading connections
these oscillations does not allow for a mixed type of which should suitably be blocked by tunable
of working (for example R and S). resonance chokes or resonance circuits in order
to avoid the flowing away of the high frequency O
0. The connections for the intermediate electrode energy. The following Table 4 gives a synopsis
system are to be taken out of Series D. They of the tuning lengths of the push-pull wave Con
possess the same character and the same possi duits in dependence of the produced wave lengths,
bility of variation as the main Systems I and II a degree of efficiency of about 40% having been
in Series A. On principle all three types of 5
15 working can be adjusted. Each of the bilateral achieved in this arrangement.
tunings of the intermediate electrode system can Table 4
be combined with all tunings cited in Series A, B
and Series C5-4, however the intermediate elec Cl 30 25 s 5.
trode system has to operate in the same type of b cra
M can
10
490
5
469 440
5 0.
350 20
20 working as the main system and the latter cannot
be connected in mixed type of working (Series Bd
to Bh). Figure 26 shows the connection D The connection as per Figure 31 is suited for
R/BOa. The intermediate electrode system is the generation of a frequency band of still shorter
tuned in the anode grid and anode cathode Wave ultra-short waves; a differential duplex. Con 25
25 conductor as per D, System I according to Bo nection where however only one system of each
between anode-cathodes and grid cathode wave valve is operated in push-pull Connection as
conductors, System II between anode-grid and against that of the other, is equally adequate;
grid-cathode wave conductors. All Systems are the other two systems are utilized in the func
arranged for space charge oscillation, the Swing tion of the optimal energy-extracting coupling
30 ing of the layer of space charge being amplified in system. In this connection a wave band from 30
its intensity by the control of space charge im 2.90 metres to 2.05 metres with a likewise re.
pulse produced by the intermediate electrode sys markable degree of efficiency is for instance pro
tem and excitations of harmonics being released duced by control connection, Table 5 shows the
' according to the distribution of tension. In Cases dependence of the wave conductor tuning length 35
35 of main Systems I and II being parallel con from the produced wave length.
nected to mutual tuning wave conductors accord Table 5
ing to Figure 27 in which the intermediate elec
trode system is tuned according to D2 and the cm 20 15 10 5 O
main system to A3, this increase of energy is A cn
18
290
6
260
18
245
6
220
6
2.05 40
40 equally effected by control of space charge im
pulse.
The intermediate electrode system constitutes An Oscillation region of still higher frequencies
an additional coupling factor for the two Sys is obtained with the same connection if, as
tems I and II by means of its structure and its shown by the dotted drawing in Figure 31, the
45 arrangement within the main System of the other side of the cathode system is likewise coul 45
transmitter valve. In this capacity and apart pled to the grid push-pull wave conduit by means
from other uses the intermediate electrode Sys of a differential condenser. In this case there
tem can be used for the purpose of extracting obviously occurs an additional control effect
caused by the bilaterally coupled cathode axis, an
entrgy, for instance for a dipole radiator, as tuned
50 or untuned coupling system not operated by excitation of oscillations of higher frequency be 50
means of tension as shown in Figure 28. The ing effected thereby. Table 6 contains a combi
intermediate electrode system to the grid and nation of some of the values measured at this ar
anode wave conductors of which a dipole aerial is rangement of connections.
uni-laterally connected, extracts the energy ra able 6 55
55 diated out of the dipole from the main System
operated in connection BT-a. This additional a cin 25 20 10 0.
coupling of both the systems by means of the b cm 25 15, 10 5
intermediate electrode system is also of import M cm 194 76 166 150
ance for the extraction of energy by Only One
60 system of the main systems not connected by All usual manners of modulation can be ap 60
means of tension. Figure 29 gives an example plied for the modulation of the ultra-short and
showing System I operated as per connection quasi-Optical waves produced with the trans
B8-g, while System II is supplying energy to mitter valve in the mentioned connections. The
the receiver W. An additional coupling of Sys novelty of this transmitter valve lies in the pos
85 tem. I to System II is effected through the in
sibility of an independent duplex modulation in
termediate electrode system which is tuned as Such a manner that, as schematically shown in
per D3 and is likewise operated in connection of Figure 32, one modulating tension is, for instance
space charge Oscillation. by transformers, superposed to each of the anode
A remarkable increase in power and degree of voltages of the two Systems operating for in 70
70 efficiency of oscillation energy generation is ob stance as per connection B6-a. A duplex modu
tained within a wide region of the ultra-short lation through the grid tensions is appliable in
wave spectrum above 2 metres by operating two the same manner. The modulation and carrier
transmitter valves in parallel, especially in push frequency can, in addition, be carried out in one
pull connection. In the differential duplex con valve, which is very important in case of a mod 75
75 nection shown in Figure 30 the grid and anode ulation of high frequency. Figure 33 shows such
/
2,096,459 7
a connection. System. It is in the known way and separate control of the systems among each
connected as high frequency generator variable other. -
in its frequency. The frequency generated by it As the supplies of current and tension for the
is superposed to the supply tension of the ultra transmitter valve can be separately effected
frequent oscillating System II by means of an through the wave conduits belonging to each Sys 5
induction coil as shown in Figure 33 or other tem, the wave resistances of the internal elec
Wise. trode structure allowing for their being adapted
Summarized the advantages of the transmitter to those of the wave conductors externally con
valve which result Out of the various System ar nected, each system is to be separately regulated
O rangements, arrangements of connection, tuning to the optimal working condition which Offers O
and operation with inserted intermediate elec particular advantages for extracting effective
trode system as has been shown, are very ver power directly or by coupling of a receiver system.
satile, as afore-mentioned. The advantages con Having now particularly described and ascer
sist in the extending of the frequency band with tained the nature of my said invention, and in
5 in which useful oscillation energy can be ex what manner the same is to be performed, I de
tracted, produced in one way by the diminution clare that what I claim is:
of capacity in consequence of splitting up into 1. A space discharge tube for producing un
single systems, and in the other way by the in damped electric oscillations particularly in the
Sertion of the intermediate electrode system into ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
20 the axis; further, in comparison to usual types tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath 20
of valves, in the considerable increase of inten odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
sity of the delivered oscillation energy by con axis thereof and having a corresponding plu
trol of space charge density in the grid cathode rality of sets of grids and anodes constituting
space produced by tuned stationary Wave COn electrode systems, said grids and anodes having
25 ditions on the symmetrically axial Cathode wave the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid and
conductor. anode of each set being substantially concentric
Another advantage is the stabilization of OS with the corresponding cathode with their open
cillations observed with the parallel connection concave sides toward the axis of the tube, the
of single valves, which is particularly strongly grids and anodes of the respective sets being pe
30 marked in the present system in consequence ripherally displaced about the axis of the tube 30
of the internal mixed coupling of the two single and substantially enclosing said cathodes.
systems and the fixed couplings, adjustable ac 2. A space discharge tube for producing un
cording to desire, on the external side through damped electric oscillations particularly in the
the cathode wave conductor, and which causes ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
35 a coherence of the Oscillations of all Systems tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath 35
emitting power. odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
When applying the intermediate electrode sys axis thereof and having a corresponding plurality
tem, there results another advantageous intensi of sets of grids and anodes constituting electrode
fication and extension of this stabilization of Systems, said grids and ancdes having the shape
40 frequency combined with highest frequency con of open cylinder sectors, the grid and anode of 40
trols of space charge impulse, which cause ex each set being substantially concentric with the
citations of harmonics of high intensity and corresponding cathode with their open concave
which can be extracted as effective power either sides toward the axis of the tube, the grids and
alone or as wave band by means of correspond anodes of the respective sets being peripherally
5 ing couplingS. displaced about the axis of the tube and substan 45
A further advantage of the structure lies in tially enclosing said cathodes, said tube having an
the fact that the transmitter valve can be used intermediate electrode system comprising grids
for generation of oscillations in push-pull con and anodes positioned between said cathodes, each
nections. As, in this case, the two systems os cathode being enclosed by a grid of the inter
50 cillating in push-pull can be considered as con mediate system and the anode of the intermediate
nected in series (contrary to the parallel Con system being arranged in the mid-plane of said
nection of a duplex valve System oscillating in Cathodes.
synchronism), the effective dynamic capacity of 3. A space discharge tube for producing un
the system is considerably reduced by this con damped electric oscillations particularly in the
55 nection in series of the system capacities, a con ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said 55
trollably commanded extension of the region of tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath
the useful oscillation powers according to high odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
frequencies into the centimetre wave spectrum axis thereof and having a corresponding plu
ensuing thereby. rality of sets of grids and anodes constituting
60 In addition, another widening of the frequencyelectrode systems, said grids and anodes having 60
band can be obtained through the present valve the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid and
system by developing the systems non-homoge anode of each set being substantially concentric
neously, for instance in such a manner that one with the corresponding cathode with their open
system works maximally at low frequencies, the concave sides toward the axis of the tube, the
65 other one at some higher frequencies, and the grids and anodes of the respective sets being
intermediate electrode system at the frequencies peripherally displaced about the axis of the tube
lying between them. This is effected as per in and substantially enclosing said cathodes and
yention by the arrangements of different grid separate leads to the electrodes of said systems
magnification factors or varied distances of elec connected to separately tune said systems for
70 trodes as well as by slit anodes or the like, the Oscillating at different frequencies. 70
natural couplings of the grid anode systems, 4. A space discharge tube for producing un
which can be still intensified by external addi damped electric oscillations particularly in the
tional couplings, in this case permitting an OScil ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
lation regulation by means of the cathode axis, tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath
75 this oscillation regulation effecting the coupling Odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the 75
9,000,450
axis thereof and having a corresponding plurality
of sets of grids and anodes constituting electrode
rality of sets of grids and anodes constituting
electrode systems, said grids and anodes having
systems, said grids and anodes having the shape . . the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid and
of open cylinder sectors, the grid and anode of anode of each set being substantially concentric
each set being substantially concentric with the with the corresponding cathode with their open
corresponding cathode with their open concave concave sides toward the axis of the tube, the
sides toward the axis of the tube, the grids and grids and anodes of the respective sets being
anodes of the respective sets being peripherally peripherally displaced about the axis of the tube
displaced about the axis of the tube and substan and substantially enclosing said Cathodes, ten
10 tially enclosing said cathodes, means individually sioning devices supporting the ends of said cath O
tuning said systems and a coupling element with odes and wave conductors shunting said tension
in said tube interconnecting said systems for ing devices to reduce the impedance of the sup
mutual energy transfer. port for ultra-short Waves.
5. A space discharge tube for producing un 9. A space discharge tube for producing un
5 damped electric oscillations particularly in the damped electric oscillations particularly in the 15
ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
tube having a plurality of parallel spaced Cath tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath
odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
axis thereof and having a corresponding plurality axis thereof and having a corresponding plu
20 of sets of grids and anodes constituting electrode rality of sets of grids and anodes. Constituting 20
systems, said grids and anodes having the shape : electrode systems, said grids and anodes hav
of open cylinder sectors, the grid and anode of ing the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid
each set being substantially concentric with the and anode of each set being substantially con
corresponding cathode with their open concave centric with the corresponding cathode with their
25 sides toward the axis of the tube, the grids and open concave sides toward the axis of the tube, 25
anodes of the respective sets being peripherally the grids and anodes of the respective sets being
displaced about the axis of the tube and substan peripherally displaced about the axis of the tube
tially enclosing said cathodes, said systems being and substantially enclosing said cathodes and
connected in push-pull relationship to an external glass stabilizing braces extending longitudinally
circuit. of said tube and carrying sealed in connecting 30
6. A space discharge tube for producing un members at both ends to support the two ends
damped electric oscillations particularly in the of the electrode systems and securing the various
ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, Said electrodes in position.
tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath 10. A space discharge tube for producing un
odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the damped electric oscillations particularly in the
axis thereof and having a corresponding plurality ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
of sets of grids and anodes constituting electrode tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath
systems, said grids and anodes having the shape odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
of open cylinder sectors, the grid and anode of axis thereof and having a corresponding plurality
40 each set being substantially concentric with the of sets of grids and anodes constituting electrode 40
corresponding cathode with their open concave systems, said grids and anodes having the shape
sides toward the axis of the tube, the grids and of open cylinder sectors, the grid and anode of
anodes of the respective sets being peripherally each set being substantially concentric with the
displaced about the axis of the tube and substan corresponding cathode with their open concave
45 tially enclosing said cathodes and wave conduc sides toward the axis of the tube, the grids and 45
tors connected to said cathodes, grids and anodes anodes of the respective sets being peripherally
and extending On opposite sides thereof to the displaced about the axis of the tube and Sub
outside of the said tube to provide connections to stantially enclosing said cathodes, certain of said
an external circuit. electrode systems being connected to Sources of
50 7. A space discharge tube for producing un operating voltage adapted to cause said Systems
damped electric oscillations particularly in the to generate ultra-short waves, others of said sys 50
ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said tems being connected to the output circuit to
tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath form a coupling device for coupling said first
Odes symmetrically arranged with respect to systems to said output circuit.
55 the axis thereof and having a corresponding plu 11. A space discharge tube for producing un
rality of sets of grids and anodes constituting damped electric oscillations particularly in the
electrode systems, said grids and anodes having ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, said
the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid and tube having a plurality of parallel spaced Cath
anode of each set being substantially concen odes symmetrically arranged with respect to the
60 tric with the corresponding cathode with their axis thereof and having a corresponding plu
open concave sides toward the axis of the tube, rality of sets of grids and anodes constituting
the grids and anodes of the respective sets being electrode systems, said grids and anodes hav
peripherally displaced about the axis of the tube ing the shape of open cylinder sectors, the grid
and substantially enclosing said cathodes, Sup and anode of each set being substantially con
65 ports attached to both ends of said grids, lead centric with the corresponding cathode with their
ins at one end of said tube rigidly connected to open concave sides toward the axis of the tube,
said supports and lead-ins at the other end ofthe grids and anodes of the respective sets being
said tube slidably connected to said supports to
peripherally displaced about the axis of the tube
permit expansion and contraction of Said grids.
and substantially enclosing said cathodes, said
70 8. A space discharge tube for producing un electrode systems being respectively tuned to dif 70
damped electric oscillations particularly in the
ferent frequencies and means coupling said sys
ultra-short and quasi-optical wave range, Said tems for energy transfer whereby one of said
tube having a plurality of parallel spaced cath systems is caused to modulate the OScillations
odes symmetrically arranged with respect to produced by the other of said systems.
75 the axis thereof and having a corresponding plu ERNSTEDUARD WILHELMIKASSNER, 75