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L A T I N L A Í f GUA GE ,

o r THE

L A T I N L A N G U A G E .


C. G. ZUMPT, Ph D.




ItE C T Q ft O F T H E HIGJ3 SCH O O L O F E D lN B Ü itG H .



P A T E E N O S T E K -R O W .



Lsr tlie year 1843 I reccivcd a letter from two English scliolars
suggesting to me tlie necessity of a ne \vr translation o f my Latin
grammar, ímd requeating, my assiatance in tlie undertaking.
Until tlien I liad not been aware of tlie fact that the existme
translation, whicli had been made from the tliird edition of my
’vvork (o f which however it was not an exact representaron^ as
some portiona of tlie original were omitted), had vemained in its
original condition, and altliougli it had gone through severa!
editions, yet had not been adequately improved and corrected,
while the Germán original, by continued labour on my part,
liad, in its details, become quite a different work. This In­
formation was o f cónrse a sufficient reason for me to promise
my best aid and co-opcration. in the new translation; for ívhat-
ever considerations may have induced my leamcd translator
to allow my work to be printed again and again in its fíret and
imperfect fornij it was to me a matter of the higliest importance
tliat a nation wliieh so higlily prizes the study of philology and
talces so deep an interest in its progress, sliould be presented
Vf’itli my work in tlie best and most perfcct form that I am able
to give to it. It is unnecessary here to enter into the qncstion
why the plan of a new translation was not carricd into efíect by
those gentlemcn who originally proposed it to me, but I ivas
happy to hear that ultimately the cxceution had been cntrusted

to Dr. L . Scbmitz, wliOj I feel convmcecij has done all that can
be desired., both in point of correctness and good taste.
The Latin language is so rich and liappy in its organization,
and has been so consistently developed by the energetic spirit,
of the Román people as well as by the exquisito tact of the
Román anthors, that a oontiimed study of it ia amply re-
warded. It is now upwards of thirty years that I' have been
bcfore the public as a vn'iter on Latin grammar * ; my variecí
stadies have always led me back to this subject, and I may
truly declare, that during each fresh revisión of my grammar,
wlien I was engaged in incorporatmg with my sv3tem the
observations I had made in the meantime, and in considering
the doubts and objections which liad been raí sed in my mind, I
have becorae more and more convinced o f the inexhaustiblc
mine o f human wisdom which presenta itself in the language o f
a happily organized nation like the Romane. I am not speaking
Iiere of the accidental matter contained in a grammar, ñor o f
the accumidation o f similar passages,— it will afford far greater
pleasure to the pupil to discover for himself in the authors 'wiiose
works he is reading passages which confirm or illustrate the
rules he has learned,— ñor of nlceties of expression, for theso
are cuviosities rather tlian any thing else., but I mean real
philological discovcries and peculiarities, which arise from the
organic structure of the language, derive their cxplanation from
itj and in retnrn throw light upon the whole fabric of the lan-
guage itaelf; and the result of all this is, that the general
principies are better ascertained and established. It is owing
to these eontinued studies that even the present translation of
the ninth edition of. my Latin grammar has been cnriched by
somc not unimpórtant improvements, which I have communi-
cated in MS. to Dr. Schmítz, and it will henceforth be our
united endeavour to remedy every deüciency that may yet be

* The first fonndation o f the present work was laid in a book -which I
ivrote for the use o f my pupils under the tifcle “ liegeln der Lateinischen
Syntas, mit zwei Anliaiigeu iiber die Grundregeln und dio nach einem ncucn
System gcordnetcn unregduiassigen Y erba,’1 Bcrliu, 1814, 8vO.

My Latín grammar has met with great favour, or, as the

phrase is, “ has been a very successful book,” as I must infcr
from the number of editions and copies that havc been sold j
but this success has not weakened my excrtions in labour-
ing without interruptíon for its improvement. A n author is
himsclf rarely able to point ont that which has gained for his
produc-tion the favour of the public; he is satisfied with being
able to labour for the realisation of liis own ideas; a com-
parison with the works of others does not concern him, ñor
would it be becoming to him. But he can State the principie
which has guided him throughout bis w ork; and in reference
to the present grammar, this principie is no other than the
desire to trace the facts and phenomena o f the language to
a philosophícal or rational souree. The facts as such must firat
be established, and in this respect it has been my endeavour
to examine the texts of the authors, and not to allow myself
to be misled, aa has been so often the case, by erróneaua
traditions; further, to distinguish between the periods of the
language, the different species of literary productions, the an­
clen t and genuino from later and affected authors, and by
this mean3 to ascertaín that which is essential and peculiar to
the purest Latín idiom ; but in so doing I have not left un-
noticed tliose pointa which must be regarded as frequent 01*
otherwise justifiable deviations from the oxdinary rules. It
is only those things which do not grow forth from the living
body of the language that must be passed over in silence.
In order to separate that which is genuine and ancient from
what is arbitrary or recent, I have adopted the method o f
distinguishing between test and notes, the one being printed
in large and the other in small type, — a distinction which
will, I tliink, be useful also to the teacher, Another great
point which I have always endeavoured to keep in view has
been a rational development o f the rules from one another.
B y this, however, I do not mean a demonstration of the
principies of universal grammar, that is, of those principies
which are common to all languages. I valué this braneh of
philology, as a sort of applied logic, indeed very highly, but my
y in T H E A U T H O li’ S P llE F A C I í

opínion is that it can be studied witli advantage only by those

wlio are acquainted with tb.e languages of diffcrcnt nations, both
civilised and uncivilised, and I liave confined mysclf to ex-
plaining the peculiarities o£ the Latin language and its charac-
teristic differences from the modern European languages of
Koman and Germamc origin. refcrring only now and tlien to its
eonnection with the Greek. But it is my endeavour to reduce
these peculiarities of the Latin language to simple and precise
principies, to proceed from the simple to the complex, and to
distinguish that which is in accordance with the roles from that
which is of a mixed nature. What I heve say refers more
particularly to the syntax ; for in regard to etymology, it ought
not to be forgotten that the Latin language is something which
has been handed down to ns in a given form, and which is to be
learned in this given form. It would have been easy to go baek
to certain primitive fonns which con 5titu te the first elemente
in the formation of the language, and thereby to explain many
an irrcgularity in the mixture o f fon n s; but in teaching a
language which is learned not only for the purposc of traiuing
the intellect, but of using it in spealdng and writing, the eyo
and memory of the pupil onght not to be troublcd with hypo-
thetical or assumed forma, wlúch he is expeeted to forget, but
frequently does not forget, and which he 13 rather apt to takc
for real forms. In etymology, a complete analogy alone can be
of practical use; henee I have endeavoured to malte the list of
irregular verba and the section on the formation of words —
ímportant branclies of grammar which liad been much neglected
by my predeeessors — as complete as possible. In the syntax,
on the other hand, it iá riglit that tliere should be a philosophical
developinent of the complex from the simple, taking that which
is peculiarly Latin as the groundwork. This part of my gram-
mar has arisen from clictations, which I made the basis of a
course of lectures on Latin syntax ; and I still believe that. this
metliod is best suited to teach pnpils — not indeed the first be-
ginners, but those who haye already made sorne progresa in the
understanding of Latin sentences — the wholc o f the Latin
syntax in. a manner which is at once a training of their intcllcct

ancl tlieir memory. Somc example or other must be mude the

basis; it must be explained and impressed upon the memory as
a model for imitation. The examples given in the text- o f the
present grammar may serve this purpose; all have been selected
with special cave, and each contains a complete thought ex-
pressed in a classical form. The teacher must cause his pupils
to form a uumber of other similar sentences, and mate the
pupils transíate them from the vernacular tongue into Latín.
It is dcsirable that such scntences should be chosen with tasto
or be carefully prepared for this purpose beforehand; but as
tlieír object is only to impress the rule upon the mind of the
learner, it is advisable to pay attention to variety of expression
rather tlian to particular neatness or elegance.
My Grammar further contains a section on the signification
of the adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, which properly
epeaking does not belong to grammar, but to a dictionary? But
it is nevertheless necessary, since the ordinary dictionaries are
partly incorrect and partly incompleto in tlieir cxplanations of
these partióles, which contain the life and soul of a language,
and since special booles on the partióles, such as were formerly
used in schools, are cithcr no longcr consultad or do not answer
the purposes for which they were written. The Syntax has
been enlarged by what Is called Syntaxis ornata, and it is tiran ge
that for th Í3 part o f my work I have been censured by several
scholars, wlio thought it inconsistent with the strictly progressive
spirit of the Grammar, and the philosophícal development of the
giammatical laws, because the observations which form the
substance of the Syntaxis ornata are not given as necessary
principios, but in the form of suggestions, which may be fol­
io wed or not, at diseretion. But thia is the very point which I
myself have expressly stated in the introduction to that part of
my work, where I direct attention to the difference between tlic
Syntaxis regularía and the Syntaxis ornata, But as those
observations on style point out so much that is correct, in­
genio usj and peculiar to the Latín language, should they not
be made at all, because thoir applicntion is left to clioice? or
shall we allow them to stand in a somewhat looser councction,

and arrange the different observations under rational and ín-

telligible heads ? Surely the latter course must be preferred;
and I see that my critica have, in fact, adopted the very same
method, except that what I have discussed in separate chapters,
on " Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts o f Speech/’ on
“ Pleonasm,” “ Ellipsis,” t( Ammgement of Words, and Con-
struetion of Periods,” is ti'eated of by them under the heads of first,
second, and third Aprendices. The real appendices in the present
work, on metres, measures, and weights, calendar, &c., are of a
different nature; they do not indeed belong to grammar, but as
they contain infonnation on matters impórtant and necessary for
the understanding of the authors read in schools, and as this In ­
formation. is either not to be found elsewhere, or is not suf-
üciently correcta no one, I hope, will grudge it a place at the end
o f this Grammar.
I cannot part from the English reader without expressing my
delight at the vigour and energy with which classical studies
are proaecuted in Germany and England. In the former
country a fresh impulse was given to these studies some tlúrty
years ago, just at the time when the nation was on the point of
losing its independence; in England the revival of classical
studies must be dated, I believe, from the time that the contest
between idealism and realism became settled; and these two
branches of human knowlcdge have now arrived at a point
where they recognize each other in peaceful harmony, the one
exerting itself in exploring the treasures of nature, and the other
those of mind. Germany owes her safety to her free scliools
and universities, and builds her hopes upon them; England^
to the energy o f her people and to her pub.lic ínstitutions; and
the two eountries might with advantage exchange some o f their
excellencies, In England., the educational establishments and
teachers appear to be fettercd by oíd traditional and conventional
fonns; while in Germanyj the sublimest truths which are pro­
naulgated from the professorial chair, die within the lccturc rooms
o f the universities, and produce no fruit. But be the difference
between the two eountries ever so groat, the characterístics
of the cducated men in both consist in their rising above the

immediate necessities o f tíme, placej and occnpaLlon, and in their

recognition of tlie connection existíng between the individual
and tlie spirit of all mankind. Ilence a tnowledge of antiquity,
and of what ít has produced, ia necessary to every educatcd
person, in proportion to the infíuence it has exercised upon sub-
sequent ages, and the study o f antíquity will ever have the most
salutary effect upon man in elevating him above the trivial
wants of ordinary life, and affbrding him the means of mental
and intellectual culture. To those among my contemporaries,
who are anxious to obtain these advantages, I offer the presen t
work as a means of penetrating more deep]y and more easily
into the spirit of the Koman classics and o f Román antíquity.

Berlín, Feb. 23. 1845.

WnEN the honourable task of preparing a translation of the

Ninth Eclition o f Professor Zumpt’s Latín Grammar had been
entrusted to me by the publishers, the Author himself most
willingly conscnted to co-operate with me in endeavouring to
present his work to the English public in as perfect a form as
possible. His pvofessional engagements in the Umvorsity of
Berlín have enabled him continually to improve the successive
editions o f his Grammar, which has thus become infmitely su­
perior to what it waa when oríginally translated. Scarcely a
yeai* has elapsed since the publication of the ninth edition o f the
original, yet the Author’s unccasíng labours in this department
of philology have enabled him already to colleet a large mtmber
of corrections and additions for future use; and all these im-
provements he has been kind enough to communicate to me in
manuscript for incorporation in the English translation, which
heneo possesses considerable advantages ovei* the Germán work,
In the etymological part of the present Grammar, some
additions might have been made here and there from English
sources, and some English scholars may perhaps be inclined to
censure me for having ncglccted to do so, since the etymology
of the Latin language has been studied by a few scholars in this
country more comprehensively than on the Continent. But
Profesor Zumpt has abstained, on principie, from introducing
into his work etymological disquisitions which would have led
his readers beyond the ímmediate objeets o f his Grammar, and
it Y/as impossible for me to set aside that principie, without
x iv TItANSLATOK’S l.'JM-n'ACJi.

making material aiterations in the first part o f the present

work. I may also add that, on the wliole, I coincide with
the Author’s vícws on this point; and cven if I did not, I
should not think myself justified in introducing into his work
that which he himself has purposely excluded. The few points
on which I have added any explanatory remnrks, are such as are
regarded by the Autlior, in common with all other grammarians,
as inexplicable difíiculties or anomalies, although it appears to
me that the lang;ua°'e
O D itself contains sufficient analo£fies
O for
their expíanation.
When I undertook the present translation, I expected, as was
stated in the advertisement* that the Latin Grammar o f Pro-
fessor Madvig of Copcnhagcn, which liad appeared about the
same time as the Iasfc edition o f Professor Zumpt’s work,
would furnis]i some more or less importan t improvements which
íuight be advantageonsly embodied in the present translation;
but a compariaon of the two books soon showed me that all the
uc’iv and valuablc points in Madvig’s Grammar were known to
Professor Zumpt, and liad receivcd from him their due sliare
o f attention; Madvig liaving published his views on several
g’rammatical questions in sepárate dissertations and elsewhere,
previously to the appearance of his Grammar.
In conclusión, I venture to expresa my hope that the present
translation o f a work which enjoya the highest reputation in
Germán y may contribute al so in this country towards a more
accurate knowledge of the language o f a nation which, aboye all
others, desertes to engage the attention of every well-educated
L . S.
Londfln, April, 1845.

T h e Latía language was once spoken by the Romans, at fírst

only in a part of Middle Italy, but subsequently in all Italy and
in other countries subject to the Romans. A t present it can be
leamt only from books and the monumental inscriptions of that
The earlíest Latín writings that we possess, were composcd
about 200 yeavs beforc the birth o f Christ, and in the sixth
century after Christ Latín, as a spoken language, died entirely
away. It had then become quite corrupted through the ínfluence
of the foreign
nations which had settled in the Román dominions,7
and it became so mixed up with the languages of the invaders
that a number of new languages (Italian, French, Spanish, Por-
tnguesc,) wcre gradually formed out of it. AH persons who
wrote Latín in later times had learned it as a dead language.
During the long period in which the Latín language ivas
spoken, it underwent various changos, not only in the number
of its words and tlieir ineanings, in their forms and combinations,
but, to some extent, ín its pronunciation also. W e shall in this
Grammar describe the language, though not exclusively, such
as it was spoken and written during the most important period
o f Román litcrature, that is, about the time o f Julius Cacsar
and Cicero, till shortly after the birth of Christ. That period
is commonly called the goHen age, and the subsequent one, till
about A. D . 120, the silver age of the Latín language.
The Latin language in its origin is ncarest akin to the Greek,
and at the time when the Romans became acquainted with the
literature, arts, and institutions of Greece, they adopted a great
many single words, as well as constructions, from the Greek.
Both languages, moreover, belong to the same family from
which the English, Germán, northern, and many other lan­
guages have sprung.


Chap, Page
I. O f tlié Vowels and Consoaants - - - 1
II. O f Syllables - - - - 11
III. O f the Length and Shortness o f Syllables - - 12
IV . O f the A ccen t o f W ord s - - -2 2

T ue A ccldence.

Y. División o f W ords according to their Signifi catión - 25

V I. Nouns S u b s ta n tiv e .G e n e r a l Rules o f Gender - 26
VTI. Numljer, Case, and Declension - - - 30
V III. First Declension - - - - 32
IX . Greek W ord s in e, as, and es - - 33
X, Gender o f the N ouns o f the First D eclension - 35
X I. Second Declension - - - - 35
X II. Greek W ords o f the Second Declension - - 38
X X II. Gender o f the Nouns o f the Second Declension - 40
X IV , Third Declension. — Genitive ■■ - - 41
XV. The remaining Cases o f the Third Declension - 49
X V I. Greek Form s in W ord s o f the Third D eclension - 58
X V II. Gender o f W ord s o f the Third Declension. —
Maseulines - - - - 61
■ X V III. Feminines - - - - 62
X IX . Neuters - - - - 65
XX, Fouvth Declension - - - - 67
X X I. Fifth Declension - - - - 69
X X II. Irregular D eclension.— Indeclinables. — Defectivos Jo
X X III. Iíeteroclita.— Heterogenea - 77
X X IV . Nouns A djective.— Terminatíons. — Declension - 80
XXV. Comparison o f A djectives - - - 84
X X V I. Comparison o f Adverbs and inereased Comparison - 86
X X V II. Irregular and defeetive Comparison - - 87
X X V III. Num eráis.— I. Cardinal Numeráis - - 91
X X IX . I I . Ordinal Numeráis - - - 95
XXX. I I I . Distributive Numeráis - - 96
X X X I. IV . Multiplicativo Numeráis - - - 99
X X X II. V. Proporcional Numeráis - - - 100

Cliap. Pa
X X X III. V I. ÜNumeral Adverbs - * - 100
X X X IY . Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives - - 10*2
XXXV. Declension o f Pronouns - - -1 0 5
X X X V I. Declension o f the Possessive Pronouns and o f P ro-
nomináis - - - - 111
X X X V II. T he Verli - - - - 133
X X X V III. Mootls. — Tenses - - - - Iltí
X X X IX . N umbei’s. — Persous - - - 117
XL. Formation o f the Tenses - - - 11!)
X L I. The V erb esse - 1-23
X L II. The four Conjug-iitions - - - 126
X L III. Eemarks on the Conjugativns - - - 140

L is t of V keus w m c ii are ir r e g u l a r in the F ohm ateos or

t h e ib P jd r peo t a n d Supine.

X L I V . F irst Cünjugution - 149

X L V . Second Conj ugatlon - - - - 151
X L V I . T h ird C onjugiition.— 1, V erb s whir.L have ¡1 V o w e l
before o including those in va - - 158
X L V I I . 2. Verbs in do and to 162
X L V I I I . 3, Verbs in bo and po - - - lijü
X L I X . 4. Y ei'bs with a Palatal Letter, g , n, ct. h, tpt, and
gu (in which u is 11oí considered as a vowel)
before o - - - - 167
L . 5. V erbs which have l. m, n, r befove o - 171
L I. 6 . Verbs in ¿o and xo - - 174
L I L Inclioatives - - - - 176
L U I . Finirtli Conjugation . . . 179
L I V . List o f Deponent V erbs - - - 181
L V . Deponen ts o f the Second Conjugation - - 183
L V I . Deponen ts o f the Third Conjugation - - 184
L V II. Deponents o f the Fourth Conjugation - - 186
L V III. Irregular V erbs - 187
L IX . D efective Verbs - - - - 194
LX. Impersonal Verbs - 198
L X I. Etym ology ofZÑTouns and Verbs - - 200
L X II. Etym ology o f Partióles . . . 222
L X IU . Primitive A dverbs - 230
L X IV . Coinparison o f Adverbs . . . 239
LXV. Prepositions - 240
LXVX. Prepositions in Cornposition - 256
L X V II. Coiijiuicíions - 261
L X V III. Iutei’j ections - - - - 279

Chap. l ’age


L X I X . ¡áubject and Predícate - - - 280

II. O n the U se of Cases .

LXX. Nominative Casa - 290

L X X I. Accusative Case - - - - 291
L X X II. D ativo Case - - - - 304
L X X IH . Genitive Case - - - - 316
LX X 1V . Ablative Case - - - - 331
LXXV. V ocative Case - - - - 354

I I I . U se o r the T enses .

L X X V I . The Tenses - - - - 355

IV . O f the M oons,

L X X V IL Indicative M ood - . - -3 7 2
. L X X V H I. Subjnnctive M ood - - - - 376
L X X IX . Im pera! ive M ood - - - - 412
LXXX. Infinitive M ood - - - - 415
L X X X I. Use o f the Participles . . . 448
L X X X II. Use o f the Gernnd - - -4 5 3
L X X X IH . Use o f the Supine - - - -4 5 9

S Y N T A X IS O E N A T A .

L X X X IV . Peculiarities in the U se o f the Parts o f Speech - 4G2

LXXXV. Pleonasm - 502
L X X X V I. Ellipsis - - - - - 511
L X X X V II. Arrangement o f W ords, and Structure o fP e r io d s - 527

A ppen dix I. O f Metre, especially with regard to the Latin

Poets - 551
A ppen dix II. The Roraan Calendar - - - 573
A ppe n d ix I I I . Rom án Weights, Coins and Measures - 576
A ppe n d ix IV . N otae sive Compendia Scrípturae; orA b b rev ia -
tions o f W ords - 580

I ndex - 583




[§ i.] 1. T h e Vowels of the Latin language are, A, a ; E .e ;

I, i ; O, o ; U, v. ( Y, y) : and the diplithongs, A E , ae ; O ü’, oe ;
A U , au, and E U , cu. Their ancient prommciaüon did not
differ in any essentí al point from that of the modera Italian or
Germán; but the modera pronunciation varies in the different
eountries of Europe, tliough the length and shortness of the
vowels are and ought to be observed evcrywhere. The Latin
language has no signs to distinguish a long from a short vowel,
such as we find in the Greek language, at least in the case of
two vowels. The ñames of the vowels are mere imitations of
their sounds, and not specific words, like the Greek ál-pha,
Note. The vowel y (called y psílon) oecurs only in words which were
introduced ¡nto the Latin language from or tbrough the Greek, at a time
when it was already dcveloped, such as, ¡ajilaba, pyramis, Pyrrhus, C yru s;
whereas other words, the Greelt. origin o f which leads'us baek to more
anenent times, or has been obsenred by ehanges o f sound, have lost their
original y ; such as mus (from the Greek ¿tic), silva (froiw l:>\//), and lacrima
(from ínKpuoi'), The w oid stilus, too, is better written with since practice
did not acknowledge its identity with the Greek crríAof, The diphthong eu,
i f we exeept Greek words, ocüur.s only in keunt lien, and eheu, in ceu¡ seu, and
ncui and in nenter and neutíquam. The diphthongs containing an i, viz. ei,
oi, and ni, have not been mentioned in our text as Latin diphthongs; bec&nse

they occLir only in a few inierjections, sueli as Ae?, eía, üiei, ím<l ínii, and in
casca ivhere dein, proin, hule, or cui, are eontracted into one gyllnble, which ís
eommonly done in poetry.
The aneients in pronouncing a diphthong utfered the two vowels o f which
it consists more distinctly tban we do. The word neuter, iii particular,
was pronounced iñ such a in antier that the two vowels in eu, thongli
nnited, were yet distlnctly heard. In this manner w e may veconcile the
assertion oí‘ the gram ni avian Consentius, that it is a barbarism to pronounce
neutrwn as a word o f two syHables, with those passages in Latin poetry
which necessarily demand the diphthong. Ncutiquam in the comic poets
lias its first syllable ahvays short, as i f it were niitiquam, from which we may
infer that it was not so much the Jpng diplithong as the two short vowels,
that were heard. In like manner the diphthongs ae and oc were pronounced,
and henee we find that in the early timea ai and oi were pronounced and
written in tlieir stead, and that the Latins expressed the Greek ai and m by
ae and o e ; for, i f these diphthongs are pronounced in the manner aboye
described, it will be perceived that the ditFerence between the sounds o f e
and i is but slight.' Ti te Greek ci must likewise have been pronounced in
such a manner that the twu vowels were distinctly heard ; for the Latina, in
whose language this diphthong does not occur, use in its place sometimos e
and sometimes i, or either o f them indiscriminately, Before consonants
we always find i, e. g., eclipsis, NJluftt Clitus, Heravlidue; and in Latin we
must accordingly pronounce and write Pohjclitiis, and not Palycletv,,s (sce
my remarle 011 Cic. in Verr. iv. 3.) ; Hilóles or ílilotae (Uotar,, for the Greek
is KÍAturtc or EÍXwrní), and not IIelot.es. Before vowels, on the other hand,
tlie Greek ei is sometimes changed into e, and sometimes into i ; the e
appears, for example, in Arnicas and i)íedea, and the i in IpMgenia and
elegía, whereas Aleusandrea and Alexandria, Tlmcydidma and Tliuc.yd.idms
are used indiserimmateíy. In Cicero the fonns Ariopagiis and Ariópngitfw,
are better established than Areopagus, Are<ipagitae, and the like, which w c
eommonly find in our editions, whereas the form D arm s is much more
authentic aecnrding to the M SS. o f Latin authors, than Tinrlus. This íact
is nnw generally acknowledged, and does not require liere to be supporlcd
by FLUthorities.
£§ 3,] I t was, however, only by degrees that the pronunciaron and ortbo-
graphy became fixed, and this was mainly the work o f the grammarians
during the flrst centuries aftar Christ. Previously there existed many
peculiarities in the proimneiation, which were also ndopted in the written
language, and some o f these are still retained in the texts o f a few o f the
early writers, such as Phmtus, Tcrence, and Satlust, for lnstorical rcasons,
or, so to speak, from diplomafic fidelity. But such peculiarif.ies should not be
imitated by ua, for tliey were gradually given up by the ancients themselves,
W ith regard to pronunciaron and ortiiogi’aphy, we must neeessarily adhere
to the rules which were laid down by the ancíent gram mam ns, who eer-
t-ainly did not derive them from the vulgar idiom o f the people, but from
the uncorm pt and pura language o f the educated classes. In the earliest
times the broíwi pronunciaron o f the long i was eommonly indicated by ei,
but wit.hont its being pronounced as a diphthong ei, which is forcign to the
Latín language : for ex ampie, ¡,eic for hic, qtieis for quiz (quibus), eidus for
idus, and in the accusative plural o f the third declension when it termínate»
in i> (see § Íj8.), such as omntñs, arléis, for omuiji and artiz, which termina-
tion o f the accusative wns sub^equcntly clinngcd into es. A middle souñd

between the two short vowels u and i was preserved, in some words, down to :t
still later time : and many persona pronounced and wrote Inhct, exixlumo, clu-
peuSf inclutus, satura, for lihet, existimo. clipettJi, & c.; tlie adjeetive terminatum
wnus for imus, as fimtvmus fnr finiüihus, and the superlativos apíwtius,
maxiimtis, and pu lch em m m , for óptimas, imxbaus, &c. Julius Caesar ricclared
himself in favonr o f i, which was afterwards adopted generally, although the
eraperor Claudius wanted to introduce a new letter for the indeünite vowel
in. those words. W e must further observe that in eai'ly times o was used
itistead o f u, after the letter n, e. g. volt, volmis, avom, and even in the nomí-
native aviís instead o f avus: in some words o took the place o f e ; for example,
torio and its derivativos for verlo, vvstfír for‘ vester. U ¡astead o f e occurs
in the termina tion o f the parl.-ieiple muhia lor endus, and was retaiued in
some cases in later times also. (Sea §1 6 7 .) Lastly, we have to mention
that the vulgar pronunciatíon o f av. was ó ; e. g. Claudius was pronounced
as Clodiics, pliMixti-nm as plo&Lrum, and plaudo as pia d o; but in some words
tliís prouunciation, which in general was considered íitulty, became estab-
lished by custom, as in ploslelhtm, a little carriage, a diminutíve form o f
plamtnun. This was the case more especially whcri the common mode o f
pvonounciug served to indícate a diíTerence in meauing, as in lotus, washed.
and lautas, splendid or tílegan t ; and codex, a tnblet for writing (or a book),
and cawlcx, a b lo c t o f wood. In the compounds o f plaudo the fovm piado
thus became prevalent.

[§ 3.] 2. The Consonants are, B , b; C, D , d ; F } f ; G, g ;

11} k ; ( K , k ;) L, l; M, m; N, n; P, p ; Q, q ; R, r ; S, s;
7 , t; X , x ; {Z , z). W ith regard to their cluísification, it is
only necessary nere to observe that l, m, n, r, are called liquids
( Kguidae), and the rest mu tes (yiutae), with the exception o f s,
which, being a sibilant (Utrera sibüans), is o f a peculiar natnre.
The imites may again be classifiod, with refere nce to the organ
by which they are pronounced, into labials (v, b, p - f ), palatals
(g, c, k, qv), and linguals (d, t). X. and z (called ze.ta) are
doublc consonants, x being a combination of c and s, and z of
d and s.
Nota. It will be observed that there are some letters in our ow » alphabet
which do not oceur in this lis t : j and v were expressed by the Latins bv
the same signs as the vowels i and a, viü. I and V ; but in proiiiméíation
they were distinguished ; whence we hear o f an i or v constmans ; and, like
ordinary consonants, they malee position when preceded by another con ­
sonan t, and do nat form au hiatus wheu preceded b y a vow el. It is only in
consequence ofpoetieul licences whicli are rendered necessary by fhc metre
(which however, at the same time, show the kindred nature i'.\ísting between
the sotinds o f the vowel and consonant), that the v is at oru». time softened
down into « ; as, for cxample, wlieu the words solvil and xilm are made to
form thrce syllables (comp. § 1 S 4 .) : and, at others, the vowels f ¡md u are
hardened into the consonants j a n d » , wliich is very often the case witli i ;
by this means the preceding short syllable ís lengthcneil, as in tJie wnrds
abies, m ies, cvmiliunu fluvius, itnuis, and some otheri. Virjíil, for example,
uses ftunjorum rex JSridams; Ovid, at the el ose o f nn hexatneter versa

ciistos erat arjntis aurei, l'or arietís; Lucre tius, copia teims and -ñeque ten-
vhis extat, for tennis, temúus. In cases where the preceding sylhible is
already long, the poet rnay at least get riel o f a syllable whieh does not suit
the verse, as in Juvenal, comitata est H ippia ludjwm and nuper cnnmle
Junjo; and (iv, 37.), Quum jam semjammum laceraret Flavius orbem. W e
may therefore, in writing Latin, makc use o f the signs j and v, whieh ave
employed in modern languages, for the purpose o f distmguishing thi: pro-
nunciiLtion before a -vowel at the beginníng o f a syllable, and we need
not retain tbe defective mode o f writing oí’ the Kouians, since they viewed
these letters just as we do, and w ould willingly have adopted so convenient
a means o f distinction i f they*had known it, or if theír better knowledge
had not been obliged to give way to habit. B ut this rule cannot be
applied to Greek words, since i and v with the Greeks had only the ¡i¡i-
ture o f vowels. W e therefore read locaste, iambus, Iones, Lavtts, A gave,
eu oc: and the i at the beginníng o f these words is treateil as a vowel,
in theír connexion with prepositions, as in ab Ionia, <?a; Ionia. Some Greek
proper ñames, however, are ju stly written and prononneed in Latin with
■±j, a,s Grajus, Ajax. M aja, Traja, Achnja.
[§ II is only an aspiration ; it is not considered as a vowel, and there­
fore when joined with a consonant it does not lengthen the preceding
syllable. T he aneients themselves (see Quintil, i. -5. § 21.) were in doubt
with regard to several words, as to whieh ivas the moro corrcct, to pronounce
it or n o t ; for example, as to whether they should pronounce have or ave,
he/lera or ederu, harem. or arena, /torunda or ormtdo, hahuinor or alucinar,
hertis or erus, vckeniaw or veemens (ve-m.ettx), aheman m* acHv.ni, tnihi <ir mi,
prebendo and deprehendo, o t prendo aná deprendo, and several otber words, in
whieh, however, the orthographv nnw adupfcd is the inore eorrect o f the two.
The letter G aróse ouí o f C, for iu the early times tbe sounds o f 5. (e)
and g were not distinguíshed in writing, on aceount o f tlieir similarity; and
altbough the Romans wrotc, for exam ple' luciónos, yet they pronounced
legiones. The f a c t o f tlie prsenoinina Qajus and Gnaeus, when indicated only
by the initials, being freqnently writfen C. and Oh.. is a vemnant o f the oíd
orthography; and it is exprcssly attested by aneient grammarians (see, e. g.,
Quintil, i. 7. § 28.) as well as by the Greek mode o f writing those ñames
(rv/'v-'r, ri'rtíoí), that. t.hey were never pronounced othenvise than Gajiis
and Gnaeus, whieh was al. the same, tíme Ihe invariable mode o f writing them
when they were given ;it full length. Even when the initials only are given,
we meet. with G. and G n., ju st as often as with C- and Cu.
[§ a.] K became a siiperfiuotts letter in Latín, as its placo was supplitid by c.
In early times it was chiefly nsed in words beginníng with en, such as Itapvt,
hálumnia, K a rtka go; bnt this is now done, íiccording to the example o f the
aneients, in abbreviations only, such as K . for Kaeso, K . or Kal. for K o -
Q is in reality iikewi.se a. superfluous letter, not differing in valué from
c ; but ¡t has been more fortúnate than h in maintaining its place, at least
iñ those cases where the sonnd o f c is followed by tt, and the latter by
another vowel, as in qv.am, qmm, qui, quo, antiquus. The first o f these words
is to be pronounced cuüm, as a m onosyllablc; and it reinains doubtful as to
whether the u is still a vowel, or assnmes the nature o f a consonant evam.
There are some few words in which the pronuneiation and orthography
hesitate betwee.n qu and c ; e. g., in coqum and eqimleus : in some others c is
known to be the correet pronuneiation, from the testimony o f the aneients

themselves, although ive still wi'ite <ju, parlly fur the sake o f distincíion, and
partly fur etymological reasons. Thus we distinguisli the conjunction quum
from the preposition cum ; and "vvrite quotidie aud quoíarmis on. aecount o f
their formation from qiu-t, aud seqmdus and loqmttita on account o f their
derivatión from sequor and loquor, although it is quite certain that all the
Romaas pronounced, and most o f them also wrote, cum, coiidie (cattidie only
to indícate the shorlness o f the voivel), scciitus. locuíus. The laat two must
absolutely be spelled secutus and locutus (see Sclineider, Elenmtíarichve,
p. 38-2 .) ; and with regard to the othcrs, too, it is biit ju st that we shonld
folio1,v the instructions o f the aneients. The reader will find in this work
the conjunction spelled quum; but he ought to rémcmber, that it is done
only for the parpóse o f distingaishing it, to the eye, from the preposition, and
that it onght to lie pronounced as cum *
Z occui's only in words borrowed from the Greelc, e. g gasa, trapeza ;
and ui can tac used only when niodern words are introduced into the Latin
language witíiout undergoing any change in their orthography,

[§ 6-] 3. Üespecting the pronunciatíon of the consonants, it

must be observed, that the rule with the Latins was to pro-
nounce them just as they were written. Every modern nutiori
has its own peculiar way of pronouncing them; aud among the
many corruptions of the genuine pronunciation there are two
which have become firmly rooted in n cari y all Europe, and
which it is, perliaps, impossiblc to banish from the language.
W e pronoutice c. when followed by e} i, y , ae, or oe, both in
Latin and Greek words, lLke our s, and when followed by other
vowels or by consonants like a L The Romana on the other
hand, as far as wc can asccrtain, always pronounced c likc k;
and the Grccks, in their intercourse with the Roinans, did not
liear ány other pronunciation. The earliest instan.ee in which c
was pronounced in this or a similar marmer seems to have been
when it was followed by i with another vowel after it, for the
terminations tius. and tia a,re so frequently used for cius and cia>
that we must infer that they were similarly sounded. But even
this siinilarity seems to have been foreign to the oíd and correct
pronunciation. W e pronounce ti before a vowel like ski, but
likewise without any reason. But it is easy to discover the
transí tion from the puré pronunciation to that which is now
customary, for the ti in all these cases is short, and in quick

* Lipsius, in his Dialogue de recta Pronunfiatione Lm gua Latinee^ ex-

presses himself upon the pronunciation o f c in this remarkable nnumer :
“ Pudet non tam erroris tpiam pertinacias, quia uorripi patiuiifcur at non
eorrigi, et tenent onines quod defendat nenio. Itali, Ilispani, Germani, Galli,
Britanni in hoo peccato : a qna gente initnim emejidaiuli P AutVat eium
nua alitpia et omnes audient.”
b 3

speaking it easily changes into ski. For this reason it would

be quite wrong to pronounce the long tí in the gcnitive totius in
the same manner, since there can be no excuse for it. But
there arfe some cases in which eveii the short ti, according to the
common pronunciation, is not read like ski: 1) in Greek words,
such as Milíiades, Boeotia, Aegyptius; 2) when the t is pre­
ceded by another t. by s or x, e. g. Brutttí} ostium, mixtio; and
3) when it is followed by the termination of the infinitive
passive er} as in nitier, guatier.
Note. In many words it is difficult to determine whtíther they ouglit te
be spelled -with ci or ti. The question must be decided partly by a correct
etymology, partly by the orthography adopted by the Greelcs, and partly by an-
cicnt and authentic inscriptions ; for nea.vly all our M SS. were made at a time
when ai ivas pronounced in the w rong way, and was accordingly confounded
with ti. Thus, it appcars that in the derivativa adjectives formed from nnuns
and participles we musí write idus and not itius; e. g. gentüicius, aedilidus,
novieras, comiwndatickis, as, indeecl, we always write patricias and the proper
ñames Fabricáis and Mcmricius. W e now commonly write conditio, though
it is better to write condicio and dicio. In nuntius, and all its derivatives, on
tho other hand, the ti is c o r r e c t; and also in otium, injitior (from fatuo?'),
and fatialis (G reek ^jjnaXsir). In inscriptions and ancient M SS. we finil
only confio, and not concio.

K ?•] M at the end of a word (where it is always preceded by

a vowel) was pronounced by the aneients more indistinctly than
at the beginning o f a word ; perhaps in the same manner as in
the French le nom, where the m is heard nmch more indis­
tinctly than in le midi. When the word folio wing began with
a vowel, the final m of the preceding word was not sounded at
all, according to the testimony of the ancient grammarians, or it
formed only a gentle transítion from the one vowel to the other.
S, like the Greek a, was pronounced more sharply than with
us ; a circumstance -which accounts for some irregularities in the
eai'ly orthography, such as the doubling of the s ín caussa, as
Cicero wrote according to an express testimony., though it was
dísapproved of as useless by the ancient grammarians.
In the ancient pronunciation there must have been a peculiar
resemblance between the lettcrs s and r ; smee it is mentioned
by Varro (de Lmg. Lat. vii. 6.) and others, that fornierly, that
is, before the Latin language had nssumed a fixed form tlirough
its literatura, s was pronounced in inany words, for which af-
terwards r was substituted, as in Papisius, Vahsius, lases, eso,
urbasem^ mellos. Some forms of this líind, such as hemos, lepos,

and aróos, were used down to a very late time, and occur evcn
in the language .of the classical writers.
Note. This affinity between the two sounds accounts for various phenonieua
in the accidencia o f the Latin language (see Schneider, Elementarlehre,
p. 342. foll.) : but we do uot by any means believe tbut the r in the above-
mentioned words, and still less in all casos where it occurs between two
vowels, is o f later origin, or tliat it aróse out oí’ the s, and that tlie latter was
the original souml. T he r after a vowel is ju st as ancient and original in
tlie Latin language as the r after a consonant; and wherever the s is not a
mere dialectic pcculiarity, as in arbosan, pígtwsa, robase, and majosibus, It
híis taken the place o f r for de ti ni te reasons observed in tlie formation o f
words. F or example : we do not think that musís, mosi, and rnosem were
the earlier and inore germine forme for morís, morí, morera; or tliat the
nominativa mos contains the original form ; and that. in the other cases, the
a was afterwartls sapplanted by r (as has been mosi confiilently stated by
ilrLígei' in lxia Orammatik der Lat, Spruehe, p. IÍÍO. fo ll.); but we assert that
mor is the t-rne root, and that líicsis, musí, and mosem, if they were nsed at
all, aróse merely from a difference in pronuauiation. T he nominative as-
sumed the fbriu mos instead o f mor, because o was akin d red sound to r¡ and
because in oiker cases, too, s is the sign o f the nominativo.

[§ s.] 4. The meeting of two volvéis, one of which forma the

eading and the other the beginníng of a word, causes an híatus
or yawning. It is impossible to avoid it in the various com-
binatioiis of words, though it is never considerad an eleganee. In
verse it is removed by the former of the vowels, whether it be
short or long, being passed over in reading or speaking (elido),
When therefore we find, e. g., sapere ande, or mota anas urna,
we pronounce saper’ aude and moi' anus unía. (Comp. Heindorf
on H.orace, Serm. i. 9. 30.) How far anything similar was
done in ordinary language (in- prose), cannot be said with cer-
taintv, altliongh it is not improbable that at least short vowels,
when followed by another vowel, were likewise passed o ver
in quick speaking, and that pcopio pronounced, for instance,
namqvü crit tempiis, atfpx ego quum viderem. The aspírate k does
not remove the hiatus, ñor does it therefore prevent the elisión
of the first vowel in verse, so that we pronounce tallen? humo,
when we find it written tollere humo. A s the m at the end of
a word was not audibly uttered when the next word began
with a vowel. the vowel preceding the m is likewise passed over
in reading verse, although the word is written at full length.
The hexameter line multum Ule et terris jactatus et alto, is therc-
fure read ¡nult' UC et terris, &c. In the compounds vaneo for
vanum eo, and animadverto for animum adver to, this' elisión is
B 4

made also in writing. The carlier poets threw out the s in the
temiinations üs and u when they were followed by consonante,
LuoilíiiSj e. g., eaySj Tum lateral€ dolor ccrtíssimu’ nuntirt
mortis; and even Cicero, in his youthful attempts at poetry
sometimes did the same, as in de térra lapsu’ repente, magna
leo and torva draco: but, in the refíned poetical language of the
Augustan age, this elisión was no longer customary.
[§ n-j Note 1. W h en the vow el thrown out Ijy the elisión is preceded by
another one, th« lattcr cloes not produce a disagreeable hiatus, as in Capitolio,
ad alta, which is rea,d iti verse Capitoli’ ad alta. ÍTor is there ;my hiatus,
aud corisequcntly no elisión, when a long vowel at the end o f a w ord is
shorteued, viz. in the case o f monosyllabic words in the middle o f the theíiis
o f dactylic verses, and in the dissolved arsin o f iambic aud tróchale feet, and
111 the case o f polysyllabic words at the end o f the íliesis o f dact.ylíc versea.
See, for exaniple, H w ace, Serm. i. 0. 3 8 .: Si me aman, inqmt, paulum Me
ades. Ovid, Metam. üi. 5 0 1 .: dictoque vale vale inqiiü e.t E cho, V irgil, lE n.
iii. 211.: ivsulas Ionio in magno ; and many other passages.
[§ ío.] N ote 2, I t was remarked above that the hiatus is not removed in
w ritin g; and that, o f the two vowels which produce it, the former is thrown
out in reciting a verse. B u t au exception to this rule oecurs when a word
terminating in a vow el or an m is followed by fche word e s t; for in this case
we find, at least in the eritical editions o f Plautus and Terence, that the first
w ord is preserved entire, and that est loses its vowel. The texts therefore
are written and pronounced temulenta 'st mulier, homo 'st, molcstum 'st. T he
same thíng has been fonnd here and there in very ancient M SS. containing
fragmenta o f Cicero’s works, e .g . una nulio’si, dtjficile 'at, and in the oration
for MLÍo : quae illa barbaria 'st. (See Niebuhr’s note on the fragment p r o
Fontcjo, p. 60.) In like manner we find est joined wilh a prcceding word
terminating in us, e.g. opust and dictust; but in this case it remains doubtíul
as to whether tlie s oí' opus is thrown out, or whether est has lost its ñrst two
letters. Something siniilai', though more rarely, oecurs in the termination
&, e. g. ffuali 'st. W hether the seeond person es was likewise joined with a
preceding w ord terminating in us is uncertain. (See Schneider, Elem en-
tarlckre, p. 162. foll.)
[g ii.] Note. 3. T he hiatus-which ocours vshliin a w ord is generally not
rem oved; and for this rea son we did not notice it above. I t should, how -
ever, be observed, that two vowels o f the same sound are freqaently united
(eontracted) into one long vowel, and the poets always make diro and desse
out o f deero and ¿Uasse. This explains the fonns n.il for nikil, and deprendo
for deproítendo, which arise from the elisión o f the aspirate. T he contraction
o f tw o equal or unequal vowels úa the perfect o f verba, after the elisión o f
the u, is still more fre q u en t; e .g . audisti for audivisti, audiisti; deleram
for delcviram, norunt for ?loverunt, eoncerning w hidi see § 150. I t also
not unfj-equently kappens in verse, that two different vowels are united,
by a- rapid pronunciation, into a diphthong; in which, however, both
vowels are audible. This is called by a grammatioal terna ¿ym eresis,
and occurs when the tw o vowels o f the w ordí dein, díd-nde, proín, proinde,
huic and cid, are united into diphthongs which. are otherwíse foreign to
the Latín language. In this way alone it is possiblc to make use o f the
wfird fortuitas in the daotylic hexameter ; and it is for the same purpose

tlxat in nouns terminating Id eust wíien this ending ií preceded by a long

¡syllable, we must contraet into a diphthong not only the ei in the genitiva
singular, and eis in the ablatiye pLural, but also eá and eü ; for example,
alvtTi, auroi, N eréi, aur&is (also ardéis, from the vei'b auteeo), E ur}¡st eo,
ceréa, ju st as a aymeresis sometimes oceurs in the Greek words S'tóc, Ne<j-
7rróXípjr, and la. Some harsher kinds o f sjnaíresis, such as quiu, vía, mc-tis,
and qjioüd, are found in tlie com ic poets and jn Lucrethie.

[§ 12,] 5, There is no necessity for giving any special. rules

about the orthograplty in Latin, since there is abñolutely nothing
arbitrary in the spelling of words that requires to be learned:
but there are a great many separate words, of which neither
the pronunciation ñor the spelling is established, and with regard
to which the aneients themselves were uncertain even in the
best times of their literature, as we see from the monuraents
still extant. W e shall here notic'e a few things which have not
been mentioned in our previous observations, W e spell and pro­
nounce anulm, sucus, paulitm, bclua^ litus better with one con-
sonant tlian with tw o ; whereas comminus, immo} numvius, solle-
mnis, sollers, sollicitus, Juppiter, and quailuor, are more correctly
spelled with two consonants than one. It is not certain whether
we ought to write litera or littera, though in most M SS. the t
is doubled. The authority of the ancient grammarians and the
best MSS. teach tis to spell the singular mille with a. double, and
the plural milia with a single I. The fonns narus and navus are
not customary now, thougli they appear to be better than gnarus
:md qnavus. Ártus (narrow) is certainly better established than
aretus; auctor and auctumnus, on the other hand, are justly
preferred to autor and autumnus. The inserción o f a p between
■m and t, e. g, in, cmptns, sumpsi, rather facüitates the pronun­
ciation than otherwise *, and the verb temptare is decidedly pre-
ferable to the form. tentare which is now eommonly used, the
former being found in the best M SS. The form? conjunx,
quotiens. and totiens are demanded by most of the ancient gram­
marians, and are found in. good M SS., instead o f conjux, quo-
ties, and toties. The words caectis, m.aereo, are more correctly
spelled with the diphthong ae than oe, and saeculum, saepire. and
taeter are better with the diphthong than with the simple
vowel e ; whereas in Iteres, fetus, femina, and fecundus, and
therefore probably in fenus, fenoris also (which are of the same
root), the simple vowel is better than the diphthong. But
it is very doubtfal whether we ought to write aceña ot*

sedeña) aud obscenas or obscaenus or obscoenus. W e do not

notice any other points here, because the orthography now
commonly adopted is the correct onc. Compare Cellarius,
Orthographia Latina, ed. Hartes, Altenburg, 1768, 8yo ; and
Schneider, Elementarlehre Berlin, 1819* 8 y o .
[§ 13.] 6. The Rumans had no other point than the full
stop* and our whole artificial system o f punctuation was un-
known to them: but, to facilítate the understanding of their
works, we now use in Latín the same signs which have become
established in our own language. The peculiarities, however,
in the formation of Latin sentences., the many complications
of their parta, and the attraction o f the relative pronouns,
demand great caution in applying the signa of punctuation
in order that we may not by the use of too many signs sepárate
those parfcs of a sentence which belong to one another.
7. W ith regard to the use of capital and small letters, it
must be observed, that the Romans, generally speaking, wrote
only in capital letters ( litterae unciales), until in the latest period
of antiquity the small letters carne into use, which are now
always employed in writing Latin. Capital initials are at present
used : a) at the beginning of a verse or at lc-.ist of a strophe; b)
at the beginning of a new sentence, both in prose and in verse,
after a full stop, and after a colon when a person’s own words
are qnoted; c) in proper ñames, and in adjectives and adverbs
which are derived from them, e. g.^ Latium, sermo Latinas, L a­
tine loqui; d) in words which expresa a title or office, such as
Cónsul, Tribunas, and Senatus, but not in their derivativos.
8. The diaeresis ip uncía diaereseos) ia a sign to facilítate
readíng; it is put upon a vowel which is to be pronounced se­
párate] y, and which is not to be combined with the preceding one
into a diphthong, as in aer, aeri's, aértus, poeta ; and also in aurai,
viten, since ai is only an ancient form for ae. In cases where
the diphthong would be foreign to the Latín language, the diae-
resis is unnecessary, as in diei, JPersei, because there can be no
fear o f any one pronouncmg the ei as a diphthong; ferreus too
does not requirc it, since in a Latin word no one will regard cu
as a diphthong. But we must write Gañís and silüm, when the
consonants j and v are to be pronounced as vowels. The signs
to indícate the length or shortncss of a vowel or a syllable
( - ¡uid u ) were ■some times used by the ancíents tliernselvcs.

C H A P . II.


[§ 14.] 1. A VOWEL or a diphthong may by itself form a

syllable, as in u-va, mc-o; all other syllables arise from a com-
bination of consonants and vowels. The Latin language allowa
only two eonsonants to stand at the end of a syllable, and three
only in those cases where the last is s. A t the beginning of a,
syllable, also, there oan be no more than two eonsonants, escept
when the first is a c, p, or s, followed by muta cum liquida;
and at the beginníng o f a word there never are three con­
sona nts, exccpt in the case of sc} so, and st being followed by an
r or l : for example, do-ctrina, Ba-ctra, corru-ptrix, sce-ptrum,
ca-stra, magi-stri, l-sthmus ; spretus, strenuus, seviba, splendor.
2. It often appears doubtful as to hovv a word is to be di-
vided into syllables, and where the división is to be inade at the
end of a line, when the space does not suffice. The following rules,
however, which are founded on the structure of the language,
should be observed: — 1) A consonant wliich stands between two
vowels belongs to the latter, as in ma-ter. 2) Those eonsonants
which, in Latin or Greek, may together begin a word, go
together in the división of syllables; e. g., pa~tris, and not
pat-ris, as tr oecur at the beginning of tres. In like manner,
li-bri (previs), i-gnis (gnomon), o-mnis, da-mnum (jcivao/iect),
a-ctus, pun-cíum (/CT?¡/J,a), ra~ptus, scri-ptus, ¡rro-pter (Ptole-
maeus), Ca-dmus re-gnum (yvovs), va-fre (Jretus), a-thleta
($\í(3<á), i-pse, so'í-psi (^¡ravcü), Le-sbos (afjévvvju), e-sca, poseo
(scando), aspa\ ko-spes (spes'), pa-stor, fau stu s, iste (stare),
The cases in wbicli three eonsonants begin a syllable have been
mentioned above. Whenever there occurs any combination o f
eonsonants which cannot stand at the beginning of words, they
are treated according to tlie analogy of the rest. A ll eombi-
nations of muta cum liquida, for instance, go together, as most
of them may commence a w ord; and we must therefore divide
ara~chne, a-gmen, fra-gmentum, Da-phne, Pha-tnae, rhy-thmus,
smara-gdus, and Lu-gdunum, since gd is to be treated like ct
3) In conipound words, the división must be made so as to
kcep the parts distinct, as ader-eram (not inte-rerara), because

the word is compounded of ínter and eram. So also ab-utor,

ab-rado, abs-condo, abs-temius (from temetum), com-es, sus-cipio
(from the form subs), dis-quiro, et-iam, quon-iam, neg-otmm. (Ibr
ncg is cquivalcnt to u t c ) , ob-latum; and red-eo, red-undo, prod-
eo, and sed-itio, for the d, here inscrtcd to prevent hiatus, must
go with the preceding vowel, because, if added to the second, it
would obscure the elements of the compound word. But when
the component parts of a word are doubtful, or when the first
word has dropped its termination to prevent hiatus, the syllables
are divided as if the word were not a compound; e. g .; po- íes
(from pote or potis es), ani-madverto and not anim-adverto, ve-
neo (from venum eo), ma-gnanimus, am~bages, and lon-gaevus.

C H A P . III.


[§ 15.] S y l l a b l e s are long or short, either by the nature of

the vowel they contam, or they become long by their short vowel
being followed by two or roore consonants, that is, by their
position, W e shall first speak of the natural length and short-
ness of vowels.
1. A ll Diphthongs are long, and also all those single vowels
which have arisen from the contraction of two into one, such
as cógo (from coágo), malo (from mávdlo), tiblcen (from tibiieen
and tibia, but tublcen from tuba), blgae (from bíjügae), bübus and
bobus (from bovibus), and so also dis for diis, gratis for gratiis>
and nil for nihil.
' Note. T he preposition prae is commonly made short when compounded
with a word which begins with a vowel, e. g. Ovid, Metam. vii. 131. : Quos
ubi viderunt praeacvlue cuspidís hastas. The reason for this poeuliarity ig
explained in the rule follow in g: but theve is no olher instanee in the Latín
language o f a diphthong standing before a vowel. I t occurs only in Greek
proper ñames, in which however the diphthong remains long, as Aeoíides Sisy-
pkus, and Aceta, relictas, for the examples which are adduced as proofs o f the
diphthong being shortened (O vid, Ueroid. vi. 103., and Trist. iii. 12. 2 .) are
not decisive.
2. A Yowel ís short, when it is followed by another vowel
( V o ca lis a n te v o ca lem b rev is e s t), as in d eu s, J iñ u s , p l u s , ruó,
c o r r ü o ; and, as h is not considered as a consonant, also in such
words as trá h o , co n tra llo, v eh o, and a d veh o.

[§ 16.) Note. E x e e p t i o n s , — 1) T b e vowel e in eheu is always long, the

o in ohe is frequently long, and the i in Uiava aometimea, 2 ) The e in the
tcnnination o f the genitive and dative o f the fifth decleribinn is long when it
is preceded by a vowel, as in diei, speciéi. 3 ) a is long in the obsolete ending
o f the genitive in the first deelcnsion, as in aurai and pictüi-, for aurae and
pictae, in Y irg. 4 ) a and e are long iu the vocative termiuations ai and eí o f
the words ending m fijas and cjm ; c. g., Gái, V ultei. (S ee Chap. X I . note 3 .)'
5 ) A ll the genitives in tus, except altertus, have the i eommonly lo n g ; the
poets however use the i in ülias, istius^ ipshis, unius, totius, ullius, and viríus,
sometimes as a long and gometimes as a short vowel. The instanr.es o f the i
in sollu» beíng shortcncd cannot be reliod n pon ; but aliua, being a contrac-
tion for alibis, can never he inade short. Alierms, on the other hand, is
sometimes made long (see § 49.). G) The verb fio has the i long, except
wheri an r occuis 111 it. O vid, Trist, i. 8. 7.: Omm ajam fíent, f i e r i quaeposse
negabam. 7) Greek words relaín t-hoir own original quantity, and wc there­
fore say áer, ios (ijflc), Amplñoii, Agesilñus, and Mcuelüus. The c and i in tlie
terminatíons ea and eus, or iu and im, therefore, are long when they represent
the Greek un and tmt; (the Romans, not liaving the diphthong ei in theiv
language, represent Ihe Greek u soinétmies by e and sometimes b y í, but
these vowels, o f course, are filways long) ; e. g., Gulutca, Medca, JEnea,?,
Daréus or Darius, Iphigcma, Alexandria¡ Aíitiochia, N i comedia, Samaría,
Seleucla, Thnlia, Arlus, Basiltun, noaocomlitm, and the adjeetives Epicureus,
PyflutgorSus, spoudeus, and the lik e : but when the Greek is ta or 1a, the e •
and i tire íhort, as in idea, philosophm, Ihcologia. The same is the case with
the patvonymic words in ides, since the Greek may be as in Priamídes
and sEtuudes; or n¿>¡c, ns in A lfides, Pclides, whieh are rierived from Afretes
and Pidens. The only exccptions to this rule are, tlint pintea (a Street) ha3
the e short, though aueording to the Greek TtXaTÍia it ought to be long, and
that chorea is sometimes used instead o f chorea ( x nPll“ )- Some o f the late
Román poets use academia instead o f academia, although in Greek writers it
is always long, whether spelled with ti or with t.
Note 2 It- is a part o f the above rule, that a long vowel or diphthong
at, the end o f a word, when the word foílowing begins ivilh a vowel, is usually
made short in the thesis o f a verse. (See above, Chap. I. 4. note I.)

[§ 17.] 3. Usage (auctoritas) alone makes the vowel iu the

first syllable of mater, frater, pravus, mano ( I fiow ), dico, duco.
miro?’, nitor, scriba, dono, pono, utor, muto, sumo, cura, &c. lon g ;
and short in pater, avus, endo, maneo, gravis, regó, tego, bibo,
minor, colo, moror, probo, dornas, sono, soror, and others. It
must be presumed that the studont makes himself acquainted
wíth the qnantity of such words as these by practice, for rules can
be given only with regard to derivatives. It must further be
observed, that the i in the following words is long : fórmica,
leeñea, íorica, vesica, urñca, hemlna, resina, sagina, saliva, castigo,
and formido.
ff) Derivative words retain the quantity of the ir root, as iu
declension and conjugation : thus the a in amor and amo is
short, and therefore also in amoris, amat, ámabam, ámavi, & c.;

except when the consonants after the vowel of the root produce
a difference. New tforda formed from roots likewisc retain the
quantity ; as from a m o — a m o r , a m icu s, a m a b ilis ; from lu x , lucia
— la c e o , lü c i d u s ; from m a te r — m á tern u s , mñtertera ; and from
f i n i s —- f i n i o , f i n i t i o , f i n i t i m u s , &c.
[§ '«•] W ith regard to C onjugaron, howevei', the follow ing rules also
must be observed.
1. The perfect and supine, when they consist o f two syllables, and the
tenses form ed from them, have the first sylíable long, even when in the present
tense ¡t is short, e. g., video, vidi; f ü g i o ,f ü g i ; lego, légi, légisse, legeram, &c.
(except, however, when one vowel atañéis before another, ín which case the
general rule remains in forcé, as in rüo, rüi, dirüi); video. vlsum; moveo,
mótum, mütus, maturas. Seven dissyllable perfecta, however, and nine dis-
syllable supines, together with their compounds, malte their penúltima short ;
viz, bíbi, de.di, fv j.i (from Jinda), steti, stiti, tüli, and scidi (irom scindo'), and
datura, rátwm, satum, iium, líium, clhtm, guitam, sitian, and rütimi. Swto makes
its supine statum, whence status, a, um, and the compounds aclstítuni, destítum,
2. Perfects which are formed by redupiieatíon, as turulo, tütudi; cano, cecíui;
pello, pepüli, have the íirst two syllables short: but the second sometiines
beeomes long by position, as in mordeo, mSmordi; teudo, tétendi. Pedo and
caedo are the only tw o words which retain the long vowel in the sylíable
which forma t h e t o o í , pepedi, cccidi; whereas eado. in accordance with the
r u t e , has cecidi.
3. The perfect posni and the supine posituni have the o short, although ín
pono it is long.
W ith regard to Declension, we must notice the exception that the words
lar, pa r, sal, and pex, shorten their vowel thronghout their declension : salís,
pedís, &c.
[§ iq.] In the formation ó f new words by Derívation, there are several
exeeptions to the above rule. T he following words make the short vowel
lo n g : macer, m acero; legere, lex, légis, legara; reg<>, rex, regis, regula; tco'o,
tégula; secus, sccius ,■ sedeo, seda>,* sern, semen, sementü; litio, litera ( i f we
do not prtifer líttera) atipa, stipis, stipendium; susjñcor, auspicio; persono.
persona; voco, vox, voris; and homo, hümanus. The íbílowing words have a
short vowel, although it is long in the ro o t: lábaro (rom lahi; natare from
n áre; puriscar from pax, p á cis; ambitus and ambitio irom ambire, ambitum;
díeax from dlcere; fu le s and pérfidas from y ¡cío and fid u s (and we regu-
larly fiad infldus) ■ molestas from moles; nota and notare írom notas; odiuvi
fram odi; sopor from sópire; dvx, düeis, a:' d redux, rcúüris, írom düco; lucerna
from laceo ,■ status, statio, stabÜis, stabvlum, must be derived from sísío, unless
we supposc that they are likewise shor tened from statum (from starc).
[g 20.] The Termíimtions, or final syllables, by means o f which an adjective
is formed from a verb or a substantive, are o f a different. kind. Ainong these
alia, aris, arias, aceus, anas, ivus, and osus, have ¡i. long v ow el; but idus, inus,
and ¿mus, a short o n e ; e- g., letülis, vidgüris, inmitánits, acsdvus, vinosus,
aotdus, buitícui, palrí-titis. A long i, however, occm ’g in amicus, apriem, p ú ­
dicas, anticus, and posñcus, and in the substantives mmídlcus and umbilims.
The terininations i'lis and kihs lia ve the i short when they make derivatives
from verbs, but long when froai substantives; e, g., facílis, dvcfiis: aud amabüis,
but civílis, kostilis, puerilis', scnilis, &c. The i in the tenninalion inua may be

long or short: it is long in adjectivcs derivcd from ñames o f animals and

places, as anserl?lus, asininus, etpmuis, htphmx, C'avditms, Latlvua, and a few
others, such as dvmnus, gemünus. duitdesñnus, miestlum, marínus, peregrínus,
¡ind vi.einus; it ¡s short in raost adjectives whieh express time, ¡is crax/íuut;,
diutínm, pristíntis, serotímis, korru>tmus, pereiidmus, and Ín thosewhich indicaí.c
a material or substanee, as adumanlínus, bombycimis, crystallínm, elepftantímis,
cedrmus, fagínus, oleuginux. Sonic adjectives cxpressive o f time, however,
have the ¿ long, viz. matutinas, vespertliius, and rspcnñnus.

[§ 21 .] b) Gompounded words retain the quantity of the

vowels of their elementa : thus from ávus and nipos wc malte
abávus and abnepos, from právus depravo, from probus imprSbus,
from jüs (jüris) perjünts, from lego (I read) perñgo, and from
lego (T despatch) ablego, delego, collega. Even when the vowel is
elianged, its quantity remains the same: e. g., laedo, üVido; caodo,
incido; aequus¿ iniqiius; fauces, sufjoco: ciando, reclüdo; fa ció,
effício; cada, incido; rátus, irritus; regó, erígo; lego, elígo. W e
may therefore infer from compounded words the quantity o f
those of which tliey consist ; c. g., from adoro, admirar, and abütor
we eoiicludc that oro, miror, and utor have the first svllnble long ;
and from eommdror and desupcr, that the first syllable in moror
and supcr is short, which is not always accurately distiuguished
in pronunciation, because these syllables have the accent.. ( See
Chap. IV .)
W e shall mention here, by way o f example, a few more eompounds from
which the quantity o f the vowels in their elementa may be inferred. W e
shall choose such as cannot be mentioned in any o f the subseijuent liste;, and
present them in the third person singular o f the present tense, W e have a
long vowel in exhülal, conclüwat, aildírat, dellbat, consfipat, evikd, irrítate
deplórate enñdat, compútate r e f üUd, obdürát, and commünit; and a short one in
nxárat, comparat, enatul, irrigat, alligat, perfrica i, erüdit, cxpolit, dcnarai,
comprobad compütat, recübatf and suppitdet.
But there are some exeeptions, and the follmving compounded words
ehange tbe long vowel into u short one : dejero nntl pej ero í'rom jüro ; om -
sidícüs,falidicus, maledicus, veridiam, from ilicere; agnitus.and cogiiítm from
notas i innüb(us), -a, ¡lhi\praniíb(iti>), from nübo. The case is reversad
in rmbecillus from bácídus,
[§ a .] In respect to Composition with Prepositions, it is to be remarked,
that prepositions o f one syllable whieh end in a vowel are long, and those
which end in a consonant are s h o rt: deducá, abaleo, perim o. T ra (fornied
from irmis), as in trüdo, tráduco, ia lo n g ; but the o (for ob) ín omitió and
ñperior is short. Pro. in Greek words, is sliort, as in p r ophela, but prologu.'-:,
propala, and propino form exeeptions. In Latin words p ro is long, e. g.
pródo, prdmitío : but in many it is sh ort; profvgio, profngus, pronepos, p r o -
fáeor, profari, ¡irofa im , profestm , profecto, projtciscor, pi ófmulus, prvtervus,
procclla, and a few others, the derivation o f which is doubtful, as proceres,
propitius, p rop era re; in some the quantity is «ndecided. Se and di (for dis)

are long ; the only exeeptions are dirimo aud dísertus. R e is sh ort; it is long
only in the impersonal vero referí * : in all other cases where it appears
long, the consonant which foUows ít must be doubled (in verse), as in rep-
puli, repperi, rettuli, rettudi, recado, redduco, relligio, relliquiae; the four
perfeets reppuli, repperi, rettuli and rettudi appear to have been pronounced
and spelled in this way, even in prose. In tbe same manner reddo, reddere,
aróse from do. The termination a m prepositions o f tw o sylíables is long,
as in comtradico; all the others are short, as antefero, praeñrco.
[§ 23.] W hen the first word o f a composition is not a preposition, it 5s
necessary to determine the quantity o f the final vowel (a, c, i, o, n. y ) o f the
first word. 1) a is long, as in quare and quüpropter, except in quusi. 2 ) e
is mostly short, as in calefacio (notice especially tieque, nequeo, nefas, nefaslus)
nefarius, nefandus), but long in néquam, nequidquam, ntquaquam and nenio
(which is contraetcd from ne and hemo, the ancient form for homo) ; also in sé~
decim and the pronouns memet, mecum, ticum, and sedan; in veneficias, vidElicet,
vtlcors, and vesanas. 3 ) ¿ is short, e.g, significo, sacrilegas, comicen. lubícen,
omnipotem, imdíque; but long in compounded pronouns, as quliibet, utrlquc,
in íbidem, ubique, utrolñque, ilicet and scilicet; also in the eompounds o f
dies, as biduum, tríduum, m e r í d i e s and lastly, in all those eompounds o f
which the parts may be separated, such as hmñfaclo, agricultura, stquis,
because the i at the end o f the first w ord is naturally long, and remains so,
4 ) o is short, hodie, duodecim, sacrosanctus, but long in eompounds with
contro, intro, retro, and quando (qiianddquidem alone forms an exception) ; it
is long in dlioqni, ceterdqni. utroque, and in those Greek words in which
thé o represents the Greek tu, as in geometría, 5 ) u and y are sliort, as in
q-uadrupes, Polyphemus.

4. In regard to the quantity of Final Syllabjes, the following

specíal rules must be observed: —

A. H o n o s x l l a b ic W ok ds.

[§ 24.] 1) AU monosyllables ending in a vowel are lon g ;

except the partióles which are attachcd to other words: que, ve,
al, ne, té { tute), ps'á (reapse), and pte (suopte).
Note. N e, the interrogative partióle, is always short, and i=J attaehed to
other words as an enclitic, as in videsne, dost thou see ? or dost thou not
see ? In the ordinary pronunciation it was still more shortened by throwing
o ff tbe vowel, as in eredon' tibi J>oc nunc ? and, in case o f ati s preceding, this
letter was likewise dropped, as aiii tu f for aisne tu ? satín' red e ? satín’
salvae ? for satisne recle f satisne salvas ? T he conjunetion né (lest. or that
not) is long. Eespecting ne, as an inseparable negative partióle in com po-
sitions, see above, § 23.

2) Among the monosyllablee ending in a consonan^ the sub­

stantives are long, as sol, vér} fü r , jü s ; and all those are short

* T he re in this w ord is probably not a particle as in relego, but. the

■accusative o f the w ord res, so that réfert is equal to rem fe r t, This
w ould account for the length o f the e. (See K ey, The Alphabet, p, 78.)

which are not substantives, as üt, et, nec, m, an, ád, quid, sed, quls,
quot. The following substantives however are short: cor, fél,
mel, vlr and os (gen. osszs), and probably also mas, a male being,
and vas, a surety, since they have the a short in the genitive :
maris, vádis. Some words, on the other hand, are long, although
they are not substantives; as en, non, qum, sin, eras, plus, cür,
and par with its compounds, and also the adverbs in ic or uc, as
slc, kic, Me. The monosyllabic forms of declension and conju­
gation foliow the general rules about the quantity o f final syl­
lables, and dá.s. Jics, and seis accordingly are long, while dát, Ji'ét,
and sclt ave short; his, quos, quás are long, like the terminations
os and as in declension. So also the ablative singular hoc and
hac. The nominative hic and the neuter hoc, on the other hand,
although the vowel is natu rally short, are eommonly used as
long, because the pronunciation was hice and hoce (as a compen­
sation for the ancient form Mee, hoce). The abridged impera-
ti ves retain the quantity of the root, so that dlc and düc are
long, while fa c and fe r are short.
Note. W e fbrmerly thought with other grammariaus, that f á c was long,
and that we ought to rciad face in those passages in which it is found sliort.
(See Heinsius and Burniann 011 Ovid, Heroid. ii. 98.) B u t there is no
satisfactory evidencie for fa c being long, and the instances quoted by V os-
sius (Aristarch. ii. 29.) have now been aTtered for other reasons.

B. F in a l S íx jl a b l e s in W ouds o f tw o or more S íl l a e l e s .

[§ 25.] 1) Such as termínate in a Vowel.

A is short in nmins, except in the ablative singular of the first
declension and in the vocative of Greek proper ñames in as
which belong to the first or third declension, e. g. ¿Enea, Palla.
A is long in verbs and indeclinable words, such as ama, frustra,
crgd, antea, and postea (except when separated into post ea),
except Ü'áy quia, eja, and the imperative puta in the sense of
Cí for example.” In the indeclinable numeráis, as triginta ánd
quadraginta, the a is sometimes long and sometimes short.
E is short, as in paire, curre, nempe; but long in the ablative
of the fifth declension and in the imperative of the second con­
jugation ; the poets however, and especially the comic ones,
sometimes shorten the imperative of the words cave, habe, jube,
mane., tace, vale, and vide, Adverbs in e formed from adjec­
tives of the second declension are likewise long, as docté, doctis-

simé,-recté, rectissimé: a l s o fere, fermü, and olit (but bene and

mal'é are always short, and inferne and superno sometimes), and
Greek words o f the first declension terminating in e. as crarnbc,
Circe, and Greek plurals, as Tempe and ceté.
[§ 26.] I is long, It is sliort only in the vocative of Greek
words in is, e. g. Alexí, in the Greek dative in i. which however
oecurs seldom, as in Palladi, Teihyt, and in nisí, q%as%, and cui,
when it is used as a dissyllable. The i is common or doubtful
in mihi, sibl, i.lñ and ubi; in eompounds we commonly find ibi-
dem and always ubique, whereas in ublvis and ubmam the i is
always short. In uti for ut the i is long, but in the eompounds
utlnam and uftque short.
O is common in the present tense of all the conjugations, and
in the nominative of the third declension, as in sermo, virgo;
the Greek words in o (a>, Gen. ovs) however remam long in
Latin, as Id, Didd. But o ís long in the second declension,
as in ledo, and in a d v e r t í s formed from nouns and pronouns
by means of this termination (see § 2 6 4 .); e. g. vulgo, falso,
paulo, eo, qud, and also erg o, iccirco, quando, and retro. In the
poets however gerunds and the following adverbs are some-
times short: ergo in the sense of (í therefore,” porro, postremo,
sero, quando (the compound quandoquidem oecurs only with a
short o). The adverbs modo (with all its eompounds, and also
quomodo), cito, Mico, and immu, and also cedo (for dic or da), ego,
dúo, and acto are always short, whereas ambo is generaüy long.
Note. O as a termination o f verba has been liere deseribed as common ;
it must however be observed, that it is naturally long, and is used so b y
most poets o f the best ¿tge, such íis Virgil, Horaee (in his Odea), and O vid
(in his Metamorphosfís'), in their serious productions. In their lighter poema
however, and in the tvorks oí* later poets, it is also used short, according to
the example o f the comic poets, though this was done at first leas írequently,
until at last it became the prevalent cnstom to make the o short. (See
Lennep’ s elabórate nota on Ovid, H eroid. xv. 32., reprinted in the edition o f
Loers.) The same is the case with o in substantives o f the tliird declension,
for the earlier poets always prefer using it as a long sylíable.

U is always long, as in diü, vultü, comü.

Y in Greek words is always short.

2) Such as termínate in a Consonant.

[§ 27 .] A11 final syllables ending in a consonant are short, and

speeial rules are required only for those ending in the sibilant .?■.

Note. T he dissyllabk compounds o f p a r retain the quantity o f the

single word, and the cases o f htic and illic follow those o f lúe,. (See § 131.)
Greek words retain their original quantity in their final syllables, except
those in or, && H éctor, Néstor, which are short in Latin, although in Greek
they end in iap. The only exceptions in genuine Latin words are lien
(forrrted from liérds which is still used) and alee.

[§ 28.] As is long in Latin words, with the exception of anas,

anáti.s; but the Greek nominatives in as, which jnake their
genitivos in a S o í and in Latin in adis, such as, llias, Pallas3 and
the Greek accusatives plural of the third declension. are always
short,'as in h ero a s ,
Es is long, c. g. ames, legés, audits, paires, But Latin no-
mmatives in es, which increase in the genitive, and haye their
penúltima short, are themselvcs short; e. g. miles, milítis ; segds,
segetis (except ahiés, ariés, parles, Cerés, and the compounds of
■pes) : also the nominatives plural of Greek woxds, which increase
m the genitive singular, as Amazones, Troades; the preposition
penes and the second person of the compounds o f sum, es,
e, g. abes, potes; but tlie es (for edis) from edo is long. (See
§ 212.)
[§ 29.] Is is generally short, but long in all the cases of the
plural, as armis, vobls, omnis (accus. for omnes); in the second
person singular of verbs whose second plural is itis, that is,
in the fourth conjugation, and in possis, velis, nolis, malis, and
vis (iliou wilt), with its compounds, such as mams, quims,
quamvis. Respecting the quantity of is in the perfect snb-
junctive and in the second future see § 165. Is, lastly, is long
in proper mimes of the third declension, which, increasing in
the genitive, have their penúltima lon g; e. g. Quiris, itis; Sam -
nis, itis; Salamis, mis ; Simois, entis.
Os is long, as in nepós, honos, virós ; it is short only in
compos and impos, and in Greek words and cases in os, e. g.
Délos, ErinnySs*
Us is short in verba and noúns except monosyllables, but
long in the genitive singular, in the nominative and accusative
plural of the fourth declension, and in the nominatives of the
third, whieh have ü in the genitive, as virtüs, ütis; palüs, üdis.
It is also long when it represents the Greek ovv, as in Pantkus,
Melampüs, Sapphüs. (Comp. § 59.)
3^5 in Greek words is short, as Halys, Tcihys, cklamyst, and
c 2

long only in the few instances in which the yis of the genitive is
contracted into i/s.
[§ 30 .] 5. Syllables (as was remarked in the beginning of this
chapter) may become long by their vowel beíng followed by
two or more consonants, that is, by their position: x and z are
accoimted as two consonants. (Sec aboye, § 3.) A position
may be formed in three w ays: — 1. When a sylíable ends in
two Oí' three consonants, as in ex, est, mens, stirps. — 2. When
the first sylíable ends in a consonant and the second begins with
onc, as in Ule, arma, mentís, in nova. — 3. When the first sylíable
ends in a vowel, and the one following begins with two con­
sonants. By the first and second kinds of position, a sylíable
which is naturally short becomes long, Exeeptions to this rule
occtir only in the comic poets who frequcntly neglect position,
capecially that of the second kind.
Note. In syllables long by position we asualiy pronounce the vowel
itself short; but the smeients in their pronunciation even here distin-
guished the long vowel from the ¡short one, ju st as in Greek we tnust pro­
nounce irpáaaw with a long rr. because it is naturally long, as we see from
7rpü%t£ and Trpüypti. VV'ith regard to other vowels, we are assisted by the
Oreek signs and r, o ; but in Latin words, unless we can be guicled by
verse, we can derive Information only from etym ology and from the state-
menfs o f the ancient grammarians. Thus they distinguished est (he is) from
est (for edif), and they pronounced the vowel in con and m when followed
ín eompounds by f or í, long, as in infelix, imemu?, cójisiU, covfecít. (Sue
Cicero, Orat. 48.) Dens, gens. mens, fons., frotis, and mons, were u ttem l
with a long vowel, and in like manner pax, lex, lux, re,r, and voz, because
they have their vowel long in the genitive also ( plcbs, pléhif, belongs to the
same class) ; whereas fa x , wtx, nix, miz, were pronounced with their vowel
short, because they form tlie genitive fa d s , itecis, &c. (Comp. Schneuler,
Elementarl, p. 108, foll.)

[§ 31.] Tn the third kind of position (made by two consonants

beginning the sylíable after a vowel), we must distinguish as to
whether it occurs within a worrl or between two words, and
whether the consonants are muta cum liquida, or not. Within
a word a sylíable ending in a short vowel is regularly made
long, when it is followed by two consonants or x and z, as in
a-ptux, fa-ctus, a-xis; but when the first consonant is a mnte
and the second a 1iquid (which is called positio debilis), they
make the vowel only common, according to the pronunciation in
prose. Thus, we may pronounce either cerebrum, lugübris, me­
diocris, integri, or cerebrum, lugübris, viediocris, integri. Ovid,
for example, says: — E t pruno similis volücri, mox vera volücris.

(,Metam. xiii. 607.) Between two words the voivel is rarely

lengthened, except in the arsis o f a verse. The last syllable of a
word thus remains short, e. g. in Hornee at the beginning
o f an hexameter: — quera víala stultitia aut; or at the end:
praemia scribae. An instartce in which the vowel is lengthened
by the accession of the arsis occurs in Virgil. Bucal, iv. 5 1 .: —
Terrasqué tractusque maris coelumque profundum.
Qu is not accounted as two eonsonants, for u is not a true
consonant, thougli we usually pronounce it as such. But j
alone is sufficient to make position, because this consonant was
pronounced double (in early times it was also written double);
e. g. májor like mayor, and in like manner in ejus and Troja.
In the compounds of jugum alone it does not lengthen the pre­
ceding vowel, as bijugus, quadrzjugus, ñor does it, according to
tlie rule mentioned aboye, lengthen the vowel when it begins
a new word, and the preceding word ends in a short vowel, as in
the hexameter of Virgil ( Georg. 5. 1 2 5 .):— Ante Jovem nvlli
subigebant arva coloni.
Note. The determination o f the quantity o f a vowel before mvia cum
liquida Tvithin a word has great diíliculties, and we must add the following
observations. The practico oí' the difierent poefcs varíes greatly. Virgil, e.g.,
is particularlv fond o f lengthening a vowel by its position before muta cum
liguida; and he and the poets in general usually contrive to make the vowel
thus lengthened coincide with the arsis in the verse; by the same con-
trivance he also lengthens the short final syllable o f a word, eapeciaily the
enclitíc que, in the second foot o f an hexameter, by the muta cum liquida
whieh follow it. W e have further to observe particular words whieh have
their vowel short, viz. líber, niger, p íg er, and riíb er; but in their inflections,
where the imita cum liquida occurs, the vow el almost always becomes lon g;
coluher, e .g ,, is short; but cohlbrae, cnlübris, are long, and migro is niade
long by the best poets in the hexameter. Other words however are either
never lengthened, as arbitrar, or very seldom, as lor.üplrx. There are, on t he
other handj some cases o f muta cum liquida, which form a strong position
botli in Latin and Greek, viz. where the Iiquid is either /, m, or ?i, and the
mute either b, g , or d (See Buttmann’ s G reek Grammar, § 7. 10.) Thus
the Latin words publicus, aginen, regnum and igrtarus, always have their
first syllable long.
It is almost stiperfluous to repeat here, that we are speaking only o f such
vowels as are naturally s h o rt; for, when the vow el is naturally long, a
lengthening by positio debilis is out o f the question, and we therefore always
say ambulácmm, lavácrum, delübrum, involücrum and salübris. W hen the
eonsonants muta cum liquida beiong to diilerent syllables, as in ab-luo, ob-ruo.
quam-ob-rem, they make real position.

C H A P . IV .


[§32,] 1. I t is a general rule that every word has an accent on

one particular sylíable. This accent is twofold, either the cir-
cumfiex ( A), or the acule ('), for what is called the grave in Greek
means only the absence of either accent. Some words have no
accent, víz. the enclitics ne, que, ve, ce, which never appear by
themselves, but are attached to other words. Prepositions lose
their accent when they precede the cases which they govern.
Note. The addition o f these cnclitics produces a cliange in the accent of
the words to which they are attached, and which thus become eompounds.
The ancient grammarians have cstablished the rule, that whenever an
enclitic has a meaning o f its own, the accent is thrown back upon the
sylíable immediately before the enclitic, and either as the tiente ( i f the vowel
o f that sylíable is short), or as the cireumllex. ( i f the vowel is long), as in
Musáque (nominat.) hominéque, and Muxaque (ablat.) armüque. W hen, on
the other hand, the enclitic lias no meamng by itself, and forms only one
w ord with that to which it is attached, the acccnt vari es, as will be shown
hereaftev. This is the case wifli que; for in some eompounds it either does
not possess the meaning c f “ and ” at all, oí* only very indistinctly, Henee
in itágue (and so) the accent belongs to the short penúltima, and in tinque
(therelore), in which the meaning o f “ and ” is quite obscurecí, the pronun­
ciaron places the accent upon the antepenúltima. In the same manner we
have to distinguish between uiique (and that) and -(dique (certainly). B y
ivay o f exception the same grammarians place tlie accent on the penúltima
in utráque and pleráqus, on account o f the accent o f the masculine forms
utérque and ph ríque, although according to the general rule, que not meaning
“ anri," we ought to pronounce úb-aque and pléraque. Th ey further inform
us that we should pronounce néqvuwlo and signando, in orrler that quando
may not be taken for a separate word, and alupianilo in order to distinguish
it from aliquánto.

[§ 38.] 2. Mónosyllablea are pronounced with the circum-

flex, when their vowel is long by nature and not merely by
position, as in dos, mos, flos, jüs, lux, spés, fúns and mnns; but
when the vowel is natural !y short, they are pronounced with the
acute, although the sylíable may be long by position: e. g. árs,
párs, fa x , dúx.
Note. Sic (so) the adverb should be pronounced with the circumflex,
aud ó'íí,', which indicates a wish, with the aoute ; e. g. Sic fe, diva potens
Cypri, &c, in Hornee Comp. Priscian, D e X I I . Vera. /En,

3. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, either

as circumflex, when the vowel of that syllable is naturally long,
and that of the second one short; or as acute, when the vowel of‘
the first syllable is sliort and that of the second long; or when
the vowel of the first as well as that of the second is long; e. g.
Roma, vmsa, luce, jú rts; but homo because both syllables are
sliort; deas, because the first is short and the second long: arte,
because the first is long only by position ; and doti, for although
the vówel of the first is naturally long, yet that of the second is
likewise long. The ancient grammarians do not notice those
cases where a syllable long by position is at the saíne time long
by the nature of íts vowel (see above, § 30.); but it is pro­
bable that cónsul^ mónte, dente, ésse (for edere), asthma and
sceptrurn, were pronounced in the same manner as luce.
4. Words of three syllables may have the accent on the ante­
penúltima and pennltima; the acute on the antepenúltima,
when the penúltima is shorí, as in caédere, pérgere, hómines ; the
accented syllable itself may be long or short. The circumflex
is placed on the penúltima on the conditions before-mentioned,
;\s in amásse, Románus ; and the acute, when those conditions do
not exist, and yet the penúltima is long, as in Románis, Me-
téílüs. No word can have the accent further back than the
antepenúltima, so that we must pronounce Constantinapolis, sol-
Note. P rista n (p. S03. ed. Putsch.) rcimurks as un exoeption, that the
compontids o i' fa cere, which are nofc fbriucd by means ol' a preposition, such
ns calefucit, tcpffücit, and (p. 739.) the contraeted genitives in i matead
o f ü (see § 49.), have the accent on the pennltima, e-ven when it is shorl, as
in ingeni, ValerL so that. we must pronounce calefácit, ivgém. H e asserts
the warnc wit.li regurd to the vocative o f proper ñames in itis, e. ¡r. Virgtli,
V aleri; while other graminuriuns (A . Gellius, xiii. 2 5 .) ¡eave to this case its
regular aecentuation, Vírgili and not Virgíli.

[§ 34.] 5. Words of two or more syllables never have the ac­

cent on the last, and it appears that it was only the grammarians
who invented a diíFerent mode of aecentuation for the purpose
of distinguishing words which would othervnse sound alike.
They tell us that the words pon é (beliind) and ergd (on account
o f) should have the accent on the last syllable, to distinguish
them from pone (put) and érc/o (therefore). They further accen-
tuate the last syllables of the adverbs circum, docto, raro, pruno,
and modo, to distinguish them from the cases which ha-ve
c 4

the same terminations. The interrogatives quando¡ qualis,

quantus. ubi, and others, are said to have. the accent on the first
sylíable, according to the rule; but when used in the sen3e o f
relativea, to have the accent on the last sylíable^ unless the acute
be changed into the grave by reason of their connection with
other words which follow. The words ending in as which ori-
ginally ended in atis, such as óptimas, riostras, Arpiñas, are said
to have the accent on the sylíable on which they had it in their
complete foruij and which is now the last. The same is aáserted
with regard to the contracted perfecta., such as audit for audivit
It ía impossible to determine how much o f all this was really
observed by the ancients, since it is expressly attested by earlier
writers, such as Quinúliaru that in Latín the accent was never
put on the last sylíable. But it is certainly wrong to put the
grave on the last sylíable of all adverbs, as some persona stíll do,
or to use accents for the purpose o f indicatmg the natural length
of a vowel, which is better expressed by a horizontal line (~).
[§ 35.] 6. These rules concerning accentuation ought to lead
us to accustom. ourselves to distinguish accent from quantily;
to read, for example, hómiriñs and not hómims, and to distinguish
in our pronunciation édo ( I eat) from edo (I edit). lego (I read)
from Ugo ( I despatch), and in like manner fúris (thou ravest),
légis (thou readest) and' regis (thou rulest) from the genitives
fü ris, regis and legis; further, lévis (light) from levis (smooth),
málus (bad) from málus (an applc-tree)., pálüs, üdis (a marsh);
from palas, i (a post), ánus (an oíd woman) from antis (yrpcoxTos),
lútum (mud) from lütum (a dyer’s weed), and also lü'tens (dirty
or muddy) from lü'teus (yellow), and pifpulas (the people) from
po'pulus (a poplar). In our own language accent and qnantity
coincide, but it ia very wrong to apply this peculiarity to a lan­
guage to which it is foreign.

C H A P . V.


36.] T h e words o f every language are either nornas, verbs,

or partióles.
A noun serves to denote an object or a quality of an object,
and may accordingly be either a substantive, as domus (a house),
a pronoun, as ego (I), or an adjective, as parvus (small), Nouns
are declined to indicate their different relations.
A verb cxpresscs an action ov condition which is ascribed to a
person or a thing, as scribo, iré, dormiré, amari. A verb is con-
jugated in oi'der to indicate the different modes in which an
action or condition is ascribed to a person or a thing.
Particles are those parts of speech, which are neither declined
ñor conjugated, and which are neither nouns ñor verbs. They
are divided into the following classes. 1 ) Adverbs express the
circumstances o f an action or condition, as scribit bene, he writes
w ell; diu dormit, he sleeps long. 2) Prepositions express, either
directly or indirectly (§ 2'9o.), the relations o f persons or tilinga
to one another or to actions and conditions ; as, amor meus erga
te, my love towards thee; eo ad te, I g o to thee. 3) Conjimctions
express the connexion between things, actions, or propositions;
as, ego et tu; clamavit, sed pater non audivit. 4 ) Interjections
are the expressions of emotion by a single word; as ah, ohe,
These are the eight parts o f speech in L atin; all o f them
occur in the following hexameter:—
Vae tibi ridenti, quia mox post gaudia Jlebis.

C H A P . V I.


[§37.] NOUWS substantive are either proper { nomina propriu\

i. e. the ñames of one particular man or thing, or common ( no­
mina appettativa), í. e. Such as denote persona or things in so fili­
as they belong to a class.
All nouns have one of three gendera : masculine, feminine,
or neuter.
The manner in jyhieh the gender of a noun can be ascertained
from its termination will be explained imder each declension.
Onr object here is to show the gender o f nouns, botli pro per
and common, in so far as it depends npon their meaning.
1. The following are masculine: the ñames of inen and of
male beings; as homo, vu\ ser iba,flamen, cónsul, rex, deas, daemon,
Cupido (the Crod of Lo ve), manes (the spirits of the departed),
hmures (spectrcs) ; and the ñames of rivers, wiuds, and months,
the vtQü<\&fluvius, ventus, and mensis being themselvcs masculine.
[ij 3S.] JExeeptions. There are some substantives whieh do nofc originally
denote men,but have come to be applied to them b y cu stom ; as operae, labour-
crs ; vigilias and excubmc, senthiels ; copiae, troops ; auxilia, ¡mxiliary troops ;
mimcipium, a slave; scorlum and prostíbulun1, a prostitute. A ll such words
have the gender which belongs to them aceordíng to their termination.
The ñames o f rivera Í11 a, belonging to the first declension, vary in
tlieir gender. (Sea Sclmeider, Fonnenlelirc, p. 14.) M odern writers cum-
nionly make them feminine; but the aneients, in musí cases, make them
masculines, which is the gender belonging to them. (Se¡: § 47.) The
mythalogieal rivera Styx and Lethc are femmiiie, as iu Greek, Tlie ñames
o f winda and months are, without exeeption, masculine ; henee Id Etesiec,
Me Libs, Me Aprilia. W ith regard lo the ñames o f the months it nnist be
observed that all o f them are adjectives, and that the best writers uso them
only as such, the substantive mensis being understood. Henee also C a­
lenda# Jamuiriae, Nonaa Sextües, Idus M arliae, itfajan, ante Calendas Au­
gustas, Idibns Decembribus. Hee Drukenborch, on L iv y (iv. 37.), who, with
most other coinmenf.ators, is so strongly convinced o f lilis, that he does not.
hesitate to correct passages in which this rule is not observed.
T h e ñames o f mountains are gencrally said to be masculine ; but when
the w ord mons is not joined with them, the gender depends upon their
termination, as ia alta Aetna.

[§ 39.] 2. The following are feminine; the ñames of women

and female beings; e. g. uxor, wife ; soror, sister t anus, an oíd
wonmn; aocrus, mother-in-líiw ; Juno, Venus; and even when
they end in nm, as Pkaniutu, Gtycerium, Leonthtm. Most of the

ñames of trees, towns, eountries., and islanda, just as the words

arbos, urbs¡ térra (regio), and ínsula} themselves are feminine;
e. g. alta cedrus, pinus, abies, the high cedar, pine, fir ; umbrosa
f<igus, the ahady beech ; fie as Indica, opulenta Corintims, antiqua
Tyrus, dura Lacedaemon, Aegyptus superstitiom, clara Salamis.
Exeeptions. The ñames o f trees and. shrubs ending in er, añil following
ihü third declension, are n eu ter; as ac.fi.r. cicer, papaver, to -which we must
add robar, tlie oafc. Masculine are oleaste}- and pinaster, which belong to the
second, and styrax which belongs to the third declension ; also many shrubs
and smallcr plftnts in us, i ; e. g. amarantes, asparagus, calantm, dumus, helle-
borm, hdubus, rhamnus, and spinus. The following vary, and may be used as
masculine or feminine: cijtism, ro.phmuis, rubiw, and grossit-?, an unripe ftg.
A m ong the ñames o f towns the following are masculine : 1) A ll plurals in
í, as A rgi, Delphi, Pateoli, V eji; 2) Four ñames in o : Hippo (with the
surname regius), Narbo Marcius, Fiiisino, and S a l m o the analogy o f which
is followed also by Croto, although the regular form ic. Greek is Kpórwv ¡
3) Tunex, etis, and Canopus, as in Greek ú Some ñames in üs, untis,
such as Pessinus, Sclimts, and in us, i, such as Pharsalas, Abydas, and also
Marathón, are masculine, according to the Greek custom, though they are
sometimos also used as feminmes. The following are n cú ter: 1) Those ending
in um, and the Greek ñames in on, as Tusculum, Ilion ; 2 ) T he plurals in a,
oram, e. g. Susa, Arbula, Ecbatana, L m c tr a ; 3 ) Those ending in o and ur,
which follow the third declension, as Caere, Reate, Pramieste, Tergnste, 7\repeta
or I'ívpet, Anxur, and Tibnr ; Tuder is likewise neuter; 4 ) The indeclinable
ñames in i and y, as Iüiturgi, Asty, and some others, particular^ barbarous
ñames, the declension o f which is defective, as Suthul, Hispid, Gadir, whereas
their Latin forras, Hispalis and Gadcs, ium, are feminine. A rgos, as a neuter,
oceurs only in the nominative, otherwise A rgi, orum, is used. The many
exeeptions we have here enmnerated mighfc retider us ínclined sittogcther
to drop the rule respeeting the feminine gender o f ñames o f tow n s; but we
must adhere to it on aecount o f the nmnerous Greek ñames in us, i, and
o f ihe Greek or non-Italian ñames in an (o), on is; and there appcars
moreover to liave been a tendeucy to make feminine eren those which are o f
a different gender, pcovíded. they are in the singular. This is the case,
besides those we have already mentioned, with Croton, and may also be
observed in the case o f Praeneste; for Virgil says, PraevMste sub ipm, and
Juvenal gélida Praeneste, but otherwise the neuter gender ís well cstab-
lished. (L iv.vi. 2 9 .; Sil.Ital. ix, 404.) The poets change the ñames o f some
places ending in nm into us, e.g. Sagvntus, and use them as feminines, (See
Schneidcr, Formevl. p. 479 )
Am ong the ñames o f eountries those in um and plurais in a are neuter,
as Lattum, B aatra; the ñames Bosporus, Pontux, and Hellespontiu,, ívliich
properly denote the seas adjaecnt to these eountries, are masculine; the
same ís t-lie case w¡Lh hthm m when used as the niune o f a couniry, ibr ori-
ginally it is a common rioun sigiiifyhig “ a neck t>f ¡and." O f tlie ñames o f
islands, some eudíng in um are nenter ; as is also the Egyptian Della.
It must fnrt.her be observed that most ñames o f preciaos otoñes are feminine
as in Greek ; but beryllus, mrbunmdus, opulm, and xmaragdus are masculine.
Thcnamtjs o f dramatic compositions are used in tlie early and good language
as feminine, the word fábula beingnuderstood ; e. g- hax Truculenlus (Plan/f),
Enmeláis (T erentii) acta esl, fyc. (See Quintil i. 5. 52. with Spalding's
note.) Juvenal (i. 6.), however, s¡i.ys, Orenles nondum jhiüux.

[§ 40.] 3. There are many ñames o f persone, which are

common to both sexes, as they denote an oecupation or quality
which may belong either to a man or a woman, although the one
is more frequently the case than the other. Such words are
called common (communia). Those found in Latin with two
genders are contaíned in the following hexameter lines: —
Antistes, vates, adolescens, auctor et augur,
Dux. judex, index, testis, cum cive sacardos,
Municipi adde jvareas, patrueli ajjinis et heves,
Artijici conjux atque íncola, miles et hastia,
Par, juvenis, martyr, comes, infans, obses et hospes,
Interpres, praesal, castos, vmdexque, satelles,
Some other words are not noticed here, because they are usert only in appo-
sition to fem inines; those mentioned above, however, may be accompanied
by adjectives in either gen der; e .g . Cié. Cat. 2 ,: In hoc sumas sapientes,
quitdmituram apiimum ducern, kimqvum, deum, suquimur. Pro Halb. 24.: Sacer-
dos illa Cereris civis Romanafacta est. Y irg. ¿En, x. 2 5 2 , : Alma parensldaea
deum. L iv. i, 7 .: l\fater mea, verídica interpres deum, T o these w e may add
contaba'nolis, properly an adj active, whieh cannot be íiccommod.ired to verse,
¡irul perliaps also exvl and princeps, with regard to whieh the passages o f the
aneients are not decisive, since the non alia exvl in Tacit. Ami. xiv. 63. may
b e explained as apposifcion, and Romanaprinceps in the Elcg. ad Livium, 356.
may be taken as an adjective, as ¡n other cases. Obses is well attested as a
nornen commmie by Plin, HUI. Nat. xx x iv . 13.: Obsidibus, quac Porsenae mit-
tehantur. Auspex yet awaits a better authority than praeclaram auspicem in
the Dcclam. (Porcii Latrams) in Caiil. c. 16.
It, is further to be observed, that antistes and Jtospas, in tlie sense o f priestees
and hostess, are not attested as well as tlie feminine forms antisüla, ae, and
Aospita, ae.
[§ 41.] 4. Substantiva mobilia are those substantives in which
the root receives different terminations for the masculine and
feminine genders. The termination for the feminine is always a
or trix, and the latter occurs in those cases in which the masculine
ending in tor is derived from transid ve verb3, as in victor, vic-
trix; nitor, ultrix: praeceptor, praeceptrix; inventor, invmtrix.
The feminine is indicated by a when the masculine ends in us or
er, or some other termination, e. g. coquus, coqua ; jmer, puera;
or more freq uently the diminutivo form puella ; magister, ma-
gistra; leño, lena ; caupo, copa; tibicen, libicina; avzis, avia ;
rex, regina; antistes, antistita. The feminine termination tria
is Greek, and is formed from masculines in tes or ta. as psaltes,
psaltria ; poeta, poetria,
[§ 42.] 5. Some ñames of animals have special forme to dis-
linguish the two sexes: agnus, agna ; cervus, cerva ; columbns,

columba ; equus, equa; gallus, gallina; juvencus, juvenca; lupus,

lupa i leo, lea and leaena ; porcus, porca ; vitulus, vitula ; ursus,
vrsa. In some cases the words are altogether different, as in
taurus, vacca, a bull and ccíw; arlen, oms, ram and sheep;
hoedus, capella ; catus,felis.
Most other ñames of animals are common (epicoena) ; that is,
they have only one grammatical gender which comprises both
sexes, e. g. passer, anser, corvus, canis, cáncer are masculine;
aquila, felis, anas, vulpes are feminine, though they may denote -
animals of either sex. With regard to those names which may
distinguish the genders by terminatíons, it should be observed
that one form (generally the masculine) predomínales, such as
equus, leo, lupus as masculine, and felis, ovis as feminine. I f the
sex of the particular animal is to be stated, the word mas or
femina are acldedto the ñame ; as, anas mas, anas femina, f entina
anguis, musca femina, femina piscis, and lupus or•porcus femina,
although we have the forms lupa and porca. Instead o f mas
we may also use masculus or mascula, e. g. vulpes mascula, a
male fo x ; pavo masculus, a male peacock.
Some of these nouns epicene however, in which the differeuec
o f sex is more frequently noticed, are used as real common
nouns, so that they are masculine when the male animal, and
feminine when the female animal, is particularly specified. O f
this kind are ios, canis, elephantus, lepus, vespertilio, mus, which
are masculine when the diíference of sex is not noticed; but fe-
minine when the female is designated. Thus we generally find,
e. g., elephanti prudentissimi habentur, lepares timidi sunt; but at
the same time canes rabidae, elephantus gravida, lepus fecunda :
and Horace abandoning the usual gender, takes the liberty of
saying ( Scrm, iL 8. 87.): membra grnis sparsi, and jécur anseris
albae. (See Bentley’s note.)
The following nouns are sometimes masculine and some-
times feminine, witliout regard to difference of sex : an­
guis and serpens, a serpent ; dama, fallow-deer; talpa, a
mole; also sus, a pig; and tigris, tiger; but sus is commonly
feminine, while tigris is commonly masculine. Others are of
unccrtain gender, in as far as they have both a masculine and a
feminine form, which, however, are used indiscriminately and
without regard to aex. Thus we have the feminine forms
colubra, lacerta, luscinia, aud simia along with the masculine»

coluber, lacertas, luscinius, and simius, without simia, for in-

stance, having any refcrence whatever to a female monkey, In
like manner, palumbus and palumba (the same as palumbes) are
used indiscriminately.
[§ 43■] The following are neuter. A ll indeclinable sub­
stantives, as gummi, pascha, sinapi, and pondo which is used as
an indeclinable noun in the sense of “ p o u n d t h e ñames of the
letters of the alphabet, as c triste, o longum, Graecum digamma,
&e., and all words and expressions which, without being sub­
stantives, are conceived and used as such, or quoted merely as
words; e. g. ultimum vale, scire tuum nihil cst, vive re ipsum turpe
est nobis, tergeminum crocjy&s, hoc ipsum diu miki molestum est
(Cicero), lacrimas hoc mihi paene movet (Ovid), where the words
diu and paene are quoted from the sayiugs o f another person,
and it is said that the very word diu or paene is painful.
Note. The ñames o f the letters o f the alphabet, however, are sometimes
used as feminines, the w ord littcra being undcrstood ; e. g. Quintil, i. 4 . 1 1 ,:
Sci.at etiam Cicerordplacvisse aiio Maüamque genánata i scribei'c. T he ñames
o f the Greek letters in a, as bata, gamma, delta, are used as feminine5 only by
Ausonius, Teclmop. de l i t í .

C H A P . V II.


[§ 44.] T h e Latín language distinguishes, in nouns and verbs,

the singular and plural ( numerus singularis and pluvalis) by
particular forms ; it has also different forms to distinguish six
different cases (casus) in the relations atid connections of nouns.
The ordinaiy ñames of these cases are nominative, genitive,
dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative. The different forms
o f these cases are seen in the terminations which are armexed to-
the crude form of a word. Declension is the deriving of these
different forms, both in the singular and plural, from one an­
other, the nominative forming the starting point. The nominative
and vocative are called casus redi, and the others casus óbliqui. •
There are five declensions distinguished by the termination
of the genitive singular, which ends: —
1 2 3 4 5
ae i is üs ei

All declensions have the following points in common: —

1. In the second, third. and fourth declensions there nre
neuters which have three cases alike, viz. nominative, accu-
sative, and vocative.
2. The vocative is like the nominative, except in the second
declension and some Greek words in the first and third.
3. Where no exception arises from neutei’3, the accusative
singular ends in m.
1 2 3 4 5
am um em um em

4. The genitive plural ends in um.

1 2 3 4 ñ
arum orum um uum erum

5. The dative plural isin all declensions like the ablative

1 2 3 4 5
%s ís íbus íbus (übus) ébus

The following table contains the terminations of all the five

declensions: —
S in g u l a r

neut. neut.
Nom. a ( e, as, es) us, er, a, e, o c, l, us, r it-
n, r, s, t. .r
Gen. ae (es') is US ei.
Dat. ae ¡ o i ui ei.
Acc. am (en) \um em (i.m) um, u em.
Voc. a (e) 1 e, er, like nom. US, u es.
Ahí. a (fi) io * (i) u e.

P lu ral.

neut. neut. neut.

Nom. ae h a es, a (ia) US, ua es.
Gen. arum orum um (imn) uum erum
Dat. is is ibus ibus (ubus) films.
Acc. as os, a es, a (ia) US, ua es.
Voc. ae h a es, a (id) US, ua es.
Abl. is is ibus ibus (y/bus) ebus.

C H A P . V III.


[§ 45 .] T h e first declension comprises all nouns which form tlie

genitive singular in ae. Tlie nominative of genuine Latin words
o f this kind ends in &. Greek words in a, as musa} historia,
stoa, folio w the example of the Latin ones, and shorten the final
vowel when it is long in Greek. Some Greek words in &, as}
and e.í liave peculiar terminations in some o f their cases. (See
Chap. I X .)
S in g u l a r . P lural.

Nom. vi-a, the way. Nom. vi-ae, the ways.

Gen. vi-ae, of the way. Gen. vi-arum, of the ways.
Dat. vi-ae, to the way. Dat. vi-is, to the ways.
Acc. vi-am, the way. Acc. vi-as, the ways.
Voc. vi-a, O way ! Voc. vi-ae, O ways I
Abl. vi-a, from the way. Abl. vi-is, from the ways.
In like manner are declined, for example, the substantives
barba, musa, cura, epístola, fossa, hora, mensa., noverca, penna,
porta, poena, sagitta, silva, stella, uva, victoria, and the ad-
jectives and partieiples with the feminine termination a ; as,
longa, libera, pulchra, lata, rotunda, leda, scripta.
N^ote I. A n oíd form o f the genitive singular in tis has been retai ne (i
even in the common language, in the word fam ilia when nompounded with
pater, mater, filias, and f il ia ; so that we say paterfamüias, patt'e,'familias,
Jiliosfamilias. B u t the regular form fam iliae is not uneommnn ; sometí mes,
though not often, we find familiarum in composition with the plural o f those
Note 2. A n obsoleto poetical form o f the genit. sing. is ai for the
diphthong ae. or ai, at in aulaí, aurái, pictai, which thcee forms oecur even
in "Virgil.
Note. 3. Poets form the genitive plural o f piitronymu’S in es and a, o f
several eompounds in cola and gena, and o f some few ñames o f nationa, by
the termination um instead o f orum, as Aeneadum, Dardanidum, coelicolum,
terrigenurn. Lapithnm. O f a similar kind are the genitivos amphorum,
drachmum, which are uaed even in prose, instead o f ampftorarwn, drackma-
ntm. (Com p. § 51.)
Note 4. Some words form the dative and ablative plural in abm in-
stead o f ia, such as anima, dea, filia, liberta, nata, mida, equa> asina; for
the purpose o f distinguishing them from the dative and ablative plural o f the
masculine forms, which w ould otherwise be the same. The regular termina­
tion i.?, however, is generally preferred, notwithstanding the possi bility o f
arnb’ín iity; and it is only deabus and filiabas that can be reennunended, fot'

tlie former is used in a aolemn invocatiou by Cicero : diz deabusque omrábus;

and the latter by L ivy (xxiv, 26.), cum dv.abvs filiabas virg-inibus. L ib er­
tabas frequeutly oeeurs in inscriptions. TLlc termination ábus has remained
in coraraon use for the íeminine o f dúo and am bo: duabus, ambabus.

C IIA P . IX .

G-IIEEK WOIÍ.DS IN fí, as, AN D es.

[§ 46.] 1. In the dative singular and throughout the plural,

Greek words in e, as, and es, do not differ from the regular
declension. In the other cases of the singular they are declined
in the follo'wing manner: —
Nom. e as es.
Gen. es ae ae.
Acc. en am tnetimes áii) en.
Voc. e d e and á.
Abl. e a a and e.

Words of this kind in e are: aloe, crarnbe, epitome, Circe,

Danae, Phoenice; Ín a s: Acueas, Bóreas, O orgias, Midas,
Messias, Satanas; in es; ana,gnost.es, cometes, dynastes, geo*
metres, pyrites, satrápes, sophistes, A.nehises, Thersites, and
patronymica (i. e. ñames of persona derived from their parents
or ancestors, see § 245.); e. g. Aeneades, Alcídes, Pelldes, Pria~
mides, Ty dides.
Note. Cominon nouns, such as epístola and poeta, which, on their adoption
into the Latin language, exchanged tlieir Greek termination >i or for the
Latín á, are treated as gemiine Latin words, and no longer follow the Greek
declension. B u t a great many other coimnon, as well as proper, nouns ¡ike-
wise follow the Latin declension; and it must be espccially remarked, that
the early Latin writers, including Cicero, show a tendeucy to Latinize the
declension o f those words which they have frequeut occasion to use. Thus
we prefer with Cicero grammatica, rketorica, dialéctica, música, togrammaticc,
rhetorice, dialectice, musice, and we may say Creta and Pcnelopa ju st as well
as Hecuba. and Helena, although Eoine writers, especmlly the later poets,
with an affcctatibn o f erudition, preferred Crcte and Penelope. B u t there
is no fixed law in this respeet. In tlia words in es, Cicero prefers this G re e k .
termination to the Latin a, e .g . Phüocteíes. Scythes, Perscs, sophistes, to
Persa, sophista, &c. In the accusaüve he sometimes uses en, as Arsmoiin,
Cireen, Sinopcn, (See my note on Cié. fn Verr. iv. 18.) But althoujrh he

woukl use the nomiiiative Sinojie for Sinopa, yet lie maltes the genitive
iS/rtopae in the adverbial sense o f “ at Sinope,1’ e .g . in Jtull, ii. 20. As to
the practice o f Hornee, see Bentley on E pod. xvii. 17,

2, Greek words in as commonly take the accusative an

in poetry, and Virgil uniformly uses Aenean, In prose
the Latín am is much more frequent, although Livy too has
Aenedn, and in Quintus Curtius we not unfrequently find the
forms Amyntan, Philotan, Pcrdiccan, and others, along with
Amyntam, Philotam, Perdiccam.
The vocative of words in es is usually e, as in V irgil: —
Covjugio, Anchisé, Vemris dígnate superbo ; but the Latin vo­
cativo in a also occurs frequently, e. g. at the end o f an liex-
ameter in Horace, Scrm. ii. 3. 1 8 7 .:— Atridá, vetas ca rt and
in Cicero: Aceta, Thyesta! The vocative in a seldom occurs.
as in the Oracle mentioued by Cicero, D e Divin. ii. 56.: Ajo
te, Aeacidá, Romanos rAncere posse. Words in es form their
ablative regularly in d, e. g. in C icero: de Philocteta, de Pro~
tagora Abderita. The poets, however, sometimes use the termi­
nation é, as in V irgil: Uno graditur comitatus Achate.
3. Generally speaking, however, the patronymics in rjs, genit.
ov, are the only Greek words that follow the first declension;
and the majority of proper ñames ending in es follow the third
declension, as AZcibiad.es, Miltiad.es, Xerxes. But many of them
form the accusative singular in en (as Euphraten, Mitkridaten,
Pkraaten), and the vocative in e, together with the forms of
the third declension in em and es. (See Chap. X V I .)
]Sro¿e. Tbe woi'd mtrapes (aarpáiv>)t\ on) is best declined after the first
declension; but no example o f the genit. sing. being mtrupae is known ;
Nepos (X.ymvd, 4.) uses sutrapis, This does nofc neeessarily presuppose
tbe existente o f a nominative satraps, whieb oecurs only in later times,
but may be tbe same as Milliades, genitive Mütiadis. Instantes o f the
dative satrapae, accus, vatrapen, and ablat. sairapt% oecur in other writers, as
ivoll as in tbe correct texts o f Q. Curtius. T he form sairapem must be re-
je c t e d ; but the Latin form salrapam may be used. The plural is throughout
after the first declension. satrapae, sabraparum, &c.



[§ 47.] N o u n s in a and e are feminine, and those in as and es

(being chieíly ñames of men) are masculine.
Note, Nouns denoting male beings are üf course masculine, thongh they
end in a, as auriga, coücga, nauta, parricida, poeta, ?.criba. N am fts o f rivera
in a, euüJi as Garunma, Trebia, Sequarta, Himera (to be distinguished from
tlie town o f the same ñame), and Hadria (the Aclriatic) are masculine, ac-
cording to tbe general rule. (See Chap. V I.) The three rivera Állia, Albula
and Matrona, however, are feminine. Cometa and planeta, ívliích are usually
mentioned as masculinos, dn not occur in ancient writers, who always use
the Greek forms cometes, púnteles; but cometa and planeta would, according.
to analogy, be masculine.

C H A P . X I.


[§ 48.] A l l nouns vvliicli form the genitive singular in i, belong

to the second declension. The greater part of them end in the
nominative in us, the neutera in um; some in er, and only one in
ir, viz. vir with its compounds, to which we must add the
proper ñame, Trevir. There is only one word ending in ur}
viz. the adjective satur, satura, satürum.
The genitive of tliose in us and um is Formed by changing
these terminations into i. The vocative of words in us ends in
e : as, O Jhlix a n n e O happy year I In all other cases the
vocative is like the nominative.
S in g u l a r . Pj.UIt.AL.
Nom. glad -us, the sword. Nom. glad the swords.
Gen. glad -í, of the sword. Gen. glad -drum, of the swords.
Dat, gladi ■o, to the sword. Dat. glad. -is, to the swords.
Acc. gladi um, the sword. Acc. gladi -os, the swords.
Yoc. gladi O sword! Voe. gladz-i, O swords!
AbL gladi-d, from the sword. Abl. gladii-is, from the swords.

The neuters in um are declined- in the same w ay ; but in the

plural they have the termination a, and the nominative, accii-
sative, and vocative are alike in the singular as well as in the
SINGHJI.AB. P j l u u a í.

Nona, scamn-um, the bench, Kom. scctmn-á, the benches.

G en. scumu-1, of the bench. Gen. scamn-irrum. of the benchea.
Dat. scanui-d, to the bench. Dat, scamn-is, to the benches.
Acc, scamu-um, the bench. Acc. scamn-a, the benches.
Voc. scamn-um, O bench ! Voc. scamn-á, O benches!
Abl. scamn-d, from the bench. Abl. scamn-is, from the benches.
Vir and its compounds, as well as satur, símply add the ter­
minations of the different cases to the nominative.
Some of tbe words in er are likewise declined by merely
adding the terminations to the nominativo, as puer, puer-i,
piter-o, puer-um, puer-orum, puer-is, puer-os ; others reject the
short e in the oblique cases, as líber (a book), libr-i, libr-o,
libr-um, &c. Those which retain the e are not very nume-
roiis, viz. adulter, gener, puer, socer, vesper, Líber (the god
Baechus), and liberí (the cliildrcn, only in the plural); the
adjectives asper, lacer, líber (free), miser, prosper, and tener,
To these we must add the compounds of ferré and gerere, as
Lucifer, armiger, and the words presbyter, Ibér, and Celtibér
(plural Celtibéri). The adjective dexter has both forms, dextera
and dextra, dexterum and dextrwm, although the elisión of the e
ís more freqnent.
[§ 40.] Note 1 . The genitiva o f nouns, botli proper and common, in ¿ns
and ium, in the best age o f the Latin language, was not ii, but i, as Jüi for
Jilii, and in like manner Appi, ingeni, imper i, consili, negoti. So at least it
waa pronounced in the poets before and during tlio Augustan age, a3 in
V irgil, Horace, and Tibullus. Tropertius is the first wlio, in a few instanees.
lias íi, which occurs frequently in O vid : and in the lator poets, who preferred
regularity o f formation to euphony, it is quite common. (See Bentley on
Terence, Andr. ii. 1 . 20.) W ith regurd to poete, tlie inetre must determine
this p o in t; and it was in eonsequence oí’ the metre that Lucretius (v. 1004.
and vi. 744.), though one o f the early poets, wrote ndvXgü and rémfgii, because
otherwise the words would not have suited the hexameter. B u t the ortho-
graphy o f prose writers who Hvcd before the Augustan age is doubtful, on
aceount o f the grea,t discrepancy whiuh, on this point as on everything con-
nected with orthography, prevails in the M SS., even in the most ancient, onus
o f Cicero, which have recently been discovcrcd. It is, however, probable that,
although ii may have been written, only one i was pronounced, as was always
done in the words dii and diis. The genitive mancipi for maticipn, which
occurs in many legal expressions, is a remnant o f the ancient practice, and

remained in use in later times. Concerning the accent o f these contraetéd

genitives, and o f the vocatives o f proper ñames in ¿ííí, o f which we shal!
spcak hereafter, see above, § 33., and Bentley, í. c.
Note 2. T he fullowing nine adjeetives or adjectíve pronouns, umts, solus,
totas, ullits, uter, neuter, alter, nullus, and al his, togethcr with their eompounds
uterquc, ulervis, ulerlibeí, uiarcunque, and alteruíer, form the genitive in all
their íhree genders in iiis, and tiio dative in i ; in addition to which uter and
veutt.r eject the e preceding the r. The i of this genitive is long in prose,
but in verse ifc is sornelimes made short. (S ee § 16.) Alterius alone
lias the i short both iu prose and in verse (with a few exeeptions, as in
Tereuee, Andr. iv. 1 .4 .; see § 8-30,), according to the statement o f Priscian,
pp. 694. 958. It is true that alterius cannot be used in the daetylic hexameter
without the i being short., but it is used in the same manner in a trechee by
Plavitus ( Capt, ii. 2 . 56.). There are only a few instauces in which these
words follow the regular declension, (See'below , § 140.)
[§ 3ÍI-] Note 3. T he vocative o f proper ñames in fus ends in i instead o f
ie, e.g. Autüui, M ercuri, Tercnti, Tulli, Virglli. In like manner the proper
liamos inytií, being sometíales softened down into m$, make the vocative in a
simple i, as Gñt, Pompei. B u t this rule cannot be applied to propev ñames
iu lus from the Greek c<oc, as in Arlas, H em clm s; ñor to those ñames which
are in reality adjeetives, and are used as proper ñames only when Jiiius, deus,
or heros ave uuderstood, such as Laertius, the son o f Laertes, i. e. Ulysses ;
Cyntkius, Delius, the Cynthian or Delian god, i. e. A p ollo; TiryTúlúus, the
Tiryuthian hero, i. e. Hercules. AJI such words retain ie in the vocative,
and in like manner Plus, when used as a proper ñame, probably formed the
vocativo Pie. F or all common nouns and adjeetives, according to the testi-
mouy o f the ancient gnunmariaus, regularly formed their vocative in ie, as
nuiltte, adversarle, impie, although there are no passages in ancient wríters to
prove it. B u t Jilius and genios make their vocativo Jili, geni, and mmis
(though not mea or memu) makes mi. Deus in the vocative is like the
nominalive, as O deus! mi deus!
W hat has here been said o f deus alone is applied by poets to other words
also: they not unfrequently imítate the Grecks by making the vocative like the
nouúnative, e.g- Tereut. Pitar m. ii. 2. 1 0 .: O vir for lis atque amicus! Iíorat.
de A rt. Poat. 292.: vos, O Povipilíus sangvis! Carm. i. 2 . 4 3 .: almae Jilius
Majae. Ovid, Fast. iv. 731.: populus. In L iv y too it oecurs in some ancient
formula;, as viii. 9.: agedum poititjcx publicus populi R om .; and i. 2 4 ,: tu popu­
lan Á íb a m s; but there is no reasou for doubting the form popule, which
occurs in other passages.
[■j si-] Note 4. The genitive plural o f some words, especially those which
denote money, measure, and weight, is commonly um* instead o f oram, par-
ticularly mtmmum, sestei’tium, denarium, caduni, medimnum, modiwni, ju g entra,
taleritam. Nummum is commonly used iu this way iu connection with nume­
ráis ,■ wiiereas otherwise, when it merely denotes mouey in general, mmmorum

* W e do not write v.m, as is done in most edítions, for scveral reasons: 1)

because it is doubtful whether this form aróse from contraotiou ; 2) because,
according to the testimony o f the ancient graniiuarians, no final sylíable in m
with a vowel before it is long (which Tvould be implied in tbe circum flex),
whence no one would be able to distinguish by his ear such a genitive as
mimnnan from the accus. sing., as Quintilian, i. (i. ] attests; and -3) because
no aceenls are nsed in Latiu.

is tlie usual form, e. g. tantum numtnorum, acervi mtnimorum. There are

tome other words i ti which this is the usual form in certain combinations,
sucli as praefectus fabi'um, or socium, from fá b e r and socim ; bo also dumn-
virum, triumiúrmn, decemvirum. Liberi and deus have both forms, liberorum,
deorian, and liberum, deum. Poets indulge in still gveater licences, especially
witli mimes o f natíons ; they say, e. Argrmrm. I)avaum,Poeiium, &c., instead
o f Argivo)'um, Danaorum, Poenom m , and in L iv y we find Celtibenvm as well
as Celtiberorum. W e mjgkt point out several more isolated peculiaritíes o f
this khid, as ephontm in Corn. Nepos, A gesil. 4. Respecting the genitive
o f numeráis (cardinal, and especially distributive numeráis), see below,
Chap. X X I X . and X X X .
Noté S. Deus has three forms in tlie nom. and ablat, plur,, viz. dci, dii, and
di, and deis, diis, and di<¡. The forms in i are the most usual, and in reality
only one o f tliem, since dii and diis were pronounced as monosyllables
(Priscian, p.7 3 7 .), and are most frequently found thus sjjclledin the ancient

The following words may serve as exercises of declension: —

Annus, year; corvus, rayen ; hortus, garden ; lectus, b e d ; me­
dícus, physician ; morbits, illness ; nuntius, messenger : p>opidu$;
people ; rivus, brook; taurus, b u ll; ventas, wind. Neuters in
um :~A strum , star; bellum, war; colíum, neck; dolinm, cask ;
donum, present ; membrum, limb ; negotiam, business; ovuvi,
egg ; poculum, cup ; proelium, battle ; sepidcrum, scpulchre ;
signum, sign; tergum, back; vinculum, feUei’. Those in er,
genit. eri, have been mentioned above. The following are the
most common among those which reject the e before the r ; —
Ager, field ; aper, boar; arhiter, arbitraior; auster, south wind ;
cáncer, cáncer, or crab ; cohdter, snake; cidter, knife; faber,
workman ; líber, b ook ; magister, teachcr ; minister, servant.
To these must be added the proper ñames in cr, e. g. Alexander,
gen. Alexandri. The adjectives which reject the e are aeger>
ater, creber, glaber, macer, niger, piger, impiger, pidckcr, ruber,
sacer, scaber, sinister, tacter} vafer.



[ § 52.] 1. G r e e k words in os and neuters in op, which

make ov in the genitive, are eommonly Latinized in the nomi­
native by the terminations us and um, such as the common

nouns taurusy antrum, theatrum, and the proper ñames Homerus,

Pyrrhus, Corinthus, Other common nouns which are more
rarely used, admit of both terminations in the nominative, as
arctos and arctus, barbitos and barbitus, scorpios and scorpius;
and this is still more frcquently the case in propev liamos, so
tlmt, e. g., Paros, Delosi Isthmos, and Ilion are used along with
Paras, Delus, Isthmus and Ilium. GeneraJly speaking, how~
ever, the Greek forms belong more particularly to poets and the
later prose writers, Greek ñames in pos with a consonant before
ifc sometimes become Latinized by the termination er, and some-
times they change ooí into rus, and make their vocative in
e. The former takes place in. by lar the greater number of
cases, e. g. Alexander, Maeandcr, Teucer; the only instances
in which the termination rus is found are Codrus, Hcbrus,
Locrus, Petrus. In the eompounds of fiÉrpov and a few others,
both forms are used, as hexameter and hexámetros, thougli the
latter occurs more frequently. Words ending in os in the
nominative may make the accusative in on instead of um, as
Deion, Bosporon, Tarson. The nominative plural sometimes
ends in oe (the Greek diphthong at), as in canephoroe, Cicero, in
Verr. iv. 3. 8 .; doryphoroe, Curt. iii. 7. ; Locroe, Quintil, x. 1,
70. The genitive plural in on instead of orum occurs in the
titles of books, such as Bucolicon. Georgicon.
2. Greek proper ñames in ovs. conixacted from oos, are in
Latin either resolved into ous or end in üs, as Alchúms, Ari~
stonüs, Panthüs. The vocative of the latter form is u, as
Pantlm. The ablative Aristono occurs in Curtius; ix. 21,
3. Some Greek proper ñames in wí, which in Greek follow
the second Attic declension (as Athos> Ceas, Cos> Teas), in Latin
either follow the Greek declension, c. g. Athos, gen. and dat.
Atho, accus. AfJio or Athon; or they tafee the Latin form, as
Tipidareün for 'Tgndareos, and Cous (for Cos, Kws), Coo, Coum
ablat. Co, e. g. in Co Ínsula. Athos, however, is also declined
as a noun of the third declension with the nominative Athon or
Atho-— Athonem, Áthone.
4. Greek words in sví of the third Greek declension, such as
Orpheus, Idomeneus, Phalereus, Prometheus, were pronounced in
Latin sometimes eüs as one sylíable, and sometimes cus. The
best way is to malee them follow entirely the second Latin
declension, as Orphco, Orpkeum, with the exception of
& 4

the vocative, which (accordmg to the Greek third declension)

ends in m. The Greek terminations, gen. ¿os, dat. ei (con-
tracted ei), accus. e&*, are chiefly found in poetry; but the
accusative is frequent also with prose writers, though Cicero
(ad A tt vii. 3.) does not approve of it, as Phalerea, Pro-
methea, Tydea, The terminations ei, eo, ea are sometimes con-
tracted by poets into a diphthong, because the metre requires it.
(See above § 11.) Horace makes the genitive of Áchilles and
Ulixes— Ackilleí, Ulivei, or contracted Achilléi, Ulixñ, as though
the nominative still ended in euí'. The ñame Perseus is usually
formed by Cicero after the first declension: nom. Perses, gen.
and dat. Persae, acc. Per sen, abl. Per se and Persa. Livy pre-
ferred the second declension: Perseus, Perse'i, Perseo (rarely
Per si, according to the third, like the Greek Uspcret), but in the
accusative he has more frequently Po-sea than Perseum.



[§ 53.] 1 . N o u n s in us} er, and ir are masculine ; those in um

and the Greek nouns in on are neuter.
2. O f those in us however the following are feminine:
the ñames of plants and precious stones, as well as those o f
towns and islands, with a few exceptíons. (See above, § 39.)
It must be observed, that in many cases where the ñame of
a tree ends in us fem., there is a form in um denoting the fruit
o f the tree, e. g. cerasus, cerasum; malus, malum; morus, mo-
rum; pinis, pirum; prunus, prunum; pomus, pomum; but ficus
signifies both the tree and the fruit. There are only four other
genuino Latin words in us which are feminine, viz. alvus,
humus, vannus, and colus, which however ia sometimes de-
clined after the fourth declension, gen. üs. Pampinus, a
branch o f a vine, is rarely feminine, but eommonly mas-
culine. Virus (juiee or poison) and pelagus ( t o iréXayos, the

* In soma words al;o m , if the verse requires it, as Idomcnéa, llimiia : ¿ja
and iire lom e forms. autl the A ttic ea is not customary in Latin.

aea) are neuter. Vulgus (the people) is sometimes masculine,

but more frequently neuter.
[§ 54,] Note. W itli regard to the iiumerous Greek feminines in m (or os),
which h ave been adopted into tlie Latin language, such as the eompounds
o f t) üí5oj : exodus, methodus, periodus, and synodus, the student must be
referred to his Greek grammar, for the Latin dlífers in this respect from the
Greek. The words biblus, and papyrim (the Egyptian papyrus), byssus,
and carbasus (a fine flax and the linen made out o f it), are feminine, being
ñames o f planta; but they retain this gender also when they denote things
manufactured from tlicm. Pharus, being the ñame o f an island, is femi­
nine ; but it is also feminine in the sense o f a light-house, whieii meaning it
obtained from the fact o f the first light-house being built in that island neai
A lexa n dria ; it is however now and tlien used as a masculine (Sueton.
Clmjfl, 20.). Araius (o í), denoting a bear, is properly both mase, and fem. i
b ut as the ñame o f a constellation, it ís in Latín always íeminine. Barbitus
(a l3Te) or barbiíos, ís sometimes used as fem. and sometimes as mase., but
we also find Jioc barbiton.
W e must notice here especially a nnmber o f words which in Greek are
properly adjeetives, and are used as feminine substantives, because & sub­
stantive o f this gender is understood, Such words are : abyssua, aíomua, dia­
lectos, diphthongus, eremus, paragraphus, diametnis and períme/ríw, the two
last o f which however are used by Latin writers also with the Greek termi-
nation os. F or the substantives undeistood in these cases, see the Greek
grammar. A s different substantives may be understood, we have both
antiddtus and aniideímm, The word epüdus also belongs to this class, but its
gender varies according to its different meaniugs: when it denotes a lyrie
epilogue, it is feminine; when it denotes a shorter iambic verse after a longer
one, or when it is the ñame o f the peculiar species o f Horatian poetry, it ia


[§ 55.] Noijns of the thircl declension form theiv genitive

in is. The nominative lias a great variety of terminations, for
sometimes there is no particular ending, and the nominative
itself ia the crude form, such as it usually appears after the sepa-
rationof the termination of the genitive; frcquently however the
nominative has a special ending (,?). The former is, generally
speaking, the case with those words the crude form of which ends
in l or r , so that the nominative ends in the same consonants, and
the genitive is formed hy simply adding is; e. g. sol, cmuul, cal­
car., ofjijcr, auctor, dolor, murmur. Words like pater and imber, the
crude form of which appcars in the genitive and ends in r with a

consonant before it, as patr-is, imbr-is, admit of a double expla­

nación : either the nominative was increased for the purpose of
facilitating tbe pronunciation, or the genitive rejected the sliort
e ; the former however is the more probable supj>osition.
In some words the nominative has s instcad of r, as fios,
gen. Jlor-is; tellus, tellur-is; in addition to which the vowel
sometimes undergoes a change, as ín corpus, corpor-is; onus,
oner-is. When the crude form ends in n with a vowel before
it, the formation of the nominative is likewise accompanied by
changes: on throws off the n-, and m becomes en or is changed
into o. Thus leo is made from león ( leon-is), carmen from carmín
(carmin-is), and virgo from virgin (yirgin-is). Only when the
genitive ends in imis, the nominative retama cu} as in lien-is, lien.
2) The particular termination whieh the nominative receives in
other cases is e for neuters, as mar-is, mar-e, and s or x which
arises out of s, for masculines and feminines. This is some­
times added to the final consonant of the crude form without
any changa as in urb-is, urb-s; duc-is, dux (chica); leg-is, lex
(legs) ; when the crude form ends in d or í, these consonante
are dropped before the s; e. g. frond-is, fron s; mont-is, mons;
aetdt-is, actas; seget-is, seges; in addition to this the vowel i also
is sometimes changed into e, as in milít-is, milte; judw-is, judex.
In all these cases where the nominativo is formed by the addition
of an s to the final consonant of the crude form, the nominative
has one syllable less than the genitive, or in other words, the s
assumes an é or í before it, and then the nominative has the
same number of syllables a3 the genitive, 01* in case the nomi-
native assumes 'i, both cases are quite the same ; e. g. nub-es,
civ-is, pan-is.
These are the most essential poÍnt-3 in the formation of the
nominative in the third declension. W e sha11 now proceed to
the particnlars, laking the nominative, as is the usual practico,
as the case given, and we shall point out in what way the geni­
tive is formed from it,
[§ se.] 1. The nouns in a, wbicli are neuters of Greek origin,
make their genitive in atis, as poema, poemátis.
2. Tbosc in e change e into is, as mare, maris; Praeneste,
Praenestis, and probably also ca£pe, carpís, for which however
there is also the form cepa, ae.
3, The nouns in i and y are Greek neuters. Some of them

are indeclinable, as gummi, and otbers have the regular genitive

in ¿s. as sinapi, sinapis (there is however a second nominative in
ís, as in several other words ending in i, as haec sinapis) ; viisy,
misyis and misys or misyos. The eompounds o f meli (honey)
alone make their genitive according to the Greek In Uis, as
4. Those in o (common) add nis to form the genitive* some­
times only lengtheaiag the o, and someümes changing it into i.
O f the former kind are cario, latro, leo, ligo, pavo, praedo, sermo ;
and all those ending in io, as a,dio, dictio, pugio. O f the latter
kind, (genit. mis) are all abstract nouns in do, as consuetudo, ínis ;
moat nouns in yo, as imago, virgo, origo; and a few oÜicrs, as
cardo3 hirundo, turbo, homo, nemo. Caro has carnis. The ñames
of nations in o liave this vow el mostly short., as Macedones,
Senones, Sazones; it is long only in Iones, Lacones, Na&amdnes,
Suessónes, and Vellones.
5. The only nouns ending in c are alee or alhc, allex, gen.
allccis; and lac, gen. lactis.
6. Nouns ending in l form the genitive by merely adding 'is,
such as sol, sal, cónsul, púgil, animal. Mel has mellis, and in
plur. mella ; fe l has fellis} but is with out a plural.
7. Those in en (which are all neuters, with the exception of
pecten) make mis, as carmen, Jlamen: lumen, nomen. Those in
en retain the long e and have cnis: but there are only two
genuine Latin words of this kind, rén and lien; for Echen,
splcn, and attagen are of Greek origin.
Greek words in an, en. In, yn, and on follow tlie Greek
rules in regard to the length or shortness of the vowel and also
in regard to the insertion of a i : JPaean, Paeanis; Siren and
Troezen, énis; Pkitfípocmen, Philopoemenis ; Eleusin, Eleusinis ;
Phorcyn, Phorcynis; agón, aganis; canon, vanonis; Cimon,
Cimonis; Marathón, onis; Xenophon, .Xenophontis. It is,
however, to be observed that very few Greek words in av, on’os
(except ñames of towns), have in Latin the nominative on, but
generally o. Thus we always read Hiero. Paco, Plato, Zeno,
and in Cicero, also Dio and Solo: in\the poets, on the other
l'iand, and in Nepos and Curtius among the prose writers, we
find several nominatives in on, as Conon, Pión, Phocion, He-
pha.est.ion. Tlie mime Apollo is complete! y Latinized, and malíes
the genit. Apollínis. Those in coy, wvtos vary, and we find
' !.* ti

Antipho without the n, though most end in on, as Xenophon.

Those ín mv, ovos- and a¡v, ovtos, usuall y retain in Latin the
same nominative in on, but we always find Macado íind never
[§ C7.] 8. Those ending in r must be distinguished according
to the vowel which precedes i t : they may end in ar, er, yr, or,
Or ur.
a) Those in ar have sometimes (iris, as in calcar, lucar, pul-
vinar, torcular, and N a r; and sometimes dris, as baccar, jubar,
néctar, lar (plur. lares), par and its compounds (e. g. impar,
imparis), and the proper ñames Caesar, Hamilcar, and Arar.
But Lar or La.rs, the Etruscan title, has Lartis. Far makes
its genitive farris, and liepar, kepatis.
b 'j Many of the Latin words in er make eris, as agger, aggeris
mulier, muíiéris, &c.3 and the adjectives pauper-axiü uber. Other3
drop the short e, as, for instanee, all those ending in ter (e. g.
venter, uter, pater), with the exception of later, and the words
haber, September, October, November, December. Iter makes
its genit. (from a different nominat.) itineris. Juppitcr (Jüvi
pater) makes the genitive Jovis without the addition of patris.
Greek words in er follow the rales of the Greek language,
whence we say cráter, eris ; aer, aÜris, Ver (the spring), gen.
veris, originally belongcd to the same class.
c) iSTúuns ending in yr are Greek, and follow the rules of the
Greek grammar: martyr, martyris.
d) Those in or have dris. as amor, error, soror; but arbor,
the three neuters ador, aequor, marmor: and the adjectivc mentor,
have dris. Cor has coráis, and so also in the compoundcd
adjectives concors} discors} misericors. Greek proper ñames,
such as Héctor, Néstor, and others, have cris, as in Greek.
e) Those in ur have üris, e. g. fulgur, vultur, and the adject.
cicur. Für thief) alone has fü r is ; and the four neuters ébur,
fémur, jécur, and robur have oris, as eboris, roboris. Jécur has,
bebidos jccoris, also the forms jecinoris, jocinoris, and jocineris.
' [§ 58.] 9. Those ending in s are very num erousthey may
termínate in as, es, is, os, us, aus, or in s with a consonant pre­
ceding it.
a) Those in tas form their genitive in atis, as actas, aetatis:
but artas has analis ; mas has maris; vas (a surety), vadis;
vas (a vessel), v ñ s i s and as, assis. The Greek words vary ac-

corríing to their gender; tlie masculines mate antis, the feminine»

culis, and the neuters atw. (See the Greek grammar.) Conse-
qucntly Pallan, the ñame of a male being, has the genit. Pal-
lantis, like gigas, gigantis; as the ñame of the goddess Minerva,
Pallctdis ; and artocreas neut. has artocreátis.
b) Those ending in es must be divkled into two classes,
Those belonging to the first lacrease in the genitive, the
letters d or t, which were dropped in the nominative, being
restored to their place, and their termination is either itis,
etis, etis, or idis, Mis, édis. The genitive in Itis occurs in
most of them, as in antistes, comes, eques, hospes, miles, pedes,
saielles, caespes, fornes, yurgts, limes, merges, palmes, stipes, and
trames, together with the adjeetives ales, cacles, dives, sospes, and
superstes, in all of which the es is short. (See § 28.) The follow­
ing make their genitive in etis ; alies, aries, paries, interpres, seges,
teges, and the adjeetives bebes, indiges, praepes, and teres. The
genit. in etis occurs in the Greek words lebes, tapes, Cebes, Mag­
ues ; in the words quies, inquies, requies, and the adjective locu-
ples. Those which make Mis are obses, práeses, and the adject.
deses and reses. The genitive in..edis occurs in pés, pedís, and
its eompounds, e. g. the plural compedes. Her es and merces,
lastly, tnake their genitive in Mis. The following words must
be remembered separately: bes, bessis; Ceres, Cer 'cris; pubes
and impubes, pvberis and impuberis; but the forms impubis, genit.
impubis, neut. impube. are also found. The proper ñame Can-es,
(from the town of Caere), has Caeritis and Caeritis. The second
class of words-in es change the es of the nominative into is, without
increase, such as caedes, clades, fames, nubes, rujies; it must also
be observed, that several words belonging to this class vary in
the termination of the nominative between es and ís, so that
along with feles, vulpes, vehes, aedes, we also have vulpis, vehis,
aedis (see Liv. iv. 25.; Cic. in Vcrr. iv. 55.); and on the other
hand, we have torques and valles along with the more usual
forms torquis and vallis.
c) Most words in is form their genitive in is, without
any increasc, as avis, civis, pañis, piscis, and a great many
others, together with the adjeetives in is, e. Others in­
crease by one sylíable, aud make their genitive in ulis, itis or
eris: idis occurs in cassis, cuspis, lapis, and in the Greek words
aeffis and pyramis; itis occurs only in lis, Quirís and Sa.mnis,

plur. Quirites, Sam iñtes; and eris only in cinis} cueumis, and
pulvis, gen. pulveris, cucumtris, and cintris. Glis has gU ris;
pollis (the existence of which, in the nominative, cannot be
proved, so that some suppose pollen to have "been the noin.) and
sanguis have pollinis, sangumis ("but the compound exsanguis
remaíns in the genit. exsanguis); semis, being a compound of
as, makes semissis. Greek words which have the genit. in ¿os
or sus form their genit. in L atin in is, without increase; but. if
their genit. is idos, they increase in L atin and have Mis. O f
the foraier kind we have only the verbal substantives in sis, as
basis, matkésis, the ñames of towns eompounded with ttoKis,
e. g. Neapolis, and a few other proper ñames of the feminine
gender, such as Lachesis, Nemesia, Sgrtis, Chcnn/bdis. AJI
other proper and common nouns regularly make the genitive in
id is ; tigris alone has both forms, and ibis, ibidis , takes in the
plural the shorter form ibes. L ater authors use the genitive
i ti is, and the dative and ablative in i, instead of Idis, idi, ide, in
other cases also, such as Serapis, Tanais, for Serapidis, Tanaidis,
and in the dat. and ablat. Serapi and Tanai, for Serapidi, Sera-
pide, and Tanaidi, Tanaide. (See below, § 62.) Salamis stands
alone by making its genitive Salaminis (from a nominative
[§ 59.j cT) Those in os sometimes have oíis, as eos, dos, nepos,
saccrdos, and sometimes dris, like vs (the mouth), Jlos, glos, mos,
ros, and in like manner honos and lepas, the more common forms
for honor * and lepar. Cusios makes custddis ; os (bone), ossis ; bos,
bovis. The adjectives compos and impos have potü. The Greek
masculines heros, Minos, and Tros have oís, and some neuters
in os, such as Argos, epos, occur only in the nominative and
e) O f the words in us, the feminines in üs make their
genitive in ütis, as virtus, juventus, senectus; or üdis, as the three
words incus, palus , and subscus. Tellus alone has tellüris, and
Venus, Veneris. The neuters in üs have sometimos eris, viz.
foedus, fu m is, gemís, latus, munus, olus, onus, opus, pondus, se t h is ,
sidus, ulcus, vulnus; and sometimes oris, as corpus, decus, dedecus,
facinus, fenus, frigus, litus, nemus, pee tus, pecus, wliich in an-

•* Cicero uses throughout only honos (for Philip, ix. 6. must be cor-
recíed from the Vaticau M S.); and there is no doubt but that honor in the
fragm. Pro Tidlio, $ 21. ed. Peyron, must likewise be changed into honos.

other sense has pecüdis , pignus , stercus, tempus, and the noun
epicene lepas, íeporis, a haré. All monosyllables which have a
long u, form their genitive in üris, as cruz, ju s , pus, rus, tus,
and mus. Grus and sus have a is: gruis, su is; the adjective
vetus, veteris, and intercus, intercütis. Greek proper ñames
in üs have untis, as Ama thus, Selinus, Trapezus ; the eompounds
of irovs make podís, as tripus and Oedipus, which ñame, how­
ever, is sometimes made to follow the second declension, the us
being in that case shortened. Poli/pus always follows the
f ) Greek words in ys make the genitive gis, contracted
gs, or altogether in the Greek form gas. Some few, as cklamys,
have ydis.
g ) The only nouns ending in aes are aes, aeris, and pra.es,
h) There are only two words in aus, viz. la.us and fra u s , of
which the genitivos are laudis, frcmdis.
i) Among the nouns ending in s preceded by a consonant,
those in is (except puls), ns, and rs, ehíinge the s into tis, e. g.
fons, mons, pons, ars, pars, M a rs —foníis. p a rtís, &c. There
are only a few, so olí as fro n s (a brunch), glans, jaglans,
and some others, which make d is —fr o n d ís ; hut fro n s (the fore-
head) makes frontis. The other words in s with a consonant
before it, that is, those in bs, p s , and ms¡ form their genitive
in bis, pis, mis, e. g. vrbs, urbis ; plcbs, p lcb is; stirps, siirpis ;
hieras. Iibnis, whícli is the only word of this termination. Cae-
lebs has caclibis; the eompounds of capio ending in ceps have
ipis, as princeps, p articeps — principis, p a rtic ip is ; auceps alone
has aucüpis. The eompounds of caput, which likewise end in
ceps, such as anceps, praeccps , bíceps, tríceps , make their genitive
in cipitis, like caput, capitis. Greek words follow their own
rules: those in ops malee apis, as Pelops, epops, vierops: or opis,
as Cgclops, hgdrops. G rgps (a griffin) has gryphis , and Tirgns,
10. The termination t occurs only in caput and its eompounds,
gen. capztis.
[§ 60.] 11. The genitive of words in x varíes between cis
and gis, according as the x has arisen from es or gs, which
may be ascertained by the root of the word. The former
Í3 more common, and thus the following monosyllables with a

consonant before t.he x make their genit. in c is : arx, calx, J'alx,

lame, merx ; gis occurs only in the Greek words pltalanx, sphinx,
and syrinx .
B u t when the x is preceded by a vowel, it must be ascer-
tained whether this vowel remains unchanged, and whether it is
long or short. The L atin words in ax have deis, as pax, fornax,
and the adjectives, e. g. audax, efficax. Fax alone has a short
a , facis. Greek words too have mostly acis, as thorax, Ajax,
and only a few have acis, as corax, climax, while the ñames of
men in nax have nactis, such as Astyanax, Demonax. Word3
in ex gencrally make their genitive in tris, as judex, artifex,
supplex • but egis occurs in rex and lex, and egis in aguilex, grex,
L elex; ecis in nex. foenisex, and in precis (from prex which is
not u sed ); ecis in vervex, Myrmex. Remex has remigis ; senex,
senis ; and supcllcx, supellocñlis. The words Ín ix sometimes
.make their genitive in icis and sometimes in ícis, O f the former
kind are cervix, cicatrix, cornix, coturnix, lodix, perdix, phoenix,
radix, vibix , and all the words in trix denoting women, such as
nutrix, victrix, and the adjectives felix and pernix, and probably
also appendix; icis occurs in calix, clwenix, coxcndix, Jilix, fornix ,
fu lix , hystrix, larix, nairix, pix, salix, variz, and Cilix. N ix has
nlvis, and strix, strígü. The words ending in ox have deis, e. g.
vox, voris ; ferox, fe ro c is; but two words have Seis, viz. Cappadox
and the adjective praecox (the genit. is also w ritten praecoquis).
Nox has noctis; Allobrox, Allóbrogis. The following words in
nx form the genitive in ü cis: crux , dux, nux, and the adjective
trux ; the u is long only in two words, viz. lux and Pollux, genit.
lücis, Pollücis, Conjux (conjunx is established on better autho-
rities) has conjügis ; and f r u x (which, however, does not occur),
frü gis. The words in y x are Greek, and vary very much in the
formation of their genitive: it may be yeis {E ryx ), yris (bo?nbyx),
ygis ( Japyx , P hryx, Styx), y g h (coccyx), and ychis (onyx). There
is only one word ending in aex, viz. fa ex } gen. fa c c is ; and in aux
only fa u x , gen .fa u cis.



[§ 61.] A ll the remaining cases follow the genitive in regard to

the changes we have mentioned. I t should be remarked that
any other of the oblique cases might have been cliosen, instead
of the genitive, for the purpose of showing the changes in which
all particípate; but wc have followed the common practice.
I t now only remains to give a tabular view of the terminations.
S lN G U L A B . p L U B A I> .

Nom. — Nom. es, neut. a (some id).

Gen. z$. Gen. um (some ium).
D at. %. Dat, ibus.
Acc. em (neut. like nom.). Acc. like nom.
Voc, like nom. Voc. like nom.
Abl, e (some i). Abl. íbus.

Examples for exereise are contained in the preceding chapter;

but we subjoin the following words, either with or w ithout
adjeetives, as exercises in which the stildent may also apply
the rules contained in th e next chapters: Sol splendens (lucidus),
the shining s u n ; agger eminens (altus), a high m ole; pater
prudens (jprovidus), the prudent fa th e r; dolor levis (parvus),
slight p a in ; uxnr concors (Jifia), a faithful w ife; leo nobilis
(superbus), a noble lion ; virgo erubescens (púdica), the blushing
m aiden; urbs vetus (vetitstd), the ancient to w n ; lex acris (ás­
pero), a severe la w ; fron s tristis (severa), a grave forehead;
civitas immunis (libera), a fi-ee c ity ; cassis fulgens (splendida),
a brilliant helm et; judex ciernen s (benignus), a mild judge ; miles
fo rtis (strenuus), a brave soldier; avis cantrix (canora), a singing
bird; T upes praeceps (ardua), asteep rock; calcar acre (acutum),
a sharp spur; animal turpe (Jbedum), an ugly animal; carmen
dulce (gratum ), a sweet poem ; corpus tenue (macrum), a thin
body; ingerís (vastum) mare, the vast sea; sidus radians (au-
reum), the radiant star.

liem arks on the separata Cases.

1. Cicero commonly, and other anthors of the best age fre­
quently, make the genitive of Greek proper ñames ending in es,
i instead of is, Thus in the most accuratc and critical editions
we read Isocrati, T im ardiidi, Theophcmi, Aristoteli, Praxiteli,
and even H er cu li; i instead of is is found most frequently (even
in ordinary editions) in the ñames ending in cíes, as Agathocli,
D io d i , N eo d i, P ro d i, P e rid i, Themistodi, The genitive i is
used also in barbarían ñames in es, which were introduced
througli the Greek into the L atin language, such as A?'io-
barzani, M ühridati, llysta sp i, X erxi, and others. The genitives
A chilli and U lixi , which likewise frequently occur in Cicero,
probably aróse from the contrac tion of A d d lh l and JJlixei first
into A d a lid and U lixti, and then of ei into i. which had the
same sound. (See above, Chap. X I I . 4.) A fter the time of
Cicero, liowever, the genitive in is alone was used.
[§ 62.] 2. M any words in is make the accusative singular ira
instead of em, viz. —
a) A ll Greek nouns, proper as well as common, and such
as have passed through the Greek into the L atin, and form
the accusative in th at language in i v ; but those which have
in Greek both terminations lv and i,$a (i. e. the barytons in
ís-, gen. ¿eos) may in L atín also have the accusative in Ídem,

though it does not often occur.* The ordinary L atin accu­

sative of such words tlicrefore is : bastm, po'ésim, parapkrasim ,
Charybdim , Neapolim, Persepolim , Tanaim , and of those which
make their genitive in tSoí, idis, at least when they are proper
ñames, the aecusatives A gim , Memphim, Osirim, Parim , Pha-
larim, Serapim , Tigrim , Zeuxim, &c., are more frequent than,
e. g,, B.usiridem , Paridera. B u t in feminine derivatives from
ñames of places and in substantives (properly adjeetives) ín tis,
and especially itis, the accusative in idem is more frequent, e. g.
Limnatidem , Phthiotidem, arlhritidem, p le uriti.dem. The accusa­
tive in im for idem, therefore, does not prove that the genitive

* Those wliich iu Greek end in rV, gen. ¡eos (oxytona), liave in Greek
only Í<V, and in Latin only idam: e. g. aegis, pyram is, tyrannis, Thais, Bacchís ,
Lais, Chalcia, and especially the feminine patronímica find gentile ñames,
such HKAunéis, H eraelds, Thebais , Aeolis, D orü . Phocis.

ends in is instead of idis, or tlie ablative in i instead of ide,

although an ablative in i not seldom occurs in proper ñames
in is, which make their genitive in idis, e. g. Osiri, Phalari,
Tigri, instead of the regular Osiride, &c. L atin writers, how­
ever, and especially the poets, for metrical reasons, often use
the Greek form of the accusative in instead of im. (See Chap.
X V I.)
b) Many proper ñames (not Greek) of rivers and towns which
do not increase in the genitive, malee, according to the analogy
of the Greek, the accusative in im instead of em, e. g. Albim ,
Atlicsim, Baetim, Tiberim, Bilbilhn, Ilúpalim .
e) The following L atin common nouns: amussis, ravis, sitis ,
tussis, and vis. In the following the termination em is less
common tham im : febris, pelvis, puppis, restis, turris, and
especially securis. The words clavis, messis, navis, have corn-
monly clavem, messem, navem, but may have also im.
Note, An accusative in im now and then occurs in some otlier words,
as in bipennim from bipennis; burim from b u ris; ciicumim, a rare form for
ciicitmerem, from cuoumis; nepiim; and scmcnlhn, which is much less common
than sementam.

[§ 63.] 3. The dative and ablative singular seem origínally to

have had the same termination wliieh was either i or e, ju st as
those two cases ave alike in the second declension, and in tlie
plural of all declensions. A t a later time it became the general
rule to use i exclusively in the dative and e in the ablative; but
aere (from aes), for aeri, in Cicero (A d Fam. vii. 13.), and L ivy
(xxxi. 13.), and ju re forju r i in inscriptions and in L ivy (xlii. 28.)
seem to be remnants of early times. The termination i, however,
which properly belongs to the dative, is much more eommonly
used in the ablative instead of e, I t occurs—■
a) In all words which form their accusative in im instead of
em, with the exception of those Greek words which make the
genitive in idis . Thus we have poesi, Neapoli, Tibtri, some­
times also Osiri, Phalari, and among L atin common nouns not
only tussi and vi, but febri, igni, pelvi', pu ppi, turri, securi,
though the ablative in e is not entirely excluded in these Iatter
words. B u t restim has more eommonly reste, and navem more
usually nave than navi. Clave and clavi, and semente and se-
menii, are equally in use.

6) In neuters in e, al, and ar, e. g. ma.ri, vectigali, calcñri,

&c. ; but fa r , fa rris, and baccar, ju bar, he-par, néctar, and
sal, which have a sliort a in the genitive, form the ablativo in e.
Rete has both rete and retí, and rus ruri as well as rure, but
with some difierence in meaning. (See § 400,) The poets some-
tiines use the ablative mare, e. g. Ovid, Trist. v. 2, 20, Ñames
of towns in e (see § 39.) always make their ablative in c, as
Caere, Reate (at Caere, at Reate), Livy, xxvii. 23,; xxx. 2.;
and Pracneste (at Praeneste), in Cicero.
c) In adjectives and ñames of months ending in is, e, and in
er, is, c, for example, fa d U , celebri, cehri, A p rili , Septembri, and
Ín those substantives in is which are properly adjectives, e. g.
aequalis, affinis, annalis, bipennis, canalis, fam ü iaris, yentilis,
vio lar is, aatalis, popidaris, rioalis, sodalis, strigilis, vocalis, tri-
remis and quadriremis, and according to their analogy, per-
haps also contubernalis. B ut these words being used also as
substantives have more or less frequently the termination e,
and juvenis always makes juvene, aodilis eommonly aedile; in
affinis, fam iliar is, sodalis, 'and triremis, the ablative in e is a t­
tested by the authority of pro se writers, although i is gcnerally
preferred. W hen such adjectives as these becoine proper
ñames, they always have c, as Juvenale, M artiale, Laterense,
Note. The ablative in e from adjectives in is, and in er, is, e, is very
rare, though it is found in Ovid. ( H eroid. xvi. 277. ; Metam. xv. 743,:
melaste. H eroid. viii. 64.; Fusi. iii. 654.: perenne. Past. -vi. 1.58.: porca
bimestre.'} The ablative in i iusi-cad of e, on the other h:md, is used "by good
writers in several substantives in is, besides those mentioned above, e. g, in
amnis, avia , ciéis, classis, fustis, ignis, orbis, nnguis, and sometimes in m -
peltcx, mpallectili. Of substantives in cr, imber has more frequently imbri
than imíyre ; venp¿r has both veapare and vesperi ; but tlw latter, especiully
in the sense of “ in the cvening,” as opposed to mane, in the morninír.
Cicero and. Livy often use the ¡iblatives Carthagini , Aur-iui, Tiburi , to
denote the place wbere (see the commentat. on Liv, xxviii. 2G.) : and in
the prefaee of Curn, Nepos we find Lacedaemoni. But the common pructice
of the ancient writers does not allow us to extern! this sysíem, or to tuake
it the rule for all ñames of towns which. follow the thiril declension ; it must
rather be supposed that, though the ancient language was so unccrtain
between e and i , that we iiud in Plautus caiiii, p a rtí , sermoni, along with
carne, &c., the forms became more decidedly separated Ín tlic coursc of
time, and only a few isolated remnants and particular phrases reinaiued
in use with the classio authors. (Cotnp. § 398. in fin.) Thus we Lave tcnwori
“ in times." (See § 475.).

[§ 64,] 4. The ablative singular in i or e indiscriminately

oecurs, generally speaking, in adjeetives of one termination
and in the comparative3 as prudeiis, prudente and p r u d a d i;
elegans, elegante and eleganti; vetus, miera and velen.; locuples,
laevplete and locupleti; dives, divite and d iv iti ; degener, degenere
and degener i ; felix, felice and fe lic i; Arpiñas , Arpíñate and
A rp in a ti; majar, majare íynd majori. B ut it is also a general
rule, that words in ans and ens, when used as substantives,
e. g. infam and sapiens (except continens), and when they are
actual participios, especially in the constmction of the ablative
absolute, always prefer e ; e. g. Tarquinio reguarde, when
Ta.rqninius was king; but when they are adjeetives, they prefer
i to e.
Note 1. It should however be observed, that there is no rule so full of
exeeptions as this, for on the one hand the adjeetives themselves vary
their terminations acüording to euphony or the raquiroment of a verse, and
on the other, the writers (and the editions of their works) widcly diÜer from
one another.. In Horace, for example, we find the participios in ans and ens
when used as adjeetives, almost invariably forming the ablative in e (see
JBentley on Carm. i. 2-5. 17.), whereas the same words are generally foand
with i in Cicero. On the whole, Lowevcr, it will always be safest to
make the ablative of adjeetives oí'one termination in i; for the e cxclusively
occurs only in ptntpcr, aeucx and pi'incaps, and in the majority of those in es,
Viz. kospes, siispes, deses, pubes , Í7npvbcs and mperstes. The í, 011 the other
hand, is cevtain in the following words mentioned by the ancient gram-
niitrians : mamar, immemor, and p a r with its eompounds (in p a r a]so -relien
used as a substantive), and also in most íidjectives in x, as trnx, atrox, audaz,
pertinaz and p e rv ic a x ; especially in those in plex : simplex, dúplex , triplex,
multiplex: further in aneeps and prae.eeps, inops, iners and hebes, concors,
discors, iiigcns, recens and repens. It must further be observen, tliat praesens,
when used of things, mates the ablative in í, aud when used of persons, in e,
as is coufirmedby the phrase inpraesenti (scíl. tempare), which is of frequent
accurrence. Comparativas are foimd in Cicero nnd Livy more frequently
with c than wit.Ii i, but the latter a.fterwn.t'ds became more general.
Note 2. The following substantives, which are properly adjeetives,
artifax, consors, miti'ix, vigil, victrix, and ultrix , have as substantives the
termination e, but as adjeetives of the feminine or neuter gender they
prefer the ablative in i. Proper ñames also, when they are in reality ad­
jeetives, have only e, as Felix, Ciernens— Felice, Clemente.

[§ 65.] 5. The nominative, accusative, and vocative plural of

neuters end in a ; but neuters in e, al, and or, which also form
tlie ablative singular in i, and all participles and adjeetives which
make the ablative singular either in i alone, or vary between e

and i, liave ia instead of a, except the adjective vetas and all

comparativos; c. g . maria, vectigalia, calcaría , p a ria , fa c ilia ,
sapientia, ingentia, victricia; amantia, sedentia, au du n tia ; but
majora, doctiora, &c.
Note. The neuter f a r however litis f a r r a ; jubctr, Jiepar, anrl néctar have
no plural; and sal has no neuter plural, but only sales wiíh masculine
Those adjectives \vliich make the ablat. sing. 111 e exclusively, should for
this reason make their plural only in « ; but with the exception of hospita
(if it be really derived from hospes, and not from 1lospitus), 110 neuter plural
of them is found, although some grammarians uiention paupera and libera.
It must be remarked in general, that the neuter plural occurs in adjec­
tives of one termination in as, ans, ens, rs, and x, and besides these only in
p ar, habes, fcres, locuples, quadrupos, versicolor, anceps, and prncceps , and
that in all these cases it ends in ia. Thus there remains only veiu-s, vetera ,
al though the ablative sing. is i>etero or vetar i. lío authority has yet been
adduced for Incorpora and incorpora.
Pluvia L= satd to make an exception among the comparatives, but it is
only an obsolete form, and is not found in ancient writers, who invariably
have plura. Comphtres, 011 the other liand, which has lost its signification
of a comparativo in the ordinai’y language (it signiñes several or some), makes
both compluria and complnra.

[§ 66.] 6. The following words make their genitive plural

in ivm instead of um :
a) All neuters which have ia in the nominative plural, that
is, those in e, al, and ar, and all par ti ei pies and adjectives
which follow the third declension. Comparatives therefore
(with the exception of plurium and complurium) and those ad­
jectives which have only &in the ablativo singular, retain the
termination um in the genit. piar., as paupermn, superstitum.
To these we must add the adjectives caelebs, celer, cicur, compos,
impos, dives, memor, immemor, supplex, uber, vetiis, and vigil;
all compounds of f a d o and capto, and of such substantives as
make the genitive plur. in um, e. g. degenerum, bicorporum,
indpum, quadrupMum, versicolorum, and pcrliaps also ancipitum
and tricipitum. The poets sometimes form the genitive plural
of adjectives, especially of participios in ns, by a syncope, in
u m instead of iu m ; and later prose wiiters, such as Seneca
and Tacitus, sometimes follow their example, and use, e. g.,
potentum, dolentum, sahitantum.
b) W ords in es and is, which do not increase ín the genitive
singular (c. g. nubes, nubium; civis, civium; but militum and
lapidum from miles and lapis, gen. vúlitis, lapidis) ; the follow-

ing words in er: imber, linter, venter, uter, and the word caro,
camium . Vates, strues, the plural ambages, and generally also
secles, together with apis, canis, juvenis, and volucris, form excep-
tions, and make their genitive plur. in um. Pañis is uncertain.
(Itespecting men&is see my noto 011 Cic. in Verr, ii. 7 4 .;
Schneider on Caes. Bell. GalL i. 5.)
c) M any monosyllabic substantives, and without exception
those ending in s and x preceded by a consonant, make ium, as
montium, dentium, arcium , mercium, from inons, dens, arx , merx.
L yn x however has lyncum; spldnx, sphingum; and opes, from ops,
has opum. Grgplmm also is probably the genit. plur. of gryps.
B u t the greater num bcr of monosyllabic words ending in a
and x preceded by a vowel make their genitive plur. in um,
and not in ium. The latter occurs only in as, assium; glis,
glirim n; lis, litium; mas, marium ; os, ossium; vis, virium; and
generally also in fra u s, fraudium , and mus, murium. To these
we must add fa u x (which, however, is not used in the nomi­
native singular), faucimn.; nix, nivium; strix, strigium ; and nox,

Note. The genitive plural in um thurefore is used in aes, eras,

dos, flos, grus, ju¡¡, laus, mos, pes ivitli its comjiounds (except compedes, of
y/11ir*I. (lie form compedhim is iveli aUeíted), pnacs, sus, Gres, Tros, dux^fax,
frux and prex (which occur only in the plur.), grex, lex, nux, rex, nox,
Fhryx and Thrax. Fur and ren have furum, renura; to-, too, lias more
frequently larum tlian larium. Of those words, TfOiícIi ! ave not been noticed
here, a genitive cannot he proved to ex ist; but it is probable that the genit.
plnr, of vas ( vadis) was vadium, and in like manner cor, par, and sal proba­
bly had cordium, parinm, salimn, in order to avoid the ambiguity which would
nnse from vadum., cordum, parum, salum. Cordium oecurs in the Vulgate,
Jerem. iv, 4.

d) Substantives of two or more syllables ending m ns and

rs have ium and um, though the latter occurs more ra re ly ; e. g.
cliens, cohors, Picens, Vejens, Camers; and in like manner those
which, like adohscens, infans, p a r ens, sapiens, serpens, are properly
participles, and admit um only because they are substantives
(whence we frequently find parentum from párenles ), commonly
make their genitive in ium: adolescentium , sapimtium, &c. The
ñames of people in as, ütis, such,as Arpiñas, Fidenas, form their
genitive almost exclusivcly in ium : Arpinatm m , Fidenaíium.
Penates and óptima tes, which usually occur only in the plural,
i¿ 4

follow their analogy. Otlier substantives in as generally have

um,: e. g. aetatum , civitatum ; but ium. also is correct, and Livy,
for example, always uses civitatium. The genit, plur. ium in
words with other terminations, if it should occur, must be
regarded as an exception. Quiris and Sanmis, however, con-
trary to the rule, generally make Quiritium, Samnitinm.
[§ 67.] 1. Ñames of fe st ivals in alia which are used only in
the plural, as Bacchanalia, Com.pita.lia, Saturnalia , SponsaUa,
make their genitive plui'al in ium or orum, as Bacchanalium
or Bacchanaliorum. A nd Horace ( CJarm. iii. 5. 10.), on this
principie, makes anciliorum from ancile, plur. a n cilia: and
Suetonius. in several passages, has vectigaliorum instead of
8. W ith regard to the dative and ablative plural, it is to be
remarked, that the Greek words in vía prefer the termination is
of the second declension to ¿bus, Thus Cicero and other authors
use poematis, epigrammatis , emblematis, hypomnematis, peripetas-
matis, peristróviatis, toreum atis; but ibus occurs now and then,
as diplomatibus, in Tacitus and Suetonius ; po'ématibus iu the
Khetor. ar], Ilerenn. iv. 2.; and in Hueton., T il. 3. ; strategema~
tibies in Frontinas, Strateg ., Prref. lib. iv. '
[§ (58.] 9. Tlie accusative plural of words which make the
genitivo plur, in ium ended, in the best age of the L atin
language, iu íí, which was also w ritten eis, but not pronounced
so : e. g. artis, montis, civis , ornáis, similis, mediocris. B u t the
termination es was also in use, and in the course of time bccame
so prevalent th at is was preserved only in a few esceptions, such
as tris.
Note. Friscian, towards the end of hia seventh book, discusses the aoeu-
sative plur. in is instead of es, more miiiutely than any otíier ancient writer.
Ainong modsrn works aee espeeially Norisius, in his Latinitas et Orthogra-
pMa virivsque Pisanae TabukiÉ, which is reprinted in Cellarius, Orthogruphia
Latvia, vol, ii. p. 233. foll. ed. Harles. There is no doubt, that xmtil the
timo of Augustas, those words which form their genitive plural in ium
(to which must be added celer, as in all otlier respecta it follows the
analogy of the adjectives in er, is, e, although it makes the genit. plur,
celcnan.), liad in the accusative plural more eommonly the termination is
than e s ; but it must be borue in rnind, that es was at the same time in use
with is. Thus we find even in the Columna Rostrata of Duihus, clases, that
is, claises, together with ciaseis ; and in the anHent florentina MS. of Virgil
we find urbes, ignes, omnes, sonantes, Jinos, as well as urlns, ignis, &c., although
es, on the vitóle, is not so frequent as is. (Comp. Gellius, xiii. 20.) In the
newly díscovered fragmente of Cicero, it is true, we generally find ¡s in words

of this kind, but there are instances also of es being' used in the same words.
The ancient gramroarians in vain attempted to fix the varying practice by rules
and exeeptions. Pliny (ap. Charisium, p. 104. ed. Putsch.) denied the accu­
sative funis, and Tarro ( ibid .) the aceusativesfa la s , mcrcis, u m , Hntris, venina,
siirpis , carbis, vectis, neptis, and even urbis , and in his work D e Ling. L at. (viii,
67. ed, Miiller), he asserts that gentis alone was used, and, on the other haiid,
that mentes and dm tes were the only correct forms. Valerius Probus (seo
Orthograpk. Nuris, p. 24‘2.) gives us to underatand that the words in es, genit.
is. did not form the accusative in ís, although they have ium in the genitive
plural. Thus much is olear, that the termination is gradually became anti-
quated, and that the desire of scholars to have an outward distinction of the
accusative from the nominative, gave way to the geueral practice. Charisius
(p.1’22. ed.Putsch.) says: consuetvdo traduxit ad nommatiui et accusativiformam.
And this probably took place about the end of the A l l gustan age ; for in the
ancient MS. eoutniniug the fragmeut of the ninety-iirst book of Livy, we
110 longer find the accus, in i s ; and in the hest MSS. of the complete took6,
it oecurs only iu a few isolated passages, and Quintilian does not mention
this disputad point at all. Afterwards is was still sometimes used by Tacitas
and Gellius; but with Tacitas this aróse from his desire to revive the ancient
power and energy of the language, and with Gellius from his antiquariun
studies. This is not the place to inquire in what manner an editor of ancient
authors has to act in the face of this obvious inconsistency of the writers
themselves ; there are few who faithfully follow the authority of the M S S ,;
others, such as Bentley in his Terence and Ilorace, every where restore the
accus. in is (why Bentley, without inconsistency, edited arces and ratcs in
Iiorace, has not yet been esamined),; and most of them. pay as little atten-
tion to the. difference in doubtful cases, as to the ancient orthography in
general, but mcrely follow the vulgar tradition. W e have noticed here
the difference of opiuions to caution the Student, that in reading the ancients
he may not confouud the short is of the genit. sing. with the long ís of the
accus. plur,
[§ 69.] 10. Juppiter (which was much more common than
Júpiter') is declined as follows : genit. Jovis, dat. Joiñ, accus.
Jovem, voc. Juppiter , abl. Jovc. In the plural Joves only is
Sos, bovis, makes the nominat. and accus. plur. boves, gen.
boum, dat. and ablat. bübus, and less frequently bobus. Sus
makes the dat. and ablat. plur. subus, which is a contraction of
the less frequent form suibus.

C H A P . X Y I.


[§ 70.] A g -r e a t number of Greek words, especially proper

ñames, belong to the third declension; and as their genitive ter-
mhiates in os- (£<w.v, ov<?). they follow the third declension in their
own language also. Among the terminations of the nominative
mentioned abovej some belong exclusively to Greek words, viz.
ma, i, y , an, m, on, yn, ér, y r, y s , cus, yx, inx. ynx, and the plurals
in e ; but there are also Greek words with other terminations,
most of which, however, are quite treated as L atin words, for
wliich reason the termination on is generally Latinized into o
(see aliove, § 56.), and the Greek forms are used by L atín
writers, especially the poets, only in some cases.
1. In the genitive singular, the poets frequently use the
Greek termination os instead of the L atín is. especially in words
in is which usually make their genitive idis. whether simple
or derivative (see § 245.), e. g, Daphnidos , Phasidoa, Atlantidos,
JErymanthidos, N ereidos; so also in nouns in as and ys, as
Pallados, Tethyos ; and in m s, as Péleos, Theseos (Ovid, Metam.
viíi. 268.), although the L atin termination éi or contraeted ei
(according to the second declension), as in Thesei, Terei, is more
commonly used. (See above, Chap. X I I . 4.)
B u t in prose the Greek termination of the genitive is seldom
used. Substantives in is derived from verbs in .particular^
such as basis, ellipsis, mathesis, poesis, make their genitive like
the nominative, and not báseos, matheseos, &c., which forms ave
found only in unolassio writers. (See Viíruv. x. 15.; Spartian.
Ael. Verus, 3.; Sever. 3.) In the few words in y the genit. in
yos is used for the sake of euphony, e. g. misyos. P a n . the
shepherds’ god, admits the Greek genit. Panos in prose, to
distinguish the word from pañis , bread.
The femmines in o, however, such as echo, Calypso , D ido,
lo, Sappho, have usually the Greek genitive in ús, as echus,
Didus, Sapphus, tlic L atin termination onis being less common.
Their dative, accusative, and ablative end in o, and the L atin
terminations oni, oncm, one, are but rarely used.

[§ 71.] 2. The Greek accusative of the third declension in a is

very often used by the L atin poets instead of em. Thus Hornee
uses only lieroa, Cydopct, Memnona, Agamemnona, Helicona ,
Chremeta, and not Cyclopem, Agamemnonem, &c- Among the
prose writers Cicero most studiously avoids the- Greek ter­
mination, except in aer, aether, and Pan. of which he makes the
accusative aera, aethera. and P ana (for the reason mentioned
above). In all otlier instances the Greek accusative in a must
be looked upon, in Cicero, as an exception. I t occurs much
more frequently in IsTepoa, Livy, Curtius, and the authors of
wliat is called the Silver Age, though jjrincipally in proper
ñames and along with tlie common L atin term ination em, e. g.
fía h /h n a , Eleusina, Lacedaemona, Marathona, Parmeniona,
Sidona , Timoleonta, Troezena, also Periclea. 8 trato dea, and
similar ñames ending in the nominative in des. In like manner
words in is and y s admit even in prose the Greek forms in and
yn together w ith the L atin im and ym¡ but Cicero uses them
only by way of exception; Livy and C urtius have them more
frequently, e. g. Nabin, Agin, Iía ly n , Tigrin. The accus.
E le us in. instead of Eleusinem (a), must be traced to the form
Eleusis, gen. is, which, however, is not well attested. F o r the
accusative of words in cus, which later writers usually make ea,
as Persea, Demetrium Pkalcrea, see above, Chap. X I I . 4.
Proper ñames in es, which in G reek follow the first declension
(gen. uv). and in L atin the third (gen. is) (see Chap. IX . 3.), have
in the accusative the termination en along with that in em, e. g.
Aesdúnen, Achillen, and Ulixen (inasmnch as these ñames are not
formed from 'A^tXXEvs and 'Gávcrosv?, but from the less common
’Á^¿íXXr¡? and 'Oóúaaijs, ov), and espeeially barbarían ñames,
such as M ithridaten, Phraaten, Xerxen , Arcixen, Euphraten.
The termination m for em is moreover found in those com­
pounds which in Greek follow the third declension, bu t in the
accusative admit of r¡v and r¡ (contracted from sa ) ; but en is
used much less frequently. Instances of this kind are Sopkoden
in Cic. D e Off. i. 40., Hippocraien and Epicyden in Livy.
Some words are in Greek declined in two ways, either after
the first or after the third declension, such as ©aA-íjj-, lípép^s,
gen. ov and tjro s; in L atin they may liavc the shorter form and
yet follow the third declension (e. g. the ablat. Tkale), and in

the accusative they admit also of tlie termination en, e. g. C'hre

metem and Chremen, Thalem or Thaletem and Thalen.
[§ 72.] 3. The vocative singular is in most Greek words like
the nom inative; b u t those ending in s form a distinct vocative
by rejeeting th at consonant, both in Greek and Latin. Thns
the vocative of words in is, y s , cu s; D aphni , P hylli , That,
Coty, Tiphy, Orpheu, Perseu. W ords in is, idis, however, make
the vocative ju st as often like the nominative, as Bacclús, M ysis,
Thais. Nouns in as. antis, make their vocative in Greek av and
á, b u t the latter only is used in L atin, e. g. A tla, Calcha.
Proper ñames in es, gen. is, have the vocative of the first de­
clension in e together with the regular one. This is the case with
those which in Greek follow the first declension (e. g. Cameade ,
Simonide and Achillv, see abo ve), and with those which although
they follow the third in all other respecta, yet admit of the
accusative ín r¡v. Thus we sometimes find Damocle, Pericia ,
Sophocle, Socrate.
[§ 73.] 4. The plural of tho3e Greek proper ñames which by
the forms of their accusative and vocative sing. show their ten-
den cy to follow the first declension, is sometimes formed after
that declension, Thus we find in Cicero, D e Orat. ii. 23., the
nom. N aucratae; and Orat. 9., the accus. Thucydidas.
5. The Greek term ination of the nominat. plur. es, instead of
the L atin es, is not uncomnion in poetry, e. g. Arcades, At~
lantidcs, Erinnyes ; but the metre must decide. The termination
¿í, L atin is, occurs even in the nominative of the ñames of
towns Trallis and Sardis, though principally in -the latter.
Horace, E pist, i. 11. 2., says: Croesi regia Sardis.
In the nominative plural the neuters in os have the Greek
termination e, as cete, niele, and the plural Tempe , ra Te/xttí?.
JYote. No other cases are formed from these neuters in or;, and iu the F i n -
guiar too they ocnir only in the nom. and accns., and we must therefore use
the Latin forms cetus and melum (according to the second declension). So
also chaos, gen. chai, abl. chao. See § S7.
6. In the genitive plural only a few words retain the Greek
termination on (cov), and that generally only in tit-Ies of books,
e. g. metamorphoseon, epigrammaton.
Note. Curtías, iv. 50. (13.) makes tbe genitive Malean, from or
MíiXitír (sing. Mrt/\«vs), entirely in the Greek íasliion, for the Latin ñame is

7. In the dative plural the Greek termination si or sin is

used veiy rarely, and only by poets, Ovid, e. g,, lias Lemniasi
and Troasin, from Lemniades and Trocidas. In prose writers
there are very few exatnples that can be relied upon, such as
ethesi from t a r¡$r),
[§ ?4-] 8, The accusative plural in as is admissible in all
words which have this termination in Greek. I t is however
seldom used in prose, tliough in common nouns it occurs more
frequently than the accusat. sing in ¿í, e. g. harpagonas, pita-
langas, pi/ramidas, and cven in Cicero we find aspidas, can-
tharidas. H e also uses the proper ñames AetMopas, Arcadas,
and Cy clo-pas, and Livy always has the accusat. Macedonas. I t
is surprising to find, that the same term ination is now and then
given also to barbarían ñames of nations, e. g. Allobroyas in
Cícsar, and Lingonas, Neníelas, Ordovicas, Eri.ga.ntas, Siluras
and Vangionas in Tacitus,

C H A P . X V II.



[§ 75.] M a s c u l i n e are those which end in o, or, os, and er,

and those in es which increase in the genitive, especially those
in es, ítis, e. g. sermo, error, sudor, fio s , mos, venter, slipes.
Exceptions in o. W ords ending in do, go and io are feminine,
e. g. consuetudo, formulo, grando , imago, oratio , dictio , helio,
auditio, communio, &c., also caro and the Greek words echo and
Argo (the ship of the Argonauts). The following, however, are
masculine: in do, the words cardo and ordo, together with udo
and cudo or cudon ; in g o : ligo, margo , and karpago ; and all
words in io, which are not abstrae! nouns derived from verbs
and adjectives, but common ñames of tbings, such as pugio (a
dagger), scipio (astaff), seplentrio (northpole), titio (a fire-brand) ;
several ñames of animals, as curculio*, papilio, scorpio, stellio,
vespertilio, and a few others of rare occurrence; and lastly those
formed from numeráis, such as unió, hinio or duplio, temió , qua-
* Also spelletl gnrgiilio; it is masculine in its two sígnifications of “ aír-
pipc,” nnd “ wood worm.”

temió, quinio, senio, &c, Unto in the sen se of a particular pearl

(:margarita ) ia likewise m asculine; but when it signifies unity
(imitas), and is usecl in an abstract sense^ it is fem inine; but it
is only iu ecclesiastical writers that it has this meaning-.
Nole. Cupido, desire, therefore is feminine, lint masculine wljen it is the
ñame of the god of Love. Poets, however, sometimes use it as a masculine,
even in the former signification, and Ilorace does so always, asprams cupido,
falsus cupido. Afargo may have either gender, lint the masculine is more
frequent, aa was reniü.rked ahoye.

[§ re.] Exeeptions in or. The following words in or, oris, are

n e u te r: ador, aequor, marmor, and cor, coráis. Arbor is feminine
according to the general rule. (See § 39.)
Exeeptions in os. Cos, dos, and the Greek eos are feminine.
Os, ossis, and os, oris, and the Greek words chaos, ethos, epos,
melos, are neuter.
Exeeptions in er. A great many words in er are neuter, viz.
cadaver, iter, spinther, tüber (a hrnnp), uber, ver, and verber
(rarely used in the singular, but 'very frequently in the plural,
verbera), and all the ñames of plants in e r : acer, cicer, láser,
papaver, piper, siler, siser, súber and zingi.be?'. Tüber (a kind of
peach-trce) is fem inine; but when it denotes the fruit, it is mas-
culi nc. L inter is commonly used as a feminine. bu t is well
attested also as a masculine.
Exeeptions in es increasing in the genitivo. The following
are fem inine: merges, Itis; seges and teges, etis; merees, é d is;
quies, etis, witli its eompounds inquies and requies. Compes,
which, however, does not occur in the nominative sing,, but
only in the plural compedes, is feminine. Aes, aeris, is neuter;
ales and quadrupes are properly adjeetives, but as substantives
they are mostly used as feminines.

C H A P . X V I II.



[§ 77.] F e m i n i n e are those which end in as, is, ys, aus, and x,
those in es which do not increase ín the genitive, and those in

s preceded by a consonant, e. g. auctoritas, navis, chlamys, latís

and fra u s, pax, radix, arx, nubes, pars, mors, hiems.
Exeeptions in as. The following are masculine : — as, gen,
assis, and its eompounds, though they have different terminations,
as quadrans, a fourth of an a s ; bes, two-tliirds of an as : deeussis,
ten ases * ; and the Greek words which make their genitive in
antis , as adamas, elephas, and the ñames of mountains : Acragas,
A tlas, Mimas. M as, maris, and vas, vadis, are, of course, mas­
culine. . The following are n eu ters: Greek words in as, which
make their genitive aíis, as artocreas, erisipelas (see § 58.), and
the L atin words vas, vasis, and f a s and nefas, which, however,
óccur only in the nom. and accus.
Exeeptions in is, The following are masculino:— 1) Those in
is, gen. (Iris, as cinis, eueumis, pulvis and vomis (commonly vomer) ;
2) The following which increase in the g enitive: glis, ¿apis,
pollis, and sanguis ; 3) The following which do not increase:
amnis, axis¡ m ilis, canalis, cassis (used especially in the plural
casses, a him ter’s net, and not to be confounded with cassis, idis,
a helmet) ; caulis or calis, collis, criáis, casis, fa séis (generally in
the plural, fasces )3fin ís, follis, fu nis, fu stis, ignis, mensis, orbis,
pañis, piséis, postis, scrobis, sentís, torquis, torris, unguis, vedis,
vermis. Some of these words, however, are used by good
authors also as feminines, though not uft.cn, especially cal lis,
canalis, scrobis, torquis, and finís, cinis, in the singular, whereas
the plural fines in the sense of boundary or territory, and ciñeres
in the sense of the ashes of a corpse, are always masculine.
A s mensis is masculine, A prilis, Qiántilis, and Sextilis have the
same gender. Some substantives in is are properly adjeetives,
and a substantive masculine being always understood, they are
themselves used as masen linos: e. g. annalis, commonly in the
plural anuales (lihri), annals; jugóles ( equi), two horses yoked
together; molaris (lapis), a millstone, or if dens is understood,
a back-tooth or g rin d er; natalis (die-s). birth-day; pugülares
(libelli) a tablct for writing.
Note. Anguis and tigris may liave eitlier gender; canis is generally
maseul., but wlien it denotes a dog used in limiting, it is very ofteu feminine.
(See § 42.) Aqvalis, callis, corbis, and chmis, plur. dunes, are used by good
writers as words of eitlier gender. Belphis is masculine, but the more

* See the Appenrlix on T¡nui;m weiglitís coins, and mensures.


common forms are delphiuus, or tklphin. Cosáis Las not been mentioned
above, because the only autbority we have for it is ti doubtful passage in
Pliny, H ist. Nat. xxx, 39,, and ccmsíís, ¿ is more probable,
Ttiat the ñames of rivera in is are masculine follows í’rom the general
rule (§ 3 7 .); tlius we read horridus Albis, Jlavus Tiberis, rapiñus T igris.
Names of mountains with this termination are not immeroits: Lucretilis, a
bilí in Latium, is masculine, for IIoru.ce says, amocmis Lucretilis. Tbe
Greek ñames, Carambis, a promontory on tlie Asialic eoast of tbe Black
Sea, and P dorís in Sieily, are feminine, tbe word cLyja being undcrstood.
All the masculines iu is, wbate ver may be tbeir genitive, are contained
in tbe following hexameter Unes :
Mascula sunt pañis, piscis , crinis, cinis, ignis,
Funis, g lis , vectis, follis, fascis, lupia, amnis,
Sic fiistis, postis, ser,riis, axis, vermis et ungías,
E t penis, collis, cctllis, sic sanguis et cusís,
M ugilis et mcnsis, pollis, cum caule can a lis,
E t vomis, sentís, puláis, finís, cucumis^tm,
Anguis , item torqids, torris, cum cassibus orbis.

Exceptions in ys. Ñames of rivers and mountains with this

termination are masculine, according to the rules laid down in
Chap. V I.; e. g. H alys, Othrys.
[§ 78.] Exceptions in x, The following are masculine : 1)
The Grreek words in ax; as anthrax , cordax, thorax. 2) The
majority of those in ex: apex, caudex, codex, cimex, corte.v, culex,
fru tex, yrex, irpex, látex, murex, obex, podex , pollex, pulex, pumex,
ramex, sílex, sorex, ulex. vertex or vortex. 3) Some in ix : viz.
c a lía fo r n ix , phoenix, sorix; and generally also varix. 4) One
word in ux: viz. tradux , properly an adjective, palmes being
understood. 5) The following Grreek words in y x : culyx,
' coccyx, onyx, oryx and bombyx (in the sense of silkworm ; it is
femin. when it signifies silk) : and the ñames of mountains, such
as E ryx . 6) The subdivisions of an as which end in unx: as
quincunx, septunx, deunx. (See Appendix I I I .)
Note. Many words in ex eommonly enumerated in these lists are mas-
line from tbeir signification, such as rcx, pnnúfe.x, carnifsx , foenisex, w rvex.
Some words vary between tbe masculina and feminine genders, as corte.v,
obex, pumex, and sílex, wliicb bave been mentioned above, but tlie mase, is
better attested. To tbese we must add imbrex and rumex, both genders of
wliieb are supported by c^ual autbority. It muy be remarlced, that tbe
number of masculines in ex is greatei1 than tbat of feminines; for if we pnt
aside tbe above-mentioued masculines, there reinain only the following
feminines: fo rfe x , lex, uex, supdlex , jircx (not uaed in tbe nom.), and faex.
Pellex , ilex, vitex, and carex ítre feminines from tbeir mtianing, aucording t,o
tbe general rule. A triplex is tbe only neuter in ex, and ia rarely used as a

Ouyx is masculine when it denotes a species of marble, or a vessd made

of it ¡ but as the ñame of a precious stone (see § 39.) it is feminine. Calx
is sometimes used as a masculine like tlie dirninutive ccdculus, but it does not
occur in ancient writers. L ynx occurs as masculine only in a single passage
of Horace (tímidos lyn cas\ and is otherwise feminine, as in Greek. Tbe
are liaio cum prim o lucí is believed to be presorved in a passage of Cicero
(D e Off. iii. 31.; comp. YaiTO, D e Z .Z , vi. 9.).
Exeeptions in es, gen. is without increase. The Greek word
acinaces alone (aKivcua)?, ov) is decidedly masculine. Vepres,
which rarely oecurs in the singular, and palumbes , though com­
monly masculines, are found also as feminines.
Exeeptions in s preceded by a consonant. The following are
m asculine: dens, fons. mons and pons; adeps commonly, and
fol'ccps sometimes. Some words are properly adjeetives, but
are used as masculine substantives, because a substantive of that
gender is understood: confluem or confluentes (amrns), torrens
(amnis), oriens and occidens ( sol), rudens (funis'), hidens and tri-
dens; and several Greek words, such as clops, epops (Lat, upupa),
merops, gryps (gryphis ), hydrops, chalybs.
Note. Tbe divisions of tbe «.>■ ending in ns, e. g. sextans, qnadrans, ¿riens,
dc/flran#, are masculino, as was remarked § 77. Serpena, in prose writers, is
generally feminine, but the poets use it also as a masculine. Stirps , in a
figorative sense, is a-hvays feminine, but iu its original sense of “ stem” it
is frequently found as a masculine. Continens, tbe continent, properly an
adjective, with the cllipsis of a g sr or terra^ is of donbtful gender, though tbe
feminine seems preíerable. B idens , a fork, is masculitic, but when it siguí*
fies “ a sheep two years oíd” it is feminine, ovis being imderstood. Tha
plural tnrrentiu , from torrens, oecurs in Cnrtius ¡X. 35., and must be expíained
by supplying fum ino., torrúim being properly an adjective. A few participles
used as substantives in philosopliical language are neuters, as ens, accidens,
comaquens. Animans, being properly a participle, aocurs in all three genders ;
but according to tbe practice of Ciccro it is generally feminine in the sense
of 11 a living being,” and masculine in the sense of “ a rational ereature."
(See Schneidev, Formenlelrre, p. 126. fol.)

C H A P . X IX .


[§ 79.] WORDS ending in a, e, i, y , c., l, n, t, ar, nr, us are

neuter : e. g. poema, ma?'e, sinñpi, misy, lac and alee, animal, mel,
carmen, fu m en , caput (the only word of this termination), calcar,
pulmnar, fu lgur, gv.ttur, npus, tempus.

t . Exceptions in I. The following are m asculine: sol, sal and

mugil, wlñch form is more common than mugilis. Sai in the
singular is sometimes found as a neuter, but in the plural the
aneients use only salas both in tlic sense of “ salt” and in the
more common one of “ witticisms.” Salía in the sense of fí dif­
ferent kínds of salt” ia only a modera medical term.
2. Exceptions in n. There are only three L atin words in en
whieh are masculine, viz. peden, pecñnis, rea and lien (or Jienis) ;
the others Ín en are of G reek orlgin: e, g. attagen, lichen and
splen, Delpliin (eommonly delphinus), paean, agón, canon, gno­
mon, horizon, and the ñames of mountains in on, as Cithaeron,
Helicón, are likewise masculines. The following in on are
feminine : aedon, halagan (L at. alcedo), icón, and sindon; and,
according to the general rule, all the Greek ñames of towns,
with a few exceptions, such as M arathón, which is more fre­
quently masculine.
3. Exceptions in ar. P a r is common in the sense of " m ate,”
but neuter in the sense of (Ca pair.”
4. Exceptions in ur. A stur, tur tur, vultur and fú rfu r are
5. Exceptions in us. A ll words of two or more syllables
which retain tlie u in the genitive, that is, which end in ütis
or itdis. are fem inine: e. g. juventus, salus, senectus, servitus,
virtus; incus, palas, and subscus; also tallas, tellüris , and peáis,
pcciídis, a sheep, whereas pccus, pécaris (neut.), siguí fies “ cattle”
in general. Venus, Veneris, the ñame of a goddess, is naturally
feminine ; but it retains the same gender in the sense of “ graee-
fulness” (generally in the plural). Eespeeting the ñames of
animals in us, see abóye, § 42. Lepus and mus are masculine;
grus and sus are feminine, when the particular sex is not to be
specified. Of Greek words in us, tripus , tripodis, is masculine;
a-pus and lagopus are feminine, perhaps only because avis is
understood. Rhus, as a tree, is feminine, as a seed or spice

C H A P. X X .


[§ 80.] T h e fourth declension is only a particular spocies of the

third, which has arisen from contraction and elisión. The
nominative of masculine and feminine words ends in ?«, and of
neuters in u. The following is the form of their declension: —
S is g u l a b ,
Nom. fruct-üs, fruit. com-ü, horn.
Gen. fruct-üs. corn-üs.
D at. fruct-üi. ( corn-üi) com-ü.
Acc. fruct-um . cornal.
Voc, fruct-üs. com-ü.
Ahí. fru ctü . corn-ü.
P lubajl,
Nom, fru ct-ü s . corn-ua.
Gen. fruct-uum . corn-üum,
Dat, fruct-íbus. corn-ibus.
Acc. fruct-üs. corn-ua.
Voc. fru ct-ü s. corn-ua.
Abl. fruct-ibus. corn-íbus.
The following words may be used as exercises: actust coetus,
cursus, gradus, lusus} magistratus> motus, sensus, sumptus, vultos:
the only neuters are, genu, gelu, veru, pecu (the same as pecus,
oris). Tonitrus and tonitruum , plur. tonitrua , are more com­
monly used than tonitru.
Form erly it was believed that the neuters in u were inde­
clinable in the singular, but recent investigations (especially
those of Freund, in an Appendix to the preface to his L atin
Dietionary) compel us to give up this opinion, especially with
regard to the genitive; for it ia only in late technical writers
th at we find, e. g,, cornu cervinum and cornu bubulurn making
the genitive without any termination of the first w ord: cornu-
cervim, cornububuli. The dative ui is likewise mentioned by
an ancient grammarian (M artian. Capella, Iib. iii.), but there
is no instance except cornu in Livy, xlií. 68., which must be
looked on as a contraction of cornui.
r 2

[§ Si.] ÍVote 1. The genitive of the words in its was original 1y uis, which
was afr.erwards eontracted into üs. Instances of the ancient form are still
found in our authors, as anuís in Terence. Sometimes, on the other hand,
the genitive of words in us was i, after the second declension, which is still
found now and then as well as vs, not only jii comic writers, but in good
prose, e.g. senati and íumulti in Sallust. The dative in u instead of ui is
still more frequent, especially in Csesar, who is said "by Gellius (iv. 19.) to
liare sanetioned this form exclusively; e. g, eqnitatu, magistratii, imi, for
equitatui, &c.; it is, however, found also in a few passages of other writers.
[§ 82.] Note 2. Some words ni ate the dative and ablative plural in ubus
instead of ibus. They are eontained in the following two hexameters : —
A rcm , acus. partas, qucrcus, fieus, Zacus, artiis,
E t tribus et partus, specus, adda i?m<que penque.
But it must be observed, that instead QÍJicubus a better form is Jícis, from
Jícu s, i (see § 97.), and that arcubus and quercubus, though mentioned by
ancient grammarians, do not occur iu other writers any more than arcibus,
or quercibus. P ortas has both forms, ubus and ¡bus, and tonitrus has more
eommonly tonitribus than tonitrubus.
[§ S3,] Note 3. Domus takes, in some of its cases, the forms of the second
declension; but this is exclusively the case only in tbe genit. domi in the
sense of “ at lióme;” in the abl. domo in the sense of “ from homo ;” and in
the acc. plur. domos in the sense of “ home,” when several places are alluded
to. In the other signification, the forms of the fourth declension preval!,
though we fmd the ablat. domo, genit. plur. domorum, acc. plur. domos,
along with domu (see Garatoni on Cic. Philip, ii. 18.), tíomuuyn, and damüs
(see my note 011 Cic, in Y err. iv. 4 ,); but domo for domui seldom occurs.


[§ 84.] The words in us are masculine. The following only are

fem inines: acus, domus, manus, porticus, tribus, and the plural a
idus. iduurn} and quinquatrus, quinquatruum . To these m ust be
added colus, which howeyer also follows the second declension.
(See §§ 53. and 97.) The words amis, nurus, socrus, and quercus
are feminine, according to the general riúe, on account of their
Note. Penus , us (provisíons), is feminine; but there are two other forms
of this word, one after the second declension, penum, i, and the second after
the third, penus, dris , both of whieb are neuter. Specus is most frequently
masculine, but in the early language, and in poetry, it is found both as a
feminine and as a neuter. In Valer. Maximus, i. 2., we have in quoddojm
praealtum specus for in quendam speeiim; but the reading is doubtful. ¡Secus,
when used for sexus, is neuter, but occurs only in tbe nominat. and aeens. in
the connection of virile and nudiebre secus. (Cornp. § SO.)
The few words in u are neuter, without exception.

C H A P. X X I.


[§ 85.] T h e fifth declension, like the fourth, may, with a few

changos, be traced to the third. The nominative ends in es,
and the declension is as -follows: —
SlNGULAB. P lural.
Nom. d i-e s . a day. Nom, di-es.
Gen. di-ei. Gen. di-erum.
D at. di-ei. D at. di-ebus.
Acc. di-em. Acc. di-és.
Voc. di-es. Voc. di -es.
Abl. di-e. A bl. di-éhus.
Note 1. Only the t.hree words dies, res, and speci'es, bave their plural
complete ; and Cicero condemned even specierum and speciébus as not being
Latin. The words avies, fames, effigies, series, and spes, are found in gaod
prose writers only in the nominative sing. (perhaps in the vocative also)
and accusative plural; the others have, from their signification, 110 plund.
Note 2. The e in the termination of the genitive and dative singular is
long, when preceded by a vowel, as in diei, maciéi, but short after a consonant,
as in fid ti. rei.
Note 3. An oíd termination of the genitive was es {eontracted frena eis),
but is not found in our authors, except in the word D ¿espite)- — D iei pater.
lin t there are several instances of e and i being used for the ei of the genitive
and dative. Tlie.e for the genitive occurs very frequently in poetry (Virg.
Georg. i. 208. d ie ; Ilorat. Carm. iii. 7. 4 .; Ovid. Metam, iii. 341., ánd
vii. 728. J id e) ; and also in some passages of Cicero, Ctcsar, and Salhist; e. g.
pernicie causa (some write pernicu). in Cié. pro Rose. Am . 45. In sinistra
parte acie in Cses. B ell. Go.lL ii. 23., and several times in Sallust. Instances
of the dative ending in e occur in Hornee, Serm. i. 3. 95. commissa Jide; and
in Livy, v. 13. insanabili pernicie nec causa nec Jinis invemelatur. The
dative in i occurs in jSTepos, Thrasyb. 2.: pernicii fu tí; aud the genitive in i
appears in Livy, ii. 42., in the eonneetion of tribuía plebi for plebei (plebes =

G-e n d e r o f W oieds o r t h e F i f t h D e c l e n s i o n .

[§ se.] The words of the fifth declension are feminine, with

the except ion of dies, which is mascul. and femin. in the singular,
and masculine only in the plural. The compound meridies is
masculine only, but does not occur in the plural, as was re-
marked above.
f 3

Note. Good prose writers make the singular of dies much more frequently
masculine than feminine. The latter gender, generally speaking, is used
only when dies denotes duratiori or length of time, and in the sense of a
fised or appointed day. Thus we find certa, constituía, praestituta, dicta,
finita dies, hut also stato die.

C H A P. X X I I .


[§ 87.] T h e irregulariti.es iu the declension of substantives may

be comprised under two general heads: A . Indeclinables and de­
tectives ; 13. Heteroclita and heterogenea.
A , Some substantivos have a defective declension, inasmuch
as they have either no terminations a t all to mark the different
cases (indeclinables), or want particular cases, or even a whole
num ber {defactives).
I. Indeclinables, or words which retain the same form in all
cases, are chiefly the ñames of the letters of the Greek and
L atin alpliabet.s, e. g. alpha , beta, gamma, digamma, delta, iota,
a, c, v, &c. I t is only late and unclassical authors that decline
the Greek ñames in a. D elta, as a ñame of a country, is like-
wíse indeclinable; b u t it is found only in the nomin. and accus.
F u rther, a number of foreign words, such as git, manna, pascfia,
and a few Greek substantives in i. and y , such as gummi and
misy, which, however, occurs also as a declinable word (see
§ 55.); and besides the indeclinable gummi there exist othér
declinable forms alsOj e. g. haec gummis, hoc gumma, and hoc
gumen. Hebrew proper ñames, which differ in their term i­
nations from Greek and L atin words, are either not declined
at all, as Bethleem, Gabriel, R uth, or they take a L atin ter­
mination in the nominative also, c. g. Abrahamus, Jacobus, Jo-
sephus, Juditha, D a vid and D aniel are the only ñames which,
without taking any termination in the nominative, make the
genitive D avidis and Daniélis. Others, as Joa,ñnes, Moses,
Judas , M a ñ a , have already aequired through the Greek a de­
clinable termination, and are accordingly declined after the first

or third declension. Jesús makes the accusat. Jesum, but in

the other cases it remains unchangcd. Jesu,
Among the genuine L atin word:; we must notice pondo, which
is used only as a plural, and remains unclianged in all its cases,
e. g. auri quinqué pondo, five pounds of gold. This peculíarity
aróse from the omission of the word librae, to which was added
the superfluous pondo, an ablative in the sense of “ in wclglit ”
(in which it £t.ill often occurs; see § 428.), aftenvards librae was
omitted and pondo retained its place. Serais, half an as, hila
become an indeclinable adjective (one half) from a declinable
substantive, gen. semissis, and is used as such in comiection with
other numeráis.
[§ 58.] II . Dcfectives in case are those substantives which want
one or more cases. There ave many words of which the nomi­
nativo singular cannot be proved to have existed, as for mstance,
of the genitives dapis, dicionis, fem inis (for which the nominat.
fém ur is used), fru g ís, internecionis, opis, pollaüs, stipis (little
money), vicis, and of the plurals preces and verbera (for which
we use as a nom. sing. plaga or ictus). The genitive nmiinis
from ñamo occurs very raxely, and its place is supplied by nullius,
(See § 676.) The vocative is wanting in a great many words,
from their signification. The genitive plural is wanting, that
is, does not occur in our authorities, in several monosyllabic
words, as as, oris\ vas, vadis ; g h s, pax, and others. (See § 66.)
The genit. and dat. sing. of vis is very rare, b u t the plural vires,
viriitrn, &c.. is complete.
[§ 80.] W ith regard to words which want several cases, it
most frequently happens, that only those cases exist which are
alike (i. e. especially the nominat. and accusat.), all the others
being wanting. This is the case, u) W ith Greek neuters in
es (properly adjeetives) and os in the singular, and with those
in e in the plural, e. g. cacoclhes, chaos, epos, melos, cetos (which
make the plural mela, cete, as in Greelí), and Tempe. Some of
these words, however, have a declinable L atin form in us, i, or
um, i, viz. chatis, cetus, nulus (mascul.), and melwm, from which
the ablatives chao, meló are derived; and besides (rb) Argos ,
there is a declinable L atin form A rgi, Argorum, Argis. b)
W ith the L atin neuters fa s , nefas, nihil, parum (too little), and
instar, which wasoviginally a substantive signifying “ an image,”
or “ resemblan-ce,” and was then used as an adjective in the
p 4

sense of “ like,” but only in such connections as admit of its

being explained as a nominative or accusative. Secus, sex, is like­
wise used only in cases that are alike, especially as an accusative
absolute, virile secus, muliebre secus, e. g. canis muliebre secus;
in other phrases sexus, us, is the ordinary word. c) W ith the
plural of many monosyllabic words, as neces, kinds of d ea th ;
paces, treaties of peace; especially neuters, as aera, brazen
im ages; ju r a , rig h ts; tu ra, fields; tura, incense: and Others,
the plural of which generally occurs only in poctical language,
•as fa r r a , eo rn ; mella, honey; f e lia, hile. To these we must
add the poetical plurals fiam ina, murmura, silentia, colla.
The following plurals grates, muñía, muñera, likewise occur
only in the nom. and accus,, and the ablatives gratibus and
murdbiís are rarely used. Metas which is complete in the sin­
gular, and astus, of which the ablat. singular is used, have, in
the plural, those cases only which are alike.
The following must be remembered separately: fura occurs
only in the nom. and abl. singular (forte, by chance); lúes, in
the nom., acc., and ablat. singular; mane, in the nom., acc., and
abl. singular, and is alike in all of them, but it is used also aa
an adverb. Satias for satietas does not occur, in good prose,
in any other form, There are several words which are frequently
used in the plural (see § 94.), but wliich in the singular have
only one or other case, more especially the ablative ; c. g prece
from preces occurs in prose also; but the ablative singular of
ambages, compedes, fauces, óbices, and verbera is used only in
verse, and not in ordinary prose.
[§ 90.] Some words occur only in particular eombinations
and in a particular case: dieis with causa and g ra tia ; nauci
in the phrase non nauci facera or esse; diu noctuque, or die
et noctu, oíd ablatives, for which however nocte et interdiu
are more eommonly used; derisui, despicatui, divisui, ostentui,
in combination with duci or esse ; infitias with ir é ; suppetias
with ferre ; pessum and venum with iré and daré, whcnce venire
and vendere, for which Tacitas, in the same sense-, uses veno
pónete, exei-cere ; fo rls and fo ra s (from forcé —fo r es ) ; gratis (for
gratiis), ingratiis; sponte with a pronoun, as mea,, tua, sua, or a
genitive; in prom ptu and in procinctu eommonly with esse and
stare. W e m ust particularly notice some verbal substantives,
which frequently occur in good writers, but rarely in any other
form than the ablat. sing. in combination with a genitive or still

more frequently -with a pronoun, such as meo, tuo, &c., e. g. con-

cessu and permissu ; monitu and adm onitu; mandatu, mis su, ro-
g atu, o ratu ; arbitratu, ju ssu et injussu ; accitu, coactu atque ejjia-
gitatu •h.eo. Sometimes they are found without a genit. or an
adject., as in Cíes. D e Bell. Gall. v. 27.; Liv. iv. 29. 32., v. 19.
[§ 9i.] I I I . jDefectwes in number are words which liave either
no plural or singular.
1. M any words from their signification can have no plural,
and are termcd singularia tantum, This is the case: a) W ith
abstract nouns which have a simple and universal meaning,
e. g. ju stitia , pie tas, pudor , temperantia , experiencia, infantia,
pueritia, adolescentia, juventus, senectus, fam es, sitis ; b) W ith
words which denote a substance or ma-ss without división or
subdivisión, as aurum, argmtum, argüía, sabalum, coenum,
limas, sanauis, and pañis, inasmuch as we thereby do not un-
derstand a single loaf, but the substance of bread in general.
Some words of this kind however, when used in the plural, de­
note separate objects. consisting of the substance iadicated by
the ñame, as aera, works in bronze; cerae, wax-tablets ; ligna,
pieces of w ood; c) Collective words, as Índoles, the whole na­
tural abilities of a person; plebs and vulgus, victus, supellex,
virus. Proper ñames should strictly have no plural, but cases
often occur, where a plural is necessary, viz. when persona of
the same ñame or character are spoken of, and it may be re-
marked in general th at in cases like this the person who speaks
or writes must decide for himself. I t is surprising th at there
existe 110 plural of the words vesper ( vespera ), meridies, ver,
justitium , letum, and specimen.
[§ 92.] Note. l. It is, however, retnarkable, that the plural of abstract
nouns is much more common in Latin than in our own language, to denote
a repetitíon of the same thíng, or its existenee in difFerent objeets. Cicero
( P ro L eg. M an. 5.), for example, e.ays : adventüs imperatorum nostroru.ni
in urbes sociorum; in Pi<¡. 22.: concursüs fe b a n t undione; effusiones liomi-
num ; D e Off. ii. 6.: m teritas er.ercüuum; ibid, ií. 8.: exitus erant beUorum
aid mites aid necessarii; ibid, ii.7 .: retiquorum sinúles exittis tyrannoriim ; iu
Verr. v. 11.; exitñs covviviorwn tales fa e n a d . The phrases inatrrere in odia,
hominum and ánimos adderc müitibus, are of quite common oceurrenca, and
animus is used in the plural whenever the courage or anger of several persons
is spoken of, just as we nlways read t&rga vertare, to take to fíighf;, when tlie
act is ascribed to many, and never tergum. Animi, however, like spiritüs, is
used in the plural also to denote the boldness or liigh spirits of o’.ic man.
Qualities, when attributed to several persons, are irequently (not abvays)
used in the plural; e. g. jnveeritaies arhoriim , Cic. Caí. 17.; odistts hominum
novorum industrias, in Verr. iii. 4.; ingeniis excellenlihm pracdü i ¡tomines, D e

Fin. v. 24, The plural in this case often denotes different species of tho
satne quality; e. g. sapiens riostras ambitiones levitatesque contemnit, Cic. Tuse.
v. 36.; mepe exceílentiae quaedam inam icM a sunt, Lael. 19. ; sonmus et quietes
ceterae, D e Off. i. 29. In like manner we find invidiae multitudinis, insanias,
de&perationes, iracundiae , farütudines, turpitwdmcs, mortes, exilia, omnes et
metas et aegriludines ad dolorem rcferuntiir , &c. (See in particular Cic. D e
O ff iii. 32.) Wé must further notice the freqnent use of the plural in
words denoting the phenomena of the weatlier, as nives, pruinae, grandines,
nnbres, pluvia?.; i. e. falls of snow, showers o f hail, &c.; and soles, sunbeains.
(See Quintil. xi. 3. 27.) All we have said hitherto relates to good prose; the
poets go still further, and use the plural without either of the two reasons
mentioned above; o . g . amcn'es. irae, mctüs, and timores, jlum ina, murmura ,
otia ; silentia, partly for the purpose of being more emphatie, and partly on
account of the metre, where the singular does not suit it.
Note 2. The ñames of fruits of gardens and fields, on the other hand,
are frequently used in the singular in a collective sense, where we are in the
habit of employiug the plural; e. g. Pijfhagorei fa b a ab&timiermit (Cic.) ;
fabam , lentem, rapum twrere; cicei'is eatinus, In like manner mix or uva does
not denote a single nut or grape, but the particular kind of fruit, as in
Ilorace, Serm . ii, 2. 1 2 1 . : pensilis uva secundas et ?mx ornobot mensas. In a
similar way Cicero uses the ñames of species of aniinals : villa ábundat porco,
haedo, agno, gallina, Cat. 17.; and Livy, v, 53,, o f building materials : tegida
publice praebita est.

[§ 33.] 2. O ther words (jiluralia tantuni) occur only ín the

plural, and in the singular either not at all, or only in -writers
who cannot be taken as models. Tliís is the case
a) W ith the following collective ñames of personal being3:
liberi, gemini, majares, posteri, primores and proceres, superi and
iiiferi, coclites, consentcs, pernales, lemüres, exeubiae, operae. W hen
in any of these cases an individual is to be indieated, it can be
done only by making it a part of the collective, e. g. one cliild,
unus or una hbcrorum or ex liberis. Manes or dii manes how­
ever is used in the plural also to denote the departed soul of an
b) A great number of other pluraUa tantum denote a complex
of things, the constituent parta of which are not conceived
separately, or at least are not designated by the same word as
the whole complex itself. Such words are rendered in English
either by plurals or collective words. The most importan!,
among them are :—
a) A rtus, exta, intestina and viscera, fo ria (orum), tormina,
ilia, armamenta, impedimenta, utm silia, induviac, p.xuviac, manubiae,
parietinae, reliquias, sentes, vepres, virgulta, heüaria, crepundia,
scruta. donaría j lautia, inferiae, ju sta , serta, compMes, verbera,
grates, lamenta, m im e, preces, dirae, ambages, argutiar, del'tciae, di-

vitia e. fa.cetiae, nuga.e, gerrae, quisquiliae, imidiae,praestigiae, tricae.

To these we may add some other but similar ideas3 which are
more frequently expressed by the plural than the singular, as an-
gustiae, blanditiae, illecebrac, ineptiae, minuliae, latebras, salebrae.
94.] ¡3) The following words are used in L atin in the plural,
because they denote things eomposed of several parts, whereas we
frequently express the same things in the sin g u lar:— A ltaría
( altare is less common), arma, momia, bigae, trigae, qtiadrigae (in
the so-called Silver Age the singular also was used, the chariot
being the main thing thought of), cancelü and clathri, casses and
julagae, exequiae, fides. (a lyre, properly the strings which were
also called nerví), fores and valvae, loculi, phalerae, salinas , scalae,
scopae, codicilli, pugillares , tabulae, cerae, clunes and nates, The
meaning of the plural is more obscure in the following w ords:
c e rv ic e s fa ite e s , clitcllae, cunae, cunabula and incunabula, inimi-
citiae (is used by Cicero in the singular only as expressmg a,
philosopliical idea, otherwise it is a plurale tantum), induciae,
nuptiae, óbices, pantiem, praecordia (orum ), sardes, tonebrae.
I t is curious th at the plural of some of the words of this
class expresses also a plurality of the same things of which the
plurale tantum indicates but one, e. g. that fauces signifie3 not
only “ a throat,” b u t “ several throats,” or “ raouths.” In this
case the distributive numeráis are used instead of cardinal
ones. (See § 119.)
[§ 9;'-] The ñames of certajn days in the Román calendar are
plur ais, as calendae, nonae, idus, nundinae and feriae ; so also the
ñames of festivals and festive games (like ludí itself), e. g.
JBacchanalia, Flor alia, Saturnalia . Qhjmpia, and natalicia,
sponsalia and repotia ; further, many ñames of towns, such as
Athenae, Thcbac, Gades, the neuters Arbola, B actra , Leuctra,
and a considerable number of ñames of towns which are pro­
perly ñames of the people, as Delphi, Leontini, P arisii, Treviri,
Such plural ñames of nations are often used for that of the
country they inhábil. Ilorace, for example, says: tallar in
arduos Sabinos, i. e. into the high country of the Sabines.
(See § 680.)

* In ancient Latín prose, i. e. especially in Cicero, it is a plurale tantum

for cermcem iu Cic. in Verr. v. 42. is only a mísprint in the modern editions;
but the poets, and, after the Augustan íi.ge, prose ívriters also, use the word
in the singular. (Comp. Quintil, ^iü. 3. 35.)

[§ 96.] Some words which are apparently the satne vary m

meaning according to their number, which is sometimes ac-
companied by a difference of gender. Lustrum is a period of
five yearSj and lustra, dens of wild beasts; fa stu s , us, plur.
fastü s, p rid e; and fa s ti, the calendar; forum , roarket, and fo ri,
passages ; tempus, time, and témpora (sometimes tempus also),
the temples of the head.
In other words the plural has a different meaning from the
singular, though one nearly allied to it, and without giving
up the meaning of the singular for the plural, e. g.
Ayer, domam land. A gri, property of individuáis.
Aedes, a temple. Aedes, a house.
Aqua, water. Aijuae, medicinal springs.
Auxilium, help. Auxilia, avixiliary troops.
Bonum, something good. Bona, property. [course.
Carcer, a prison. Carceres, the barriers of a race-
Castrum, a fort. [forum. Castra, a camp.
Comitium, a part of the Román Comitia, assembly for election.
Copia, abundance. Copiae, troops.
Cvpf-d.ia, daintiness. Oupediae, or cupedia, daínties.
Epulum, a solemn feast. JEpulae, a feast, a meal.
Facultas, power to do aome- Faculta fes. property.
Fortuna, fortune. Fortunas, goods of fortune.
Hortus, a garden. H o rti and kortidi, pleasure-
Littera, letter of the alphabet. Litterae, an epistle.
Ludus, pastime. Ludí, publie games.
N aris, nostril. Nares, ium, no&e—nasus.
N atalis (dies), birth-day. Natales , birth, high or low.
( Ops, obsol.) Opis, help. Ojies, power, wealtli.
Opera, labour. Operae , workmen.
P ars, a part. P artes , (eommonly) a party.
Rostrum, a beak, pointed head Rastra, the raised place from
of a ship. which the orators spoke.
Sal, salt. Sales, witticisms.



[§ 97.] B . T h e second kind of irregularity in the declension

of substantives consista in too great an abundance of forms.
I t happens either, th at although there is but one nominative,
the other cases have two forms after different declensions, or
that both the nominative, and all the other cases, have two dif­
ferent forms. I f owing to the different terminations, such a
word has at the same time different genders, it ís called a
heterogenes; if it has merely different forms, it is called a
heterocUton. I t must however be observed that there are only
very few words in which the practice of good prose does not
give preference to one of the forms, and in the following list
we shall always p u t the preferable form first.
Forms of different declensions are .found with the word
ju g tria n ; for, besides the ablative sing. and plur. jügero and
jügeris, poets for metrical reasons use jugere and jugeribus.
Some ñames of trees in us, viz. cuprexsus, ficus, lauras, pinus,
besides the forms of the second declension, also take those
of the fourth ín üs and u, i. e. in the genit. and ablat. sin­
gular, and in the nom. and aceus. plural, e. g. laurus (after the
second and fourth declension), gen. lauri and laurus, dat. lauro ,
acc. laurum, voc. laure, abl. lauro and laura. Xorn. plur. lauri
and lauras , gen. laurorum, dat. and abl. lauris, accus. lauros
and lemrus, voc. lauri. In other ñames of trees the second de­
clension greatly predominates, except quercus, which follows the
fourth entirely. The same is the case with mhts, a distaff; but
the cases in i. orum, is, do not exist, perhaps only accidentally,
for, according to the ancient grammarians, the word may follow
both the second and fourth declensions. Eespecting sena tus.
fumultus, gen. üs and i, see § 81. Vas, vasis , a. vessel, sometimes
makes the genit. vasi from vasum, which is not altogether out of
use. The plural ilia has iliorum and iliis along with ilium and
[§ 9S-] "Words which have different forms in the nominative
as well as other cases may follow the same declension in either
case, as balteus and baUeum. callus and callum, clipeus and d i-

peum (especially a conseerated shield), carrus and earnmi. com-

mentarius and commentarium , cubitm and eubitum, pileam and
pileus, baculum and baculus, palatum and palatus, jugulum and
jugulus, catinus, catiUus, and catinum, catillum; and some ñames
of planta, as lupinus and lupiman, papyrus and papyrum , por-
rum and pornis : or they follow different declensions ; as
Alimonia, ae. ■— alimonium, i.
Amygdala, ae. — amygdalum, i.
Vespera, ae. — vesper, i , the CTOning star, is regular. In
the sense of evening, we find the nom.
vesper and accus. vesperum, but the ab-
líitive vesper e and vesperi, from vesper, is;
in the SiWer Age generally, we also find
vespera, ae,
Cingnlum, i. — cingula, ae.
Essedum, i, — esseda, ae.
Incestum, i. — incestus, üs.
Delphimis, i. — delphin, iriis.
Elephantus , i. — depilas, antis,
Consortio, onis — consortium, i.
Mendum, i. — menda, ae,
Penum, i. — pemis, us; and penus, oris.
Tergum, i. — tergus, oris, only in poetry, and in prose
after Augustas.
Pavo, onis. — pavus, i.
Scorpio, onis. — scorpias, i.
Pahtmbes, is. — palumbus, i; and palumba.
Colluvio, onis. — colluvies, éi.
Cráter, éris. — cratera., ae.
Plebs, is. — plebes, ei.
Paupertas, atis — pauperies, ei,
Juventus, utis — ju vevía , ae; scn&juventas, atis.
Senectus, ütis. — senecta, ae.
G ausape,is( also — gausapum, i; and gausapa, ae,
gausapes, is,
Praesepe, is (sclso— praesepium, i.
praesepes, is,
is. — tapétum, i; and tapes, etis.

Angiportus, us. — angiportmn, i. ' R ictus , us. — rictum, i.

Arcus, us. — arcus, i (in Cic. D eN a L Deor. iii. 20., rainbow).
Tonitrus, us. — tonitrmim. Vallan. — vallum .
To fém ur, oris, the hip, the forms of the nom inal femen, and
gen. feminis, are not unfrequent. Fumes, is, and Tequies, Mis, take
the forms of the fifth declension: fum es maltes the ablat. fam e,
and requies has requiem and tequié besides rcquietem and requiete.
I t is of compara tí vcly frequent occurrence th at substantives
haye different forms both of the first and fifth declensions, as bar­
baria, barbaries ; luxuria, es : duritia, es ; materia, es ; mollitia,
es ; segnitia , es (the forms after the fifth declension eommonly
occur only in the nom., acc., and ablat.), and that verbal substan­
tives of the fourth declension have a second form in uvi, i, like
the participio of the perfect, as conatus and conatum, eventus and
eventum, praetextus and praetextum, suggestus and suggestum,
[§ 99.] To this class belong those substantives which, in the
plural, assume a different gender and a different form, in some
instances, along with the regular o n e: —
1. Masculines, whieh in the plural become also neuters : jocus,
plur. jo c i and joca (of pretty equal authority, though joca is
better established by the practice of Cicero); locus, plur. loci
(generally passages in books or subjeets for investigation and
discussion = topics) and loca (in the common sense of “ places,”
whence the differencc is bnefly expressed thus: loci librorum,
loca terrarum). The poets use sibila for sib ili; and of intubus
and tartarus they make the plural intuba and tartara.
2. Fem inines which in the plural become also neuters: car-
basus, a ¡species of fias, plur. carbasi and carbasa, sails made of
i t ; ostrea, plur. ostreae and ostreq, orum ; margarita, plur. mar­
gar itae. and in Tacitus also margarita, orum .
3. The following neuters become— a ) Masculines: coelum,
coeli; siser, siseres; porrum (which is much more frequent in the
singular than porrus), p o r r i; b) Fem inines: delicium, deliciae ;
epulum, epulae; balneum, balneae (in the sense of a public
bath balnea is more freq u en t); c) Both masculines and neuters:
rastrum, rastri and rastra ; frem im , fren i * and frena.
* The nominative freíd, for which Schneider (JPorinenlehre, p. 476.) has
no authority, occurs in Curtius, iii. 34. vii. 40. i Valer. Maxim, ii. 9. 5 .;
Sericcsi, de Ira , i, 7 , ; Sil. Ital, i. 240,

C H A P . X X IV .


[§ loo.] 1. T h e noun adjcctivo denotes a quality of a person

or a thing, expressed either by a substantive or a prononn. The
participle ia an adjective formed from a verb, and, as far a3
its form is concernedj is an adjective. A n adjective has three
genders, and can thus be joined with substantives of different
genders. B u t .there are only two classes of adjeetives in which
the three genders are indicated by three different term inations;
n&inely, the adjeetives and participles in us, a, um, such as bomts,
tona, bonum; amatus, amata, amatara; and those in er, a, um,
such as líber, libera, líber u m ; and the isolated satur. satura,
To these adjeetives of three terminations the following tliir-
teen in er, is, e must be added : acer, acris, acre; alaccr, alacris,
a,lacre; campester, campestris, campestre; celeber, celebris, celebre;
celer, celeris, celerc; equester, cqacstris, equestre; jpaluster, pahis-
tris, palustre; pedester , pedestris, pedestre; puter, putrís.. pu tre;
salüber, salübris. salubre; silvester , silvestris, silvestre; terrester,
terrestris, terrestre; volucer, volucris, volucre. Original!y they
had only two terminations, Ís for the masculine and femininej
and e for the neuter. The termination er for the masculine ex-
clusively was afterwards added to tliem ; but as the termination
is is not very often used in good prose for the masculine, it will
be best to treat tliem as a class of adjeetives which have three
terminations for the three genders.
Note 1. Brnesti on Tacit. Anual, ii. in fin. goes too far in assertnjg that
the masculine in is is not suittid for prose. H e Iiunself quotes two passages
from Tacitus for celebris, and one in the Auet. ad TIerenn. ii. 4.: locm cele­
bris. Several others may be added from Curtins. In Cicero, U a D ivin. i. 57.
we find annus salubris; and in like manner locus, ventus, effectus salübris in
Celsus, i. 3-, ii. 1., iii. 6 .; in Livy, x xvii. 1. : tumultus equestris¿ x x ix . 35, :
exercitus terrestris ; and x xvii. 26. : tumultus sihwstris ; also collis and locas
silvastris in Cíesar, Bell. Oaü. ii, 18., vi. 3 4 .; vomitas acris in Celsus,
viii. 4.
Note 2, The ñames o f the months, Septemher, October, Nouember, De­
ce tuber, also belong to this class of adjeetives. As adjeetives, however, they
are defeetive, since the neuter never occurs, and the masculine and feminine

scarcely in any other coimestion than with mensis (mase,), C'atendue, Nonae,
and Idus. IJoraee uses libértate Decembri.

[§ íoi.] 2. Other adjectives have in reality two forms,

the one for the masculine and feminine in common [generis
commutds), and the other for the neuteiv This class consista
of those in is, neut. e, as levis (mase, and fem.), leve, and the
comparatives in or (mase, and fem.), us (neut.), as lcmor> levius.
Note. Some adjectives have a double form ; one in us, a, um, the other ia
?S, tí,
H ikirus, a, um. — Mlaris, e.
Imbccilhis, a, um. — imbecilUs, e (rare).
Imberbivs, «, um (rare). — imherbis, e.
Inermns, a, tmi (rare). — inermis, e.
■ Semcrmits, a, um. — semermis, e.
¡Semistmams, «, v.m, — but insomne, e.
Hxanimas, a, um. — exanimis, e,
SemíaniMtts, a, um. — semianimi.% e.
Umeánats, a, mu. -— unanimis, e (rare).
Pij'ugus, a, um., -— bijttgis, e (rare).
Quadrijitgm, a. um. ■
—■ qiwdrijagis, e.
Mtiltijiigus, a, um. — midtifugis, e.
Tíiu fon us aveliznx, d<aclum-';, prvclivm , and a few otliers not mentioned
liere, are bul. rarely used fbr auclivis, decZiwis, and proclivis.

[§ 102 .] 3. All other adjectives have only one termination

for all three genders ; na felix, prurtcm, anceps, sollers, pm qm ',
dives, vetus, Ar¡ñnas. So also tlie present partieiples in ns,
as laudans, monens, legms , audiens. B ut all the adjectives of
this class have the termination ia in the nom., aecus., and voca­
tive plural of the neuter gender. (V ery few, and properly
speaking only vetus, vetaría, have the termination a, respecting
which see above, § 65.) Tí. felina, prudentia, emeipitia, sol-
iertia, laudantia. Opulcns and violcns are only different forms ol
opidentus, r/íolfíjitux. ■
Note 1. Timen is an ndjective of one termination, and the neuter therefore
is divas, as diñes opvx, dives mmms. Tliere is nnoflier form oí‘ the word with
two terminations, (lis, neut. dite, but it very rarely occurs in the nominative
singular: dis being fmind only in Turence, Adelpk. v. 1. 8., and dite in Valer.
Flaco. ii. 296.: but in tbe other «ases and in the plural it is frequently nsed,
as ditem, Asinm, diii gnza, ditín stipendiu facere , ditihxs pmmissi.s'; the nomi-
natiYe plural dimita does not seem to occur at all. In thé comparativo and
superlativc both forms divitio7\ divitisshtms, and ditior, ditisshrms, are equally
in use ; (lie longcr forms in tíie prose of Cicero, and the sliorter ones in
poetry and Iater prose writers. Pubes, genit. jmheris, is an adjective o fo n e
termination i but Lhe compound ivipvbes, cris, nppears also in the form
impubis, e, genit. impühis, e. g. impnhe rnrpvs.

Note ‘A. Substantives in tur derived from transitivo verbs may liliu-
wise be cUssed among adjeetives, as pracceptor, vietor; í’or as they may
easily form a feminine in trix (see § 41.), they have almost the character
of adjeetives; and even in prose w e read, e. g., vietor exercitus, victrices
litterae, in tam corruptrice provincia. Thus Livy says o f L . Brutus,
Ule Uberator populi Homani anim us; that is, aliquando tiberaturus populum
R o m .; and Tacitus, eductm in domo regnatrice. (S ee Bentley on JToraee,
Carm. iv. 9. 39.) The use of these substantives as adjeetives is limited in
pi'ose; but the poets extend it much further, and use even the Greek
patronymics in as and is in the same manner. Ovid, e. g., says, Pelias hasta,
laurus P an m sis, Ausonis ora, Sithonis unda; and V irgil, ursa Libystis, &c.
A singular feature of these words is, that, together with the feminine term i­
nation o f the plural trie?/;, they have also a neuter termination, t r i d a ; e. g.
victricia bella, ultricia te la ; henee in the plural they become adjeetives of
three terminations, as vict07'cs, victrices, victricia. T he substantive hospes,
too, has in poetry a neuter plural, hospita, in the sense o f an adjective.

[§ 103.] 4, W ith regard to the declension of adjeetives, it

must be observed that the feminines in a follow the first de­
clension ; the masculines in us and er, which make the feminine
in a, and the neuters ia um, follow the second. All other te r­
minations belong to the third declension. As therefore adjec-
tives follow the same declensions as substantives, the former also
have been treated of above, and their irregularities have been
pointed out. (See §§51. and 66., &c,)
Note. The following talile shows the declension of adjeetives of one
term ination: —
SlNGUDAX. P lukal .
Nom. — Nom . es, neut. ia.
Gen. is Gen. ium, sometimes um.
D at. i Dat, Unís.
A cc. em, neut. like nom. Acc. like nom.
Voc. like nom. Voe. like nom.
Abl. i, sometimes e. Abl. ibus.

5. Indeclinable adjeetives a r e : nequam; fru g i (properly a

dative of the obsolete friix , but is used quite ae an adjective;
its derivativo fru g a lis is not found in any ancient w rite r);
praesto (occurs only in eonnection w ith the verb esse); and sernis,
which is always added to other numera!» in the sense of “ and a
half,” the conjunetion being omitted, e. g. recipe uncías quinqué
se mis, take five ounces and a half, I t must not be confoimded
with the substantive semis, gen. semissis. Potis or pote is obso-
lete, and occurs only in poetry in eonnection with esse (whence
aróse the eontracted form posse). Damnas, guilty, is used only
as a legal term, in eonnection with esto and sunto.

Adjeetives defectivo in number are p au ci and plerique , wliioh,

in ordinary language, have no singular. The díminutive of
paucus j however, oceura as a neuter pauxilhim. or pauxillulum,
though rarely in other genders. The singular plerusque is ob­
solete, and is found only in Sallust, who was fond of oíd forms
of expression, e. g. -pitraque juventus, nobilitas ; pterumque
exercitum: but the neuter plerumque (the greatest part) likewise
occurs, though only in an isolated passage of Livy. I t is
usually an adverb, signifying “ mostly,” or, “ for the most part.”
(See § 266.)
O f adjeetives defective in case there are several of which
the nominative is not in use, or, at least, cannot be proved to
have been u se d ; e. g. sons, seminex (or seminécis), and a few
similar eompounds. W e further do not find ceterus and ludi­
eran (or ceter, ludicer f), but the other genders occur in the
nominative. The genitive prim oris has neither a nomina­
tive (prim or or primoris), ñor the neuter forms. Cicero uses
the word only in the phrase primor ibus labris (equiyalent to
prim is), others frequently use the plural in the sense of p rin ­
cipes, or the grandees of a nation. P a m m , too little, is the
neuter of the obsoleto parus connected with parvns, and is
used as a substantive only in the nom. and accusative. N e­
cease exists only as a neuter in eonnection with est, erat, &c.,
and with kabeo, habes, & c.; necessum, which is likewise used
only with est, erat , &c., very rarely occurs except in oíd Latín,
the adjective necessarius, a, um, being used in its stead. Vo-
lupe Ís likewise obsoleto, and is used only with est, erat, &c.
O f mactus, a, um, which is believed to be a contraction of magis
auctus, we have only macte and macti with the imperative of
the verb esse. (Corop. § 453.) The genitive of plerique is
w an tin g ; but plurim i, which has the same meaning, supplies the

CH A P. X X V .


[§ 104.] 1. A d j e c t i v e s (also the present and past partieiples

when used as adjectives,) may, by means of a change in their
termination, be made to indícate that the quality they denote
belongs to a snbjcct in a higher or in the highest degree.
The degreca of comparison ( g r a d a s c o rn p a r a tio n is ), as this
change is called, are, the c o m p a r a tiv e , when a comparison i3
made between two (persons, things, or conditions), and the
s u p e r la tiv a , when a comparison takca place among three or
more. The-fundamental form of the adjective in this respect
is called the p o s itiv e .
Ñute. An object may be compared either with another, or with itself at dif­
ferent times, or one of its qualities may be compared with another; e. g. Gajus
doefior est quam Marcus, or Gajus doclior mine cst quam fía t, or Gajus doctior est
quam ju d ia r. (Rcspecting this peouliarity of tlie Latín language, see § 690.)
T he comparative, however, is also used, in an elliptie mode of speaking,
instead of our “ too” (nitrtis) ; e. g. si tibí quaedam virfcbmdur o b s c u r io r a that
is, too obscure, or more obscure, than it sliould be (quam p a r ercti), or, as we
may sa,y, “ rat-her obscuro,” in whieh sense paulo is sometimes added, as in
paula liberáis locutus est, he spoke rather freely. In like manner the superla­
tiva, when nsed without the objeets o f comparison being mentioned, indio ates
only that the quality exists in a Iiigh degree, which we expresa by the adverb
very, e .g . homo doctissimua, does not always mean “ the most learned,” but
very often “ a very learned man and intemperantissime vixit, he lived very

2. The comparativo has the termination w r for the masculine

and feminine, and his for the n eu ter; and these terminations are
added to the stem of the word such as it appcars in the oblique
cases. The rule may be practically expressed th u s : to form the
comparative add or or us to th at case of the positive which
ends in i, that is, in words of the second declension to the
genitivo, and in those of the third to the dative, e. g. doctus
(docti), doctior ; líber (liheri'), liberior; pulcher ( pulchri ), pul-
chrior; levis, Ic.víor; accr (acrí), acrior ; prudens, prudenúor;
indulgens, indulgentior ; andax, a n d a d o r; dives, divitior ;• veloz,
velodor. (Sim stcr alone makes the comparative sinisterior, which

has the same meaning as the positivo, although its genitive is

sinistri aud not smisterí).
N vte. Some comparatives also have a díminutive form, as grcmdiiwculus,
niajusculm, lottgmmxilus, meliuscuhis, miuusvulus, hirdiw citlm , plustiidum. Their
íjígiiification varíes between a dimiiiutiou o f the coinpanitive and o f tlie
positive 5 e. g. mimiaculus may mean rather srnull or rather smaller.

3. The superlative ends in insumís, a, um, and is formed as the

comparative by adding this termination to the stem of the posi­
tive, such as it presenta itself in the genitive and the other oblique
cases, after the remo val of the terminations, c. g. doct-igsimus, pra-
dent-issimus, audac-issimus, concord-issimus. I t has already been
remarked (§ 2.) that this termination of the superlative was
originally vvritten and pronounced ümus, aud it ia even now
retam ed in the editions of some ancient authors, as the comic
poets and Sallust.
[§ íoñ.] 4 . The following cases ímiüt be nuticed as c„\-
a ) A ll adjeetives in er (those in cr, o, um, as líber and
pulcher , as well as those in er, ís, e, a= acer, cahber, and
those of one termination, as pauper, gen. pauperis) make the
superlative in errimus, by adding rimas to the nominative of
the masculine gender, as pulcher-rimus, acer-rimits, celcber-
rimus, pauper-rtmus. Vetus and nuperus, too, have veterrimus,
nuperrimus. M aturus has both fonns, maíurissimus and rna-
turrimus, though the latter ehiefly iu the adverb.
b) Some adjeetives in ilis, viz. fa c ilis, dijficilis, simili*,
dissimtlis¡ (}racilts and humills , make tho superlative in illhnus,
by adding limas to the positive after the remo val of the ter­
mination is, as facil-limua, Immil lumis, Imbecillus or imbecülis
has two forms, imbecillüdiiiua and imhecillimm; agilis, on the
other hand, has no superlative.
c) Adjeetives compounded with dteus, f te u s and vvlus (from
the verbs dicerc, /acere, relie) make the comparative iu entior
and the superlative iu mtissimus, from the urm.sual nnd obsolete
forms dicens. volens, facietis, o. g. maledicerttior, bemvofcutior,
mu nificentior, munificentissimus, wiagnificentwmtms.

Note. Terence (Phorm . v, fí. 31.) makes m írifkkshnus, from mirifiem, but lilis
and similar foi'nis are considerad by the ancient gvanmiarinns as anomalics,
and mirijiccniimmitsiü the usual form. Several adjeclivcs in rUcus, ;ind mo.st of

those \n jifAis. have no comparative and superlative, at least they are not found
in our writers. Adjectives coinpotmded with íoquus (from loqui), such as
grandiloqiaia , vqniloqims, are said to form their degrees of comparison from
fogueas, but uo instance of the kind occurs; in Plautus, however, we find
■mendticiloquius, and cojifidentüoqvius.

C H A P . X X V I.


[í i og.] 1. I n s t e a d of the peculiar forms of the comparative

and superlative, we sometimes find a circumlocution, magis
and máxime, or adverbs of a similar meaning (aa summe), being
added to the positive, This rarely occurs in the case of adjec­
tives which form their degrees of comparison in the regular
way, and for the most part only in poetry (Horace, e. g., uses
magis beatus and magis aptus ) ; bu t where the regular or gram-
matical comparison canuot be used, its place is supplied by
circumlocution. (See below, § 114.)
[§ 107.] 2. A degree is also expressed by the adverbs ad~
rnoduni, bene, apprrme, imprimís, sane, opptdo? valde. and multum,
and by the partióle per, which is united with the adjective (ov
adverb) into one word, as in perdífficilís (though p er is somc-
times separated by eome mtervening word, e. g. per viild dfffi-
cilis locus'), and, like sane, it is made still more emphatic by the
addition of quam, e. g. locus perquam difficiliSi an extremely
difficult passage. Generally speaking, all simple adjectives, pro-
vided their meaning admits of an mercase or decrease, may become
strengthened by being cornpoundcd with per. Some few (espe-
cially in late writers) are incrcascd in th e same way by being
compoimdcd with prae, e. g. praedives, praepinguis, praclongus.
Adjectives to which per or 'p ra e is preíixed, admit of no
further comparison; praedarus alone is treated like a simple
Note. Oppido, fov the etymology of which wc must refer to the dicíionary,
is o f rare occurrence, and belongs to the more ancient language, though
it is now and then used by Cicero, e .g . oppido ridiculas. and increascd by
qm m : oppido quam paitci. Mulium also is but rarely used in this way. Valde
is indeed frequent in C icero; but it has a peculiar and et bical sbade of mean-
ing, and is rarely nsed in the prose of Inter times.

[§“ios.] 3. W hen the adverb etiam (still) is added to tlie

comparative, and longe or multo (far) to the superlative, the sense
of the degrees is cnhaiiccd. Vel, evcu, and q u a m as much as
possible, likewise serve to denote an increase of the meaning
expressed by the superlative. B oth words have acquired this
signification by ellipsis: vel by the ellipsis of the positive,
e. g. Cicero vel optimus oratorum Ilomanorum; i. e. Cicero, a
good or rather the very best of Román orators (so also vel with
a comparative in the only passage of Cicero where it is known.
to occur, D e Orat. i. 17.: ingenium vel jrtqjus,'); quam, by the
ellipsis of posse, which however is frequently added to i t ; e. g.
quam máximum potesí militum numenim colligit; quam maximas
pofssum tibi gratias ago. As these words increase the sense, so
paulum or paulo, paululum or paidulo, on the other hand,
diminish it, as paulo doctior, only a little more learned. A li-
quanto increase,? the sense, and has an aííirmative p ow er;
it may be expressed by (t considerably ” or ct much.” (See
Chap. L X X I V . 15.)

C H A P. X X V II .


[§ loo.] 1. S o m e adjectives make their degrees of comparison

from obsoleto forms, or take them from other words of a similar
Bonus, melirn ophmus.
Malus, pojar, pessünus.
Magnus, major, maximus.
Multus, plus (pl. piares, pluñm us (equivalent in
pia rá ], the plural to plerique).
Puro us, minor, minimus.
Nequam 1 See§ 103. f nequior, neqtiissimus.
F rugi J indeclin. frugalior, ■fTiigidissimus.
Fgenus, egentior, egentisaimus íegens).
Provulus, providentior, providentissimus (pro-

Nole. Mulfus and plurimus as numeráis are used only in the plural. In
the singular multns is equivalent to “ manifold,” or 11 grcat,” as mv.Uv.s labor,
multa cura, and sometimes phirimus lias the same sense, c. g, plurimam salutem
di.co. Foets, however, use the singular multas and plurimus also iu the sense
of the plural, e. g. midta and phtrimu avis, i. e. midtae, phxrimac aves, a great
many birds; multa canis. many dogs. O f the compurative the neuter only
occurs in the nom. and accus- singular {plus), and is used as a substantive;
iu the genitivap ’urLt. and ablat.plure, with the ellipais ol' p retil or prctio, it
is used with verbs o f valué, in the sense of 11 for more,” or “ at a liigber
p n ce.” The plural is complete, gen. plurium (better than plv.rum) ; but
the ueuter is commonly p lu ra, and rarely piuría. (See §§ 65, 66.) The
superlative plerique is cierived from the obsoleteplerusque (see § 103.), and
lias no genitive. In ordinary language plerique only means “ most people,”
or “ the majority;” but phirim i both “ most p eo p le” and “ a great many.”
A ll writers, liovrever, do not observe this diSerence. Uepos often uses
plerique in the sense of “ a great many,” and Tacitas quite reverses the sig~
niñeations; comp. Ilist. i. 86. and iii, 81., where plerique is followed by
plur es, and iv. á4,, where we read : Deum ipsttm miilti Aesculapium, quídam
O sirim , plerique Jovem, plurim i DÜwn patrem conjectard. The sense o f
plerique is sometimes enhanced by the additioD of omnes, as plerique omites,
by far the greater number.

[§ no.] 2. T he following adjeetives have a don ble irregular

superlative: —
E xter or exterus, a, um, exterior, extrermis and extimus.
( Infer or inferus), a, um,, inferior, inftm us and ímits,
( Super or superna), a, um, superior, supremas and summus.
(Poster or posterus), a, um, posterior, postremas and postümus.
Note. The forms enelosed in brackcts are either not found at all, as poder,
posierus^ or occur only in obsoleto Latin, wLich. however, does not pre-
vent the use of the oblique cases and of the other genders. E x ter signiíieg
“ being without,” and the plural exteri, foreigners ; infents , “ being below,”
superus, “ being above,” e. g. mare superum and inferían, the two seas which
surround Italy. Pnsterus (that it once existed is elcar from prafíposterus')
signifie3 that which succeeds or follows, but the plur. posterí, descendants.
The superlative extimus is much less common than extremas, and poduvm s
occurs only in the sense of a last or posthumous child.

[§ i u .] 3. There are some forms of the comparativo and

superlative which have no adjective for their positive^ but an
adverb which is derived from an adjective, and has the signifi-
cation of a preposition.
(citra), citerior, citimus.
{ultra), ulterior, ultimus.
(¿«ira), interior, intimas.
(prope, whence pro-
pinqnus), propior, pravh/rus.

The following, on the other hand, hayo neither an adjective

ñor an adverb for their positive: —
deterior. deterrimus,
odor , ocissimus.
potior , potissimus.
prior i primus.

Note. D etarior and detem m u s may be compared, but not confounderl,

w ithpejor andp e m m m . p e jo r generally means “ worse than soinething which
is bftd,” and is therefore used as comparative of malus, witeruas deterior means
something -whicli is inferior, or ivorse than something which is good, so that
it is a deseending, just as melior is óa ascciiding comparativa o f bonus. Potior
and potismutis are dwrived from the obsoleto positive potis (sec § 103), and
p rio r may be traced to the adverb prae.

[§ 11 2 .] 4. The following adjectives have a superlative, but

no comparativo: —
Falsus j falsissim u s; diversus, diver sis símus ; incütus, iridi­
tis simus ; rtovus, novissimus ; sacer, sacerrim us; veías (the com­
parative is supplied by vetustior ), veterrbnus (yetustissimus), and
some partieiples which are used as adjectives, as meritus , mevi-
[§ 113.] 5. M ost adjectives in His and bilis derived from verbs,
together with those in ílis derived from substantives (see § 250.),
have no superlative. To these we must add the following:
agrestis , alacer, aters caecus, declivis, proclivis, deses (comparative
deddior), jejunus , longinquus, propinquus, protervas, salutaris ,
sutur, surdus, teres, and vulc/aris. In like manner there is no
superlative of adolescens, juvenis (comparative júnior contraeted
from juvenioi'), and senex (comparative sénior ), which words are
regarded as adjectives.
Note. T he verbal adjectives amabilis, fe r tilú , nobilis, igiwbilis, mobilis,
and utilis, however, have their degrees o f comparison complete.

6. The two adjectives, anterior and sequior, exist only as

comparatives. The neuter of the latter, sequius, and the adverb
sedus (otherwíác), differ only in their orthography.
[§ 114.] 7. M any adjectives have no degrees of comparison
at all, because their signification preeludes comparison ; such are
those which denote a suba (anee, orígín, possession, or a definite
lim e; e .g . aitreus, adamantinus, Graveas, pa'et/rinus, cquinus,
sodaUs, paterniis, acstivus, hibernus. vivtts.

Note. JJsxter and sinister seem likewise to belong to tliis class; the
eomparatíves dexterior, sinistcrior, and the irregular superlative dextimus,
do indeed occur (siuistimus is mentioned, but its use cannot be proved), but
without diftering ia meaning from the positive. D exter also signifies skilful,
and iti this sense dexterior is used as a real comparatíve.

Others do not form the comparatíve and superlative in the

usual grammatical manner by the terminations ior and issimus,
but by the adverbs magis and máxime, which are put before
the adjective, and by the partióles mentioned above. Such ad-
jeetives a r e : —
a) Those in which the termination us is preceded by a vowel,
as idoneus, dubius, necessarius, noxius, arduas , ingenuas: com-
parative magis necessarius, superlative máxime necessarius, &c.
In qu however, the u is not regarded as a vowel (see above,
§ 5 .); henee antiquus, e. g., has its regular comparatíve, anti-
quior, aud superlative antiqwssimus.
1Vote. As this rule depends entirely upon euphony, respeeting which
opinions differ, we cannot be surprised to find exeeptions. Adjeetives
in uus in particular frequently make the superlative in the regular gram­
matical way. Cicero aud Saetonina use assidiássimus, Sallust, strenuissimus,
and Ovid, ex iguissimus and vacuissimus, while the compara ti ve of these words
occurs only in much inferior authorities. Adjeetives in ivs are found much
more seldom with the grammatical degrees of comparison than those in uus,
and wlienever they do oecur, they rejeet one i, as noxior, in Seneea, de Clan.
13.; industriar in the Pseudo-Cicero, De Domo, 11.; egregias ín Juvenal, xi.
1*2. The only superlatíves that occur are egregiissimus, in Gellius, and piix-
simus very frequently in the silver age o f the language, in Curtius, Seneea,
and Tacitiií, though Cicero had eensured the triumvir Antony for having
used this wholly un-Latin form. ( P hilip. xiii. 9.) The forms (piens) pientes
and pientissinms are found in inscriptions only. Among the adjeetives in ens
there are no exeeptions, and it is only the later jurista that use the compa­
rativo idoneor for the inharmonious idoneior,

V) M any adjeetives compounded with substantives and verba,

e. g. degener, inops, magnanimus} consonas* foedifragus, pestifer;
and those which have the derivativo terminations leus, idus,
iíhts, ális, ilis, bundus, c. g. modicus, credulus, trepidas , rabidus,
rubidus, garrulus, sedulus, exitialis , mortalis, principalis, anilis,
hostilis, seurrilis , furibundus.
Note. This remarli cannot form a rule, for there are a great many com­
pounded adjeetives and derivatives like the above, whioh have their de­
grees o f comparison; for example, those compounded with mem and car:
umens1 deniens, concors, discors, vecors, and the adjeetives ending in dicus,
Jicns, and volus, which were mentioned above, (§ 105. c). Although it is
useful to classity the whole mass of such words under certain divisions, still
the d ictk u w y c;ui never be dispensad with.

c) A great num ber of adjectives which cannot be said to

form a clistinct class ; their want of the degrees of comparison
is surprising, and they m ust be carefully committed to m em ory:
albv.H, almus, caducus, eabms, canus, curvus, feru s , gnaruss lacer,
mutilas 3 lassus, mediocris, mcmor, merus, mirus, mutua, navas,
nefastas, par, parllis, dispar , properus, ruéis, trux (the degrees
may be formed from truculentas), vtujas.



[§ lis.] N u m e r a l s are. partly adjectives and partly adverbs.

The adjectives are: 1) Cardinal, denoting siinply the number
of things, as tres, th ree; 2) Ordinal, indicatiug the place or
num ber in succession, as tertius , the third ; 3) D istrilutive,
denoting how many each time, as terni, each time three, or
three and three to g eth er; 4) M ultiplicative, denoting how ma-
nifold, as triplex , threefold; 5) Propnrtional, denoting how
many times more, as triplum , three times as m uch ; and 6) A d ­
verbial numeráis, denoting how many times, as ter, thrice or
three times.


The cardinal numeráis form the roots of the other numeráis,

The first tliree, unus, dúo, tres, are declined and have forms for
the different gen d ers; the rest, as far as one hundred, are in­
declinable. The hundxeds, as 200, 300, 400, &c., are declinable
and have different terminations for the genders. Mille, a thou-
sand, is indeclinable, but has a declinable plural for the series
of numbers which follows, A higher unit, such as a million or
bilí ion, does not exist in L atín, and a million is therefore ex­
pressed by the form of m u ltiplicaron: decies centena milia , i. e.
ten times a hundred thousand, or decies alone, with the omission
of centena, milia , at least when sestertium ( U S ) is added, and
in like manner vicies, two millions: octoyies, eiglit millions ;

aenties, ten millions; milites, a hundred millions; bis milites, two

hnndred millions.
SlMGULAB.. P lural.
Nom. unus, una, unum , one. Nom. uni, unae, tina.
Gen. unius. Gen. unorum, unarum, unorum.
Dat. uni. D at. unís.
Acc. untan, unam, unum. Aeo. unos, unas, una.
Voc. une, una, unum. V o c . -------------- --------.
Abl. ano, una, uno. A b l. unís.
Note. T he genitive singular uni and the dative uno, unae1 are o f rare oc-
eiuTence and unclassical. (Comp., however, § 4 9 .) The plural uni, unae, una,
occurs as a ntfmeral only in connection with pluralia tantam, i. e. sucli nouns
as liave no singular, e, g. laiae nuptiae, one wedding ; una castra, 0 1 1 c caiup ;
m ae Utterae, one letter. (S ee Chap. X X X ). Unus is used also as a puré acl-
jcctive by dropping its signification of a numeral and taking that of “ alone,”
or “ the same," e .g . Caes.S e ü .G a U . iv. 16.: uni U bü legatos miserunt, the
Ubians alone had seutumbassadorsí Cic. P ro Placc.^í} . : Lacedaemonii septin-
gentosjam annos unís monbus vioimt, with the same manners..

D úo and tres are naturally plurals.

Nom. dúo, duae, dúo. Noin. fres (mus. and feni.), tria.
Gen. duorum., duarum, duorum. Gen. trium.
Dat. duobus, duabus, duobus. Dat. tribus.
Acc. dúos and dúo, duas, dúo. Acc. tres (mas. and icm.), tria-
Abl. duobus, duabus, duobus. Abl. tribus.
Note. Ambo , aa, o, both, is declinad lit e dúo, and lias likewise two forms
for the accusat., ambos and ambo, which have entirely the same meaning. In
connection with -pando (pounds) we ünd dua pondo, and tre pondo, for dvo
and tria, a barbarism uotieed by the aneients themselves. (Q uintil, i. 5. Tí.)
Dim m , a second form o í the genit. o f dúo, is the regular one iu compounds,
as duumvir, but is frequently used also in connection with milmm. Thus
I'íiny says tlmt he had compilad his work e lectwna uolumimvm cirv.iter dmtm
m ilium ; but Ctesar and L ivy likewise use tliís form.
4. IV. quattuor. 14. x iv . quattuordecim.
5. V. quinqué. 15. XV . quiudecim.
6. V i. sex. 16. x v i. sedecim or decem et se.v.
7. V II. septem. 1 7 . X V II. decem et septem, or
8. V III. acto, septendecim,
9. IX , novem. 18. decem et ocio, or duo-
10. x. decem. deviffinti.
11. x i. undecim. 19. x ix . decem et novem, or un-
12. x il. duodecim , [¿res. deviginti.
13. Xlll. tredeeim or .decem et 20. XX, viqinti.

21. XXI, unas ct viginti, or vi­ 100. C. centum.

ginti unus. 109. Clx. centum et novan,
22. x x n . dúo et viginti, or vi­ or centum novem.
ginti dúo. 200. CC. ducenti, ae, a.
23. XXIII. tres et viginti, or vi­ 300. CCC. trccenti, ae, a.
ginti tres. 400. CCCC. quadringenti, ae,u.
28, XXYIII, duodetriginta, or 500. D. or lo. quingenti,ae, a.
octo et viginti. 600. DC. sexcenti, ae, a.
29, x x ix . undetriginta, or no- 700. DCC. septingenti, ae, a,
vem et viginti. 800. DCCC. octingenti, ae, a.
30, x x x . triginta. 900. TCCCC. nongenti, ae, a.
40. XL. quadraginta. 1000. M. or cío. müle.
50. l . quinquaginta. 2000. ciocio- or mm. dúo mi-
60. l x . sexaginta. lia, or bis millc.
70. l x x . septuaginta. 5000. loo. quinqué milia.
80, l x x x , octoginta. 10,000. CCIQO. decem milia.
90. xc. nonaginta. 100,000. cocí ooo. centum milia.
Note 1. The Román signs far numbers Lave arisen ñ'om simple geome-
trieítl figures. The perpendicular lino (I) is on e; two Iines Crossing one
another (X ) make te n ; half this figure (V ) ís fiv e; the perpendicular line
with an horizontal one at the Iower end (L ) is fifr.y, nnd if another horizontal
line is added at the uppe.r end ( Q) we have one lmndred. From this sign
aróse the round C, which is accidentally at the same time tlie mitial of centum.
This C reversad (O), which is callad npostrophns, with a perpendicular line
preceding it (10), or drawn to*rether as D , signilies 500. In every multipli­
cación with ten a fresh apostrophos is added, thus 1 0 0 = 5 0 0 0 , IODO—
50,000. When a number is to be doubled, as many C are put before the
horizontal line, as (here are O behind it. Tiras CIO=1000, CClOO—10,000,
&c. A thousand is expressed in MSS. by oo, which is evidently a coutrac-
tion of CIO. M, which is used for the same number, is the initíal of millc.
Note 2. Whercver, in ihe above list, two numeráis are put together, the
first is always preferible. Forms like octodecim nnd navendecim, which are not
mentioned in the list, are not supported by any autliority ; even seplendecim,
accoviling to Priseian (D e Sign. Num. 4.), is not so good as decem et ,veptem,
although it is used by Cicero (Iu Vcrr. v. 47.; D e L cg. A g r. ii, 17,; Fhilip.
v, 7.), and also by Tacitus (Anual, niii, 6.). Septem et decem 5n Cicero (fu i. C,)
11,1111 octo et decem in Pliny (E pist. viii. 18.) are isolafeil peculiarities. Instead
of octoginta we sometimos íind ocluaginta, and coiresponding with it octm gies;
but these forms cannot be recommended.

[§ lie.] The intermedíate numbers. are expressed in the fol­

lowing m anner: — from tw cnty to a lmndred, eitlier the smaller
number followed by ct precedes, or the greatcr one precedes
without the e t ; c. g. quatfuor ct sexaginta or sexaginta quattuor.

F o r 18, 28j 38^ 48, &c., and for 19, 29, 39, 49, the expressions
du.odeviginti, duodetriginta, up to undecentum, are more frequent
than decem et octo, or octo et viginti. In such combinations
neither dúo ñor un (unus) can be cleclinecl. Above 100, the
greater number always precedes, either with or without et, as
milis unus, mille dúo, mille trecenti, or mille et unus, millo et dúo,
milla et trecenti sexaginta sex. The et is never used twice, and
poets wlien they want another sylíable talce ac, atque, or que,
instead. There -are indeed exeeptions to this rule, bu t being
less common, they cannot be iaken into consi deration, and some
of them are mere incorrect readings. (See my note on Cic. in
Verrem, iv. 55.)
The thousands are generally expressed by the declinable sub­
stantive milia and the cardinal numbers, as dúo milia, tria milia,
quattuar milia , decem milia, unum et viginti milia, quadraginta
quinqué milia. The distributive numeráis are used more rarely,
as bina milia, quina milia, dena milia, quadragena sena milia.
The objeets couutcd are expressed by the genitive which de­
penda on the substantive m ilia ; e. g. Xerxes Mardonium in
Graecia reliquit cum ti'ecentis milibus armatorum, unless a lowcr
declined numeral is added, in which case things counted may be
used in tlie same case with m ilia ; e. g. habuit tria milia trfí­
cenlos milites, or milites tria milia trecentos habuit; but even
then the genitive may be used, e. g. habuit müitum tria milia
trecentos, or habuit tria milia militum et trecentos. (See the com-
mentators on L ivy, xxxix. 7.) I t is only the poets that express
the thousands by the indeclinable adjective mille preceded by an
adverbial numeral, as bis mille equi, for dúo milia equorum ;
they are in general fond of expressing a number by the form
of m u ltiplicaron; Ovid ( T rist. iv. 10. 4.), for example, says:
milia decies novem instead of nonaginta milia.
Note, With regard to the eonstruction of the word mille ive add the fol­
lowing remarles. M ille is originally a substantive, which is indeclinable i¡i the
singular, bul occurs only in the nom, and accus. As a substantive it governa
the genitive, libe the Greek xiktá^ e .g . Cic. P ro Milon, 20,: qtio in fundo
propter imanas illas subatructiones fa vile mille hominum versaba-tur valenliuni;
Philip, t í . 5: quis L . Antonio .mille nurmmim ferrcl ezpensum, and very fre-
quentfy mille passuvm, Livy joins mille as a collective nonn (see § 366.) to
the plural of the verb, xxiii. 44.: mille passuum inler urbem erant castraqne ;
xxv, 24.: jam milla armatorum ccperant partcm . 15ut miüe is also au inde­
clinable adjective, and as such is most frequently used in all its cases,
e.g . «quites mille pram nissi ; senatus mille komiuum numero cmistabat; da

miM íaxia m ille; rcni mille mndis tenvpttimf,, fyc. Wit.h this adjective mille, as
with numeráis in general, a gtnit.ivtis partitivus may be used, according to
§ 42Í)., and tlius we read in Livy, xxi. 61.: cum ocio milibus pcditum, mille
equitum, where the genitive stands for the ablative, owing to its cióse ecm-
nection with tlie word p edittim ; and xxüi. 46.: Romanorum mhuts mille

C H A P. X X IX .


T h e ordinals denote the place in the series which íiny

[§ 1 1 7 .]
object holds, and answer to the question quotus? All of them
uve adjectives of three terminations, us, a, um.
1. primus. 30. tricesimus, some-
2. seciindus (alter). times trigesimus.
3. tertius, 40. quadragesimus.
4. quartus, 50. quinquagesimus.
5. quintus. 60, sexagesimus,
6. sextas. 70. septuagesimus.
7. septimus. 80. octogesimus.
8. Oüta-ÜUS. 90. nonagesimus.
9. nontis. 100. centesimus.
10. decimus. 200. ditcentesimus.
11. undécimas. 300. treeente&imus.
12. duodécimas. 400. quadringentesimus.
13. tertius decimus. 500. quingentesim us.
14. quartus decimus. 600. sexcentesimus.
15. quintus decimus. 700. septingentésimas.
16. sextas decimus. 800. octingentesimus.
17. septimus decimus. 900. nongentesimus.
18. octavus decimus, 01* duode- 1000. millesimus,
vicesimus. 2000. bis millesirhus.
19. nonus decimus, or undem- 3000. ter millesimus.
cesimus. 10,000. decies viillesimus.
20. vicesimus, sometimes vige- 100,000. centies millesimus.
simus, 1,000,000. decies centies mille­
21 unus et vicesimus, vicesimus simus.
22 altcr ct vicesimus, vicesimus

[§ii8.] In expressing the intermedíate numbers, the most

common practice is to place the smallcr num ber before the
greater one with the conjuiiciion et, or to make the greater
number precede the smallcr on.e w ithout et, as quartus et vicési­
mas, or vicesimus quartus. B u t there are many instances iu
in which the smaller number precedes without e t ; e. g. quintus
triccsimus; and from 13 to 19 this is the ordinary metliod,
though we also find tertius et decimus, decimus tertius, and déci­
mas et tertius. (See Cíe. de Invent., i. 53. and 54.) Instead of
primus ct vicesimus, &c., we find still more frequently unus et
vicesimus, fem. una ct. vicésima, or with the elisión of the vowel,
unetviccsima, with the genitive unetvicesimae, as in Tacit. Anual.
i. 45., and Hist, i. 67. The 22d, 32d, &o.. is more fre­
quently and better expressed by alter ct vicesimus or vicesimus
et alter, than by secundas et vicesimus. Now and then we meet
w ith duoctvicesimus, duocttricesimus, in which case the word dúo
is indeclinable. The 28th, 38th, &c., are expressed also by
duod^triccsimus, duodequadragesimus, and the 29th, 39th, 09th,
by undetñcesimus, undequadragesimus, undeccntesimus, the words
dúo and unus (un) being indeclinable; and both forms are of more
frequent occurrence than octavus and nonus et vicesimus, or vice­
simus octavus, vicesimus nonus. There is a class of adjeetives in
amis whicli are derived from ordinal numeráis, e. g, primanus,
secundanus, tertianus, vicesimanus : they express tbe class or
división to which a person belongs; in Román writer3 they
chiefly denote the legión of the soldiers, whence the first word
in their eompounds is feminine, e. g. tertiadecimani, quartade-
cimani, tevtia et vicesimani, that is, soldiers of the thirteenth,
fourteenth, tw cnty-third legión. In Tacit us we meet with the
forms unetmcfísimani and duoetvicesimani.

C H A P. X X X .


[§ i is .] D i s t r i b u t i v e n u m e r á is d e n o te an e q u a l n u m b e r d is -
tr ib u te d a tn o n g s e v e r a l o b je e ts or a t d ifíe re n t tim es, an d a n s w e r to
th e q u e s t i o u á : — " I I o w m a n y a p i e c e ? ” and, “ IIo w m a n y ea cli

tim e ?” (quotcni?) They are always used iu the plural. The

English language having no corresponding numeráis has recourse
to circumlocution.
Exam ples. Horat. Serm. i. 4. 86.: Saepe tribus lectis v ideas r,ornare qua-
temos, to diñe four on each coucli; Lív. x xx. 30.: Scipio et H annilal cum
singulis interpretibus congremi sunt, each. with an interpreter ; Cic. in Yerr.
ii. 49.: pueri senum septemimve denum cmiwrum. ¡tenaíorium '/tomen nundinati
sunt, boys of sixteen or seventeen years each purehased the tltle of senator;
Liv. v. 30. : Senatm consultum factum cst, V-l a g ri Vejenfuni septena jugara
plebi dividcrentur, each plebeian received seven jugera. The passage in
Cicero (¿id A tt. x vi. 8.), Octavias veteranis quincenos denarios dai, has the
samé meaning as (ad Fam. x. 32.) Autonius denarios qu.mgenos singulis
uiilitibus d at; that is, five hundred denarii to each soldier. Wlien the
distributive singuli is expressly added, the cardinal numeral is sometimes
used; e. g. Cic. in Verr. ii. 55.: singulis censoribus denarii treceiúi ad statuam
praetoris imperati sunt.
Henee the distributivos are applied in multiplication (with adverbial
numeráis), the same number being taken several tim es; e. g. non didicit bis
bina quot essent; kmae curriculum conficitur integris qvMer septenis diebtis ;
Gellius, xx. 7.: Homents pueros puellasque Niobae bis senos d icitfm sse, E u ­
rípides bis septenos, Sappho bis novenos, Bacchylides et Pindarus bis denos;
qvidam alii scriptores tres fuisse solos dixerard. Poets in this casé sometimes
a.pply the cardinal numeráis ; e.'g. Iíorace has, bis quinqué viri , i. e. decem -
v ir i; and in prose we find decies ( vicies , tricies') cerdum milia, although the
form decies centena milia, mentioned above (§ 115.), is much more common.
Distributives are further used, instead of eardinals, witk words which llave
no singular ; e. g. biní cadicilU, bina p o st Ttomulum, spolia opima (see § 94.) ;
and with those substantives the plural of which, though it lias a different
signification from the singular, yet retains the meaning of a singular,
e, g. aedes, castra, littei'ae, ludi (§ 96.). It must however be observed, that in
this case the Romans eommonly used uni instead of singuli, and trini instead
of terni, since singuli and terni retain their own distributive signification
W e therefore say, for example, bina castra uno die cepit; trinac hnd.it- miptiae
celebrantur; quotidie quinas aut senas litteras accipio; for dúo castra would
mean “ twocasües,” duae aedes “ two temples,” a,ndduae Utterae “ two letters
of the alphabet.” This, however, ia not the case with liberi (children),
for this word has not the meaning of a singular (liberi are children, and
not a child), and we accordingly say dúo liben, ju s trm m liberum, &c.
B in i is used for dúo to denote things which exist in pairs, as bhú boves,
binae auras; and in Virgil, Aen. i. 317.: bina vianu crispans liastilia. lío
prose writer gocs beyond this in the use of the distributives instead of the
eardinals (except in combination with milia , see § [16.). Poeta and Pliny
the eider use these numeráis in the singular in the sense of multiplicatives,
e. g. Lucan, viii. 1-55.: septeno gurgite, with a sevenfold w hirl; Plin. xvii. 3.:
campus fe rtilis centena quinqmgena fru g e , with one hundred and fifty fold
corrí. In the ordinary language they occur only in the plural, and as adjec­
tives of three terminations, i, ae, a.
1. shigvM. 4. quaterni. 1. septeni.
2. bini. 5. quiñi. 8. octoni.
3. terni, ov trini. 6. será. 9. noven/.

10 ; deni, 20. viceni. 90. nonageni.

ii. undeni* 21. viceni singuli. 100. centeni.
12. duodeni. 22. viceni bini. 200. duceni.
13. terni deni. 23. viceni terni, &c. 300. treceni.
14. quatem i deni. 30. triceni. 400. quadringeni.
15. quiñi deni, 40. quadrageni. 500. quingeni.
16. seni deni. 50. quinquageni. 600. sex cen í.
17. septeni deni. 60. sexageni. 700. septingeni.
18. oetoni deni. 70. septuageni. 800. octingeni.
19. noveni deni. 80. octogeni. 900. nongeni.
A longcr form of the hundreds: ducenteni, trecenteni, qua-
dringenteni, &c., which is mentioned by Priscian, cannot be
proved to esist. H ere too there is some freedom in the com-
bination of the num eráis: instead of vicm i quatemi, we may
eay quatem i et viceni or quatem i viceni, and for 18 and 19 we
llave also the forms duodeviceni and undeviceni. The genitive of
these numeráis is commonly in um instead of orum, as binum,
ternum, quaternum, quinum, &c.3 but not singidum for singido-
“ A thousand each tim e" might, according to analogy, be expressed by
milleni, and then continuad bis milleni, ter milleni, &e.; but this form is uot.
in uae, and matead of it we say singula milia, bina, terna, qvni./trno, quina
m ilia; e. g. Sueton. Octau. e x tr .: L cguvit Áuguslus praetoriuuis miUtibas
singula. milin mínimum (that is, oné thousand to each), colmrtibus urhmiis
quingenos. legionariis trecenos mínimos; Livy : in singulis legionibus 1lomanis
quina milia pediíum , ireceni equites crant. M ilia alone is frequently used for
singida milia , if its distributive meaning is indicated by some other word; e.g.
Livy, xxxvii. 45.: dábitis milia Udentum p e r duodecim annos, i. e. one thousand
talents Oíicli year; Curtius, v. 19.: singulis vestrian milia denariwn du rijn ssi ,
where ntiUe is an ineorrect reading; comp. Liv. xxii. 36. This use of the
plural, wJiích occurs in other words also, as asses, librae, jugara , with tlie
ellipsis of siagidi, ae , a, has been established by J. Fr. Gmnovius on Livy, iv.
15. aud xxis. 15.; and by Bentley on Horace , Sarm. ii. 3. 156.

From these distributives are derived adjeetives in arius, which

indicate of how many units or equal parts a thing consiste,
whence they are termed partiaria, e. g. numerus binarius, a
number consisting of two units, i. e, tw o ; scrobes tem arii, holes
of tlirce fe e t; versus senarius, a verse of síx fe e t; mimmus de-
nariu$, a coin of ten units, that is, asses ; senex octogenarias, an
oíd man of e ig h ty ; rosa centenaria, a rose with one hundred
leaves; cohors quingenaria, of 500 men. The word numerus is
most frequently eombined with these adjeetives, to supply the

place of the substantives unió, Linio, temió, which are not based
on very good authority. (See § 75.) Singularis and müliarius
ave more eommonly used instead of singularius>miílenarius.

C IIA P . X X X I.


[§ 120 .] M i t l t t i 'LIO a t i v e s atiswer to the question, “ How

many fold?” (quotuplex f) They a r e : simplex, dúplex, triplex,
quadruple.v, quincuplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex. These
are the only ones th at can be shown to have been in use. Sixfold
does not occur in L a tin ; it rnight be sexuplex or sephx, but.
not saxtuplex, as some grammarians assert. Octuples is attested
by the derivative octuplicatus, and novemplex by the analogy of
septemplex. (Modern writers use also : undecimplex, duode-
cimplex, sedccimplex, vicecuplex, tricecuplex, quadragecuplex, quin-
quagecuplex, sexagecuplex, septuagecuplex, octogecuplex, nonage-
cuplex, ducentuphx, trecentuplex, quadringentuplex, quingentuplex,
octingentuplex, &e., and millecuplex.')
I t will not he out of place here to add the L atin expres-
sions for fraetkms, which are always denoted by p a r s : ^ Í3
dimidia pars, i tertia pars, \ quarta pars, quinta, sexta,
séptima pars, &c. In cases where the number of the parts into
which a thing is divided, exceeds the number of parts mentioned
only by one, as in §, f , j , the fractions are expressed in L atin
simply by duae, tres, quattuór partes, that is, two out of three,
three out of four, and four out of five p a rts : ^ may be ex­
pressed by octava pars, or by dimidia quarta. In all other
cases fractions are expressed as in English : f , duae septimae ; -3,
tres septimae, &c., or the fraction is broken up into its parts,
e. g. £ by pars dimidia (§) et tertia (§ ); and -J-y by tertia et

C H A P. X X X II.


[§ 1 2 1 .] P r o p o r t i o n a l numeráis expresa how many times more

one thing is than another, but they cannot be used throughout.
T hey answer to the question quótüplus ? They are : simplus, a,
u m ; duplus, triplus, quadruplus, quinquiphis, (probably sexu-
plus,') séptuplas, óctuplas, (perhaps nonaplus,') decuplas, centuplus,
and according to the same analogy we m ight form ducentuplus,
and so on, as in the multiplicativos above. B u t they are almost
uniyersally found only in the neuter.



[§ 122 .] 1. T h e numeral adverbs answer to the question, “ How

many times ? ” quotiens 9 to which totiens is the demonstrative,
and aliquotiens the indefimte. The form in ns is the original,
and prevailed in the best periods of the language; subsequently
th e termination es was preferred in numeráis, b u t ens still re-
mained in the words ju st mentioned.
1. semel. 14. quaterdecies or quattuór
2. bis. decies.
3. ter. 15. quinquieadecies or quinde-
4. quater. des.
5. quinquics. 16. sexíesdecies or sedecies.
6. sexies. 17. septiesdecies.
1. septies. 18. duodevicies, or ociiesdedes.
8. octies. 19. undevicies, or noviesdecies.
9. nmri.es. 20. vicies.
10. decies. 21. semel et vicies.
11. undecies. 22. bis et vicies.
12. duodecies. 23. ter et vicies, &c.
13. terdecies or trcdecies. 30. tricies.

40. quadragies. 400. quadringenties.

50, quinquagies. 500. quingenties, &c.
60. sexagies. 800. octingenties, &e.
70, septuagies . 1,000, millies.
80. octogies. 2,000. bis millies.
90. nonagies. 3,000. ter millies, &c.
100. ccntics, 100,000. centies millies.
200. ducenties. 1,000,000. millies millies,
300. treeenties,
W ith regard to the interm edíate numbers, 21, 22, 23, &c.,
the method above adopted is the usual one, but we may also say
vicies semel and vicies et semel, though not semel vicies ¡ for bis
vicies, for example, would mean twice tw enty, L e. forty.
[§ 12 3 .] 2. The numeral adverbs term inating either in vm
or o, and derived from the ordinals, or rather the ordinals them-
selves in the acc. or ablat. singular neuter gender, are used in
answer to the question “ of w hat num ber ? ” or “ what in num -
bcr ? ” (T he L atin quotum ? or quoto ? cannot be proved to
have been used in this way.) e. g. prim um or prim o, for the
first time, or firs t; secundum or secundo, tertium or tertio , &c,,
dcchnum, undechnum, duodecimum, tertium decimum, duodevi-
cesimum. The ancients themselves were in doubt as to whether
the te rmination um or o was preferable (see Gellius, x. 1.); but
according to the majority of the passages in classical -writers,
we m ust prefer vm ,* tlie form secundum alone is less cominon;
and instead of it we find iterum, a second time, and secundo,
secondly, for which however deimle is more frequently used.
The difíei'ence between prim um and prim o ís this, th at the sig-
nification “ for the first time ” is common to both, but th at of
“ firstly ” belongs exclusively to prim um , while prim o has the
udditional meaning of í; at first.”
[§ 124.] Note. It may not be superfluous to notíce here some substan­
tives compounded with numérala: thus, from annus are formed bieimium,
triennium, quadriennimn, sexennium, septuenniu-m (more correct than sept-
enníum), decennittm, a period of two, three, four, six, &c., years. From
dies we have biduum, triduum, quatriduum, a time of two, three, four days.
From v iri are formed duoviri, trssviri, qvathmrviri, quinqueviri, .te- or sex~
viri, septemvit'i, decemviri, qui-ndecemmri, all o f which eompounds, if they
may be so called, denote a commission consisting of a certain number oí*
raen, appointed for certain purposes. A member of suéh a commission is
called duumvir, triumvir , from which is formed the plural friumviri, which,
properly speaking, is ungrammatkal, and, in fact, still wants the sanc-
ii 3

ti on of a good authovíty,* Jn inscriptions trium viri does not occur, and

duomviri only once (Grutev, p. 43. No. 5.) : tlie ordinary mode of writing it
was I I viri , I I I viri. Printed books, without the autliority of MSS., are
not deeisive. To these words we may add the three, bimus irimm.. and
quadrhmis; i. e. a child of two, three, four years.

C H A P . X X X IY .


[§ >25-] 1. P r o n o u n s are words which supply the place of a

substantive, such as, I, thou, we, and in L atín, ego, tu, nos, &c.
These words are in themselves substantives, and require nothing
to complete their m eaning; henee they are called pronouns
substantive {pronomhia substantiva), but inore eommonly per­
sonal pronouns, pronomina personalia.
Note. Sui is a pronoun of the third person, bnt not in the same way that
ego and tu are pronouns of the first and second persons. For the third
person (he, sbe, it) is not expressed in Latín in the nominative, and is iin-
plied in the third person of the v erb ; but if it is to be expressed, a de-
moiistrative pronoun, eommonly Ule. is used. The other cases of the
English pronoun of the third person are expressed by the oblique casca of
is. era, id, the nominative of which belongs to the demonstrative pronouns.
Thus we say, pudeí me. mei, tm, eju s; laudo me, le, eum Sui , sibi, se, is the
pronoun of the third person in a rcftcctive sense, a s : laudat se, he praises
himself, in which proposition the object ís the same as the subjeet. The
■use of this refiective pronoun in Latín is somewhat more extensivo than in
our language; for sui¡ sibi, se, and the possessivu sims. ma, suum, are used
not only when the subjeet to which they refer occurs in the same sentenee,
but also when in a dependent sentenee the subjeet of the principal or govern-
ing sentence is referred t o ; e. g. putat hoc sibi vacare, he thinks that thís
jnjures him (instead of himself). The beginner must observe that where-
ever he may add “ self” to the pronoun of the third person, he has to use
the refiective pronouns and the possessive smis, sua , suitm ; e. g. Gajus con-
tamnebat diviticis, quod se feliuem reddere non pos&ent, because they could not
nmke him (i. e. himself, and not any other person) happy \ hut quod eum
felicem reddere non passent would mean, because they could not nmke him
(some other person, c. g. his friend) happy.
[§ 12G.] 2, Besides these there is a num ber of words whieh
sre adjectives, in as much as they have three distinct forms for
the three genders, and their meaning is not complete without a
substantive either expressed or understood. B u t their inflection
* But it does occur in Cic. Orat. 46.; Varro, D e Ling. L at. v. 81., he. 85.
ed, Müller, and is based on good MSS- — Thansl.

diffei's so widely from what are commonly called adjeetives,, and

they are so frequently used instead of a substantive, that they
are not unjustly termed pronouns. They are—
1) The adjunctiue: ipss, ipsa, ipsum, self.
2) The demonstrative; hic, ka.ee, koc; iste, ista, istud; Ule, illa,
illud; is, ea. id, and the compound idem, eadem, idem.
3) The relative: qui, quae, quod, and th e eompounds qui-
cuaque and quisquís.
4) The two interrogatives; viz. the substantive interrogative,
quis, quid? and the adjective intei’rogative, qui, quae, quod?
5) T he indefinite pronouns: aliquis, aliqua, aliquid and ali-
quod; quídam, quaedam, quiddam and quoddam ; aliquispiam, or
abridged quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam and quodpiam ; quis-
quam, neuter quidquam; quivis, quilibet, and quisque; and all
the eompounds of qui or quis,
Respecting the use of these pronouns, see Chap. L X X X IV .
C. The following observations are intended to develope only
the fundamental principies.
[§ 127.] Note 1*. S ig n ific a tio n o f th e D e m o n s t r a t iv e P r o n o u n s,
— Iltc, this, is used of objeets ’.vliicb are nearest to the speaker, whereaá
more distant objeets are referred to by Ule. The person nearest of all to
the speaker is the speaker liimsclf, when ce hic homo is often the same as ego
(see some passages in Heindorf on Horace, Sat. i, 9. 47.) ; and in this respeet
hic is called the pronoun of the first person.— Iste points to the person to
whom I am speaking, and to the things appertaining to him. Thus iste
líber, Uta vestís, isiiid negotium, are equivalent to ihy book, thy dress, thy
business ; and iste is, for this reason, called tile pronoun of the second person.
— lile, that, is the pronoun of the third person; that is, it points to the person
of whom I am speaking to some one, henee Ule líber means the book of
whieli we are speaking. (Compare on these points § 291.) — Is is nsed : 1)
to point to somethíng preceding, and is somewhat less emphatic than “ the
person mentioned b e f o r e a n d , 2 ) as a sort of logical eonjunction, when
followed by qui, is qui answers to the English “ he wbo.” — Idem , the same,
expresses the uníty or identity of a subjeet with two predicates; e. g. Cicero
did this thing, and he did that also, would be expressed in Latin, idem. illud
perfecit , henee idem may sometimes answer to our 11 also; ” e. g. Cicero
was an orator and also a phUosopher, Cicero orator erat idemqve (et idem.)
[g tas.] Note 2 . T h e c o m p o u n d e d R e la t i v e s .— They are formed
by means of the siiüix cunque, which, however, is sometimes separated from
its pronoun by some intervening word. It aróse from the relative adverb
cum (also spelled quum) and the suüix que, expressive of universality (as in
quisque, § 129.; and in adverbs, § 288.), Cunque therefore original]y signi*
h 4

fied whenevei'.’1 By beiug at.tached to a relative pronoim or adverb,

e. g. qualiscunque, quoteunque, ubiamque, utcunque, quandocunque, it renders
the relativo meaning of these words more general, and produces a rekUivum
generale; and as q n i signiües “ who,” quicunque becomes “whoever,” or “ every
One w ho;” e. g. quemcwnque librurn legeris, ejus summum paveis ver bis iii com-
■tuentaria referió , or utcunque se res habuit, tita lamen culpa ed. It thus always
occurs in connection with a verb, as the subjeet of a proposition, The sanie
signification ia produced by doubiing the relative; e. g. quotqm t , qualisqualis ;
and in the case of adverbs, ubmhi, utut, quoquo, &e. Thus we should have quiqui,
quaequae, quodquod — quicunque, qiiaectinque, quodemique; but these forms are
not used in the nominative, and instead of them quisquís, quidquid, were formed
from the substantive interrogative qais f quid ? and the doubled relativo
quisquís retained ita substantive signification, “ every one who,” whereas
quicunque has the meaning of an adjective. So, at least, it is with the neuter
quidquid , whatever. The masculine quisquís, by way of exception, is like­
wise used as an adjective; e. g. in Iíorace: quisquís erit viiae color; and
PHny : quisquís erit vevtus (uay, even the neuter quidquid in Virgil, Aen. x.
493., and Horace, Carm. ii. 13. 9., which is a complete anomaly). In the
oblique cases the substantive and adjective significations coincide.
[§ 129.] Note 3. T h e I n d e f m it e P r o n o u n s. — A ll the above-men-
tioned words are originally at once substantives and adjectives, and for this
re ason they have two distinct forms for the neuter. According to the
ordinary praetice, however, quiaquam is a substantive only, and is often ac-
companied by tbe adjective ullus, a, um. Qtiispiam, too, is principally used
as a substantive ; but alíquispiam, in the few passages where it occurs (it is
found only in Cic. P ro Sext. 29.: aliquapiam v i; and T usad. iii. 9.: alíquod-
piam membrttm ), is used as an adjeetive ; and aliquis, which has the saíne
meaning, is found iu both senses. Quisquam, with the supplementary
lálus, has a negativo meaning; e.g . I do not believe that any one (guis-
quatn) has done this : quispiam and aliquis are affinnative, and quídam
may be translated by u a certain.” By adding the verbs vis and líbet to
the relative we obtain quivís and quilibet, any one ; and by adding the
.particle qite we obtain quisque and the compound nnv.¡¡quisque, All of these
words expreís an indefinite genei'alitv : respecting their difTerenee, compare
Clmp. L X X X IY . C.
[§ 130.] 3. The possessive pronouns are derived from the
substantive pronouns, and in form they are regular adjectives
of three term inations: mcus, tmis, suus, nos ter, vester : to which
we must add the relative ciijus, a, um ; and the pronomina gen­
tilicia (which express origin), nostras, vestras, and cujas.
4. Lastly, we include among the pronouns also what are
called pronominalia, that is, adjectives of so general a meaning,
that, like real pronouns, they frequently supply the place of a
noun substantive. Such pronominalia are. a) Those which
answcr to the question, who ? and are partly single words and
partly compounds: ai'ms, ullus, nullus, nonnullus. I f we ask,
which of two ? it is expressed by uter? and the answer to it is
alter, one of two; neuter, neither; alterut.er, either the one or

the other ; utervis and utcrlibet, either of the two. T he relative

pronoun (when referring to two) is likewise uter, and in a more
general sense uter cunque. b') Those which denote quality, size, or
num ber in quite a general way. They stand in relation to one
another (whence they are called correlatives), and are formed
according to a fixed rule. The interrogative beginning with
qu coincides with the form of th e relative, and according to the
theory of the ancient grammaríans they diíler only in their
aceent (see § 3 4 .); the indefimte is formed by prefixing a (i;
the demonstrative begins with t, and its power is sometimes
increased by the suffix dem (as in idem) ; the relative may ac-
quire a more general meaning by being donbled, or by the suffix
cunque (■§ 128.) ; the indefinite generality Í8 expressed (according
to § 129.) by adding the words líbet or vis to the (original)
interrogative form. I n this manner we obtain the following
pronominal correlatives, with which we have to compare the ad­
verbial correlatives m entioned in § 288.
Iuterrog. Demonst, Eelat. R e l a t . g ftn e ra le . Tndcfin. Indef. gener.
qmiiis talis qualis qv.alUqualiS) qualidibet.
qmntus tantus., tan- quantns quaiitusquantus. áliqmntus quardudibet^
tándem qucmtmamque quanhisvis.
quot tot, totidem, quot qnotquot-, qmt~ aliqxwl quoüibet.
quatus totas quotus quoimcunquc. (aliquotns')
To these we must add the dimimitives quantuhis, quantvluscioíque, tantukis,

C H A P. X X X V .


[§ 131 .] 1. D e c le n s io n of the personal pronouns ego, tu} sui.

S in g u l a r .
Nom. Ego, I. T u , thou.
G en. mei, of me. tui, of thee. sui, of himself, her-
self, itself.
Dat. mihi, to me. tibi, to thee. síbi, to himself, &c.
Acc. me, me. te, thee. se, himself, &c.
Voc. like nom. like nom.
Abl. me, from me. te, from thee. se, from himself, &c.
106 L A T IN G-RASIlIAlí.

P j.ural.
Nom. Nos, we, Vos, you. — ------
Gen. nostri, nostrum, vestri, vcstrum, sui, of themselvcs.
of us. of yon.
Dat. nolis, to lis. vobis, to you. sibi, to themselves.
Acc. nos, us. -tos, you. se, themselves.
Voc. nos, O we. vos, O you! ----------
Abl. nobis, from us. vobis, from you. se, from themselves.
Note. The suffix met may be added to all the canes of these three pronouns
to express the English einphatic self, as egomet, mihimet, temct, semet, and even
with the addition of ipse after it, as mihimet ipsi, temet ipsum. The genit.
plur. and the nominal, tu :;lony do not admit this suffix. Instead of it the
emphasis is given to tu by the suffix te, as tute, and to this again by tile ad­
dition of '¡riel, as tiáemet. The accus. and ablat. singular of these pronouns
admit a reduplication, m,rme, tete, sese; of sui alone it is used in the plural
The contrariad form of the dative, mi for mihi (like m i for nihü) is fre­
quently found in poetry, but rarely in prose. The genitives mei, tui, sui,
nostri, vestri, are properly genitives of the possessive pronouns meum, tum i,
suum, nostrmn, vcstrum, for originally the neuters meum, tunm, SfC. were used
in the sense of “ my being," or of “ as regards me, thee,” &c. (t.hc Greek rd
f/íúi ), instead of the simple I, thou, &c. In like manner the genitives nos-
trum, vestrum, are properly the genitives of the possessives nostri and vestri.
(See § 51.) The beginner may pass over the origin of these forms, since
they are used as the real genitives of the personal pronouns; but he must be
reminded of it in the construction of the gerund, § 660. Respectiiig the dif-
ferenee between nostri, vestri, and nostrum, vestrum., see § 431.

[§ 132.] 2. Declension of the demonstrative pronouns and ipse.

Sin g u l a r . P lural.
Nom. & Voc. Ilic , liaec, Jioc, Nom. & Voc. Id, hae, haec,
this. these.
Cien, hujus, of this. Gen. horum, harum, horum ,
of these.
Díit. hiñe (or hule), to this. Dat. his, to these.
Acc. hunc, hanc, hoc, this. Acc. hos, has, haec, these,
Abl. hoc, hac, hoc, from this, Abl. his, from these.
Note- The ancient form of this pronoun was hice, haecc, hoce, in whieh we
recognise the demonstratíve ce, which when a word by itself appears in the
form ecce. The cases ending in c aróse from the omission of the e, which is
still found in oíd Latin, e.g. hance legem, hace lege. (This explains the ob-
soletc form hace, for han or haece ín Terenee. See Bentley on Ter. Andr. i.
1. 99.) In ordinary language the cases in s alone sometimes take the com­
pleto ce to render the demonstratíve power more emphatic, e. g. hujuxee,
hosce. By adding the enclitie interrogative rte to ce or c, we obtain thé
interrogative hici.ne, haecine, hacine, g-e.

The pronouns iste, isla., istud, and Ule, illa, ilhtd3 are declined
alike, and in the following manner:
S ingular * P x-üual .
Nom. & Voc. Ule, illa, illud, Nom, & Voc. üli, illae, iUa,
he, or that. they or those.
Gen. Ulitis. Gen. Ulorum, illai-uvi, illorum.
Dat. illi. D at. illis.
Acc. illum, illam, illud. Acc. illos, illas, illa.
Abl. tilo, illa j tilo. Abl. illis.
Note. Hesides the forms iste, ista, istud, and Ule, illa, illud, there exist
in early Latin tlie forms útic, istaec, istoe or istuc, and ülic, illaec, illoe
or illuo, which with regard to mflection follow hic, haec, hoc, but occur only
in the cases ending in c, except the dative, that is, in the accus. istujic, interne,
illunc, illunc; ablílt. ísíüc, istüc, ittdc, illdc; neut. plur. istaec, illaec. (Tsiuc
and istaec sometimes oecur even in Cicero.) Priscinri regai-ds these forras as
contrautions from iste and Ule with hic, but it probably aróse from the addi-
tion of the demonstrative ce according to the analogy of hic, for in early
Latin we find also istace, istisce, illaee, illisce, illosce, illasce, though very
i'árcly. B y means o f the eonnecting vow el t, both c and the complete ce
may be united with the interrogative enclitic ne, e, g. isiucine, istocinc, iEicine,
illancine, istoscine.
lili and isti are obsolete forms of the genitive fur iíliiis and isiius, and
the dative istae, Mae, for isti, illi ¡ and the nom. plur. fem. istaec, illaec, for
i.-itcc-, ülae. (See Bentley on Terence, Hcc, iv. 2 ,1 7 .)
V irgil uses olli as a dative sing. and nom. plur., and Cicero, in an antique
formula (D e L eg. ii. 9.), the plural olla and olios, from an ancient forra ollus.
Ipse (in the ancient language ipsus), ipsa, ipsum, is declined
like Ule, except that the neuter is ipsum and not ipsud.
Note. This pronoun is called adjunctive because it is usnally joined to other
nouns and pronouns. In eonnection with some cases of is, viz. eo, ea, eum,
eam, it loses the i in early Latín ; thus we find eapse (nom. and ablat.), eopse,
cttmpue, eampse, in Plaufcus; and in Cicero the compound reapse — re ipsa, or
re ed ipsa, in fact, is nf common oceurrenee. The suffix pte in possessive
pronouns is of a similar kind.
S ingular . P íitral ,
Nom. is, ea, id, he, she, it, Nom. ii (ei), cae, ea, they
or that. or those.
Gen. e/us. Gen. eorum, earuvi, eorum.
D at. ct. Dat, iis ( eis).
Acc. eum, eam, id, Acc. eos, eas, ea.
Abl. eo, ea, eo. Abl, iis (eis).
B y the addition of the suffix don we form from is — idem,
eadem, Idem (as it were isdevi, eadem, iddem), which is declined
i n . the ofclier cases exactly like the simple is, ea, id, In the
íiccusativc emidem and emulan are prefe,rabie to eutndem,
108 LATIN GlíAMMAli.

eamdem, and in like manner in the genitive plur. coruudem,

Note. Mae as a dative singular feminine for ei, and ibus and eabiis for iis,
ave obsolete forms. The plural ei is rare, and eidein is not to be found at all.
In the dative and ablative plural, too, eis and eisdem are not as common
as üs, iisdem. It must, however, be observed that iidem and iisdem were
always pronounced in poetry, and therefore probably in the early prose
also, as if they had only one i ; but whether it was ever written ‘willi one i
cannot be determined, 011 account of the ííuctuation of the MSS. In most
passages, however, only one i is written. In what manner ü and iis were
denlt with cannot be ascertained from the poets, because they dislike the
pronoun is in general, and more particularly these cases of it, for which they
use the corresponding forms of Me (see § 702.) ; but Priscian (p. 737., and
Super xii, vers. p. 1268.) asserts that in this 'word, as in dii, diis, the double i
was formerly regarded in poetry as one syllable, and that in his time it still
continued to be thus pronounced.
B y composition with ecce or en (behold! the French voila),
we obtain the following expi’essions, which were of frequent
use in ordinary life : eccum, eccam, eccos, eccas ; eccillum or ellurn,
ellam, ellos, ellas ; eccistam.
[<§ 133 .] 3, Declension of the relative pronoun, qui, quac,
S ingw ar . P lural.
Nom. Qui, quae, quod, who Nom. qui, quae, quac, who or
or which. which.
Gen. cujus ( quojus, obsol.), Gen. quonim, quarum, quorum.
of whóm.
Dat. cm or cuí (quoi, obsol.), D at. quibus.
to whom.
Ace. quem, quam , quod, whom. Acc. quos, quas, quae.
Abl. quoi qua, quo, from wliom. Abl. quibus.
Note. An ancient ablat, singular for all genders was qui. Cicero uses it
with cum appended to it, quicum for quocum (§ 324.), when an indefinite person
is meant, and when he does not refer to any definí te person mentioned before
(compare the examples in §§ 561, and 568.). Quicum for quacum is found ín
Virgil, Aen. xi. 822. Otherwise the form qui for quo occurs in good prose
only in the sense of “ in wliat manner?” or “ how?” as an interrogative or
relative, e.g. qui fit? how does it happea? qui convenit f qui sciebas? qui
hoc probari potest cuiquam? qui tibí id facere liciát? qui isla intellecta sint,
debeo dtecere, &c., and in the peculiar phrase with uli: kabeo qui idar, est
qui utam w (T. have something to live upon), in Cicero, Instead of quibus in
the relative sense, there is an ancient form quis, or queis (pronounced like
quis), which is of frequent oceurrenee in late prose writers also.

[§ 134 .] There are two interrogative pronouns, quis, quid? and

qui. quae, quod í the latter of which ia quite the same in form as
d e c l e n s io n of PROWOUNS. 109

the relative pronoun, and the formcr differs from it only by its
forms quis and quid. The interrogativos quisnam, quidnam ?
and quinam, quaenam, quodnam? express a more lively or em-
phatic question than the simple words, and the nam anawers to
the English “ pray.”
Note. The differencc between the two interrogative pronouns as observed
in good prose Ís, tliat quis and quid are used as substantives, and qui, quae,
quod as adjeetives, and this is the invariable rule for quid and quod, e. g.
quod facinus commisitf what crime has he committed? not quidfacirms, but
we may say quid facinoris ? Quis signifies “ what man ?” or “ who ? ” and
applies to both sexes; qui signifies “ which man ?” lin t in dependent inter­
rogative sentences thesb forms are often coufaunded, quis being used for tlie
adjective qui. and vice versa qui for quis. W e do not, however, consider quis
to be used for qui in cases where quis is placed in apposition with sub­
stantives denoting a human being, as in quis amicus, quis hospes, quis miles, for
in the sanie manner quisquam is clianged into an adjective, although there is
no doubt of its substantive eharacter, e. g. Cic. In Verr. v. 54.: quasi enim
vUa, possil esse causa, cur hoc, cuiquam civi Kumcino ju re accidat (viz. ut virgis
caedatur). But there are some other passages in which quis is used for qui,
not only in poets, such as Virgil, Georg. ii. 178.: quis color, but in prose
writers, e. g. Liv. v. 40.: quiste iocus; Tacit. Anual, i. 48.: quod caedis initium,
quis fm is. In Cicero, however, it is thus used with very few exeeptions (such
as, Pro Dejot. 13.: quis casus) only before a word beginning with a vowel,
e. g. quis esset tantas f ruetns, quis iste tantas casus. Qui, on the other
hand, is used for quis, partly íbr the same reason of avoiding a disagree-
able sound, when the word following begins with s, as in Cíe. Dinirt. 6 .:
ilescifíius qui sis ; c. 1 2 . : qui sis considera; A d A ti. iii. 10 .: iwnpossum obli-
visci qui fuerim , non sen tire qui sim ; but partly without any such reason, as in
Cic. In Verr. v. 64.: qui esset ignorabas ? Pro Rose. A m . 37.: dubitare qui
indicar) t.; In V e rr . v. 59.: inteii'agetur Flavius, qiúnam fu e rit L . Herennms.
Cicero In Catil, ii. 3.: video qui habeat Etruriam , is an incorrect reading, and
in Pro Soso. A m . 34.: qui primus A-meriqm nuntiat ? the qui must probably be
cha'nged into quis. Thus much remains certain, that the rule respecting the
use of quis and qui cannot be denied even in indireet questions.

[§ isa.] The indefinite pronoun aliquis also has originally two

different form s: aliquis , neut, aliquid which is used as a substan­
tive, and aliqui, aliqua, aliquod. B ut áliqui is obsolete, although
it occurs in some passages of Cicero, e. g. J)e Off. iii. 7 .: aliqui
casus; T u sa d , v. 2 1.: terror aliqui ; A cad. iv, 26.: anulativa aliqui ;
D e R e Publ. i. 4 4 .: aliqui dux; ibid. iü. 16. : aliqui scrupus in
animis haeret, and a few otlier passages which are less certain.
In ordinary language aliquis alone is used, both as a sub­
stantive and as an adjective; but in the neuter the two forms
aliquid and aliquod exist, and the difference between them m ust
be observed. The femin. singul. and the neuter plur. are both
aliqua,, and the form aliqvae is the femin. nom. plural.

[§ i:i6.] But tliere ís tilso a shorter form of ihe indefinito

pronoun, without the eharacteristic prefix ali, and exactly like the
interrogative pronoun : quis, quid, as a substantive, and qui, quae,
quod, as an adjective. This form is used, in good pvose, only
after the conjunctions si, nisi, ne, num, and after relátives, such
as quo, quanto, and quam. This rule is eommonly expressed
thus: the prefix ali in aliquis and its derivativos altquo, ali -
quando, and alicubi is rejected when ai, nisi, ne, num, quo, quanto,
or q?mm, precede ; e. g. Cónsul videat, ne quid respublica detri-
menti ca p ia t; quaeritur, num quod officíum aliad alio majus s i t ;
sometimes another word is inserted between; e.g. Cic. D e Orat. ii.
41.; si aurimi cui commonstratum vellem; P ro Tull, § 17.: si quis
quem imprudens or.ri.d.mt; Philip. í. 7.: si cui quid Hit pi'omisisset.
Some con íider the combination of this indefinito quia or qui
with the conjunctions si, ne, num , and with the interrogative
syllable en (ec) as peculiar and distinct words, as siquis or siqui,
numquis or mtmqui, although properly speaking, ecquis or ecqui
alone can be regarded as one word, for en by itself has no
meaning. (See § 351.) For the particulars respecting the
use of this abridged form, and the diñerence between it and
the complete one, see Chap. L X X X I V . C. With regard to the
declension of these compounds it must be observed, 1) that in
the nominative the forms quis and qui are perfectly equivalent,
whieh ia accounted for by what has been said about aliquis ; henee
we may say both si qui, ecqui, and si quis, ecquis ; 2) that in the
femin. singul. and the neuter plur. the form qua is used along
with quae, likewise according to the analogy of aliquis. W e
may therefore say siqua, nequa, numqiia, ecqua, but also si quae,
ne quae, num quae, ecquae.
Note. Whicli of tlie two is preferable, is a disputed point. Priscian
(v. p. 565 ¡md 569.) mentiuns only siqua, nequa, numqua, as compounds of
fúiqua. As the MSS. of prose writers vary, we must rely on the autliority
of the poeta, who are dccidcdly in favour of tlie forms in a, with a few
exceptions, such as sí quac, tlie neut. plur. in Propert, i. 1(3. 45., and the
feini». sing., according to Bentlcy’s just emendatíon, in Terent. Heaut. Prol.
44., and Horat. Sr.rm. ii. G, 10 . ( S i quac ¿ibi m ra, in -Ovid, Trist. i. 1. 115.,
must be ch&nged into siqrn cst.) Respecting ecqua and ecquae, see my note
on Cic. In Verr. iv. 1 1 .

[§ 137.] The Compounds of qui and quis, viz. quídam, quispiám,

qwliJ>et, quwis , quisque, and unusquisque, are declined Hite the
relative, but. have a double form in the neuter singular,

guiddam and qnoddam, unumquidque and umimquodqur, accord-

ing as the y are used as substantives or as adjeetives. (Sec above,
§ 129.) Quisquam (with a few exeeptions in I ’Iaixtus) ia used
only as a substantíve, for ullus supplies its place as an adjective,
and tbe regular form of the neuter therefore is quidquam (also
w ritten quicquavi). I t has neither feminine ñor plural. Qui-
. cunque is deelined like qui, quae, quod, and Has only the forra
quodeunque for the neuter; quisquís, on the other liand, has
only qitid.quid (also w ritten quicquid), being generally used in
these two forras only as a substantive. The other forms of this
double relative are not so frequent as those formed by the suffix
Note. In Cicero, Pro Rosc.Am . 34., and la Verr. v. 41., we find cuicuimodi
instead of c.uj/tícujvxmodi, of what kind soever. See my note on tbe latter
[§ 138,] Each of the two words of which unusquisqite is com­
poned is declined separately, as gen. uniusciyusque, dat. unicuigue,
acc. wwmquemque} &c.

C H A P . X X X V I.



[§ 139.] 1« T h e possessive pronouns meus, mea, me.vrn; tmis,

tua, tuum ; suus, sua, suum ; noster, nostra, nostrum; vester,
vestra, vestrum, are declined entirely like adjeetives of three ter-
minations. Meus makes the vocative of the masculine gender
mi, as O mi pater ! I t is only in late writers that mi is used
also for the feminine and neutev.
Note. The ablative singular of these pronouns, especially the forms suo,
sua^ frequently takes tlie suffix píe, ivhieh answers to our word “ otvii ;"
c. g. in Cicero, siiapte manu, suopte pon dere ; in l ’lautus, meopte and tiiopte
ingenio ; in Terencc, nostrapte culpa. &c. All the cnses of swts muy, tyÍüi
tlie same sense, takc the tiiOlx met, which is nuually followed by ip se; e. g.
Liv. vi. 36.: intra snamet ipm m momia c o m p itie r e v. 38. r tsrga caesa momd.
ipxorum certamine impedientium fn g a m ; xxvii. 28.: Jiíinnüxd suámet ip.se
fra u d e capta* abiit. The expresskm of Síillust, Jttg. 85., mefímetfncta rlicere,
stands alone.

2, The possessive pronoun cujas, a., um, has, besides the

nominative, only the accusative singular, cujum, cvjam, cujum;
cuja, the ablative singular feminine, and cujae, cujas, the nomi­
native and accusative plural fem inine; but all these forms occur
only in early L atin and legal phraseology.
3. Nostras, vestras, and cujas (i. e. belonging to our, your
nation, farnily, or party), are regularly declined after the third
declension as adjectives of one term ination: genitive iiostratis,
dative nosirati, &e., plural nostrates, and neuter nostratia ; e. g.
verba nostratia, in Cic. A d Fam. ii. 11.
[§ uo.] 4. The peculiar declension of the pronominal adjec-
tives uter, utra, u tru m ; alter , altera., alterum ; alius (neut. aliud),
ullus, and nullus, has already been explained in § 49.
Nom, uter, Gen. utrlus, D at. utri.
neuter, neutñus, neutri.
alter alterius, alteri.
alius (neut. aliud), alius, alii.
ullus, ulllus, ullL
nullus, nulllus, n u lli
Note. In early Latin there occur several instances of the regular
formation of the genit. i, ae, and of the dative o, ae, and some are mee
with even in tlie best writers. Cic. D e D iv. ii. 13.: aliae pecudis ; D e Nat.
Dear. ii. 26.: altero f r a t r i ; Nepos, E um . 1 .: alteras alae ; Caes. Bell. Gall.
v. 27.: álterae legioni ; Ciü. P ro Rose. üom. 16.: nuHi c o n s i l i i Caes. B ell.
Gall. vi. 13.: nidio eonsílio; Propert. i. 20 .2 5 .: mdlae curae; ibid. iii. 9. 57.
foto orbi; Curt, vi. 19.: toto corpori. According to Priscian, the regular form
of neuter was even more common than the other, and in a grammatical sonso
we find, for irisu'Lnee, gennris neutri; but neutrius is nevertheless prcfcrable.
The compound alterüter is either declined in both words,
genitivo alteriiisutriux, accusative alterumutrum, or only in the
latter, as alterutri, alterutrum. The former method seems to
have been customary chiefiy in the genitive, as we now gene­
rally read in Cicero, for the other cases easily admitted of an
elisión. The other compounds with uter, viz. uterque, uterlibet,
utervis, and utercunque, are declined entirely like uter, the suf-
fixes being added to the cases w ithout any change. The words
unus, solus, and t.otus are declined like ullus.
[§ Hi.] Note 1. A lter siguiñes tiíe oíher, that is, one of two ; alius,
another, that is, one of many. But it must be observed, that where we use
another to express general relations, the Latins use a lte r ; e. g. detrahere
alteri sui e.mnmodi causa contra naturam est, because in reality only two
persam are lierc considered as in relation to each other.

Note 2. TJterque signifies both, that is, eacli of two, or one as well as the
other, and is therefore plural in its meaning. The renl plural utrique is
used only when each of two parties consists of several individuáis; e. g.
Macedones— T yrii, uní— alteri, and both together,' utrique. But even good
prose writers now and then use the plural utrique in speaking of only two
persons or things, as Ñopos, Timol. 2.: utrique Diany.iii ; Curtius, vii. 19.:
utraeque aeies ; LIv. xlti. 54.: utraqm oppida ; and xxx. 8 .: utraque corm a ;
and is not altogethcr forcign to the practice of Cicero. (See p . L ig. 12., p .
M ur. 12., in Verr. IV, 14., comp. my note on Cic. in Verr. III. 60.)

C H A P. X X X V I I .


[§ 142 .] 1. T h e verb is that part of speech by which it is

declared that the subject of a sentence does or suffers something.
This most general cüfference between doing which originates in
the subject, and suffering which presupposes the doing or acting
of another person or thing, is the origin of the two main forms
of verbs, viz. the active and passive (activum et passivum).
2. The active form comprises two kinds of verbs : trans-
itive or active properly so called, and intransitiva or neuter
yerbe, The difference between them is th is: an intransitive
verb expresses a condition or action which is not communicated
from the agent to any other object; c. g. I wulk, I stand, I
sleep; whereas the transitive verb expresses an action which
affeets another person or thing (which in grammar is called the
object and is commonly expressed by the accusative) ; e. g. I love
thee, I read the letter. 'As far as form is concerned this differ-
ence ia important, for neuter verbs cannot have a passive voice,
whereas every transitivo or active verb (in its proper sense)
must have a passive voice, since the object of the action is
the subject of the suffering; e. g. I love thee— thou art loved;
I read the letter— the letter is read.
[§ 143.] Note 1. It is not meant that every transitive verb must have
an object or accusative, but only that an object may be joincri with it.
It ia obvious, that in certain cases, when no object is added, transitive
verbs take the sense of intransitive ones. Thus edit, amat, when without an
accusative, may be considere'.! to be used for coenat and est m amo-re, and
witli regard to their meaning they are intransitive, though in grammar
they remain transitive, since aliquid ni a3’ be underslood. In some casca

the dlJlcrenee 'between the transitivo and intransitivo meaning is ex-

pressed, even in the formation of the verbs themselves, as iii jacaré,
uiccre ; penderé, penderé; albare, albtre ; fugare, fugere ; placare, pla­
care ; sedare, sedero, and some otliers of tlie same kind. Assitesco and
consuesco (I accnslom nvyself) have assumed íin intransitive meaning, the
pronoun being omítted, and the ncw forms as&uefctcio and ccmsiiefacio were
devised for the transitive senae. In tke same manner we have the íntransi-
tive calare, paiere, stuperc, and the transitive calf.fac.ere. patefaccrc íiiicl
[S i u.] Note 2, W hen an accusative is found with a neuter verb, tlic
neuter veri» has either assumed a transitive meaning, and then has also a
passive voicG- or the accusative ia used in the sense oí" an adverb, and is to
be accounted for by some ellipsis, or by a lieencc of speeeh. (Concerning
both, see § 3S3.)
Sometimes however a passive voíce is formed from real neuter verbs, bnt
only in tiie infmitive and ín the third person singular, and tlie verb beeomes
impersonal, i. e. it is -without any distinct subjeet: for iustance, stari jiibtf,
he orders (one) to stand; sictur eo quod major pars decreverit, Curt. x . 20 .;
fauetur tibí, favour is shown to th ee; via ezcessum est, (people) went ont of
the w ay; ventmn est, itum est, üitr, eatar, ibitur. Thus, v/heu in comedy the
question is asked quid agihir ? the humorous answer is «tatur, or vivitur
When the subjeet ia to lie added, it is done bv means of ab, as in Livy,
Iiomam. frequenter núgratum cst a pareniiims raptarum, which is eqnivalent
to párenles migraverunt; and iu Cicero, ejus orationi vehemenier ab ómnibus
reclamatum cst, and occurritur autam nobis ct quidem a doctis et eruditis, eqni-
valent to omnes reclamarmit and docti occurrunt
[g us.] Note 3. With transitive yerbs the subjeet itsclf may bccome
the object, e. g. moveo, I move, and moneo me, I move myself. It often
occurs in Latin that the pronoun is oniitted, and the transitive is thus
ehanged into an intransitive. The verb abstineo admits of all three con-
struetions: transitive, as in manrn ab aliqua re. abstineo, I keep my hands
fi'om a thing; with the pronoun of the smne person, abstimo me, and intran­
sitivo, abstineo altqvn re, I abstain from a thing, There are some other
verbs of this class, consisting chieíly of such as denote change; e. g.,
verteré and conccrtcrc, mntore, Jicotera and dejlvclere, inclinare; henee we
may say, for instance, indino rem, sol se decimal; and in an intransitive
sense, dies, acies in clin a ta n im u s inclinat ad pacem faúiendum ; verlo rem,
verto me; dctrímentmn in henmm vertii, ira in rabiem vertit; fortuna, reipub­
lícete mutavit; inores popidi Komani inagnopere mutaverunt, In like manner
the following verbs are used both as transitive and intransitive, though with
greater restxictions: avgere, ábolere, committere, decoquere, durare, incipere,
intermitiere, continuare, insinuare, laxare, remitiere, lavare, mintiere, moveré
(chieíly with ta-ra, to quake, in an intrans, sense, though now and then in
Other conncctions also), praeeipit.arc, rucre, sulcere, supeditare, turbare,
vibrare, and many olhers. The compoumls of verteré,'—■deverlere, diva-tere,
and remrterc, — are used only this refieetive sense, but occur also in the pus-
sive with the sanie meaning.
[§ !«■] W e must herc observe íluit the passive of many words has not
only a properly passive meaning, but aíso a reílective one, as iu erueior, I
toimcnt myself; delector, I dnlight myself.; fallar, I deceive myself; fe ro r, I
throw myself (upon something) ; moveor and cominoveor, I move or excite
myself; ¡laminen efftmduntnr, men rush (towards a place); vehículo, frangun-
t m the vehieles break; lawr, I bathe (myself) ; mcliiwr. I incline ; mntor, I

alter (m yself); vertor. but especiídly da- di- aud rc-Mrt.or. Many of theso
passive verbs ave elassed among the deponents, tile active írom wliieb thoy are
formed being obsoleta, or because the intransitive meaning greatly difiere.
[§ 147.] 3. I t ia a peculiarity of tlie L atin language, th at
it has a class of yerba of a passive form, b u t of an active
(either transitive or intransitive) signification. They are called
deponents (lai/ing aside, as it were, their passive signification),
e. g. consülor, I consolé; imitor, I im itate; fateor, I confess;
sequor, I follow ; m cn íio r, I lie ; m o rio r, I die. These verbs,
even when they have a transitive signification, cannot have a
passive voice, because there would be no distinct form for it.
Note. Many deponente are in fuet only passive a, either of obsolete
actives, or of aucli as are still in use. The latter can be regarded as depo-
nents only in so far as they have acquired a peculiar sigmíieatlon : e. g.
gravar signifies origlnally “ I am hurdened,” henee, “ I do a thing unwil-
líiugly,” “ I dislike,” “ I hesitate ; ” vehor, I am earried, or I rule, cquo. on
horseback, curru, in a carriagc. Several passives, as was remarked above,
have acquired the power of deponents from their reíleetive signification ;
e. g. pascar, I feed m yself; ver sor, I Uim myself, and thence I find my­
self, or I am. The following deponents are in this mauucr derived from
obsolete actives ; laclar, I rejoiee \ profiriscor, I get myself fonvard, I
travcl; vescor, I leed myself, I eat. With regard to the greater number of
deponents, however, we aro obliged to believe that the Latín language,
liko the Greek with its verba media, in fortníng these middle verbs, followed
peculiar laws which are uiiknown to us. It must be especially observed,
that many deponents of the first eonjugation are derived from nouns, and
that they express being that which the nonn denotes : e. g. ancillor, ar-
chilector, argutor, amripor, augurar, &e., as may be seen írom the list in
§ 207.
[§ 148.] 4. Before procceding we m ust notice the following
spccial irregularities. The three verbs fio , I bccomc, or am
made, vapulo , I am beaten, and veneo, I am sold or for sale,
have a passive signification, and roa,y be used as the passiyes
of fació, verbero, and vendo, but, like all neuter verbs, they
have the active form, except that fio makes the perfect
tense fa rtu s smn, so that form and meaning agree. They are
called neutralia jiassiva. The verbs audeo, Jido, gaudco, and
soleo have tlic passive form w ith an active signification in the
participio of the pretérito, and in the tenses formed from í t : as
ausus, fisu s, gavisus, solitus sum, eram , &c. They may there­
fore be callcd semideponentia, which is a more approprlatc ñame
than nm tro-passiva, as they are usually termed, since the fact of
their being neuters cannot come lierc into consideration. To
i 2

these we m ust add, b u t mcrely with reference to the participle

of the preterite, the verbs ju ra re, cocnare, pranderc, and potare,
of which the participles ju ratu s, coenatus, pransus, and potus,
have, like those of deponents, the signification: — one that. has
ewornj dined, brealtfasted, and drunk. Comp. perosus and exo-
sus in § 221, The same is the case with some other intransitive
verbs, which as such ought not to have a participle of the pre­
terite at a ll; but still we sometimes find conspiratus and coalitus,
and frequently adultas and obsoletus (grown up and obsolete) in
an active, b u t intransitive sense, and the poeta use cretus (from
ere seo), like natus.



[§ 149 .] TnEEE are four general modes (moods, modi), in which

an action or condition. expressed by a verb may be represented:
— 1) Simply as a fact, though the action or condition may differ
in regard to its relation and to tim e: this is the Indicative-,
2) As an action or condition which ia merely conceived by the
mind, though with the same differencea as the indicative^ Con-
junctive , or Subjunctive ; 3) As a command, Im perative; 4) In -
definitely, without defíning any person by whom, or the time
at which, the action is performed, although the relation of the
action ia defined, Infinitive.
[§ 150 .] To these moods we may add the Participle which
is, in form, an adjective, but is more than au adjective by
expressing at the same time the different relations of the action
or suffering, th at is, whether it is still lasting or terminated. A
th ird participle, th at of the future, expresses an action which is
going to be performed, or a condition which is yet to come.
The Gerund, which is in form like the neuter of the participle
passive in dus, supplies by its cases the place of the infinitive
present active. The two Supines are cases of verbal substantives,
and likewise serve in certain connections (which are explained
in the syntax) to supply the cases for the infinitive.
W hen an action or condition is to be expressed as a definí te
and individual fact, either in the indicativo or subjunctive, we
NU A tlililíS. — PEliSOArS.

must know whether it bclongs to tlie past, the present, or the

future, or in one word, its time, and time is expressed in a verb
by its Tenses, W e must further know its position in the series
of actions with which it is connected, that is, the relation of the
actiou, viz. whether it took place while another was going on,
or whether it was term inated before another began. I f wc
connect these eonsiderations, -we shall obtain the following six
tenses of the verb : —
"Au action not terminated in tlie present time ; I write, scribo: Present
Au action not terminated in the past time; I wrote, scribebam: Imperíeet
i tense.
Au action not terminated in the future; I shall write, scribam: Future

An action terminated in the present time; I have written, scripsi: Perfect

, Au action terminated in the past time ; I had written, scripseram: Plu-
porfect tense.
An action terminated in the future; I shall have written, scripsero ;
Futnre perfect tense.
The saíne number of tenses occurs in the passive voice, but
those which express the term inated state of an action can be
formed only by circumloeution, with the participle and the
auxiliary verb esse : scribor, scribebar, seribar, scriptus sumt
scriptus eram, scriptus ero. The subjunctivc has no future tenses :
rcspccting the manner in which their place is supplied, see § 496.
The infmitive by itself does not expresa time, b u t only the
relation of an action, th at is, whether it is compleLcd or not
oompleted. B y circumlocution we obtain also an infinitivo for
an action or a suffering which is yet to come.



f§ 151.] T h e Latin verb has two numbers, singular and plural,

and in each number three persons. These three persona, I, the
onc speaking, thou, the one spoken to, and he or site, the one
spoken of, are not expressed in Latin by special w ords, but are
i 3

implied in the forms of the verb itsclf. The same is the case in
the plural with we, you, they, and thcsc personal pronouns ave
added to the verb only when the person is to be indicated in an
emphatie manner.
The following is a general scheme of the changes in term i­
nation, according to the persons, both in the indicative and
subjunctive: —
In the Active.
P e rso n : 1. 2. 3.
Sing. — s, t.
P lur. mus, tis, nt.
The termination of the first person singular cannot be stated
in a simple or general way, since it sometimes ends in o, some­
times in vi, and sometimes in i (see the following Chapter).
I n the second person singular the perfect indicative forms an
exception, for it ends in ti. Respccting the vowel which pro­
cedes these terminations, nothing general can be said, except
that it is a in the imperfect and pluperfect indicative.

In the Passive.
P erson: 1. 2. 3.
Sing. r, ris, tur.
P lur. viur, mznz, ntur.
This, however, does not apply to those tenses of the passive,
which are formed by a coinbination of the participle with a
tense of the verb esse.
T he imperative in the active and passive has two forme, vis:,
for th at which is to be done at once, and for that. which
is to be done in fature, or an imperative present and an
imperative f ature. Neither of them has a first person, owing
to the nature of the imperative. The imperative present has
only a second person,- both iu the singular and p lu ral; the im­
perative fature has the second and the third persons, but in the
singular they have both the same form, to in the active, and tur
in the passive voicc. The imperative futuro passive, on the
other handj has no second person plural, which is supplied by
the fature of the indicativo, e. g, laudabimini.

CH A P. X L.


[§ 152 .] 1. T h e e e are in L atín four conjugations, distinguished

by tbe infinitive mood, which ends th u s : —
1. are. 2. ere. 3. ere. 4. Iré.
The present indicatives of these conjugations end in:
1. o, as. 2. eo, es. 3. o, Is. 4. w, is.
/Yute. ALtention must be paid to tlie difference of qnantity iu tile termi­
nation of the second person iu the third and fomiü conjugad on?, in order tu
distinguish iba presenta of the verbs in io, which. follow the third conjugation,
e.g. fodio, fagio, capio (see Chap. X L V L ), from those verbs which. follow the
fbnrfch, such ns audio, erudio. This diflferenee between the long and short i
remains also in the other persons, with the except ion of the third singular,
which is short in all the íour conjugations; e. g. leg-tnms, le g íiis; m;dlmut,
cnulítis; for when i is followed by ¡inother vowel, it is short according to the
general rule that one vowel before another ís short. The long a was me:i-
tioned above as the charaeteristie of the íirst conjugation, but the verb 'daré
ís an exception, for the a here is not a mere part of the termination as in
laudara, but belongs to the stem of the word. The sylíable da in this verb
is short throughout, dSvuis, dalis, dábam, &c., with the only exception of the
monosy Hable forma dits and da.
[§ 153.] 2. In order to oh tai ti the forms of the other tensca,
we must further laiow the perfect and the supine; for the
three tenses of the completed action. in the active are derived
from the perfect; and the participle perfect passive, which is
neccssary for the formation of the same tenses in the passive, is
derived from the supine. These four principal forms, viz.
Present, Perfect, Supine, and Infinitive, end th u s : —
Praes. Perf. Supine. Infiuit.
1. o, üm. ñ iu m , á re
2. eo, ü i, itum, ere.
3. o, A) tu m , ere.
4. ws w ij Uunii tre.
Note. W c have here followed the example of all Latin graiumars and of
the Ilonian grsuiuuarians themselves, in regarding the supino as one of the
mam forms, tliat must be known in order to deríve others from it. But
the beginner must beware of supposing tlmt the two participles, of the
perfect passive and the futuro active, are derived in the same manner from
the supino as, for example, the pluperfuct Is from íhc perfect-; and that the
i 4

s u p i n e exista in all the verbs to whieh one is attributed in the díctionary

or grammar. The whoíe derivation is merely formal; and the supine
in fíict occurs very rarely. But ita existence is presupposed on account
of the two participios which do occur, in order tQ show the changes which
the sleni of the verb undergoes. I f we were to mentían the participle of
the perfect passive instead of the supine, we should do liltle better, since it
is wanting in all intransitiva verbs, though they may Lave the participle
future active; and again, if we were to mention tbe future participle, we
should find the same diíliculty, for it cannot be proved to exist in all verbs,
and in addition to this wo ought not to mention amoiig the main forms of
the verb 011c which is obviously a derivative form. Io dictionarics it would
be necessary to mention, first the participle perfect. or where it does not
occur, the participle future active; but if, as is the case in a grammar, we
have to show in one form that which is the basis of several changes, a
third form is necessary, and it is best to acquiesce in the supine. In making
use of the list which will be given bereafter, the beginner must always bear
in muid, that the supine is scarcely ever mentioned for its own sake, but
merely to enable him to form those two partieiples correctly.
3. W ith regard to the first, second, and fourth conjugations,
no particular rule is needed as to how tlie perfect and supine are
formed. According to the above sóbeme they a r e : —
1. laud-o, laud-avi, laud-atum, laud-are.
2. mon-eo. mon-ui, mon-ítum, mon-üre.
4. aud-is, aud-ivi , aud-tlum, aud-ire.
[§ 154.] 4. 13ut in the third conjugation the formation of the
perfect and supine presente some clifficulty. The following
general rules therefore m ust be observed (for the details, see
the list of verbs of the third conjugation). W hen the term i­
nation of the infmitive ere, or the o of the present tense, is
preceded by a vowel, the forms of the perfect and supine are
simply those mentioned above, that is, i and tum are added to
the stem of the verb, or to that portion of the verb which re-
mains after the removal of the termination, c. g. amere, acü-o,
acü-i, acü-tum. The vowel becomes long in the supine, even
when it is othenvise short. So also in mimio, statuo, tribuo, and
solvo, solütum, for v before a consonant is a vowel.
B u t when the o of the present is preceded by a consonant,
the perfect ends in si. The s in this termination is changed
into a* wben it is preceded by c, g, h, or qu (which is equal
to c ) ; when it is preceded by 5, this letter is changed into p ;
if d precedes, one of the two eonsonants must givo way, and
either the d is droppcd, which is the ordinary practico, or the s ;
e. g. duco, duxi; regó, rexi; traho , tra x i ; coquo, coxi; scribo,
scrip si ; ciando, clwusi, but drfendo, defendí. Verbs in po pre-

sent no difíiculty : carpo, c a rp si; sculpo, sculpsi. T hat hgo

makes legi, bibo, bibi, and emo, emi, is Irregular according to
what was remarked above: but figo, fi.x i; nubo, nupsi; demo,
demsi (or according to § 12. dempsi), are pcrfectly in accordance
w ith the rule.
5. The supine adds tum to the stem of the verb, with some
chango of the preceding consonants: b ia changed into p ;
g, h, and qit into c ; instead of dtum in the verbs in do, we find
suin, e. g. scribo, scriptum ; regó, rectum ; traho, tractum ;
coquo, cocturn (verbs in co rernain unchanged, as dictum,
ductum ); defendo, defensum ; ciando, clausura, The supine in
xam is a deviation from the rule, as in figo, fixuni, and so also
the throwing out of the n of the stem. as in pingo, pictum ;
siringo, strictum ; although this is not done without reason ; for
in several verbs of the third conjugation the n Ís only an in-
crease to strengthen the form of the present, and does not
originally belong to the ro o t; it is therefore throw n out both
in th e perfect and in th e supine, as in vinco, fundo, relinquo —
viví, victu m ; fu si, fiis u m ; reliqui, relictum ; or in the supine
alone, as in the two verbs mentioned before, and in Jingo, sup.
fictum . O f the words in which o is preceded by l, rn, n, r, or s,
only a few in vio follow the ordinary r u le ; e. g. como, demo;
perf. compsi, dem psi ; sup. comptum, dem ptum : all the others
have mixed forms.
6. Two irregularities are especially common in the formation
of the perfect of the third conjugation, The first is the addition
of a sylíable at the beginning of the verb, called reduplicaiion, in
which the first consonant of the verb is repeated either with the
vowel which follows it, or with an e, e. g. tundo, tutüdi; tendo,
tetendi; cano, cecini ; curro, cu cvrri; fallo, fefelli ; parco, peperci.
In the eompounds of such words the reduplicatíon is not used,
except in those of do, sto, disco, poseo, and in some of curro. The
second irregularity is th at many verbs of tlie third conjugation
form their perfect like those of the second, ju st as many verba
of the second malee that tense like those of the third. This is
the case especially with many verbs in lo and mo, as alo, alui,
alitum íaltum) ; molo, molui, m olitum ; gemo, gemui, gemitum.
Conccrning thia and other special irregularities, see the list
of verbs in Chap. L.
[§ 155,] 7. The derivation of the other tenses and forms of a
vei’b from these four (present, perfect, supine, and infinitive),

wliich are supposed to be ltnown, is easy and without irregu-

larity ia the detall.
From the infinitive active are form ed:
a) The imperativo passive, which has in all conjugations the
same form as the infinitive active.
bj The imperative active, by dropping the term ination re. I t
thus ends in conjugation, 1. in a, 2. <?, 3. e, 4. í, as ama, mone,
It'i/c, audi.
c) T he imperfect subjunctive active, by the addition of m, so
th at it ends iu the four conjugations in arem, erern, erem, trem,
e. g. amarem, monerem, legerem, audirem.
d) The imperfect subjunctive passive, by the addition of r, as
in amarer, monerer, lec/tírer, audirer.
tí) The infinitive present passive, by changing e into i, e. g . .
amari, moneri, audiri, but in the third conjugation the whole
termination ere is changed into i. as in leyere, legi.
F rom the present indicative active are derived:
a) The present indicative passive, by the addition of r, as
amor, moneor, legor, audior.
b) The present subjunctive active, by elianging the o into em
in the first conjugation, and in the three otliers into a m ; as,
aman, moneam, legam, audiam.
c) The present subjunctive passive, by changing the m of
the present subjunctive active i uto r ; as amer, monear, legar,
d') The impei'fect indicative active, by changing o into abam
in the first conjugation, in the second into bam, and in the
third and fourth into ebam. A change of the m into r malíes
the imperfect indicativo passive, e. g. amabam, am abar; mo-
nebam, monebar ; legebam, legebar ; audiebam, audiebar.
é) The first future active, by changing o into abo in the
first 'conjugation, in the second into ¿o, and ín the third and
fourth into am. From this is formed the first future passive by
adding r in the first and second conjugations, and by changing
m into r in the third and fo u rth ; e. g. laúdalo, laudabor ; mo­
ncho, monebor ; legam , legar ; audiam, audiar.
f ) The participio present active, by changing o in the first
conjugation into am , in the second into ns, and in the third and
fourth into en s; e. g. laudo, laudans ; moneo, monens ; lego,
h g m s ; midió, audiejia, From this participle is derived the

participle futuro passive, by changing ns into n d its ; e. g. aman-

dus, monendus, legendus, audiendus ; and the gerand: amandum,
monendum, legendum, audiendum.
From the perfect indicative active are derived:
a ) The pluperfect indicative, by changing i into erara: lauda-
veram, monuemm , legeram, audim ram .
b) The future perfect, by changing i into e ro : laudavero,
moniiero, legero, audivero.
c) The perfect subjunctive*, by changing i into érim ; lauda -
verim , monuerim, legarim, audiverim .
d ) The pluperfect subjunctive, by changing i into issem
(originally essem) : laudavissem, rnomiissem, lenissem, audivi&sem.
e) The perfect infinitive active, by changing i into isse
(originally esse): laudamsse , monuisse, legisse, audivisse.
From the supine are derived:
a ) The participle perfect passive, by changing um into us, a,
u m ; laudatus, a, u m ; monitus, a, um ; lectus, a, um ; aiiditus,
a, um.
b) The participle future active, by changing um into unís, a,
u m : laudaturus , a, u m ; moniturus, a, um ; heturus, a} u m ;
axtditurus , a, um.
B y meana of the forraer participle we form the tenses of the
passive, which express a completed action; and by means of the
participle future we may form a new conjugation expressing
actions wliich are to comc. See Chap. X L II I.



[§ 156.] T iie verb esse, to be, is called an auxiliary verb,

bccause it is necessary for the formation of some tenses of the
passive voice. It is also called a verb substantive, because it is
the most general expression of existence. Its conjugation is

* "VVe use this ñame because the tense is most commonly used in the sense
of a perfect subjunctive, although its form shows that it is in rcality the
subjunctive of tlie future perfect, the termination tiro being changed into
124 L A T IN GltAMMAR.

very irregular, being made up of parts of two different verbs,

the Greek slfil, ¿ o r í, '¿ao/juat (from which sim. and &um, est, eso
or ero, were easily formed)^ and the obsolete f u á , the Grreek
(f>vú>< The supine and gerund are wanting, b u t the inílection in
the persons is regular.
IN D IC A T IV E . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sin;?. Sum, I am. Sing'. Sim, I may be.
es, thou art. sis, thou mayst be.
est, lie is. sit, he may be.
Plur. sumus, we are, Plur. stmus, we may be.
estis, ye are. siíis, ye may be.
svnt, they are. sítU, they may be.
Sing. jEram, I was. Sing Essem, I might be.
eras, thou. wast. esses, thou mightst be.
oral, lie was. esset, he might be.
Plur. eramu$i we were. Plur, essemus, we might be.
erutis, ye were. essetis, ye might be.
crant, they were. essent, they might be.

Sing. E r o , I shall be. Instead o f a subjunctive, the parti­
eris, thou wilt be. ciple futurus is used with sim.
erit, lie will be.
Plur. erimus, wC shall be. Fidunis sim, sis, &c. I may he
erítis. ye will be. about to be.
crunt they will be.

Sing- Fui. I have been, or was. Sing. Fuerim, I may have been.
fuisti, thou hast been, or wert. fu e ris, thou mayst have been.
fu it, he has been, or was. fu e r it, lie may have been.
Plur. Juumt.t, wehave been, or were. Plur. fueriams, we may have been.
fuistis, ye have been, or were. fu e r itis, ye may have been.
fncrtivl, 1 tjje jlarve ijetín or were. fu erin t, they may have been.
fu ere, J

Sing. Fueram, I had been. Sin; Fuissem, I s h o u ld , o r w o u ld
have been.
fueras, thou ha.dst been. fuisses, t h o u s h o u l d s t , &C.
fucrat, he had been. fuisset, h e s h o u l d , &C.
T lm . fuerümus, we had been. Plur. fuissttrms, we s h o u l d , & e .
fuerátis, ye had been. fuissetis, ye s h o u l d , &e.
fm rant, they had been. fuissent, they should, &c.

I ndicative . S ejujunctive.
F uture Perfect.
Sing. Fuero, I shall have been. N o Subjunctive.
fu e ris, thou v/ilt have been.
f w r i t , be w ill liave been.
Plur. fterim u s, we shall have been.
fuerltis, ye will have been.
fu e rin t, they -will liave been.

I m p e r a t iv e .

Present, Sing. E s, be thou. Plur. es te, be ye.

Futuro, Sing. E sto, thou shalt be. Plur. estufe, ye shall be.
esto, he shall be. sunto, they shall be.

I n e ih x x iy e .

Present, state not terminated, esse, to be.

Perfect, terminated. filiase, to have been.
Future, futvrum (am, um) esse, or fo r e , to be about to be.

P abticiples .
Present, not terminated (ens), being.
Future, fu tü m s, a, um, one who is about to be.

Note. The participle ens is only used as a substantivo in philosophícal

language (see above, § 78. in fin.), and also in the two eompounds, absens
and praesens.
T he eompounds absmn, adsum, desitm, insum, intersum, obsitni, praesum,
¡nibsum, supersum, have the same conjugation as sum. Prosum inserts a d
T.'hen p ro is followed by e ; c. g. prodes, prodest, &c. Possum, I can (from
poL for polis, and sum) , lias an irregular conjugation. (See the irregular
verbs, § 211.)
The i in simus and sitis is long, and the e in erarn, ero, &c., is short, as is
indicated above in the conjugation itself, and also in the eom pounds: p ro -
simus, proderam , proderant, proderit, &e.
Siem, sies, siet, sim t, and fm m . fu a s, fita t, fu a n t (from the obsolete fu o ),
are antiquated forms for tlie eorresponding persons of sim, and oecur in the
eomic writers and in Luereiius. Instead of essem we have another form for
the i mper feet subjunctive, form n (likewise from fu o ), in the singular and
the third person plural. The infinitive fo re belongs to the same root.
Cicero rarely uses the form form n, but L ivy frequently, eapecsally in the
sense o f the conditional mood, “ I should be.” Other writers, especially the
poets and Tacitus, use it in all respecte like essem. The perfect fü v i, and
the tenses derived from i l, füccrarn, füvissem , fü vero, are other forms o í fu i,
&c., and occur in the earliest p o e ts; and in like manner we find, in the an­
cient language, escit, escunt, for crit and crant.

C H A P. X L II.


[§ 157.] I n the following table the terminations are separated

from the root of the verb, which renders it easy to conjúgate any
other verb according to these modela. Tlie verb lego (see Chftp.
X L .) is irregular in the formation of its perfect, but it has been
retained as-an example of verbs of the third conjugation, because
the very absence of any peculiar termination in the perfect is a
safeguard against misunderstandiugs which m ight arise; for
example, from duco, duxi; acribo, scrijpsi; or claudo, clausi.

F irst Conjugation.
I n d ic a t iv e . Suujostctiye.
Sing. Am -o, I lovc, Sing. Am -em , I may lovc.
am-ax, tliou lovest. am-Es. tliou mayst love.
arn-at, lie loves. ara-et, lie may lovc.
Plur. aru-ü'mus, we lovc Plur. am-émus, we may love.
am-üt.ts, ye lovc. am-ütis , ye may love.
ain-ant, tliey lovc. am-ent, they may love.
Sing. ani'abara, I lo ved,or I was Sing. am-árcm, I might lore.
am-cibcix, [loving. am-arés.
am-abat. am-aral.
Plur. am-abümm. Plur. am-aremus.
am-abáíis, am-aretis.
um -abanl am -arf.nl.
Sing. am-aho, I shall love,
Plur. am-ahí mus.
Sing. am-avi, I have lovod, or I Sing. am-avb'im, I may have loved.
am-avisti. [loved. am-averis.
ani-avil, am-averit.
Plur. am-avimits. Plur. am-avcrimus.
am -avistís. nm.-a ve rítis,
mn-acünmt (e). am-avurint.

I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. am-ave)'am, I liad loved. Sing. am-avissem, I miglit liave Ioved,
am-avcras. am-aoisses.
am-a.vcrat. am-auisset.
Plur. am-averü,mvs. Plur. wn-avissému-s.
am-avera tis. can-a msséüs.
am-averant. am-amssent.

Second Future, or Future Perfect.

Sing. am-avero, I sliall liave loved.
Plur. am-uverimus, -
I m p e r a t iv e .

Present, Siug. ain-a, love thou. Plur. am-áte, love ye.

Future, Sing. am-üto , thou shalt love. Plur. am-atóte, ye shall love.
am-üto, lie sliall love. am-nnio. they shall love,


Prcs. and Imperf. (or of an action still going on) am-üre, to love.
Perf. and Plupcrf. (or oí'un action completed) am-avisse , to liave loved.
Future, am-atiintm íi.mi?, to be about to love.


Gen. am -andi; Dat. am-ovrfo ; Acc. aw.-aralum ; Abl, am-ando.

S u p in e .
am -aütm ; ivm-atu.

P a r t i c i p i .e s .

Prcs. and Imperf. (of :m action still going 011) am-ans, loving.
Future, am-ahtnis, about to love.

Sccond Conjugation.
IN D IC A T IV E . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. Mon-ea, I advise, Sing. Mon-cam, I may advíse.
moa-es. mon-eüs.
mon-et. mon-cat.
Plur. mon-imus. Plur. mon-einmus,
mon-iitis. rnon-catis.
muu-cnt. mon-emit.

T d íd ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. mon-ebam, I advised, oí* I wasSing. mon-ere?n, I might advise. '
mon-ebüs. [advising. mon-crcs.
mon-ebat. _ mon-cret.
Plur. mm-ebümus. Plur. mon-erimus.
7non-ebütis. mon-ereíis.
mtm-ebant. mon-enitt.
Sing. mon-ébo, I shall advise.
Plur. mon-ehwms.
Sing. mon-üi, I have advised, or I Sing. mon-uerim, I may Lave advised.
molí uisli. [advised. mon-ueris.
mon-uit. mon-uerit.
Plur. mon-mmus. Plur. mon-nerimus.
man-uisti$. Tíion-uerltis.
mon-uérunt (e). mon-uerint.

Sing. mon-ueram, I had advised. Sing. mon-uissem, I should have ad-
m.ün-uerüs, mon-msses. [viscd.
mon-iuirat. mon-uisset.
Plur. mon-uerümus. Plur. mon-uissémus.
mon-uerátis. mon-iússetis.
mon-uerant. mon-uissevt.

Second Future, or Futuro Perfect.

Sing. vion-uero, I shall lrnve advised.
Plur. mmi-uerlmus.
I m p e k a t iv e .

Present, Sing. mon-é, advise thou. Plur. mon-vie, advise yo,

Future, Sing. mon^cto, thou shalí advise. Plur. mcm-etotc, ye shall advíse.
mon-ito, he shall advise. mon-ento, they shall advise.

I n f in it iv e .
Prcs. and Imperf. mon-cre, to advisc.
Perf. and Pluperf. vwn-uiasfí. to have advised.
Future, mon-iturum to he ahout to advise.

G erund.

Gen, mon-endi; Dat. mon-endo; Acc. mon~endum; Abl, mon-endo.

mon-itum; mon-itu.

P a h t i c i p i .e s .
Pres. and Imperf. mon-cns, advising.
Fuíurej mon-iturus, about to advise.

Third Conjugation,

I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e ,
Sing. Lcg-o, I read. Sing. Leg-am, I may read.
leg-ís. leg-ás.
leg-it. leg-at.
Plur. Ug-ímus. Plur. leg-avms.
leg-iti$. leg-atis.
leg-unt. Icg-anl.

Sing. leg-ebam, I read, or I was Sing. leg-erem, I might read.
leg-ebás. [reading. leg-erés.
leg-ebaí. leg-eret.
Plur. leg-elám us. Plur. leg-erémus.
leg-elatis. leg-eretis.
leg-ébant. leg-erení.

Sing. leg-am, I shall read.
Plur, leg-Smus.

Sing. leg-i, I have read, or I read. Sing. leg-erim, I may have read,
leg-isti. leg-eris.
leg-it. leg-erit.
Plur. leg-imus. Plur. leg-eñmus.
lag-istis. leg-eritís.
leg-érunt (e). leg-erint.


I t o l c a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
FI «perfect.
Sing. leg-eram, I had read. Sing. leg-issem, I should have read.
leg-erüs. leg-isses,
leg-erat. leg-isset.
Plur, leg-eramus. Plur. leg-issemm.
leg-eraíis. leg-issetis.
leg-erarrl, leg-is&ent.

Second Future, or Future Perfect.

Sing. Ifíg-ero, I shall have read.
Plur. hg-cñmu$.

Im r E tt a t t v e .

Present, Sing. leg-e, read thou. Plur. leg-ita, read ye.

Future, Sing- hg-íto, thou shalt vead. Plur. Icg-itóte, ye shall read.
lég-ito, he shall read. leg-wilo, the}' shall read.

I n f in it iv e .

Pres. and Imperf. leg-ere, to read.

Perf. and Pluperf. leg-isse, to have read.
Future, lec-turvm e.?.Sf?, to be about to read.

G erund.

Gen. leg-endi; Dat. leg-endo; Ace. leg-endum; Abl. hg-m do.

S u p in e .

Icc-íum; lec-tu.

P a r x ic ip l e s .

Prcs. and Imperf. leg-ens, reading.

Future, lec-turus, about to read.

Fourth Conjugation,
I k d i c a t i v is, S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. Aiul-io, I hear. Sing. Aud-iam, I may hear,
aud-is. avd-ias.
atid-ü. aud-iat.
riur. aud-lmus. Plur, aud-iámus.
aud-ltis. aud-iatis.
aud-iunt. aud-iant.

Sing. aud-iebam, I heard, or I wasSing, avd-irem, I might hear,
aud-iebüs. [hearíng, aud-irés.
aud-iebat. ctud-iret.
Plur. tíiíd-iebámus. Plur. aud-iremux.
aud-ielütis. aud-irens.
avÁ-u:bant. aud-irent.
Sing. aud-iam, I slia.ll hear.
Plur. aud-ieimis.
Sing. aud-wi, I have heard, or Iheard. Sing. aud-ioerim, I may have heard,
attd-ioisli. aud-iveris.
aud-ivit. muí-iverit.
Plur. üud-nñnMU. Plur. and-iverimus.
aud-ivistis. aud-iveritis.
üud-iverunt (e). aud-iverint.

Sing. aud-iveram, I liad heard, Sing, aud-ivissem, I might have heard.
and-roerás. ' aud-ivisses.
aud-iverat. aud-ivisset
Plur. aud-iverümus. Plur. aud-ivis$emm.
aud-iveratis. and- ivi ssétis.
aud- iverant. au d- imsscnt.

Sueond Put uve, or Future Perfect.

Sing. aud-docro, I shall have heard.
mid-iueris. . . ..
Plur. úud-ivcrlmus.
k 2

I m p e h a t t v 'i i .

Present, Sing. aud-i, hear thou. Plur. awl-ite, hear ye.

Future, Sing, aud-ito, thou sluilt hear. Plur. aud-itote, ye shall Lear.
aud-íto, he sliall liear. aud-iunto, they shall hear.

I n f in it iv e ,

Pres. and Iniperf. aud-ire. to hear.

Perf. and Pluperf. aud-ivisse, to have lieard.
Future, aud-iturum esse, to be about to hear.


Gen. aud-iendi; Dat. aud-iendo ; Ace. aud-iendum ¡ Abl. aud~ieiido.

S u p in e .

aud-Uum; aud-iiu.
P a r t ic ip io s .

Pres. & Imperf. aud-iens, liearing.

Future, aud-iturus, about to hear.


F irst Conjugation.
I n d i c a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. Am -or, I am loveá. Sin". Am-er, I may be ¡oved.
am-áris (fi). am-cris (f),
am-atur. am-ctii.r.
Plur. am-amur. Plur. am-emnr.
ctm-amini. am-emini.
am-antur. a-m-enftir.

Sing. am-abar, I was loved, or I was Sing, am-arer, I might be loved.
am-abáris (e). [being loved, am-arerta (e).
am-ahatur. am.-arclur,
Plur. am-ohamur. Plur. am-aremur.
am-abamini. am-aremini.
am.-aba.ntar. am-arerdur.

Sing. am-abor, I shall be loved.
am-áberis («).
Plur. am-ábimwr.

Sing. am-atus («, um) sum, I liaveSing- am-átus (a, um) sim, I may
been loved, or I was loved. have been loved.
am-atus es. am-átus sis.
am-atus est. am-átus sii.
Plur. am.-ah (ae, a) vaina. Pliu. am-ati (ae, a) simas,
am-ati estis. am~ali sitis.
am-ati sunt. am-üli sint.

Sing. am-átus (a, um) eram,I Sing. am-átus (a,um) essem,, I might
liad been loved. have been loved.
am-átiis eras. _ am-átus esses.
am-átus erat am-átus esset
Plur. am-áti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. am-ati (ae, a) essemus,
am-ati eratis. am-áti essetis.
am-ati crant. am-áti essent,

Second Future, or Future Perfect.

Sing. am-ütus (a, um) ero, I shall have been loved.
am-atus eris.
am-ülíis erit,
Plur. am-áti (ae, d ) erimus.
am-ati eritis.
uni-áli crunt.

I m p e r a t iv e .

Present, Sing. atn-are, be thou loved. Plur. am-amini, be ye loved.

Future, Sing. am-ator, thou shalt be loved. Plur. am-aminor, ye shall be loved.
am-ator, he shall be loved. am-anto?', they shall be loved.

I n f in it iv e .

Pres. and Imperf. (or of a passive state still going on), am-ari, to be loved.
Perf. and Pluperf. (or of a state completad), am-cdum (am, um) esse, lo have
been loved.
Future, am-atum iri, to be about to be loved.

P a r t ic ip l e s .
Perfect, am-átus, a, um, loved.
In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Neceasity), am-andus, a, nm,
deserving or requiring to be loved.

Second Conjugation.
I n d i c a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e ,
Sing. Mon-eor, I am advised. Sing. Mon-ear, I may lie. advised.
mon-éris (e). mon-earis (e).
moa-etur. mon-eatur.
Plur. mon-emur. Plur. mon-eamur.
•nwii-emini. mon-eamini.
mon-eníxi'. mon-eantur.
Sing. mon-ébur, I was advised, orSing. mvn-érer, I might be advised.
I was being advised.
mon-ebaris (e). mon-ertris (e).
■mm-ehotur. mon-eretur.
Plur. moJi^ebamur. Plur. mon-eremur.
■mon-ebamim. mon-eremim.
mon- abantar. mon-erentur.
Sing. /non-cbor, X shall be advised.
mon-eberis (e)-
Plur. mon-ebimur.
Síng. mon-itus (a, um) siun, I have SiiiK m o u 'itm ( a, u m ) sim , I nm v
been advised, or I was adv. have been advised.
mon-Üus es. m o n -íiu s sis.
mon-ítus est. m o n -itu s sit.
Plur. mou-iíi (ae, a) santas, Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) shnv.s,
mon-íli estis. mon-iti sitis.
mon-iti sunt. •mon-íh sint,
Sing. mon-ítus (a, ’.tni) eram, Sing. mon-itus (a, um) cssem, I
had been advised. should have been advised.
mon-ílus eras, mon-ítus esses.
m on-itw erat. mon-itus es,set.
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) eramos, Plur, mon-iti (ae, a) essemus.
mon-iti eratis. mon-iti essetis.
mon-iti crant. j/wn-iti essent.

Second Future, ov Futuro Perfect,

Sing. mon-itus (a, um) ero, I shall have been advised.
mon-itus eris.
mon-ítas erit.
r iu r, mon-iti (ae, n) erimus.
Mon-tli eritis.
moii-iii enmt.

I m p jjb a t iv e .

Present, Sing. mon-ere, be thou advised. Plur. m on-emni, be ye advised.

Future, Sing. moti-íLor, thou shalt be Plur. mon~eminor, ye sball be
advised. advised.
tnon-éíor, he shall be &e. mon-entor, they Ehall be &c.
I n íin it iv e .
Pres. and Imperf. mon-eri, to be advised.
Perf. and Pluperf. nwu-íhan (am, um) esse, to have been advised.
Future, man-itum iri, to be about to be advised.
P a b t i c i p í £ s.
Perfect-, m o n -itu s, advised.
In das (commonly called Future, or Future of N ecessity), mon-endus, de-
serving or requiring to be advised.

T hird Conjugation.
I n d i c a t iv a . SU B JU M C TIV E .
Sing. L eg-or, I am read, Sing. Leg-ar, I may be read.
leg-eris (e) • leg-ñris (e).
h g-itu r. leg-atur.
Plur. Icg-ímur. Plur. leg-amur.
Icg-imim. leg-amini.
Icg-mdur. Icg-antur.
Sing. leg-ebar, I was read, or I. was Sing, leg -erer, I might be read.
leg-ebüris (e). [being read. leg-er&ris (e).
leg-ehaiur. leg-eretur.
Plur. leg-ebatnur. Plur. lag-cromur.
leg-ebamini. leg-eremim.
leg-ebantur. leg-erentur.
Sing. leg-av, I sliall be read.
leg-éris (é).
Phtr. leg-émur.
Sing. lec-tus (a, um) sitm, I Lave Sing. lec-tus, (a, ton) sim, I may have
been read, or I ivas read. been read.
lec-tus es. lec-tus sis.
lec-tus est. lec-tus •'¡it.
Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) sumus. Plur . lec-ti (ae, a) simiis.
lee-(i cstis, lec-ti sitis.
lec-ti snnt. lec-ti ¡lint.
k 4

I n d ic a t iv e . S u u j o n c t iv e .
Sing, lec-tus (a, um) eram,I Sing. lec-tus (a, um) essem, I should
bad been read. Imve been read.
léc-tus eras, lec-tus esses.
lec-ttis erat. hc-tus esset.
Plur. lee-ti (ae, a) eramus. Plur, lee-ti (ae, a) essemtts.
lec-ti eratis, lec-ti essetis.
lec-ti erant. lec-ti essent,

Second Future, or Futura Perfect.

Sing. lee-tas (a, um) ei'o, I sliall have been read.
lec-tus eris.
lec-tus erit,
Plur. lec-tí erimus.
lec-ti eritis.
lec-ti errnt.

I m p e r a t iv e .
Present, Sing. leg-ere, be thou read. Plur. teg-im ivi, be ye read.
Future, Sing. leg-itor, thou shalt be read. Plur, leg-iminor, ye shall be read.
leg-itor, lie shall be read. leg-untor, they shall ba read.

L n iin it iv íj.
Prea. and Imperf. leg-i, to be read.
Perf. and Pluperf. lec-tum (am, uni) esse, to have been read.
Future, lec-tum iri, to be about to be read.

P a r t ic ip io s .
Perfect, lec-tus, read.
In dus (eommonly called Future, or Futuro of N ecessity), leg-endm , de-
serving or requivíng to be read.

Fourth Conjugation.
INDICATIVA. S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. Áud-ior, I am heard, Sing. A ad-iar, I may be heard,
aud-iris (e). aud-iüris (e),
aud-ltur. aud-iatur.
Plur, aud-vmur. PIui’. aud-iamur.
aud-imini. aud-iamini.
aud-iuntur. aud-ianiur.
Sing. aud-icbar. I was heard, or I Sing. aud-irer, I might be heard.
was being heard,
aud-iebáris (e). aud-iréris (c).
avÁ-iebatar. aud-irelur.

I h d i c a t iv e . S t jb jt jk c t l v e .
Plur. aud-iebamur, Plur. aud-iremur.
aitd-iebamíni. aud-iremim.
aud- ¡.chantar. aud-irentur.
Sing. aud-iar, I símil be heard. *
aud-ieris (e).
Plur. aud-iemur.
Sing. aud-itvs (a, uní) sum, I have Sing. aial-Uus (a. uní) sim, I muy
been heard, or I was heard. have been heard.
aad-Uus es. aud-ííus sis.
aud-itus est. aiid-itiis sit.
Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. aud-iti (ae, d) simus.
aud-iti estis. aud-iti sitis.
aud-iti sunt. aud-iti sint.

Sing-. aud-itus (a, wm) eram,I Sing. aud-itus (a, am) essem, I might
had been heard. have been heard.
aud-itus eras. aud-itus esses.
aud-itus erat. aud-ltus esset,
Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) cssamus.
aud-iti eratis. aud-lti essetis.
aud-iti erant. aud-lti essent.

Second Future, or Future Perfect.

Sing. aud-Uus (a, um) ero-, I shall have been heard.
aud-itus é í ' Í s .
aud-itus erit.
Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) erimus.
aud-iti eritis.
aud-lti erunt.
I mpueative .
Present, Sing. aud-irc. be thou heard. Plur. aud-imim, be ye heavd.
Future, Sing. aud-ítor, thou slialt be heard. P lu r.aud-iminor,y e shallbe heard.
aud-ítor, he shall be heard. aud- iuntor, they shall be &c.

I n f in it iv e .
Prcs. and Imperf. aud-iri, to be heard.
Perf. and Pluperf. aud-ltura (am, um) esse, to have been heard.
Future, aud-itum iri, to be about to be heard.

P a r t ic ip l e s .
Perfect, aud-itus, heard.
Iu dus (commonly called Future, or Future of ííecessíty ), aud-iendus, de-
serviug or requiring to be heard.


[§ 139.] W ith regard to conjugation the deponent diffcrs from

the passive only by the fact th at it has both the partieiples
of the active and of the passive volee, that is, for all the three
statcs of an action : that in ns for an action not completecl; that
in u s, a, um for an action com plcted; and that in unís, a, um
for one about to take place. The fourth participle in ndus with
a passive signification is an irregularity, and is used only in
those deponente which have a transitive signification ; e. g, hor-
tandus, one who should be exhorted. O f deponente which haye
an intransitivo meaning, e. g. toqui, this participle is used only
sometimes, chieíly in the neuter gender (often, but erroncously,
called the gerund), and in a some what different sense, c. g.
loquenduni est, there is a necessity for speaking. I t will be
sufficient in the following table to give the first persone of each
tense, for there is no difficulty, except th at these verbs with a
passive form have an active meaning.
A . I n d ic a t iv e .
ls t Conjug. 2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4Lh Conjug.
S. hort-m\ I e x - ver-eor, I fcar. sequ-ar, I follow. hland-ior, I flalter.
P. liort-amur. ver-emur. sequ-imur. hland- imur.

S. hort-ábar. ver-ébar. sequ-i bar. hland-iebar.
P. hort-abamnr. tey-ebamur. sequ-ebaniar. bland-iebarmir.

First Future.
S. hort-abor. var-ebor. sequ-ar. bland-iar.
P. hnrt-ahímii)'. l'er-ebhnur. sequ-emur. htand-iém-ur.

S. hort-atas (a, vcr-itus (a, um) secü-ius (a, jmi) bland-itus (a, uni)
um) sum. sim . sum. sum.
P. Jtort-ati (ae, ¡i) ver-iti (ae, a) su- sccü-ti (ae, á) su- bland-íti ( ae, a) su-
summ. mus, 7ñus. mus.

S. hort-atns (a, vcr-iian (a, íini) secu-tus (a, um) bland-ihti (a, um)
um) eram. eram. eram. eram.
P. Iwrt-aii (fíe, i?) ver-iti (ae, ti) era- scvu-li (m ,a ) era- bland-üt (ae, a) era-
e ramas. v w.s. mus. mus.

' I st Conjug. 2d Conjug. «íd Conjug. 4th Cimjug.

Future Perfect.
S. hort-alxis (a, ver-itus ( a, um) secu-tus (a, um) blaml-iius ( a, uní)
?tm) ero. ero. ero* ei'o.
P. hort-ati (ae, d) ver-iti (ae, a) eri- sccu-ti (ae, a) erí- bland-iti ( ae, a) eri-

Ü . SiriiJUNCTIVli.

S. hort-er. ver-ear. sequ-ar. blaníl-iar.
P. hort-emur. ver-eamur. sequ-amur. bland-iaimir.

S. kort-arer. der-erer. seqa-erer. bland-irer,
P. hort-aremur. ver-cremur. sequ-eremur. bland-iremur.
S. hort-atus (a, ver-iías (a, um) seca-tus (a, um) bland-itus (a, utn)
um) sim, sim. sim. sim.
P. Jtort-aü (ae, a) ver-iti (ae, a) si- sevu-ti (ae, a) si- bianü-iti (ae, á) si~
simus, mus. mus. mus.
S. hort-atus (a, ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um') bland-itus (a, um.)
um) essem. essem. essem. essem.
P. hnrt-ati (ae, d) ver-iti (ae, a) es- sccu-ti (ae, a) es­ bland-ÍM (ae, a) cs-
essemus. semus. semtis. seimis.

C. I m p e r a t i v e .
S, 2. Iwri.-arr. ver-ere. sequ-ere. bland-ire.
P. 2. hort-amini. ver-emini. sequ-imini. bland-imini.
I1'u tu re.'
S. 2, hort-ator. ver-etor, sequ-itor. bland-ítor.
3. hort-ator. ver-etor. sequ-itor. bland-itor.
P . 2. (is iv a n tiu g , but is supplied by tlie Putuvc Indicative.)
3, hort-antor. ver-eritor. sequ-untor. bland-iuntur.

D . I nfinitivu .
Present and Iinperfcet,
hort-ari. vcr-cri. sequ-i. bland-iri.
Perfect and Pluperfect.
hart-atum (am, ver-itum (am, um) secu-tum (am, um)blnnd-itum (am, uní)
um) esse. esse. esse. esse.
ftort-aticmm (am. ver-ihirum (am, secu-iurum (am,bland-iturum (am,
um) esse. um) esse. utn) esse. vm) esse.
140 J.A T IN GR.AMJI.Ali.

E . G erund.
Gen. horl-andi. ícr-endi. saqu-mdi. blalíd-iendi.
D at. hort-ando. ver-endo. sequ-endo. bland-iendo.
Acc. hort-andum. ver-endum. sequ-endum, bland-iendum.
Abl. hort-ando. ver-endo. sequ-endo. bland-iendo.

F . P a r t ic ip l e s .
Present. and Imperfect.
hort-ans. ver-eos. sequ-ens. bland-iens.

Perfect and Pluperfect.

horl-atus, a, am. ver-itas, a, um. secü-tus, a, um.. bland-itus, a, um.

hort-aiuras, a,um. ver-iturtts, a, um. secu-tarus, a, um. bhmd-itxirus, a, um.

Future, witli Passive Signification.

horí-atidm, a, um. ver-ciidtts, a, um. sequ-endus, d, um. bland-ieudüs, a, um.

(r. S u p in e .

1. hort-atum. vur-ítum. secü-tum. bland-ilam,

2. hort-atu. ver-itu. secü-tu. bland-itu.

Note. The supine seculum and the participle secutas are analogous to
sohdum and solutas, from solrn, in pronunciaron and ortliography ; for the
consonant which is audible in the present sequor, is saftened into the
vowel w, and lengthened according to the rule mentioned nbove, § 154. In
seqmtlum, as some persona ■write, the additional vowel u cannot be explaíned
in any way. The same is the case with loctdum from loquor. (Coiap. above,
§ o. in fin,)



[§ ico.] 1. In the terminationa avif em, and ivi of the tenses

expressing a completed action, viz. of the perfect and pluperfect*
indicative and subjunctive,, and of the future perfect, as well as
of the infinitive perfect active^ a sjncopation takes place.
a) In the first conjugation the v ia dropped and the vowels a-i
and a-e ave contractcd into a long a. This is the case wherever
avi is followed by an s, or ave by an r ; e. g. amavisti, amasti ;
amauissem, amássem ; umavisse. amásse ; amavenmt, am árunt;

amaverim, amdrim ; amaveram , amáram ; amoverá, amaro,

&c. Both fonns, the cntire and the contracted one, are on the
whole of the same valué, but the latter seems to be chicfiy
used, when the contracted vowel is followed by an s, whereas
the entire form wag preferred in those cases where an r folio ws,
although even in this case L ivy is rather partial to the con­
tracted form ; e.g. vindicarimuSy oppugnarimus, necarinms, ma-
turarim us; in Cicero too it is not uncommon. A contracted
forra of the verb ju vare (adjuvare) occurs only in the more
ancient language ; e, g. adjuro for adjuvero in a verse of Ennius
(ap. Cic. Cat. M aj. 1.).
b) The termination evi in the second and third conjugations
is treated in the same m anner ; e. g. neo, I spin, nevi, nésti,
n&slls, nerunt, Thus we often find compléssem, delúram, and in the
third conjugation consuerunl for consueverunt} quwssem, decr essem,
decrésse for decrevisse; siris, sirit, for siveris and siverit. The
termination ovi however is 'contracted only in novi, novisse, with
its eompounds, and in the eompounds of moveo, m oví ; e. g.
norunt, noxse, cognóram, cognvro, commossem.
c) In the fourth conjugation m i is frequently contracted be­
fore s, henee instead of audimsse, au divisü au divissem , we find
audísse, audisti, audíssem, and in the time of Quintilian the
latter forms must have been more commonly used than the
others. B u t there is another form of the tenses expressing a
completed action, which arises from simply throwing out the v :
audiij, audiissem, audicram, audiei'o. B u t it must be observed
th at those forms in wliich two i meet are not used at all in good
prose (as in Cicero), except in the eompounds of the verb ire (see
§ 205.), and are found only here and there in poetry, as in Virgil:
audüt, viugüt, muniit, especially when the word would not
otherwise suit the dactylic hexameter, as for example oppetn,
impédiit. In those forms, on the other hand, where i and e meet,
the v is frequently thrown ont even in good prose; e. g. andie-
runt, desierunt, dejimeram, quaesieram.
Note. A contraction occurs in the perfect of the first, second, and fourth
conjugations, when a t or m follows; the forms of the perfect then be-
come externally like those of the present tense, and can be distinguished
only in some cases by the length of the vowel. This contraction occurs only
in poetry, but not very commonly. Some grammarians have denied it alto-
gether, and have endeavoured to explain such passages by supposing that
they contain an enallage, that is, an interchange of tenses; but such a sup-

position involves still greater tlifiicultics. Priscian, in several passages, uien-

tions tlie contracted forma fu m ü t, midli, cu.pii, for fum a vit, audivit, cupivit, as
of corauaon occurrence, wln'eh at least snpports in general the view of the
ancient grammarians, although it doesnofi render an examination of the par­
ticular passages aupei-fluous. We shall pass over the less decisive passages\ but
it for iii is undtíniable in petiit (in Virg. Aen. bt. 9.) : desit (in Martial, iii.
75. 1,, and x, 86. 4.); abit, obit, and p erit (in Juvenal, vi. 128. 559. 295.
563., and x. 118.). We aceordingly eonsider that qmtm ednrmit, in Horace
(S'erm. ii. 3. 61.), is likewise a perfect. Iu the first and secoml conjugations
there are some instances which cannot be denied. To view donat in Horace
(Serm. i, 2. 5G-) as a present would be exceedingly forced; but if we eon­
sider it as a contracted períect, it quite agrees with the construction. Com­
pare Terent. Adelph. iii. 3. 10.: omnem rem modo sani quo pacto haberet
e n a r r a m u s ordine; Propert. ii. 7, 2,: f i e m us uterque din ne nos divideret.
Lastly, the first person in ii is found contracted into i; Persius, iii. 97.:
sepelí; Seneca, JIcrc. Oet. 48.: redi; Claudian, in üiifin. ii. 387.: unde redi
2. A nother syncopution, which frequently occurs in early
Latínj and is made use of even in the later poetícal language of
Virgil and Horace, consists in the throwing out of the syllable
is in the perfect and pluperfect of the third conjugation after an
s or an x ; e.g. evasti, for evasisti; dixti, for d ix isti; divisse, for
divisisse ; admisse for admisisse; sis is tbrown out in perciisti for
percitssistí in H o race; iss too is rejected in forms like surrexe,
for surrexisse; consumpse, for consumpsisse; so also abstraxe, for
abstraxisse ; alsccssan, for abscessisxem ; erepsemus, for erepsisse-
mus3 and others.
[§ 161 .] 3. The forms of the future perfect and of the perfect
subjunctive in the first conjugation in asso and assim, for overo
and averim ; in the second in esso and essim, for uero and uerim ;
and ín the third in so and sim, for ero and erim, are obsolete.
Numerous instances of these occur in ancient forms of laws (and
in later imitationa of such forms) and in P lautus and Terence.
Note. Tn this manner are formed, commonstrasso, levasso, peceasso, creas-
,‘tit, cooptassit, imperassit, and many others of the first conjugation. The
following belong to the second : licessit., cohibessit, prohibessis, and misan.
Cap so, capsis, ca.psit, capsimus, accepso. rapsit, surrepsit, occisit, incensit,
adempsit) aximt adaxiní, taxis, ohjcxhrt, objexis, and others, occur in the third
conjugation. The following forms deserve especial mention : fa x o , fa rim ,
fa xit, faxim us (Plaut. Truc. i. 1. 40-), faxiti.s, faxhit. B iit there is no in­
stante of such a syneopation in the fourth conjugation. W e believe that this
form is to be explained by the ancient interchange of r and s (comp. § 7.)
and a syncopation : henee the transition wouki be this : levavero— levaveso —
leoasso ¡ acccpero—accepesa— accnpso ; ademero — ademeso — adempso ; oc-
riderit— occidesit— occisit, where the d before the s is dropped, as in incm-
deríf, incenr.it. The few words of the second conjugation seem to liave
been formed in this manner, on the model of the very numcroiis words
of the third, The irregularitv in fonning the perfect of words oí’ the third

conjugation ('capso> accupso, faxo, and azi-m, instead of fcxo, exmi) ís in

accordanee with thes ancient language: thus taxis is derived from tago, tavgo,
and ausim from tlie perfect ausi, whicli haa fallen into disuse. The
form in so is acknowledgcd to liave the meaning of a future perfect: one
example may suffice : Emúus a.p. Cic, Cat. M aj. L ; si quid ego adjuro (for
adjuvero) euramve levasso, eequid et'it praemi ? For this and other reasons
we cannot adopt Madvig's view {Opuse, toro. ii. nr. 2.), that this íorni is a
future made according to the Greek fasliion: levo, levasso, like ^eXiíw,

A few remnants only of tilia formation remained in use in

the best period of the L atin language; e. g. jusso for jussero in
Virg. Aun, xí. 467.; and jfeto, in tlie sense of “ I w ill” or “ am
determiued to do” (see § o l í .) in poetry, and in Livy, vi. 35.,
fa x o ne ju vet vox ista Veto, I will take care that this word Veto
shall be of no avail to yon, B ut especially the subj unclive fa x it,
fa x in t , expressing a solemn wish, as Cicero {in Verr. iii. 35.) says
in a prayer, dii immortales f a x in t; and L ivy (xxix.-27.) in a
prayer says, dii — fa x itis — auxitis; and in a subordínate sentenco
in Horace, Scrm. ii. 6. 15., oro ni fa x is, and in Persius, i. 112.,
veto quisquam fa x it. L astly ausim and ausit as a subjunctive
expressive of doubt or hesitation— CCI m ight venturo/’— oc-
curs in Cicero, JBruL 5., and frequently in Livy and Tacitas.
From these and the numerous passages in P lantas and Terence.
however, it ís elcar that this subjunctive in sim never has the
signification of a perfect subjunctive, but, in accordanee with
its formation, it retains the meaning of a future subjunctive.
Note. In the ancient Latin language we find íi passive voicc of this form
of the future ; viz. turbassiiur, in a law in Cic. de Leg. ni. 4,, and jussiñir iu
Cato, de lie Rust. 14., instead of turbatum fu e rit and jiissus fu e r i t ; and the
deponent mercasiátwr in an inscription (Grutcr, p. 512. line 20.), for mer-
caius fuerit. An infinitive also, with the signification of a first future active,
is formed from. i t : as in Piautus: expugnassere, impetrassere, rcconciliassere;
and iu Lucretius (F m gni. Non. ii. 218.) : depcculasscre et deargentassere
(consequently only in verbs of the first conjugation); for which, in later
times, the circumlocution expvgruiturivm esse, &c. was used exclusively.

[§ 162 .] 4. In the remains of the early L atin language, and

sometimes also in the poetical productions of the best age, the
infinitive passive is lengthened by annexing the sylíable er; e= g.
amarier, mercarier, labier, leqier, m iliier; the e in the term i­
nation of the imper feet of the fourth conjngation is thrown out,
e. g. nutribam, lejiiba.ni, scibam, Jargibar, for nutriebam, leniebam,
sciebam , largiebar, — and the future of the same conjugation
is formed in iba instead of iam ; e. g. seibo, servibo, for sciam,

serviam (the two last peculiarities are rctaincd, in ordiuary

language, only ia tlie verb iré ) ; and lastly, the termination im
is used for em and am in the present subjunctive of tlie first and
third conjugations* but only in a few verbs ; e. g. edivi and co-
medim for edam and comedam , frequently occur in P la u tu s ; also
in Cicero, ad Fam„ ix. 20. in fin,, and Horace, Ejjod. iii. 3., and
Serm. ii. 8. 90. Duim for dem, and perduim for perdam, from
dúo and perdito, ancient forms of these verbs, ave found also in
prose in forms of prayers and im precations; e. g. Cic. in Catil.
i. 9., pro Dejot. 7. The same form has been preserved in the
irregular verb volo, with its compounds, and in sum: velim, no-
lim, malim, and sim.
[§ 163.] 5. F o r the third person plural of the perfect active
in erunt there is in all the conjugations another form, ere, which
indeed does not occur at all in Ncpos, and in the prose of Cicero
very rarely (see Cic. Orat. 47., and my note on Cic. in Verr. i.
6.), but is very frequently used by Sallust and later writers,
especially by the historians, Curtius and Tacitus. In the con­
tracted forms of the perfect this termination cannot well be
used, because the third person plural of the perfect would in
most cases become the same as the infinitive ; e. g. if we were to
form : amaverunt, amarunt, amare; or deleverunt, delerunt, delere,
The vowel e, Ín the uncontracted termination erunt, is some­
times shortened by poets, as in Horace, E pist. i. 4. 7 .: D i tibí
divitias dedérunt artemque J'ruendi; and Virg., Aen. ii. 774. :
ohstupid steteruntque cornac, vox faueibus haesit.
[§ 164.] 6. The four verbs, dicere, ducere, facere, and ferre,
usually reject the e in the imperative (to avoid am biguity):
henee we say dic, duc, f a c ,f e r , and so also in their compounds,
as edue, effer, perfer, calefac, with the exception of those com­
pounds of facere which change a into i; e. g. co-nfice.. perfice.
Inger for ingere is rare and antiquated.
O f scire the imperative sci is not in use, and its place is sup-
plied by the imperative future scito. Scitote is preferred to
scife in order to avoid the possible confusion with scite, the ad~
verb, which signifies “ sldlfully.”
Note. The imperative future of tlie passive voice, but more especially of
deponents, has some irrcgularities in the early language and later imitationa
of i t : a) The active form is used instead of the passive o n e; thus we find
arbítralo, amplexato, utito, nüito, for arbitrator, amplexaíor, & c.; and ceiisento

for censentor ,■ uhaüo. tuento, paiiunto, in lawa. (See Cié. de Leg. ¡ii. 3. fol.j
b) In the second and third persons singular we not unconnnonly find the
forms hortamino, veremino, and others, for hortoior, veretor, &c. The forms
antestamino, arbitramino, praefumino, profitemino. fruim ino, and progredhninn,
occur in Cato, Plautus, and in lawa; and passages of this kind have given
rise to the erroneous opinion that there is a second person plural in mitwr,
such as hortammor.
[§ 165.] 7. Respecting the quantity of the i in the terminations-
rimus aud ritis, in the future perfect and the perfect subjunctive,
the statements of the ancient grammarians not only differ, but
contradict one another. The poets use it long or short ac-
cording as the verse requires i t ; though to judge from tbe
analogy of erimus, eñtis, it seems to be naturally short. In
connection with this (comp. § 29.) it must be observed, th at the
term ination ris of the second person singular ie used by poeta
both long and short, as in Ilorace, Scrm. I I . 2. 74., Carm. I I I .
23. 3., and IV . 7. 20 and 21., and in the following distich of
Ovid, Amor. I. 4. 31.:
Quae tu reddiderís, ego priinus pocula sumain,
Et qua tu biberis, hac ego parte bibam :

where however the influence of the caesura also has its effeot.
[§ 166.] 8. Instead of the termination ris in the second person
in the passive, re is also used, and with Cicero this is the common
termination in the present and imperfect subjunctive, and in the
imperfect and future indicative, even in cases where the repe-
tition of the syHable re produces a disagreeable soand, as in
vererere, pro Quiñi. 16., in Verr. iii. 18.; mererere, D ivin. 18., de
Fin. ii. 35. In the present indicative, on the other hand, re is
used for ris only in the following passages: D ivin. 12. in fin,
and in Verr. iii. 80. in it.: a rbitrare; pro Balb. 18.: delectare ;
Pkilip. ii. 4 3 .: inaugurare ; ad Fam. vi. 21.: recordare; and
v. 13.: videre. Such forms as amere, moneare, loquare, audiare;
amarete, amabare, amab¿re¡ monsrére, loquerere, &c. are of
common oceurrenee in all the conjugations.
[§ 167.] 9. The participle future passive of the third and fourth
conjugations (including the deponents) is formed in undus in­
stead of endus, especially when i precedes. In the verb potior
potiundus is the usual form. In other verbs it seems to have
been indifferent which of the two forms was used ; though
in some phrases, such as, inJinibus dividundis or regundis, in ju re
dicicjidot there seems to have been something conventional in the

use of these forms. W e m ust leave it to the student’s own ob-

servation to collect other peculiarities of this kind. Respecting
the yerbal, adjectives in hundas, see § 248.
[§ íes.] 10. This is the place to speak of what is called the
conjugatio periphrastica, or the conjugation by circumlocution.
This ñame is applied in general to any conjugation formed by
means of a participle and the auxiliary verb esse; bu t it is
usually limited to the conjugation formed by means of the two
partieiples future, in the active and passive, and of the verb
esse, for a conjugation made up of the participle present and
esse does not occur in Latin, (e. g., amans sum would be the
same as amo,) and the coinbinations of the participio perfect
passive with sum, sim, eram, essem, ero, esse, are considerad as a
part of the ordinary conjugation of a verb in the passive voice,
as «for example amatas eram, which is the pluperfect passive of
amo. B u t it must be observed, that in the conjugation of the
passive theperfeets of esse are sometimes used instead of the above-
mentioned forms for an incomplete action, such as sum, eram,
ero, &c. Amatum fuisse, therefore, is equal to amatum esse, as
an infinitive perfect passive ; amatus fueram is equí valen t to
amatus eram,, and amatus fuero to amatus ero. Amatus fuero,
in particular, is used so frequently for amatus ero, that formerly
it was looked upon as the ordinary future perfect passive, and
was marked as such in the tablea of the four conjugations.* B ut
when the participle is used in the sense of an adjective, and
expresses a permanent state, a differenee is clearly discerniblc;
e. g. epístola scripta est, when it is a perfect tense, significa
the letter has been w ritte n ; bufc if scripta is conceived as an
adjective (in contradistinction to a letter not written), the
meaning is, the letter is w ritten, and epístola scripta fuit. , in
this case, would signify, tlic letter has been w ritten (has been
a w ritten one), or has existed as a w ritten one, meaning, that
at present it no longer exists. A nd this is the usual sense ín
which f u i is used with the participle perfect, e. g. Liv. xxxviii,
56.: L iterni monumentum monumentoque statua superimposita,

* W e have abandoned the common practice, partly on nccoimt of the

analogy, and partly because the number of instances in which the regular
future perfect with ero occurs is so considerable that there can be no doubt
about it. We do not qrtote any passages, because this truth is now uni-
versally recognised.

f u il (is there no longer). quam tempestóte dejectam nuper vidimus

ipsi ; M arti al, i. 4 4 .: bis tibi triceni fuim its vocati, that is, ÍCwe
were invitcd, but got nothing to e a t : !> tantum spectavimus
omncs. The passages therefore in which amatus f u i is found
as an ovdinary perfect in the sense of amatus sum, may be
doubted in good authora.
Note. Justiu (i. 19,), however, writes: llague grave bellim mtiim, in quo
et diu et varia victoria proelkdum fi á t (passive); Gellius (v. 10.); Sic ma,-
gister eloquentiae confutátus est, ct captionis versttte excogitatae frustratus fu U
(passive): and Plautus several times in deponents; e. g, oblitus f u i , Poemd.
Prolog, 40.; m iratusfui, ibid, v. 6. 10.; aad other passages.
[§ 169,] B u t by the eombination of the participle future. active
with the tenses of esse, a really new conjugation is formed, de-
noting an intention to do something. This intention may
arise either from the person’s own will, or from outward cir-
cumstanees, so that, e. g.; scripturus sum may either mean {í I
have a mind to write, or I am to w rite,” or cc I have to w rite.”
The former sense is also expressed by £í I am on the point of
w riting,” or “ I am about to w rite,” and this signification is
carried through all the tenses of esse.
Scripturus sum, I am about to Scripturus f u i , I was or liave
write. been about to write.
Scripturus eram, I was about Scripturus fueram , I had been
to write. about to write.
Scripturus ero, I shall be about Scripturus fuero, I shall have
to write. been about to write.
B u t the last of these forms was very seldom used, and occurs
only in one passage of Seneca, E pist. ix. § 14.: sapiens non
vivet si fu e rit sine homine victurus, that is, if he should be
obliged to live without human society. The subjunctive oc­
curs in the same manner.
Scripturus sim. Scrípturus fuerim .
Scripturus essem. Scripturus fuisscm.
Scripturus sim and scripturus essem serve at the same time as
subjunctives to the future scribara ; bu t scripturus fuerim and
scripturus fuissem are not used as subjunctives to the future
perfect, scripscro. The infinitive scripturum fjrisse denotes an
action to which a person was formerly disposed, and answers to
the English (t I should have w ritten,” so that in hvpothetical

sentenc.cs it supplies tlie place of an infinitive of the pluperfect

subjunctive; e. g, in Sucton. Caes. 56.: Pollio Asinius Caesarem
existimat suos rescripturum et correcturum commentarios j fuisse,
th at is, th at he would have re-w ritten and corrected, if he had
lived longer. The infinitive with esse likewise first denotes an
intention: scripturum esse, to intend writing, or to be on the
point of w riting; but it then assumes, in ordinary language, the
nature of a simple infinitive future, for which reason it is in-
corporated in the table of conjugations. F o r the particulars,
see the Syntax, Chap. L X X V I.
Note. In the passive these gerundive tenses (témpora gerundiva), as they
may be callcd, are expressed by longer circumlocutions: in eo est, or futurum
est ut epístola scribatwr, the letter ia to be written, or about to be written ;
in eo eral, w futurum erat v t epístola scriberelvr, the letter was to be written,
or about to be written; in eo erit or futurum erit v t epístola scribatur, it will
then be necessary for the letter to be written.

[§ 170.] The participle future passive expresses (in the nomi­

native) the necessity of suffering an action, and in combination
w ith the tenses of esse it likewise forms a new and complete
conjugation ( témpora necessitatis); e. g. amandus sum, I must
be loved; amandus eram, it was necessary for me to be loved,
and so on w ith all the tenses of esse. Its neuter combined with
esse and the dative of a person expresses the necessity of per-
forming the action on the part of that person, and may likewise
be carried through all the tenses, as,
mihi scribendum est, I must mihi scribendum fu it, I have
write. been obliged to write.
mihi scribendum erat, I was mihi scribendum fu era t, I had
obliged to write. been obliged to write.
mihi scribendum erit, I shall be mihi scribendum fu erit, I shall
obliged to write. have been obliged to write.
A nd so also in the subjunctive and infinitive: mihi scribendum
esse ; mihi scribendum fuisse.




C H A P . X L IY .


[§ 171.] T h e irregularity of the verbs of thia conjugation con­

sista chieíly in this, th at they take ui in the perfect, and itum in
the supine, lite yerbs of the second; which i, howeyerj is some­
times thrown out. I t will be seen from the following list * th at
some verbs, in some form or other3 again incline towarda a re­
gular formation of th*eir tenses.
Crepo, crepui, crepitum¡ make a noise, rattle, creak.
Compounds: concrépo, make an intense noise; discrepo, difíer; increpo,
cliide, í'attle.
Cubo, cubui, cubitum, cubare, lie.
There is some authority for the perfect cubavi, incubati. (See Ouden-
dorp on Caes. Ü . Ciu. iii. 63.) Compounds: accübo, recline at table; ex­
cuba. keep watch ; incubo, líe upon; recubo, lie upon the back; secubo,
lie apart, and some others. When the eompounda take an m "before b,
they are conjugated after the third, but keep their perfect and supine ín
-ai, itum. (See Chap. X L V III.)
Domo , ui, itum, tame, subdue.
Edom o and perdomo ütrengtlien the meaning.
Sano, ui, itum, resound. (Participle sonaturus.)
Consono, agree in sound; díssono, disagree in sound; persono, sound
through; resano, resound. (Hesoaavit, Manil. v. 5660

* It has not been the objeet to inelude in this list every irregular vérb,
especially compounds, but those only which are necessary in good prose.
When no meaning is assigned to a compound verb, it is because the sense is
easily discoverable from that of the root and the preposition with which it
is compounded.
í 3

Tono, ui, (itmn), thundcr.

Altano (active), strike with astoníshment (participle oMoniUna) ; in*
tono, commonlj intransitive, make a sound (participle intonatus) ; circum-
Veto, ui, ítum, forbid. ( Vetavit, only in Persiua, V. 90.)
Mico, ui, (without supine,) dart out, glitter.
JSmiao, ui, atam, dart forth rays; but dimico, fight, makes dimicavi,
Frico, fricu i, fricatitm , and frictu m , rub,
Defrico, infrico, p e r f rico, refrico, are formed in the same iva}'.
Seco, ni, sectum, cut. (P art. secaturus.')
Deseco, reseco, cut off; disseco, cut in parts.

Juuo, j ü v i support, assist ; the supine jü tu m ís rare (see Tac.

Ann. s ir . 4 .); b u t the participle juvaturus is found in Sallust,
Jitg. 4 7 .; and Plin., E pist. iv. 15.
So also the compound adjiivo, adjüvi, adjüíum, in the participle adjuii.trus
(Liv. xxxiv. 37.)s and adjuvaturus in Fetron. 18. Freqnentative, adjüto.

Lavo, lavi, lavatum, lautum, lotum, lavare, wash, or bathe,

which is properly lavari.
The infinitive lavare, whenoe the perfect lavi jeemg to come, is pre-
served in oíd Latin, and is found in poetry, e. g. Hor. Carm, iii. 12. in it.:
mala vino lavere, and perhaps also in Caes. D e B ell. Gall. iv. 1.
iVeco, km , is regular; bu t from it are formed, with the same
meaning, eneco, avi, atum, and enecui, enectum, both of which
forms are equally well established, bu t the participle is usnally
enectus ; interneco has internccatus.
From Plico, fold, are formed applico, avi, atum, and ui, Itum ;
so explico, avi, atum, unfold, explain; implico, implícate.
Cicero regularly uses applicavi and explicavi; otherwise usage
oa the whole decides in favour of the perfect ui, and the
supine atum. B u t those derived from nouns iu pie:v form the
perf. and sup. regularly : supplico, duplico, multiplico. O f
replico, whose perfect replicam occurs in the vulgate, replicatus
only is in use (replictus is an isolated form in Statius, Silu.
iv. 9. 29.),
Poto, drínk, is regular, except that the supine usually, instead
of potatum, is potum, wlience potus, which Ís both active and
passive, liaving been drunlt, and having drunk. Compotmds,
appotus, active; and epñtus, passive.

D o, dedi, datura, daré, give.

Circumdo, surround; pessundo, ruin; salisdo, give security ; venundo,
se ll ; are formed like do. Tlie other compounds acido, condo, reddo, belong
to the third conjugation. ("See Chap. X L V I1.) From a second form dúo
we find in early Latin the subjunctive duim, duis, duit, also in the com­
pounds credo and perdo — creduam and creduim, perduim. Cic. p. Reg.
Dejot. 7. : di te perduint. See § 162.
Sto, steti, stdlum, stare, stand.
The compounds have iti in the perfect; e.g. consto, to consist of; exsto,
exist or am visible; insto, insist; obsto, hinder; persto, persevere;
pi'aesto, surpass; resto, remain over and above, Only those compounded
with a preposition of two syUablea retain eti in the perfect, viz. antesto,
circumsto, intersto, mpersto. The supine, which is mentioned especially
on aceount of the participle future, does not exist in all the compounds,
but wherever it is found, it is atum. The supine praestitum of praesto is
certain in late authors only, whereas praestaturus is frequent. O f disto,
the perfect and supine are wanting.

The active verbs ju ro and como have a participle with a

passive form, but an active signification: ju ratu s (with the com­
pounds eovjuratus and injuratus), one who has swora; and
coenatus, one who has dined. From the analogy of conjvratus ,
the same active signification was afterwards given to conspiratus,
onc who has formed a conspiracy oí* joined a conspiracy.

C H A P. X L V .


[§ 172.] T h e iiTegularity of verbs of the second conjugation

consists partly in their being defective in their forms, and
partly in their forming the perfect and supine, or one of them,
like verbs of the third conjugation. W ith regard to the
first irregularity, there are a great many verbs in this con­
jugation which have no supine, th at ís, which not only have no
participle perfect passive (which cannot be a m atter of surprise,
since their meaning does not admit of it), but also no participle
future active. (See § 153.) The regular form of the perfect ís
ui, and of the supine itum ; but it must be observed at the same
i- 4
152 L A T IN GRAM JIAli.

time th at some verbs tlirow out tbe sliort i in the supine; and
all verbs which in the present have a v before eo undergo a
sort of contraction, since, e. g., we find caví, cautum, instead
of c&vuif cctvitum, from caveo, but this can scarcely be considered
as an irregularity, since v and u was only one letter with the
Romana. Respecting the lengthening of the vowel in dissyllabic
perfecta, aee § 18,
W e shall subjoin a list of the regular verbs of this conjugation
as exercises for the begluner, confining ourselves to the form
of the present.
Caleo, am warm. Ulereo>íneiit.
Inchont. cale seo. Moneo, admonish.
C areo , am without. NÓceo, injure.
D ibeo, owe. Pürev, obey (appear).
Duleo, feel pain. Compound: appüreo, appear.
H abeo, have. Placeo, please.
Compounds : adhibeo, cohibeo, Pracbeo, offer, afford.
&e., a being changed into í. Tiícerj, am silent.
Jüceo, lie. The partie. tacitus, is eommonly
Liceo , am to be soltl. an adjective.
N ot to be confbunded with the Tarreo, tem fy.
impersonal licet, it is permitted. Vaho, am well.
See Chap. L X .

To these regular verbs we may first add those of whieh we

spoke shortly before, v iz.:

[§ 173.3 a) Those which make the Perfect in vi instead o f vui.

Caveo, caví, cautum , caveres take cave.

Praecaveo, take precaution.

Connmeo, nivi, or nixi (neither very common), no supine j cióse

the eyes.
Faveo, fá u i, fau tu m , am favourable.
Foveo, fó vi, fotum , cherisb.
Moveo, movi, motum, move.
Coramoneo and permoveo strengthen the meaning; amoveo and mbmovea,
remove: admamo , bring t o ; promoveo, bnng forwards ; removeo, bring
baok, or remove.

Paveo, p á vi, (no supine), dread.

Henee the compound inchoat. expavesco, expavi, ís more eommonly
used, especially in li e perfect.

Vovco, vmñ, vutum, vow ; devoveo, devote with ímprecation.

Ferveo, fe rv i, sm áferbui, (no supine,) glow, am hot.
Fervit, fervat, fervere, after the third (comp. Virg. Oeorg. i. 455., with
Quintil, i. 6. 7.), is an archaism. The inchoatives o f the third conjugation
effervesco, refervesco, have the perfect in vi and brú (vi is more frequent
in Cicero) ; in conferve&co, i>ui alone is known.

[§ 174.] ¿) Those which make the Perfect in evi instead o f ui.

Deleo, delevi, deletum, extinguish, üestroy.

Fleo, flevi, fletum , weep.
Neo, nevi, netum, spin,
(From Pleo), compleo, cumple vi, completum, fill u p ; expleo, impleo,
F rom oleo, grow, we have the compotmds: aboleo, abolish; abó­
leseo, cease; adoleo, adolesco, grow up ; exoleo or exolesco and
obsoleo or obsolesco, grow obsolete; all of which have évi in
the perfect; b u t the supine of aboleo is abolitum, of adolesco,
adultum , and the rest have etum : exoletum, obsoletum. Be-
eides abolitum, however, there exist only the adjeetives adultus,
exoletus, obsoletas.

[§ 175.3 c) Those which throio out the short i in the Supine.

Dnceo, docui, doctum, teaeh.
Couipounds : edoceo and perdoceo, strengthen the meaning; dedocco,
teaoh otherwise.
Teneo, tenui, ( teníum, rare,) hold, keep.
Cantineo, keep togel h er; delineo, keep back; distineo¡ keep asundur; and
retineo, retain, have in the supine ten tum. Atíineo, keep occupied by or in
a thing; pertineo, belong to ; and suslmey, keep upright, have no supine:
and from abstineo, abstain, it is found only in legal phraseology (abstenhig
hereditate, excluded from the succession).
Misceo, miscui, mixtum or mistum, mix.
Mixtum ia better attested by M SS. than mixtum. Conapounds are,
admiaceo, commisceo, imntisceo, permisceo.
Torreo, torrui, tostum) roast.

To these we may add—

Cerneo, censui, censum (participle also censitus), estímate, be-
Percenseo, enumerate, without supine. Of accenseo, reckon with, we
find accenstts; of succenseo, am angry, succensitrus; and recpnseo, examine,
makes both rcccnaum and recensitwn, the latter of' which is perhaps better
154 L A T IN CliA M M A li.

[§ 176.] d) Those which make the Perfect regularlg in ui, bul

have no Supine.

Arceo, arcui, arcere, keep off.

B ut the compounda caerceo, coerce; exerceo, exercise; have a supine
in itum.
Calleo, have a hard skjn, am skilled ín (callidus).
Candeo, shine, glow (candidus).
Egeo, want. Compound, indigeo.
(From mineo), maneo¿ stand forth.
Floreo , flouñsb.
Frondeo, have foliage; effrondm .
Morreo, shudder, am horrified (horridus).
Compounds : abhorreo, and a number of inclioatives, as horresco, p er*
Langueo, am languid (languidus).
Lateo, am concealed.
Compounds : interlateo, perlateo, siMateo.
Madeo, am wet ( madidus ).
N íteo, shine (jiüidtis).
Compounda : eniteo, interniteo, praeniíeo.
Oleo, smell.
Compounds: abdico and redoleo, have the smell o f ; suloleo, smell a
P alko, am palé.
PiíteOi am opeu.
Rigeo, am stiff (rigidus).
Rubm, am red (rubidas).
Síleo} am silent.
Sorbeo, sorbui, sip.
Perf. sorpst, very rare. Compounds : absoríeo and exsorbeo.
Sordeo, am dirty (sordidus).
Sphndco, am splendid ( splendidus ).
Stüdeo, endeavour, study.
Stüpeo, am startled, astonished (stvpídus).

Timep, fcar (timidus).

Torpeo, am torpid.
Turneo, swell, am awollen (tumidus).
Vigco j am animated.
Víreo, am green or flourish.
Besides these, there is a number of similar verbs which are
derived from adjeetives, and occur more rarely, and chiefly in
the form of inchoatives, for the L atin language has great
freedom in the formation of these intransitive verba and in th at
of inchoatives either with or without a prim ary form. Compare
Chap. L I I .

The following are really irregular verbs, and follow the ana-
logy of the third conjugation : —

[§ 177.] 1. Veris which make the Perfect in si and the Supine

in sum.
Ardeo , arsi , arsum, ardere, b u rn .
Ilaereo, haesi, hacsum, cleave.
Compounds: adhaereo, cohaereo, inkaereo.
Jübeo, ju ssi, jiissum , command.
jtftmeo, mansi, manmm, remain. (B u t mano, as, flow).
Permanecí (permanes), w a it; romaneo, remain beliinrl,
Mulceo, mulsi, mulsum, stroke, caress.
The compounds demulceo and permvlceo strengthen the meaning. The
participle permulsus is certain, but demulctus and permulchis likewise
Mulgeo , mulsi, mulsum , milk.
Participle comp. emvlsus. The derivative nouns mulcíiis, üs, the milk-
ing, muldra, and mvlctrcde, show that formcrly rnulchtm also existed.
JRldeo, risi, risum, laugh.
Compounds: arrideo (arrides), smile upon or please: derideo and
irrideo, laugh at, sco n i; subrideo, smile.
Suadeo, suasi, masum, advise.
Dissuadeo, dissuade; persuade/?-, persuade; but, like suadeo, with the
Tergeo, tersi, tersum> tergere, w ipe; is used also as a verb of the
third conjugation: tergo, tersi, te rsu m , tergere.
Cicero uses tergo more frequently as a verb of the third conjugation,

whereaa the compounds abstergeo, detergeo, exiergeo, incline more towards

the seeond (abstergcbo, Cic. ad Q. F?'at. ii. 10.), although in these cotn-
pounds too the forma o f the third ate not nneommon.
O f denseo, the ancient and poetical form for denso, dmsare,
condense (see Bentley on Horace, Carm, i. 28. 19.), the perfect
densi is mentioned by the grammarians, and the existence of a
supine is attested by the adjective dermis.

[§ 178.] 2. Verbs which make the Perfect in si, but have no

Algeo, alsi, álgere, shiver with coid.
The supine is wanting, but fi-om it is derived the adjective alsus, a, um,

Fulgeo, fu lsi, fulgere, sliine, am bright. (Fulgere is poetical,

but occurs also in Livy, xxxiv. 3.)
Turgeo, tursi (rare), swell.
Urgeo or urgueo, ursi, press.

3. Verbs with the Perfect in si and the Supine in tum .

Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum , indulge.
Torqueo, torsi, tortwm, twist.
Compounds : contorqueo, twist together ; distorqueo, twist away ; extor-
qv.co, wrest out or from.

4. Verbs with the Perfect in xi and the Supine in tum.

Augeo, auxi, auctum, increase.
Lüceo, luxi, lucere, shine; has no supine.
Lügeo , luxi, lugere, m o u m ; has no supine.
Frlgeo, frix i, frigerc, am coid; has no supine.

[§ 179.] 5. Verbs with the Perfect in i, and the Supine in sum.

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, diñe. The participle pransus has an
active signification: one who has dined.
Sedeo, sedi, sessum, sit.
Assídeo (ansíeles), sit by ; desideo, sit down ; circumsedeo or circumsideo,
sur round ; insideo, sit upon ; supersedeo, do without; possideo, possess ;
dissideo, dissent; praesideo, preside; resideo, settle down. The last three
have no supine.

Video, vtdi, vistan, see.

Imñdeo (invídes), envy, aliciti; per video, see through ; praevideo, fore-
s e e ; provideo, provide.
Strideo, stridi, without supine. I n poetry stridere.

6. Verbs with a Reduplication in the Perfect.

Mordco, momordi, morsum , bite.
Pendeo, pependi, pensum, am suspended.
Dependeo, depend, and impendeo, soíir above, am impending, lose the
Spondeo, spopondi, spansum, voiv.
Despondeo, despo-adi, promise: respondeo, respondí, answer, are likewise
without the reduplication.
Tondeo, tdtondi, tonsum, shear.
The compounds lose the reduplication, as attondeo, dctondco.

[§ 180.] 7. Verbs without Perfect and Supine.

Aveo, desire. Compare Chap. L I X . 9.
Calveo, am bald (calvus).
Caneo, am grey (canus).
Clueo (also ín the passive clueor, and after the third conju-
gation, cluo, cluere), am called, is obsolete.
Flaveo, am yellow (Jlavus).
Foeteo, stink (foetídus).
Ilrheo, am dull, stupid (Jiebes).
Humeo, am damp ( humidus).
lÁveo, am palé or envious (lividus).
(M ineo) immineo, to be imrninent, threatening, Promineo f am
Maereo , mourn (maestus).
Folleo, am strong.
Renídeo, shine, smile.
Scáteo, gush forth (Scatijre in Lucretius),
Squaleo, am dirty ( squalidus ),
Vtgeo, am gay (ycgttus).

Cieo, riere, is the same word as the rare and obsolete ció, áre,
stir u p ; both make the perfect cwi, according to the fourth
conjugation; in the supine they differ in quantity, cieo making
cltum , and rio, citum.
Note. In the compounds too, c. g. conciso, excieo, the forms of the
second and fourth conjugation cannot be separated; b u tw e must observe,
that in the signification of “ to cali,” the forms of the fourth are prefen'ed,
e. g. imperf. cibam, cirem.; infinit. c ir i; the participles concitas and excitas
signify “ excited: ” whereas excitas means “ called out.” Pardeo and incieo
retain ths signification of “ to excite,” henee perciias and incitas ,■ but acclre,
to cali towards, summon or invite (o f which the present indicative does not
occur), has only aedius. Derived from oüum are : cito, íjulek ; the fre-
quentative citare, and henee excito, incito, and suscito.

[§ i8i.] 8. Semideponents. (See above § 148.)

Audco. ausus sum, venture, (P artic. future ausitrus.)
The ancient future subjunctive (see § 162.) ausim, ausís, ausit, mtsiví, is
a vemnant of the obsolete perfect ausi, The participle ausus, and its com-
pound intames, are used in poetical language with a passive signification-
Gaudeo, gavisus sum} rejoice. (P artic. fut. gavisunis .)
Soleo, solltus smn, am accustomed (to do something).
The impersonal compound assolet, signifies “ it usually happens.”

C IIA P . X L V I.


I n the list of verbs of this conjugation it seems to be still more

neeessary, th,an in the preceding one, to include those verbs
which, according to Chapter X L ., form their perfect and
supine regularly. W e divide them into several classes ac­
cording to the characteristic letter which precedes the o in the
present, agreeably to the method which has long since been
adopted in G reek grammars.
[§ 182 .] 1. Veris tohich have a, Vowel befare o including those
in vo.
The following have the Perfect and Supine re g u la r:
Acüo, acüi, acütuvi} sharpen.
Exacuo andperacuo, strengthon the meaning; praeacvo, sharpen at the

Arguo, accusc, convict of (perf. pasáive m the latter sense

usually convictus, from convincere.) Argütus as an adjective
significa “ olear.”
Coarguo, tlie same ; redarguo, refute a ehavge.
Imbuoy to clip, imbue.
Induo, p u t o n ; czuo, strip off.
Luo (participle luiturus), pay, atone for.
Abhio and eluo, wasli off; pollito, defile ; diluo, refute, are derived from
another luo (lavo), and all mate the supine in lütum.
JMinuo, lessen.
Com?ninuo, deminuo, dimimw, ■
immimo, strcngíhen the meaning.

(Nuo, nod, does not o cc u r; from it are formed)

Abnuo, rcíuse; annuo, assent; innuo, alinde, or reíer to; renuo, decline;
all of which have no supine; abmto alone has a participle future, abmñ-
Ruó (supine ruitum, ruiturus at least is derived from i t ; rütum
occurs only in compounds, and is otherwise obsoleto), fall.
D irüo¡ dirui, dirülum, destroy; obrtio, ovenvhelm; pro ruó, rush for-
wards. Corruo, fall down; and ir ruó, rush on, have no supine.

SpUO, spit.
Conxpuo, spit 011 ; despico, rejcct wítli disgust.
Statuo, establish.
Consíiluo and instiluo, instituto;, redituó, re-establish; substiivo, establísli
instead of; dcalüv.o, sibandon.
Sternuo, sneeze (without supine); the frequentative stcrnüto is
more eommonly used.
Suo, sew.
C'onsuo, sew together; disxuo and resuo, unse'w.
Trihuo , allot to.
Attribuo, the same ; distribuo, divide ; contribuo, contribute.
Solvo, solvi, solütum, lo o sen .
Abiolvo, acquit; dusoluo, dissolve ; cxsalvo, relcase ; pcrsolvo, pay.
Volvo, roll (frequentative volüto),
Evolvo, unroll; imoleo, roll up ; pervoluo, read tlirough.

The following are without a S upine:

Congruo, congrui, agree, and ingruo, penetróle. The simple

verb {grao or ruó ?) does not exist.

Melua, rnetui, fear. ( Timco likewise without supine.) So P ris-

cían. B u t metutum occurs in L ucret. y. 1139.
Pluo, pluvi, usually impersonal, it rains. Príscian knows only
the perfect plui, which often occurs in Livy. Charisius men-
tiona pluxi. Impluvi or imphii are of doubtful authority.
The comp. compluo and perpluo do not occur in the perfect.

The following are irregular:

[§ 183.] Capio, cépi, cap tum, capere, take hold of.
The eompouiids change « into i, and in tlie supine a into e, except ante-
capia. Accipio, receive; excipio, rcceive as a guest, succeed; recipio,
recovcr; smcipío, undertake; decipio, deceivc ; per tipio, comprehend;
praecipio, give a precept.
F á cio ,fsc i, factum , do, make.
Arefacio, dry up ; assmfacio and consuefaeio, accustom ; calefacio and
tepefacio, warra; fr ig e fu tió , cool; labe/avio, make to totter ; patufacio,
open; satisfacía, satisfy. These Lave in the passive -fio, -factm nmn,
•-fieri. Eut those which. change a into i form their own passive in -ficior,
and make the supine in -fectum: a ff ício, aJTect; cunficio and pcrficioi com­
plete ; deficio, fitll off, am wanting; sufficio, elect in the place of another, or
satisfy; iuterficio, k ill; proficio, make progress ; reficio, revive, repair;
officio, stand in the way, injure. Conjit, confieri, however, is used as a
passive of conflcio, but only in the third person, and not by Cicero.
it is wanting, is common in the comic writers.
Other compounds of fació follow the first conjugation: amplifico, sacri­
fico, and the deponents gratxficor, ludficor.
Jacio, jeci, jactum , throw.
The compounds change a into i, and in the supine into e, except supsr-
jacio, of which, however, mperjeatmn also is found. Abjício, throw away:
arljieio, add; dcjicio, throw dow ii; ejido, throw out; wjicio, throw in ;
objicio, throw against; rejicio, throw back ; tramjicio or trajicio, throw or
carry acrosa, These compounds are sometimes found with i instead of j i :
abicere, inicere, reicere (in the last ei is a diphthong ¡n Virg. Kcl. iii. 9(í. :
a fluminc reice capellas} ; and this pronunciation was with the ancients
much more frequent, or perhaps the common one, for in MSS. it is
written so almost everywliere; and P r ís c ia n mentions a form icio as syno-
nymous with jacio. No certain conclusión, however, can be come to, :ts
the most ancient MSS., such as the Codex Mediceus of Virgil, have a
simple i where the length of the preceding sylíable shows the existente of
the consonant

[§ 184.] The following have x in the P e rfe c t:

(From the obsolete lacio, entice, of which tacto is the fre-
quentative), allicio, exi, ectuvi, allu re; illicio, entice i n ; pdlicio,
lead astray ; but elido makes elicui, eliciíum, draw out.

(From specio, xi, ctum, see, of whíeli the frequentative is

specto) aspicio, exi, ecturn, look o u ; conspicio, tlie sam e;
despido, look down, despise; dispicio and p&rspido, under-
stand ; hispido, look in to ; respido, look b ack; suspicio, look
up, rcvcrcncc.
Fino, fiuxi,Jiuctum , fioiv.
Afflwo, flow in : confluo, flow together ; effiuo, fiow o u t; interjiuo, flow
Struo, struxi, stm etum , build, pile.
Construo and exstrrn, build itp ; destruo, pulí down ; imtruo, set in
Vivo, vixi, victum, live.

[§ 185 .] O ther Irregularities.

Fodio, fo d i, fossum, dig.
E ffodio, dig o u t; confodio and per/odio, dig, pierce through; suffodio,
Fügio, fü g i, f ugitum, fíee.
Aufügio and effugio, flee away, escape confugio and perfugio, tuke
Cupio, -mi, -itum, desire.
Dhcupio, percupio, etrenglhen the meaning. Concupio only in tlie
participle concupíens, otlierwise cortmpisco-
Rápio , rapui, raptum, rob, snatch.
Arripio, arripuL arreptim, seize; abripio and eripio, snatch away;
deripio, plnnder; surripio, steal clande3tmely.
Parió, peperi, partum , bring forth. (B u t the particip, fut. act.
pariturus .) Lueretius has pariri.
Quatio {(juassi ia not found), quassum, shake.
Conculio, wísí, usífiun. shalie violent.ly discutió, shnlre nsunder; e.rcutio,
shake out, olf (tkr. examine) 5 incutio, drive in to; percutió, strike; 7-epp.r-
cutio, rebound.
Sapio, mi and vi, (no supine,) am wise.
Desípio (without perfect), am fotjish ; resipiot have a taste of, or become
wise again.
(From the obsoleto present coepio,) coepi and cnrptus sum, coe-
ptum ., ( coepere,) llave begun. See § 221.

1 (i 2 L A T IN GRAMMAR.

C H A P . X L V I I.

[§ 186.] 2 . V liR B S IN DO A N D TO.

The following are re g u la r:

C iando, d i casi, clau&um, claudere, cióse.
Conduelo, sliut up, conelude ; exeludo nnd aoclwlo, slmt out; indvdo-,
sln.it in, are all derived from a form chulo which is still in use.
D u n d o , d ivisi, d im m m , divide.

L a e d o , injure.
Allulo, strike against; illldo, strike upon; collido, strike together; elido,
strike out.
L u d o , sport.
Cottüdo, play w iíh; ailüdo, play upon ; chulo, deludo, nnd iIludo, ridiculo.
P la u d o , si, su m , clap.
Applmido, npplaud. The other compcumds (with a diiferent pro-
nLiiii’iat.Iciii) Ufive -orto, -vsí, -osum', as cxplodo, explode; complació, clap the
haridn ; supplodo, süunp with the feet.

lia d o , shavej scrapc; so in a b ra d o , circurnrado, dorado, e r a d o ;

corrado, scrape together.

R o d o , gnaw.
Ahrodo and derodo, gníiw off; ca'rodo, níbble ; circumrodj), nibble nll
round; perrodo, gnaw through.
T r ü d o , thrust, with its com pounds: d etva d o , thrust dow n;
e x tm d o , thrust o u t: p r o tr v d o . thrust forwards.
V ado (no perfect or supine), go.
Rut evado, eoasi, em mm , escape; invado, attaclc; penado, go through.

[§ 187.] The following are irregular :

a ) W ith a R e d u p lic a tio n in the P e rfe c t,

Cttdo, cecídi, c a su m . fall.

Of the compounds, these have a supine: incido, incidí, incasum, fall in
or upon: occido, s e t; reñido, fall back. The rest havo nene : convido,
iiink together; decido, fall -.I í j w i i ; excido, fnII out o f; nccidit, it híippeiiH
(used most eommonly of a misfnrtune).

Caedo, cccídi, caesum, cut.

Abscido, abscldi, abscisum, cut off; concvlo. cut, to pieces ; incido, cut
into; ocaldo, k ill; recido, cut awav. So decido, excldo, praeeido, and
Pedo, pepedi, (peditum.,) irkpósaOat.
Pendo, pependi, pensum, weigh.
Appp.ndo, appendi, appensum, weigh. out to; expendo, spend, also con-
sidev, like per pendo; suspendo, hang from; dependo, pay; impendo, employ
upon or in soiuething. See § 179.
Tendo , tetendi, tensum and tentum., stretcli.
Extendo, ostendo, protendo, and retando, have both supines; but ex- and
protentwm are more frequent; but ostensum. Retentus is foand only iu
Ovid, JSfetam,. iii. 166., retensus only in Fhaedrus, iii. 14. 5. Tieterdo lias
detemus, in Caes. B. C. iii. 85.; this participle does not elsewhere occur. The
other compounds have only tum in the supine : atiendo (se. animmn), attend;
o.outendo (se. me), strive; distendo, separate, or enlarge by stretehing;
intotdo, strain: obtendo and praetendo, eommonly used in the figurativa
sense of alleging; subiendo, stretch beneath.

Tundo , tutudi, tunsum and tüsum, beat, pound.

Tho compounds have only tüsieni; contundo, conrSdi. conhimm, pound
sm¡ill; eximido, (ñgurative) elabórate; obtiavdo and retundo, blunt.

Credo, credídi, credítum , believe.

Acr/rédo, accredidi, give credit to.
The compounds of do, except those mentioned in § 171.
Condo, condtdi, conditum, build, conceal; abdo, ctbdidi, hide. So addn,
add ; deda, give n p ; edo, give out, publish ; perdo, ruin, lose; reddo, give
bnck, render, with an adjective of quality ; trado, deliver; vendo, sell.
(The passive vendí, except the partieiples venditus and vendendiis, is rare,
and occurs only in late ivriters; venire is used instead, See §215. But
abscondo appears in the perfect more frequently without the reduplication,
abscojidi, than with it, abscondidi.)

[§ 18S.] b) MaMwj di in the Perfect, and sum in the


Accendo} incendo, succcndo, -ccndi, -censum, liglit> kindlc.

Cüdo, forge.
E xcM o and procüdo, fashion, hammer out.

Defendo , defendí ward oíf.

Edo, eufc. See § 212.
Exedo and comedo, - édi, -esum, (but also comestus,) consume. Ibid.
m 2

Mando (perfect very rare), chew.

Offcndo, offend.
Prebendo, scize ; in eurly times frequently contracted into
Apprchendo, comprnhendu, lay hold of, (figurative) understand; dcpre-
Iiando, detect, seize in the tiw t; repi-ehendo, blaine.

Scando, clunb,
Axcendií and escendo, climb up ; descendo, descend; conscendo and in-
scendo, uiount, einbark.
Stñdo (also stridco), stñ d i (no supino), grate, make a harsh
Fundo, fü d i, füsum , pour.
D ifundo, pour out, spread abroad ; qffimvdo, pour ove)'; profundo, Wítstc ;
ajfundo* roiij'undo, effunda, infundo.

[§ 189.] c) Other Irregularities, especially that o f a double s in

the Supine.

Cedo, cem , cessitm, yield, go.

Ab.icédo, go away ; accedo, go to ; antecedo, surpass; concedo, give w ay;
d/'.cfido, go away; discedo, separate myself ¡ excedo, go o u t; incedo, mavch ;
intercedo, come between, intevpose ; recedo, retrcat ¡ suceedo, come into
one’s place-
Findo, f íd z , fissum , split.
Diffbido, díffidi, split asnnder.
Sdndo, scídi, scissum, cut.
Conscindo, amxc.üli, comcissum, tear to pieces; e. g. vesiem, epidolam ,■
discindo, ínterncinda (c. g. pontem), perscindo, and proscindo have similar
meanings. Rescinda, annnl, Respecting the forms of dbscindo, cut olf,
and exscindo, destroy, there is considerable doubt. According to Gro-
novius on Livy, xliv. 5., and Drakenborch on Silius Ital. xv. 473., two
analogous formalions are now generally distinguislied: abscindo, uhseídi,
dbseissum, and exscindo, exeí'di, excissum ; and ahscim m and excissum are
said to oecur w riere the present is abscindo, exscindo; but abscisum. and
excisum, where abscido and e.xcldo are derived írom caedo. But this snp-
pnsitiou is contradieted by usage ; íbr we find, e. g., urbes excisw, although
exscindere urhem, is a frequent; expression \ and all tbe MSS. of Horade,
Senn. ii, 3, 303., liave capul absciinm, although we may say abscindere
caput. In short, our npinion is that the forms abscissnm and exscissum do
not exist at all, bccause, iu pronunciation, they are the same as abscisum
and excisu-m, from ahscidere and excidcre, whose signification is not very
different;; and, moreover, that the perfect ezseidi. also is not founded on

any authority, since the s by which it is dtótmguUbed is not fiearii in

pronunciiilioii, and is better not íntroduced in writing. Respeeting the
prommeiatíon and orthography, see § 6. and Chap. L X Y I. Tlms there
reinain only abscindo, abscidi, abscindere, and exaudo., exeaidere.
Prendo (the perfect does not occur), fressum and fresum, gnash
with the teeth ; also frendeo, fvenciere.
Meto, messui, messum, cut, reap.
Den teto, cut off'. The perfecta mesmi and demessvi are not common ; in
the sense of reaping, inesse7ii fc c i ia more eommonly used.
Mitto, misi, mis sum, send.
Admitió, admít, eonnuit; candió, lose; commilto, intrust, conimitafau.lt;
demitto and dimitió, dismíss ; emitto, sund íbrth ; immitto, send in, againsfc;
intermitió, oinit; omitió and praetermiito, leave o u t; permitió, perinit; pro-
mitto, promise ; remitió, send bnck; submitto, send iip, send íúd.
Pando . pandi, passum (j m n s u m rare), spread abroad.
Expando has oxpansimi and enpassum ; dispandu only dispansum,
Piito, petivi (m poetry, especially in compounds. petii), peñtum,
ask, scck.
Appeto and cxpulo, strive for; oppeto, encounter; repeto, repeat, seek
again; competo, rneüt together, correspoud.
Sido (the perfect and supine usually from sedeo), sit down.
The compounds, too, usually take the perfect and supine from sedeo:
coitmda, consedi, consessitm; so assido, seat myself beside; siibsidii, sink;
insido, sit upon; desido and resido, seat myself down. But the form
sidi eaunot be entirely deuied, either in the simple verb or its com­
Sisfn, stiñ (obsoleto), statum, stop (whencc status), but sisfo,
in a neutral sense, makes the perfect and supine from
TUc compounds are all intransitive, and have sfíti, síuiii»subsisto, sub-
stiti, substítiMu, stand still; dbsisto (no supine) and desisto, desist; íw-sís/w,
place myself beside; conmisto, halt, consist,; existo, come fnrtb fpevf. exist) ;
insisto, tread upon; obsisio and resisto, resist; persisto, persist. Those com-
pmmded with diasyll^bie prepositions may make the perfect in steti, e. g.
eircumsteti in Suet. Caes, S2.; Tacit. Ann. xiii, 52.
Sterto, stertui, (no supine,) snove : the perf. sterti rests on the
authorifcy of the oíd reading in Ov- Hcr. viii. 21.
Verto, vertí, vermm, tum .
Adverto and convcrto, tura towards; aiúmadverto (anímum adverto), tum
attention t o ; averio, turn from; e verto, destroy; pe merlo and subverto,
Demrto, turn in to a liunse of eulertammenl; -proererk,, anticípate; and
ii 3

reverto, turn baclt; are used in the present, imperfect, and future us
deponents more commonly tLan as actives.
F id o ,ftsu s sum, Jidere, trust.
So eonfldo, eoufide; cliffido, dis tr u st; wliich have rarely cmifidi, dijj'uU,
in the perfect.

C H A P . X L V I IL

[§ 190.] 3. V'RTiiiS IN SO AND PO.

Kegular a r e :
Glübo (glv.psi), gluptum (at le as i degluptum is found), glubere,
Nübo, cover, am married (applied only to the female), participle
nupta , one who is married,
Obnübo, cover aver.
Scriboi write.
Describo, copy; adscribo, iim ribo, praescribo, &c.

Carpo , plucli.
Coneerpo and discerpo, tear asunder; decerpo, gathur,

Répo, creep.
. Arrépo, creep up t o ; irrepo, obrepo, mbrepo, prarepo.

Scalpo. grave with a pointed tool., or scratch with the finger.

Sczdpo, work with the chisel.
Exculpo, cut out; insalivo. engrave.
Serpo , cvcep. The supine has not y el been found.
Inserpo, proserpo.

[5 191.] The following are irregular:

The compounds of cubare, to lie, which take an m with a change

of m eaning; those which do not change the simple cubare,
denote ‘ to l i e ; ’ the compounds of the 3d Conjugation
commonly signify ‘ to lay oneself down.:
jAccutítbc^ ~aibtil-, '•ctibUuM-j rüoliiio ut labio; incuufho^ Iijíui upoUj íipply íd

soiuelLin"; procumbo, lie down; succumbo, fall u n d er; occumbo (suppl.

morir://!), die,
Bibo, blbi, bibítum , drinlc.
ülbibo, imbibo-
JLambo, lambí, (lambitvrn, Priscian;) lamberé, lick.
Rumpo, rüpi, ruptum, b reak , tear.
Abr/.impí), break oíF; errnnpo, break o u t; corrurupo, destroy ; interrumpo,
intorrupt ¡ irrumpo, break in , perrwmpo, break througli; 'prortmpo, breuk
Scabo, svabi, scabere, scratch with the finger.
Strepo, strepui, strepitum, make a uoise.


[§ 192.] 4. VEli.BS WITH A PALATAL LETTIilt, C, C, CT, II,


Regular are:

Cúi.go, ciuxi, ciuctum, cinyere, gird, surroiind.

Accingo, in the passive, or me, has the same meniiing ; discingo, ungirá ,
and others.
From fiiyo , which rarclv occurs, are formed :
Affilgo, strike to tho ground ; coufiigo, íight; inflige, strike upon. P ro ­
flig o belongs to the first conjugation.
Fñ/ju (supine regular, jrictum , rarely frixu m ), roast, parch.
Jungo, joiu.
Adjungo and conjungo, join to, w ith ; disjungo and sejungo, separata ¡
snhjmigo, amiex.
Lingo, lick. (Henee ligürio or ügurrio.)
Mungt.>, blow the nosc (vare); cmxmgo.
Plango, beat, lament.
Rcgo, rule, guide.
Ari'Tgo, arrexi, arrwlum, and erígo, raise on h ig h ; corrigo, am end;
dirigo, dirccl ¡ porrigo, slretcli out. Pergo (li>r ¡terrigo), perrexi, p er­
al 4

recütm, go o n ; surgo (for surrigo), surrexi, surrecñm , rise; and henee

assurgo, consurgo, exurgo, insurgo.

Süí/o, suele, CTitgo.

Tego} cover.
Conñgo and obtego, cover u p ; detego and retego, nncover; protege ,
Tingo or tinguo, clip, dye.
Ungo or unguo, íinoint.
PertmgQ, strengthens the meaning ; i/tungo, anoint.

Stinguo, put out (has no perfect or supine, and is of rare occur-

Compounds: extinguo, and restinguo, -inxi. -inctum ; so distingzio and
imtinguo, though froui a different root, the Greek crií/j. Only the par­
ticiple instinctus is used in the sense of ‘ spurred on, inspired,’ and no other
tense is found (otherwise instigare is used).
Traho, draw.
Pertraho strengthens the meaning; attraho, contrallo, detraJio. extraho,
protrdko , retraho; suítraho, withdraw secretly.

Veho, carry (activ e); frequent. vedo, -as.

Adoeho, carry to ; inveho, carry or bring in. The passive of this verb
velwr. vectus smn, vela, is best rendered by a neuter verb of motion. So
circumvehor, travel round ; praetervehor , sail past; invekor , inveigh againsfc
These verbs therefore are classed among the deponents.
D icos say.
Addico, adjudge; contradico, édico, indico; inierdico, forbid; praedico.

Düco, guide, lead, draw.

Abdüco , adduco, circumduco; conduco, hire; deducá, didveo , educo, indiico,
introducá, obduco, perduco, produco, reduco; seduco, lead aside; subduco,
Coquo, coxi, coctum, dress.
Concoquo, digest; decoquo, boil down, squander.

[§ 193.] Irregular in the Supine, throwing out re, or

assuming x .

Fingo, jin x i, ficta-m, feign.

Conjingo, the same; ajfingo , falsely asci'ibe; ejjingo, im ítate; refingo,
fashion anew.
Mingo (a more common form of the present is m eio\ minxi,
mictum, make water.

Pingo, pinxt, pictum, paint.

Depingo, represent by painting; appniigo, expingo.

Siringo, strinxi, strictum, sqneeze together.

Astringí), (lraw cióse; constringo, (lraw together; desiringo, draw
o u t; distringo, draw asunder; obstringo, bind by obtigation; perstrm go,
Figo, fix i,fix u m , fasten.
A fflg o , aftix ; transfigo, pierce through.

Verbs in cto, in which t only strengthens the form o f the

Plecto, Jiexi, flexum¡ bend. Comp, biflecto.
Necto } nexi and nexui, nexums bind.
Pecio, pexi, pexum, cornb.
Plecto, without perfect and supine, from the Greek, 7r\tfo-crw,
strik e ; nsnally only in the passive, plector , am punished,
smart for. Another plecto, from the Greek ttXskco, twist, is
obsolete as an active, b u t fonns the foundation of the de­
ponents : amplector, complector ; participle anqdexus, com-
O f ango, anxi, torm ént : and ningo, niuxi, snow, no supine is
O f clango, ring loudly, neither perfect ñor supine; according to
analogy the former wonld be clanxi.

[■§ 194 .] The following are in*egular in the formation of the

P e rfe c t:
a) Taking a Reduplicaron.

Parco} peperci, parsum , spare; p a r si is rare, and an arehaism ;

parcitum is nncertain.
The distinction is commonly made, that in the sense of sparing life,
health, peperci, parcitum, in that of sparing moncyparsi, parsum, are used;
but the distñiction cannot be c&rricd out, íor the sense is, in fact¡ the same,
viz. to consume as Little as possible of any thiug. Parco or comparco,
-parsi or -persi, -parsum, to accumulate hy saving, with the accus., oecurs
iiidued in comedy; but this use of the word is very rare, and does not
seein to liave been common in ordinary life, where other expressions were
«sed, such as pecmñam facerc, or hi futuros usu$ colügere, and parco re-
tainod its dative and its ordinary meaning.

Punga, p upíuji, punctum. ]jierce.

The compounds have in the perfect punxi; as compungo, dixpungv, and
interpungo, distinguish with points.
Tango , tetlgi, tarrtunu touch.
' Attingo and conlirtgo, -%i, - tactum, toneh; contingit, coniigi.t; nbiingü,
obtigit (as impersonals), it falls to the lot; usually in a goixl sense.

Pango , 111 the sense of strike, drive in, pan xi (obsolete pegt),
panctum ; in the sense of burgain, peplgi, pactum. In this
sense paciscor is employed in the present.
The compounds have p¿gi, pactum; as compingo, fasten together; im­
pingo. So also úppango, oppegi, strike upon. Of depaugo and rapango,
the perfect and supine ave found in the classics.

[§ 195.] b) Without cUanging the Chuructcristíc Letter.

Ago , égi, actum, ngere, drive.

Cogo (coago), cocgi, coacítim, drive together, forcé; perago, carry
through ; abigo, di'ive away ; adigo, exigo, redigo, subigo, transigo. Pro­
digo, -egi (without supine), squaiider; andrigo, am irresoluta, doubt, and
miago isatis ago), am busy, are both without perfect and supine.
-Dégo, degi (rare), uo supine, spend (vitam , aetatcm),
Frango. freg i, jractm n , break.
Cmifringo ¡m<l pp.rfrrngo strengthen the meaning; effríngo and rtifriugn,

Lego, légi, lectum, read. (B u t lego, as, send off).

So perlego, prutlego , with those changing c into t, as"colligo, dcligo, digo,
and seligo, are conjiigated. But diligo, intelligo (obsoleto intellugo), ni id
negligo (obsoleto iieglego), have -exi in the periest. The perfecta mteüügi
and uoglégi are uncertain oí- uticlasdcíil.
Ico or icio, ící, ir.tum, strike, in connection with foedns. Priscian
(p. 877. and 886.) racntions both forms, but nothing can be
dccided, as icit only occurs in the present, and iciunt in Ta-
citus (Ann. xi. 9.) is only a wrong- conjecture for faeiunt.
Othenvise ferio is used in the present instead.
Vinco, v iv í, victum, cohquer.
Cortvinco, persuade; dcvhwo. overcomc ; evinco, carry a point, usl-ablidi
by argument.
Linquo, liqui, leave, (no supine,) chiefly used in poetry.
The compounrlhi rdínquo , derelinqm , ddinquot have Iwlnm in tíie

[§ 196.] 6') P erfe ct si, Supine sum.

M ergo, mersi, mersum, clip.

Em ergo, demergo, find immergo, ¡mbinergo.

Spargo, ¡¡parsi, spursum, scatter.

A spergo , cmisjiergo, and respergo, - ersi, -ersum, bcsprinkle ; experga,
yprinide íJjroad,
Tergo, tersi, tersutn, wipe, ( See iibove. § 177.)
Verga, vergere, incline towards, without perfect and su­

C H A P . L.

[§ 197.] 5. VEHIÍS W IIICII I-IAYE L , M , N , R , BEFORE O.

R egular verbs in rao.

Cómo, compsi, comptum, comere, adorn.

Demo, take away.
Promo, bring out,
Dfl.prvmo, ezprOmo, ttie same in signification.

Sumo, take.
Ábsümo and coiusttmo, consume: ¿tssumo, desunió.

Temno, tem,nere, despiee (poetical).

Coiitemno, contempsá, contcmptuni, th e s a m e m e a n in g .


[§ 198 .] a) Conjugated according to the Ánalvgy o f the Second


Alo, alai, alitum (or altuni), aleve, nourish.

A ltas occurs in Cicero and Sallust: afterwarils olifus becomcs the
common form, as in Livy and Val. Maximus. 3te (.iaratoni on Cic, ¡>,
Plano. 33.

Cola, colui, cultum, till.

JExcolo ini&percolo strengthen the meaning; incolo, inhabit a country-

Con&ülo, eonsului, consultum , ask advice.

Molo, molui, molitum, grind. *
Occülo, occului. occultum, conceal.
Fremo, frem ui, frem itum , ímirmur.
Adfrem o , confremo.

Gemo, gemui, gemitum, groan.

Congenio (cangemisco'), iugemo (ingemisco), ui, 110 supine, lament,
Tremo, íremui (no supine), tremble.
Contrírno strengthens the meaning,
Vojíio, vomui, vomitum, vomit.
Jfivomo, revomo.
Gigno, begetj, has (from the obsolete geno), geuui, genitum.
Ingigno. implant; progigno, briug foi’th.
Pono, posui (posivi obs.), pSsitmn, place.
A ntepOao. prefer; appono, place b y ; compono, arrange; depono, Iay
down; dispono, set out, or in order; expono, explain.; uppono, oppose;
postpano, to place after; praepono, prefer; sepono, set on one sitie, lie-
speeting tliü sliort o in the perfect and supino see § 18. 3,

(From the obsolete cello) —

Antecello, exceüo, praeccllo, ui, (without supine,) surpass : but p crcd lo ,
perculi, percvlsum, strike down.

[§ 199.] U) Forming the Perfect with Reduplicatian.

Cano, cecini, cantum, canere, sing.

Succino, sttccinm, succentiim, sing to ; so occino (or oociuio), sing, sound
against; cmicino, ui, harmonize, or, in íin active sense, begiu a song, with-
out supine, but the substantive emieentas is derived from it. Of accino,
intercino, and reciño (or recanó), no perfect or supine ia found; but from
accvrut wc have the substantive acceyiíiis.
Curro, cucarrí, cursum, run.
The compounds, accurro, decurro, excurro, incurro , percurro, praecurro,
and others, sometimes retain, but more frequently drop the reduplication
in the perfect.

Fallo, fefelli, falsm n , ehcat.

Jtefello, refeüi, (no supine,) refute.
Pello , pepúli, puhum , drive away,
Appellu , uppiili, uppuluam, como to land. In the same way are conjugated,

compello, urge, compel; depello,propello, repfílln. drive away; expelió, drive

o u t ; impello and perpéllo, urge on.

[§ 200 .] c) Making t í in the Perfect.

Cerno, crevi, cretum, sepárate, see, pereeive. In the sense of

seeing. perceiving, the verb has neither perfect ñor supine.
The perfect crevi Is used in juristical language in the sense of
decrevi, and in the phrase hereditatem cernere for hereditatem
Compounds : Decerno, decrevi, decretim , deeree; so dtscerno, excemo,
secerno, sepárate, distinguisli.

Lino, léoi (or livi), lUtim, smear.

Colimo, ülino, perlino, oblino (participle oblitm, not to be confounded
with oblitus from obliviscor), perlino, besmear. There is also a regular
verb, of the fourth conjugation, of the same meaning1, from which the
compounds ¿divido, circumlmio, illinio, and others used by later writers, are
Sino, sivi, situm, allow. In the perfect subjuDctive we find
sirim, siris} sh it, along with siverit, ( Stfus, situated, is per-
liaps derived from this verb).
Desíno, desim and desii (at least desü for desiit in Martial, see § 160.
note, for desierunt is no proof), desítum, cease- (Dcsitas cst is alao used
as a perfect with the infin. passive, like coeptus est. See § 221.)
Sperno, sprevi, spretum, despise.
Sierno, strám. stratum , stretch out on the ground.
Consterno, ínstenlo, sprearl out (but consterna, as, frighten) ; prosterno,
throw down ; sulstcm o, spread under.
Stíro, in the sense of sowing, has sevi, satum ; in th at of ar-
vanging and connecting together it is said to have serui,
sertum, b u t these forms of the simple verb do not occur,
though seria, garlands, is derived from sertum.
The compounds are variously conjugated according to their meaning,
Consero and imero make -ui, - ertmn, in the sense of joinmg ; -evi, -itum,'
in the sense of sowing. The following compounds are used only in the
sense of joming : — Desero, dissero, exsero, and according ly make ocly
serui, sertum. That the verbs sera, sevi, and ¡sc.ro, serui¡ are ronlly the same,
is proved by the interebange of inserore and conserere in good authors, of
which any dictionary may furnish examples.

Th'o. trivi, tritum, rub.

Contero, rub to picces ; atiero, rub away, ínjure (perfect also atterui) ;
extero, remore by rubbing.
174 t^a t i n grammar.

[§ 201 .] d) Other Irrer/ularitien.

Vello, velli, and vulsi (but more frequently m ili), vulsum, pluck
The compounds convello, revello , and divello, liave only velli in the
perfect, but avello and. evello liave also avulsi. and emdsi.
Psallo j psaüi, psaüere, play on a stringed instrument.
jEmo, emi, emptum , buy.
Coano, colicci. by purchase; redimo, puro base back. The signification
“ takc ” appears in the compounds adimo , tute away; dirimo, divide;
eximo, take o u t; interimo , take away, k ill; peritno, destro y.
Premo, pressi , pressum, press.
Cotnprtmo, press together; deprimo, opprimo, m pprimo, presa down;
exprimo , presa out.

Gero, ffcssi, e/cstum, carry, transact.

Congero, bring together; digero , arrange ; ingero, introduce.
Uro, u.ssi, iistum, burn.
A düro , kindle; combar o, consume by fire ; inüro, buril in, brand ; e.xüro,
burn out.
Verro, verri, versum, sweep out.
Quaero, quaeslvi, quaesltvm, seek.
Another pronunciation of the samo word is quaeso. (See § 224.) Acquiro,
acatare eonquiro, collect; anquiro, exquiro, hiquiro , perquirí), examine ;
requiro, miss, rcquirc.

(Furo), fwrere, rage (without perfect or supine) ; insanwi is

used as a perfect instead, Even the first person present is
not found, though fu ris and f u ñ t are common.
Fero, tidi , latum, ferré, is irregular in several points. See beluw,

C IIA P . L I.

[§ 202.] G. VERES IN SO AND XQ.

Depao, depsui, clcpsitum and depstum kneiul.

Pim o, p in m i and pinsL pinsitum and pistum (also pinsum),
pomid, grind.

Viso, risi, visñ'e, visit. The supine vi sum belongs to videre,

from whicli visere itself ia derived.
Texu, texui, texturn, weave.
Compounds frequently with a figurative signification : atiexo, add ;
confeso, puí: together ; óbtexo, cover ; pertexo, carry o u t ; praetexo, add a
hem ; retexo, to undo that whidi is woven, destroy.

A fter the Analogy of the Fourth Conjugation :

Arces so, or aecerso, -mi, -itum, summou.

Both modes of writing this word aro found in good MSS. and editions;
compare Schneider’s Eíamentarlehrc, p. 257. foll., and the quotations in
Kritz on Sallust, Cutil. 40. Tlic infinitive passive arcp.vun occufü
sometimos, as iu Cae.s. Bell. Gall. v. 11. Oudendorp.

Gipesso, undertakc.
jFnaisso, give trouble,. especially with nrgotivm and pericidum,
also eqmvalcnt to prqficiscvr, get off. (facesseris, in Cic.
D iv. in Q. Caca. 14.)

Incensó, afctack; no supine. Perfect. incessivi; incesfti is doubtful

(Tac. Ilist. iii. 77.), nnlcss we refer to tliia root, and not,
to incedo, the frequently occurring plirase, cura, desperalio, &e ,
incesxit ánimos.
Lacesso, provoke.

[§ 203.] 7. Verbs in seo, either not Inchoatives, or o f which the

Simple is no longer found.

Cresco, crevi, cretum , grow.

So also con-, de-, excresco, and without a supine : accresco, incrcsco,
grow np, and ma:rexeo¡ grow up gradual!}1,

Noscos novi, notwn , become acqnainted with. The original

form ig gnosco (G reek ^L<yváxjKai), and the g reappears in the
comjKmnds, if poeslble..
The perfect uorÁ takes tliu signifieatiou of the present, “ I know ”
{§ 221.) ; the supine is mentioned only 011 íiccouut of the compounds, for
the participio notvs lias become an adjective, and the participio future
does not occur. Tbe eomp. agnosco, recognisc, cognosco (perf. coguom, T
know), and rotutgnottco, recognise, have in the supine ngnitum, cagiñtnm,

recagnítnm; igiwsco, jmvdon, has ignoíum; dignosco and internosco have

no supine.
Pasco, pavi, pastum, feed.
Depasco, feed down. ,The deponent pascor, feed or eat
Quiesco, quievi, quietum, rcst.
Acquiesco, repose widi satisfaction ; conquiesco, requiesco, rest.
Síteseos suevi, suetum, mostly intransitive, grow accustomed, or,
more rarely, accustom another. B u t suetus signifies cc a.c-
So also assuesco, consuesco, insucsco, generally accustom one’s self;
desuesco, disuecustom one’s self. Some passages where they occur iu a
transitive seose (in which otherwise the compounds with f m io are used,
see J líi3.) are referred to by Bentley on Horace, Serm . i. 4. 105.
Campe seo, compescui, (no supine,) restrnin.
DispescO; dispescui, (no supine,) divide.
Disco, didici, (no supine: disciturus in Appuleius,) learn.
Addi seo, addidici, team in addition; dcdisco, unlearn; edisco, learn by
Poseo, poposci, (no supine), demand.
IJcposc'h depoposci, and raposeo, demand back; exposco, expoposci,
Olisco, gliscere, increase.
Hisco, hiscere, open the mouth, gape.

C H A P. L II.


[§ 204.] T i í e inchoatives (see § 234.) in acó are partly formed

from verbs (chiefly of the second conjugation *), and partly from
nouns (substantivos or adjeetives), and ave accordingly called in-
choativa vtirbália or inchoativa nommalia, that is, verbal or nominal

* According to fi passage in (xellius, vi. 15., they were prohably pro-

nounced with n nrdurnUv long e, as caiéxe-Oy paüésco.

inchoatives. The first have no other perfect than that of the

simple verb; the others either have none, or form it in a
similar way in ui. F ew of the verbal inchoatives have the
supine of the simple verb.
Only those which are of most frequent occurrence are given
in the following list. There are a great many more, but their
formation is easy and analogous. Thus we may form in­
choatives to the intransitive verbs in Chap. X L Y., if there is
any occasíon for itj and we may be assured that it occurs in
some passage or other of the aneients.

1. Verbal Inchoatives with the Perfect o f the Simple Verb.

Acesco (aceo), acui, grow sour ; coacesco, peracesco,
Albesco , and exalbesco (albeo), exalbui, grow white.
Aresco (a ito ), arui, grow dry.
Calesco (rafeo), calui, become ivarm.
C’anesco (caneo), ctznui, bicorne grey.
Conücesco (taceo), coniicui, am rcduccd to silence.
Contremisco (tremo), conlremui, tremble.
Defervesco ( ferveo), deferbui, gradually lose my heat.
Delitesco (lateo), delitui, lurk,
Effervesco (ferveo ), efferbui, grow hot.
Excandesco (candeo), excandui, grow of a wliite heflt ¡ figuratively, am
Extimesco , pertimesco (timeo), extimui, am terrified.
JFloresco, de-, effioresco (floreo), effiorui, blooin.
Haeresco, and ad-, inhaeresco Qiaereo), ad-, inhaesi, adliere to.
Horresco, exkorresco, perhorresco (horreo), exkorrui, am stmck with horror.
Ingemisco (gemo ), ingemui, groan.
IntumesGO (turneo), intumui, swell up.
Irraucisco (rancio), irrausi, become hoarse.
Lartgucsco, elanguesco, relanguesco (latigueo), elangui, become feeble.
Liqueseo (licjueo), licvi, melt away.
Madesco ( madeo), niadiá, become wet.
Marccsco (marceo), comp. comrnarcesco. emarcesco, emarcui, fade.
Occallesco (calleo), occallui, acquire a cullous surface.
Jallesco, cxpallesco (palleo), pállm , turn palé,
Jutreseo (paireo), putnri, moulder.
lesipisco (sapio), resipui and resipivi, recover wisdom.
iubesco, eruhesco (rúbeo), grow red, blush.
aenesco, comenesco (seneo), consenui, grow oíd. The participle senecliís,
gi'own oíd, is little nsed.’
Stupesco and abstupesco (stupeo), obstupui, am struok.
Tdbesco (tabeó), tabui, pine, waste away.
Tepesco (tepeo), tepui, grow lnkewarm.
Viresco, comp. convireaco, eviresco, reviresco (víreo), virui, grow green. *

2. Verbal Inchoatives which have the Supine as loell as Perfect

o f the Simple Verb.
{ Abólesco, abolevi, abolitum, cease, am annihilated.
Exolesco, exolcvi, exolélu/a. grow useless by age. So also obsolesco.
Adolesco, adolevi, adidíum, grow up. See § 174. Oleo.
Coahsco (alore), coalui, coalítum , grow together.
Concapisca ( ciiplre), cortcvpivi, concupítum, desire.
C'onvalúsco (valere), convalui, convalítum, recover healtli.
Exardcsco (ardét y;), e:i:ars¿, exarsum, fiin inüunied.
Iwlolesco (dolere), indolui, tizan, feul pain,
Inmtnrasco (inveterare), invetenivi, atum, grow oíd.
Obdormisco {dormiré), ioi , itttm, fall aalcep ; cdormisco, slcep out.
Revimsco (vivére), rcvixi, revictum, recover life.
Seisco (scire), scivi, scitum , resolve, decree. Henee plcbiscUum. populiscUwn.

[20 D.] 3. Inchoatives derived fro m Nouns,

á) Without a Perfect.
Aegresco (aeger ) , grow sick.
Ditesco (dives), grow ricli.
Dtdcescoi (dulcís), grow sweet.
Faüsco (/a tis, ad fa tim ), burst, fall to pieces.
Grande seo (grawlia), grow large.
Gravcsca and ingravesco (gram s), grow lieavy.
Inawrvcsco (curvus), become crooked,
Integrasco (iníegcr), become renovated.
Juvencsco (ju vm is), grow young.
itíitesco (mitií:), grow mild,
Mollesco (moUi.i), grow soft.
Pingueseo (pingáis), grow ÍUt.
Plumesco (plv.ma)i get feathers.
Puerasco, repuerasco ( puar ), become a chitd (again).
Ster deseo (sterilis), become barren.
Tcne?'esco, tenerasco (tenrn-), become tender.

b) With a Perfect.
Crebreaco, increbresco, and percnbreaco ( creber ), crebrui, grow frequent or
Duresco, obduresco (danta), durui, grow hurd.
Evartesco (uamís), evanui, disappear.
Innotascú (noliis). imiotui, bccojue known.
Manresco (placer'], macrui, grow lean.
Jtfansuesco (mmsvMiis), mamuavi, grow t;inie.
Matura -$ 0 0 (1 naturna), nwfitrui, grow ripe.
Nigresco ( niger ), nignti , grow black.
Obmutesco (mutus), obmuhd, become dumb.
Obsardcsco ( surdm ), obsurdui, become deaf.
Recrudesca (crrrdi/s), recntdtú , to open again (of a wouiid that had been
Vilesco and avilesco ( vilis ), emlui, become cheap or worthloss.

C H A P. L U I.


[§ 206 .] T h e desiderative verbs (see § 232.) in itrio, e. g.

coenaturio, donnitiirio, emptxirio, have neither perfect ñor supine
with tbe exception of csurio, desire to eat, perfect esurivú par-
ticip. esurittirus; nuptario, desire to marry, and parturio, am
in labour^ haye only perfecta, nupturivi and parturivi , but no
The following verbs vary, either in the perfect or in the
supine, or in both, from the regular form (ivi, Itum).
Ció, d vi, citum, regular; but see § 180.
Eo, ivi, itum, wim its compounds. See Detective Verbs,
F ardo, fa rsi, fartu m (also written farctvn i), farcire, siuff. The
supine f a r sum is more rare and not as good.
üonfercio and refercio, fe rsi,fe rtu m , fill up ; effer&io, inferaio, are eon-
jugated Like the simple verb.
Fulcio, fu lsi , fultu m , fulcire, prop.
The perfect. thus pr&sents no external diiference from the perfect of

Haurio, hausi, haustum, haurire, draw.

The supine hausirn is rare, but the participle hausurm is as common as
Queo, quivi or quii, quítum , quire. See § 216.
R audo, rausi, rausum, raudre, am hoarse (raucus).
The compound irm u s e rit , in Cic. de Chut. i. 61. See § 204.
iSaepio, saepsi, saeptum, saepire (some write sepio), hedge in.
Salto, salui, more varely salii ( saltum ), salive, spring.
In the comp. desXlio. exilio, iusitio, &c., the peri' -sibn is far better than
the forms in silii and saliei, and must be restored in the authors of tlie
best age from the MSS. See Drakenb. on Liv. ii. IO., and Sehwarz on
Pliny, P an eg. 66. The supine does not exist either in the simple verb or
in the compounds, though the derivatives saltas , üs, desvltor , insultare , lend
us to a form saltum , and in compounds siiltwn. The regular verb salire,
N 2

salt, must not "be eonfounded with salire. spring. The former is synony-
mous with tíift obsolete mlP.re. or saliere , from which sahus is derived.

Sancio, sanxi , sancltum and sane tu m, sancire, decree, aanction.

Sunctus is found as a participle, though it ís commonly an
adjective, but sancitus is more common.
Sardo, sarsi, sa.rtum, sarcire, patch.
R esarció, repuir.

Sendo, sensi, sensum, sentire, feel, think.

Consentía, agree; dissentio, disagree; praesentio, perceivo beforehand.
The eompound assentio is not as common as the deponent assenüor, but is
founded on good authoríty, e.g. Cic. ad A tt. ix. 9.: assentio ; ad Fam . v. 2.:
assensi; and three other instances of the perfect, which are quoted by
rSiinemann on Lactant. i. 15. 19.

Sepelio, -ivi, sepultura, sepelire, bury.

Vento, veni, ventum, venire, come.
Advenía, arrive ; convenio, m eet; obvenio, encounter ; pervenio, reacli ;
invenio, find,

Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, vincire, bind.

Devincio, bind closely, bind by duty.

Amicio , amictum, amicire, cJothe. (The perfecta amixi and

amícui are attested by the grammarian Diomedcs, p. 364., but
are not found in our authors. A m icivi (amicisse) on the
other hand occurs in Fronto).
Aperio, ui, rtum, aperire, open.
So operio and cooperia, cover, But compeño maltes comperi, compertum,
comperire (is used in the present and infinitive, ¡liso as a deponent, com-
perio r , comperin i), cxperience, and reporto , reperi (or repperi), repertum,
Ferio —ferire, strike. (In the active percussi is used as a perfect,
and in the passive tetas sum.)
Ferocio —ftro ciré, am wild or insolen t.
Viído — visire, fóóka).
Punió, puníala, is regular; but is sometimes used by Cicero, as
a deponent, de Off. i. Ü5. : p u m tu r; Tuscul. i. 44.: puniantur ;
Philip, viii. 3.: puniretur ; p. Milon . 13.: punitus es; de In-
vent. ii. 27.: punitus sis.

C H A P. L IY .



Adminicular , aid. Circular , form a círcle around me.

Adversar, oppose myself. Comissor, feast.
Adülor, flatter. Comitor, accompany (comes, active
Aemidor , rival. only in the poets).
*Altercar, quarrel. Commentor, reílect upon, dispute.
Alucinor (also alluc. and halhte.), Contionor, harangue.
dote, talk idíy, * Confiictor, contend.
Amplcxor, embrace. Conor, attempt.
Ancillur, am a handmaid. Cvm ilior, advise.
Apricor, sun iiiysftlf. Conspicor, behold.
Aqaor, fetcli water ¡ frumentor, col- Contemplar, contémplate.
lect coi'ii \ lignor, collect w ood; Con vicior, revi le.
materior, fell timber \ pabular, Convivor, feast (conviva).
íbrage. Cormcor, chatter as a crow.
A rbitrar, think. Criminar, accuse.
Architector, build (architcctm). Cunetor, delay.
Argvmentor, prove. Depecülor, plunder.
Argütor, ehatter, ata argut-tu?. Despicor, despisc; despido, but de­
Aspernor, despise. spicatas is passive, despised.
A&sentor, agree, flatter. D eversor, lodge.
AucHoTtor, sell at auetion. D igladior, fight,
Aucitpor, catch Itirds, am auceps. D ignor, think wortliy. Cicero how
Aversar, dislike, avoid witli horror. ever sometimes uses it in a passive
Augurar (augur ) , sense, “ I am thought worthy.”
*Auspicor (ctttspex), practise sooth- Dedignor, disdain.
B ariolor ( hariolus), f saying. Dominar, rule (dammvs).
Vaticinar (vates), J Elucubrar , produce by dint o f labour.
Auxilior, aid. Epular, feast.
Bacchor, revel as a Uacchanal. E xecrar, execrate.
Calumniar, cavil, *Fabricar, fashion.
Camltor, ridicule. Fabulor, confabular, talk.
C'atiponor, deal, retail. Famular, serve (fartiulus).
Causar, allege. Fenerar, lend at interest (the active,

* The words to which an asterisk is prefixed, are used also as actives, but
better as deponents. Some deponents have been omitted in the list, which
are either of very rare occurrence or more eommonly used as actives.
Respecting the latter see the note at the end.
k 3

“ to restore with interest,” occurs M orar, delay; trans. and intrans.;

in Terencc ; in later writers ¡t is comp. commoror.
the same as the deponent). *M wieror, remunerar, aliqimm ali­
jFeriar, keep holiday. qua re, reward.
Frustrar, disappoint Mutuor, borrow.
Furor, suffuror, steal. Ncgotior, enrry on business.
Gloriar, boast. N idulor , build a nest.
Graecor, live in the Greek sr.vle, tliat N ugor , trille.
is, luxuriously. Nundinor, (leal in búying and selling.
Grasso?', advance, attack. Nutricor, nourish.
Gratificor, comply with, Odaror, sinell out.
Gvalor, and gratulor, gíve thanks, Ominar, prophesy; abominor, abomí­
present congratulations. nate.
v Gravar, tliink heavy, is the passive Operar, bestow labour on.
of gravo.') Ojñnar, tliink.
Hetluor, gluttonise (Jtdltw). Opiialor, lend help.
Ilortor , exhort; adhortar, exhortar, *Oscítor, yawn.
dclwrtor. Oscidor, kiss.
H ospitor, am a £u<ust (liospes), lodge. Otior, liave leísure.
Im aginor , imagine. * Palpar, strolce, ílatter.
Imitar, imitate. Parcmtor ,aet tlieparasíte (¡jaranitas).
indignar, am indignant, spurn. Patrocinar, patronize,
Infttior, deny. Percardw, inquirí;.
Insidiar, plot. Peregrinar, dwell as a atranger.
Interpretar, esplain, am an interpres. Periclitar, try, in later writers, am
Jaculor, tlii'ow, dart. in danger.
Jocor , jest. Philosaplwr , philosophize.
Laetar , í-cjoíee (lactus). * P ig m ro r, take a pledge, bind by a
Lamentar, lamen t. pledge.
Latrocinar, rob, am a latro. P ig ro r } am idlc (pigor),
le n o c im r (alicuí), ílaHer, l-’iscar, lisli.
L ibidim r, am voluptuous. *Popular , lay waste.
Licitar, bid at an auction. Pruedar , plunder.
Lncror , gain. Praeatoiar, wait for, with the dat. or
Luctor, strive, wrestle (olluctor and accus, (the quantity of the a is un-
rehidor , resist). certain, though probably short).
* T.vdificar, ridicnle. Praevaricor , walk with erooked legs,
MacMnor, devise. act dishonestly, as a pranmricator,
M edicar, he al. that is, as a.f&lse accuscr.
M e d ita r , Précar , pray ; comprecor, invoke ,
M ercor, buy. deprecar , deprceate ; imprecar, im­
*M eridiar, repose at noon. précate.
M etor, measure out. Proclior, fight a battle.
M inar and minitor, thrcaten. Ratiacinor , reason.
M irar, woniler ; demiror, the same; Recordar, remember.
admirar, admire. tíe,frügor, oppose.
M k ero r, commüeror , pity. Rimar, examine mínutely.
Moderar , restrain, temper. R ixar, wrangk.
Modidor, modulate. Rusticar, live in tlie country.
M origeror, comply, am morigents. Sedar and sciscitar, inqnive.

Scrutor, perscrütor, searcli. Truttnor, weigh.

Sector, the frecpientative of sequor, Tumultuar, make uproar.
follow; assectot', confector, insector. Tutor, deferid.
Sermocinor, hold discoui’se. Vador, summon to tríal.
Solor, consolar, comfort. V agor andjvalor, wander.
Spatior, cxpatior, wulk. V elifícor , steer towards (figuratively,
Spcculor, keep ¿i look out. gain a purpose), chenco it is con-
Stípulor , make a bargain; adstipidor, strued with the dat., as 1tonori meo.
agree. Velitor, skirmish with liglit troops.
Stamachor, am indignant, Venerar, venerate.
S ’immor, kiss. Veiwr , hunt.
Suffrügor (tbe contrary of refrago-r ), Verecundor, feel shame at doing.
asscnt to. Ver sor (properly, the passive of
Suspicor, suspect. verso), dwell, am occupied i n ;
Tergiversar, shuille. avarsor , detest ; oíversor, float
Testar and testificar , bear vitness. before.
Tricar, make unreasonaole diffieultics Vociferar, vociférate.
('fricas). ürinor, dip under water (to vo:d
Tristor, am sad- uriñe is urinam facere or reddere).

Note. W e must here notice some verbs which are eommonly used ag
actives, but by some writers, and of good authority, aa deponents also. Such
are: communico?', commurmuror (Cic, in P is. 25.), flucimi', fru ticor (Cic.),
lacrimar, Ivxiirior, motor. Vclificur, in the figurativa sense of striving after,
is used by Cicero as a deponent, but in the primary sense of “ sailing ” it is
much more usually active-. Adular , arbitrar, crim hvr, and more especially
dignor , are used by Cicero as passives, as well as deponents, throughout, and
not merely in tbe participio, as is the case with many others. See the
Chapter on the Participle, in the Syntax.



Fateor , fctssus sum, fa te rí, acknowledge.

Confíteor, confessus mm, the same, but usually, confess a crime; p ro -
fiteor, profesa ; diffiteor (no participle), deny.

L ic c o r , lic itu s su m , with the accus., bid at an auetion.

I ’olliceor , promisc.

Medeor, without a, participle, for which medicatus, from medi­

can, ia eommonly used.

* Mereor, meritus sum, deserye. The active is used in the senae

of serving or earaing, as merere stipendm ; bu t the forma are
not kept distinct.
Commereo r, demereor, promereor, have the same meaning.

Miserear, miserítus or misertus sum, pity.

Respecting the impersonal verb miseret or miseretur me, see § 225.
Reor, ratus sum, veri. think.
Tucor, tiútus stim, look upon, fig. defend.
Contuear, intueor, look upon. There was an oíd form tuor, after the
third conjugation, of which examples are found in the comic writers and
in Lueretius, and iu Nep. Chabr. 1. 3. intuuntur is found for the common
mtufíntur. The adject, tutus is derived from the form tuor.

Vereor, verítus sum, fear.

Revereor, reverence ; subvereor, slightly fear.

C H A P . L V I.


F ro m the obsolete a-piscar, aptus sum , apisci, are derived:

Adipiscor, adeptas sum, and indipiscor, obtaiii.

Expergisfíor, experrectus sum, txpergisci, awake.

The verb expergefacere signíáes to awaken, whence experg-efactw,
awakened. E xpergo, with its participle expergítus, is obsolete.

Fruor, fructu s and fru ítu s sum, fr u i , enjoy. (Particip. fr u i-

P erfruor , perfructus sum, strengthens the meaning.
Fungar, fu n d a s sum, fungí, perform, discharge.
D eftm gor , perfungor, compietely discharge, finish.
Gradior, grcssus sum, gr&di, proceed.
A ggredior , aggressus sum, aggredi, assail; congredior , m eet; digredior
depart; egrédior , go out o f; ingredior, entcr on ; progredior , advance
regredior, returo,

Irascor, irtisci, properly an inchoative, grow an g ry ; iratus sum


means only, I am angry. I have been or was angry may be

expressed by succensui.
Labor, lapsus sum, labi, falL
Collábor, sink together; düábor, fall in pieces; prolabor, fall down;
delabor, relator.
Loquor , hcutus sum , loqui, speak.
Allñquor, address ; coüoqtvor, speak with ; eloqmr, interloquor; obhquor,
Speak against, revile.
(F rom the obsolete miniscor,')
Comminiscor, commentus sum, commíním, devise, imagine (the participle
commenlus usually in a passive sense, feigned); reminiscor, reminisci, ¿as
no perfect; recordatus sum is used instead of it.
Morior, mortuus sum., (participle future, moriturus,') morí, díe
( moriri is obsolete, but still occurs in Ovid, Metam. xiv.
Emorior, commorior, demorior.
Nanciscor, nactus sum,, nancisci, obtain. The participle is also
found w ritten nanctus, as in many passages of Livy.
Nascor, natus sum, nasci (nasciturus only in late writers), am
b o rn ; passive in sense, but without an active. I t was ori­
ginally gnascm *, and the g reappears in agnatus, cognatus.
Enascor, innascor, renascor.

N itor, nisus or nixus sum, m ti, lean upon, strive.

AdíiUar,- strive for; coiiniíor and emtor, exert myself; in the sen?e of
“ bring forth,” or “ give birth." enixa est is preferable; óbnitor, strive
Obliviscor, ohlitvs sum , oblivisci, forget.
Pariscor, par,tus sum (or pepigí), make a bargain.
Comp. compaciscor, depaciscor, or campeciscor and depeciscor, compactas,
depactus sum, whence the adverh compacto or compecto for ex or de com­
pacto, aceording to contract.
Pascor, pastus sum, feed; intransitive. Properly the passive
of pasco, pavi, pastura, give food; see above, Chap. L I.
Patior, passus sum, p áti, auífcr.
Perpeiior, perpessus sum, perpeti, endure.
(From plecto, twine,)
Amplector and complector, complexas sum, embrace.
Proficiscor, profectus sum, prqficisci, travel.

Querur, questus sum, qu'cri^ complain.

Conqueror, lament.
Rinqor, r i n g i grin, show the teetli, whence rictus .
Sequor, secutus sum, séqui, follow.
Assequor and consaquor, overtake, attain ; exequor, exccute \ inseoTior,
follow; obaequor, comply with ; persequor, pursue ; proscquor, attend ;
siibsequor, follow cióse after.
Vehor, see § 192,
Vosear, vesci, eat. E d i is used as the perfect.
Ulciscor, ultus sum, ulcisci, revenge, punish.
ZJtor, iisus sum, Titi, use.
A tu far, abuse ; dentar ouly in Nepos, E um . 11.
Deverlor. praevertor, and re n e rto r , see under verto. They take
their perfeets from the active fo rm : revertí, reverteram¡ re-
vertissem; only the participle reversas is used in an active
sense, one who lias returned.
Reversas smn for revertí is very rare, but occurs in Nep. Them. 5. \
Ycll. ii. 42.; Quintil, vii. 8. 2. xi. 2. 17., and other less classie authors, but
never iu Cicero.



Assentior, assensus sum , assentiri, assent. (A s an active, as-

sentio, assensi, ássensum, assentire, it is not so common; see
above, § 206.)
Blandior, blanditus sum, blandiri, flatter.
Experior, expertus sum, experiri, experience, try.
Comperior, am informed, is used only in the present tense, along with
comperio; the perfeut therefore is comperi.
Largior, largitus sum, largiri, give m oney; dilargior, distribute
Mentior, mentitus sum, rnentiri, lie ; ementior, the same.

Metior, mensus sum, metíri, measure.

DimaHor, measure o u t; emetior. measure completely : permetior.
M ólior, molitus sum, moliri, moyo a mass (moles'); plan.
Am olior , remo ve from the w ay; demolior, demolisb, and others.
Opperior, oppertus sum, in Terence, and opperitus sum in lJIau-
tus, opperiri, wait for.
OrdtOT, orsus sum, ordiri, begin.
Emordior, the same ; redordior, begin over again.
Orior, ortus stim, oriri (partic. oritunes), rise. (The partic. fut.
pass. oriundus has a peculiar signification “ descended” from
a place or person.) The present indicat. follows the third
conjugation: orP.ri.s, orttur , orimur. In the imperf. subjunet.
both forms orerer and orirer are found. Sec Liy. xxiii. 16, ;
Tac. Ann, ii. 4 7 .; comp. xi. 23.
So also the compounds cooriar and exorior ( exoreretur in Lucretius,
ii. 506.) ; but of adorior, undertake, the forms adnriris and adoñtur ave
certain, ivhereas adoveris and adorítur are only probable ; adorerstur is
eommonly editad in Sueton. Clav.d. 12.
Partió?', partitus sum, pa rtiri, divide (rarely active).
Tli-3 compounds dispertio, distribuía, and impertió (also impartió), com-
municate, are more frequently actives than deponents. D ispertior, dis-
pertiius sum (more frequently active), distribute; impertior (also impertió ,
impartió, impartior). comuiunicate.
Potior, potitus sum, potiri, possess myself of.
It is not uncoinmon, especially in tlic poets, for the present indicative
and the imperfect subjunctive to be formed after tbe tliird conjugation;
potttur. poiimur. potereiur, poteremur.
Sortior, sortitus sum, sortiri, cast lots.
Punior, for punió. See § Ü06. in fin.



[Sj an .] T h e term Irregular Verbs is here applied to those

which depart from the rule not only in the formation of their
perfect and supine, but have something anomalons in their

conjugation itself. They are, be sirles sum (treated of before,

§ 156.), possum, edo,fero, valo, nolo, malo, eo, queo, nequeo, fio.

1. Possum, I am able.

Possum is composed of potis and sum, often found separately

in early L a tin ; by dropping the termination of potis, we obtain
potsurnj possum. I t therefore follows the conjugation of sum in
its terminations, b u t the consonants t, s, and/*, produce some
changes-, when they come together.
I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Possum, potes, potesi. possim, possis, possit.
possümus, potestis possunt. , possimus, possitis, possint.
poteram, poteras, poterat. ,
possem posses, posset.
poteramm -eratis, erará. - possemus, possetis, possent.

pote.ro poteris, poterit.
potervmus, -eritis, -b-unt.
potui, potuisti, potuit. ,
potuerim -eris, -erit.
potiámits, -istis, -c.'rntd. potuerünus, -itis, -int.
potaeram -eras, -erat '» potuissem, -isses -isset. ,
potueramus, -Gratis, -erant. potuüsemus, -issetis, -issent.

Future Perfect.
potuero, potueris potueriL ,
potuerimvs potuerltis, potuerint.

(No I m p e r a t i v e .)
I w f t p ít t iv e . P a r t ic : i\l e .

Pres. & Imp. posse. Potens has become an adjective).

Perf. & Plup. potmsse.

2. JSdo, I eat.
[§ 212 .] The yerb ¿da, edi, ésum, edere, is declined regularly
according to the third conjugation, but here and there it has
syncopated forms, besides its regular ones, similar to the cor-

responding tenses of sum, except that the quantity of the vowel

in the second person singular of the indic. present and of the
imperative makes a drfference, the e in es from edo being long
by nature. The tenses in which this resemblance occurs are
seen in the following tab le: —
I n d ic a t iv e . S U EJTIH CTIY E.
Present, Imperfect.
Sing. JSdo, edis, edit, Sing. edsrem, ederes, ederct,
(or es, est.') (or éssem, esses, esset.)
Plur. edimus, editis, edunt. Plur. ederemus, ederetis, ederent,
(estis.) (or éssemus, éssetis, éssent.')
Im p e b a t iv e . Inpesjtive.
Sing. ede, i~s, edere or esse.
Plur. edite, este.
Sing. edito, ésto.
Plur. edito, ésto, editóte, estofe, In the Passive only editar, éstu r;
edunto. ederetur, essetur.

In the same way the compounds abedo, ambedo, eoniedo, exedo,

and pereda are conjugated.

3. Fero , I bear.
[§ 213 .] Féro consists of very different parts, perfect tüli
(originally tetuli, which is still found in P lautus and T erence);
supine, látum ; infinitive, f e r r e ; passive, Jerri. B u t with the
exception of the present indicat. and the imperative, the detail
is regular.
A c tiv e . P a s s iv e .
I n d ic a t iv e . I k d ic a t iv e .
Pres. Sing. Fero, f e r s , fe rt. Pres. Sing. fe r a r , fe rris, fsrtu r,
Plur. f erimus, J'ertis, ferunt. Plur. ferXnmr, ferim ini , feruntar,
Im p e r a t iv e . I m p e k a t iv e .

Pres. Sing. fer. Plur. ferte. Pres. Sing. ferre. Piur. ferimini.
Fut, Sing. ferto. Plui\ fertote , Fut. Sing. fe rto r. Plur. feruntor.
fe rto . ferunto. ferto r.
Note. The rest is regular j imperfect, ferebam ; future, feraM , -es ,* future
passive, fe ra r, fe ré r is (fe re re ), feretu r, &c. ; preseut subjunctive, fera m ,
fe ra s ; passive, fe r a r , fe ra ris , feratu r ,■ imperfect subj unctive, f e r r e m ; pas­
sive, fe rre r.
The compounds of f e r o — affe.ro. antefero , circumfaro, confero, dcfero, and
Others, have Iittle that is remarkable. Aufero (originally abfero ) makes
abstuli, ablatum , auferre. Suffero has no perfect or supine, for stisluli, nubla-

tum, belong to tollo. Cicero, however (N . D . iii. lina pom as sustulit, bw

m stm ui is commonly used in this sense. D iffero is used only in the presern
tense, and those derived from it in the sense of “ difíier ; " dishái and dilatwi
have tlie sense of “ dclay.”

4. Fofo, I will. 5. Nolo, I will not. 6. Malo, I will rather.

[§ 214.] Nolo is compounded of ne (for non) and volo. The
obsolete ne appears in three persons of the present in the usual
form of non; malo is compounded of maye (i. e. magis') and volo.
properly mavolo, mavellem, contracted malo, mallem .

I ndicative.
Sing. Volo N olo M alo
vis non vis mavis
vult non vult mavult
Plur, volumus nolumus malumus
vutíis non vultis mavultis
volunt. nolunt. mahmt.

Sing, volebam, &c, nolabam, &c. mcdebam, &c.
Plur. volébamus, &c, nolebamus, &c- malcbamm, &c.

Sing. volam,, volea, et nolam, notes, et malam, males, et
Plur. volemos, etis, ent. nolemus, etis, ent. medemm, etis, ent.

Síng. voltd nolm nuthd
voluisti, &c. noluisti, &c. muhásti, &c.

volueram , &c. nolueram , &e. mahteram, &c.

Future Perfect.
volttero, is, &c. noluero, z.t. &c. 'nwhip.ro, is, &c.

Sing. v¿Hm nolim malim
velis nolis 7jialis
velit nolil malit
Plur. vdim tis itolimu.i walimwt
velltis nolUis malit
■celint. nolint. malint.

Sing, vellem, &c. nollmn, &c. mallem , &c.
Plur, vellémus, &c. nollérmis, &c. mallémus, &c.
Sing. voluerím, &c. noluerim, &c. maluerim, &c.
Plur, voluerlmus, Sic. nolueñmus, &c. mahienmus ( &u.
Sing. volvissem, &c. noluissem, &a. mahdssem, &e.
Plur. voluisscmus, &c. jwluissemus, &c. muluissemus,

I m p e r a t iv e .
2d Pers. 7ioli, nollte.
2d Fers. nollto, nolitote.
3d Pers. nolito , nolunto.
I n f in it iv e .
Pres. velle iioílo, malle
Perf. voluisse. noluinse, maltásse.

P a r t ic ip l e .

volens. nolens.
volcndi nolendi.

7. Eo, I go.

[§215.] The verb eo, ivi, itum, iré. is for the most part formed
regularly, according to the fourth conjugation; only the present,
and the tenses derived from it, are irregular.
I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Smg. E o, is, it. Sing. eam, eas, eat.
Plur. tmus, itis, eitnt. Plur. eamus, eatis , eant.

Sing. ibam , ibas, ibat. Sing. irem, ires, iret.
Plur. íbamus, ibatis, ibant. Plur. iremm, ireíis, irm t.

Future. I m p e r a t iv e .

Sing. ibo, ibis, ibit. Sing. i. Sing. 2. ito. 3. ito.

Plur. ibimus, ibitis, ibunt. Plur. ¿te. Plur. 2. ito te. 3, cunto

I n f in it iv e ,
Pres. iré.
Perf. ivisse or isse.
Fut. iturum (-am, -uní) esse.

Gitrund. S u p in e .
Gen. eundi. Dat, cundo, &c. itum, Un.
P a r t ic ip l e s .

Pies. iens, evMis, Fut. iiurus, -a, -um.

In the passive voice it exists only as. an impersonal, itur, itum

est. Some compounds, however, acquire a transitive meaning ;
they accordingly have an accusative ín tlic active, and may also
have a complete passive : e. gr. adeo, I approach; ineo, I enter ;
praetereo, I pass by. Thus the present indic. pass. adeor,
adiris, aditur, adhnur, adimini, adeuntur; subjunct, a d ea r ;
imperf. adibar ; subj. a d irer; fut. adibor, adiberis (e), adibitur ,
& c.; imperat. pres. adire, adim in i; fut. adítor, adeuntor ; par­
ticiples, adltus, adeundus.
These and all other compounds, abeo, cobo, exco, intereo and
perco (perish), prodeo, redeo. have usually only ii in the perfect:
perii, redii. Circumeo and circueo, I go round something, differ
only in their orthography, for in pronunciation the m was lo st;
in the derivatives, circuitos and circuitio, it is therefore, with
more consistency, .not written. Véneo, I am sold, a neutral
passive verb, without a supine, is compounded of venum and eo,
and is accordingly declined like ir é ; whereas ambio, I go about,
which changes the vowel even in the present, is declined regu-
larly according to the fourth conjugation, and has the participle
ambiens, ambientis, and the gerund ambiendi. The part. perf.
pass. is ambtíus, but the substantive ámbitos has a short i. See
the Commentators on Ovid, Metam. i. 37.
Note. A second form of tbe future, eam inatead of ib o, is mentioned by
Priscian, but ia not founrl in any other writer. It is only in compounds,
though diK'-íl v in late and undassioal authors, tliat ive find -eam, ie.i, iet, ient>
along with ibo, ibis, &C. See Bünemann on Laotunt. iv. 13. 20. T ransid in
Tibull. i. 4. 27. ia surprising. Veneo, I am sold, sometimes abandona the
conjugation of eo, and jimia s the imperfect veniebam instead of venibam , for
so, at least, we find in good MSS. of Cieeru, Philip, ii. 37., and in Verr. III.
47., and in some MSS. of Livy, ii. 9- Ambio sometimes follows e o ; e. g. amh-
ihat in Ovid, Metam. y. 361.; Liv. xxvii. 18.; Plin. E p is t vi. 33.; Tae. Aun.
ii. 1í).; and ambibunt for ambieut is said to occur in Pliny (II. N . viii. 85. ?).

[§216.] 8. Queo, I can. 9. Nequeo, I cannot.

These two verbs are both conjugated like eo: perfect, quim,
nequivi; supine, qultuw , nequitum. Most of their forms occur;

but, with the exception of the present, they are not very fre-
quent in prose, and some authors, such as Nepos and Caesar,
never use this verb at alL Instead of nequeo, non queo also was
used, and in Cicero the latter is even more frequent. Q u is and
quit are found only with non.

I n d ic a t iv e ,

Sing. Queo, quis, quit. Nequeo, non quis, non quit.
Plur. qmmvs, quitis, queunt. neqvímus, nequitis, nequeunt.
Sing. Quibam, quibat, &o. neqnlbam, nequibat, -ant.

Sing. Quibo. Plur. qvibunt. Sing. ------- Plur. nnqvibu'iit.
P erfect
Sing. Quivi, quivit■ nequivi, nequüti, nequwit (iii).
Plur. ------ q u i w r u n l . ----------------------neqmvermitor w -
quienmt (e).

nequierat, nequierant.

S u b ju n c t iv e .
Sing. Queam, queas, qv.aat. nequeamt nequena, nequeat.
Plur. queamus, queatis, gueant nequeanim, nequeatis, ncqucccnt.

Sing. Quirem, quiret. neqwirem, imqviret.
Plur. ------ qiñrent. neqmremu.s, nequirent.

S in g .------ qviverit. nequiverim, vequierií, tiequierint.

S in g .-------------------- ----------------------------- nequisset.
P lu r.------ quiasent. nequisseni.

I n f in it iv e .

Qiáre, quivisse (quisse). nsquire. nequivisse (jiwquisse).

P A K T I C ir L E .

Quiens (gen. qucui'dis). neqviens (gen. naqueuntis).

There is also a passive form of these verbs : quitar, nequitur, quita est, ne-
quihtm est, but it occurs very rarely, and is used, like coeptus svm, only when
an infinitive passive foilow s; e. g. in T eren ce: form a in te m lr ú nosci non
quita est, the figure could not be recognised.

[§ 217 .] 10. Fio, I become, or am made.

Fio ís properly an intransitive verb, the Greek <j>va), without
a supine. B ut owing to the affinity existing between the
ideas of becoming and íeing made, it was used also as a passive of
f a d o , from which it took the perfect fac.tus sum, and the latter
then reeeived the meaning “ I have become,” along with that
of “ I have been made,’’ In consequence of this transition
into the passive, the infinitive became fie ri instead of the
original form fiere. Henee, with the exception of the sup-
plementary forms from facere {factus, faciendus, factu s sum ,
eram, &c.) and the passive termination of the infinitive, there ís
no irregularity in this verb. In the present, imperfect, and
future, it follows the third conjugation; for the i belongs to the
root of the word, and is long, except in J it and those forms in
which an r occurs in the inflection. (See § 16.)
I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .

Present. Present
Sing. Fio, fis, Jit. fiam, f a s , fiat.
Plur. Jimus, fitis, fiant. fia-mus, fiatis, fiant
Imperfect. Imperfect.
Sing. Jiebam, as, al. fiereni , es, et.
Plur. Jiebanms, atis , aut. fieremus, etis , ent.
Future. Im p e b a t j v i ;.

Sing;. Jiam, fies, fíat. Prca. Sing./i. Plur.jtfíe.

F!ur. Jiemus, fietis, fient. (rare, but well attested.)

I n f in it iv e .
Jieri (Jachan esse, Jachan iri). Part. Pres. is wanting.

Note. Among the compounds the following must be noticed as defectives :

infit, which is used only in. this third person sing., he or she begins; e. g.t
loqui, or with the ellipsis of loqui; and dejit, dejiat , dejiunt, defieri, which
does not occur in prose. Respecting confia see above, § 183.

C H A P . L IX .

T h e term Defective Verbs is here applied to those only in

which the defectiveness is striking, and which are found only in
certain forms and combinations, for there is, besides, a very
large number of defective verbs, of which certain tenses are not

found on account of their meaning, or cannot be shown to have

been used by the writers whose works have come down to us.
M any of them have been noticed in the lists of verbs in the
preceding C hapters; with regard to other3, it must be left to
good taste cultivated by reading the best authors, as to whether
we may use e. g. cupe from cupio, like cape from capio, and
whether we may say dor¡ I am given, like prodor, or putatus sum
like habitus sum. (Putatum est occurs in Cicero, p . Muren. 17.,
de D ivin. I. 39.) W e shall here treat of the verbs ajo and in-
quam, I say ; f a r i, to speak ; the perfeets coepi, memini, nom, and
odi; the imperatives apage, ave, salve, vale ; cedo and queso, and
lastly o f forem .

1. Ajo, I say, say yes, or afíirm.

I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .
Present. Present.
Sing. Ajo, ais , Sit. Sing. — ajas, a ja t
P lu r.------■----- ñjant. Plur. ■ - ajimt.
Imperfect. (The imperative ai ¡s obsolete. The
Sing. ajebam, ajelas, qjebat. participle ujem is used only as an ad-
Plur. ajela-mus, ajebatis, ujebant. ject. instead of affirmativus.')
Perfect. All the rest is wanting, or unclas-
Sing. - Sit (like the present). sica!.

Note. In prose, as well as in poetry, am ? do you íhink so ? is frequently

used for aisne, just as we find viderí, abiii for videsne, abisne. Sea § 24. The
comic writers, especially Terence, use the imperfect aibam, &c., as a word of
two syllables.

[§21 9 .] 2. Jnquam, I say.

ThÍ3 verb is used only between the words of a qnotation,
while ait, ajunt, are fottnd most frequently in the oratio obliqua.
I n d ic a t iv e . S u b ju n c t iv e .

Present. Present.
Sing. Inquam. inquis, inqvit. Sing.------ inquias, inquiat.
Plur. inqvXmus, inquitis, inquiunt. P lu r .------ ; inqmatis, inquiunt.
Imperfect. Future.
Sing. inquiebam , &c. S in g .------inquiex, inquiet,
Plur. inquiebarmts, &c. P l u r . -------- . .

Perfect. Im p e r a t iv e .

S ín g.------ inquisti, inquil. Sing. inque, inquíío.

P lu r.----- imjuistis, ------ . Plur. inqvíte.

Note, The first person of the perftíct (more probably ingui t.han inqvit) ia
not found; the present inquam ia used instead, and inguit may therefore jnst
as well be taken fnr the present. The present subjunctive has been here
given according to Priscian, p. 876., but has not yet been confirmed by any
other authoi’ity.

[§ 220 .] 3. F ari, to speak, say.

This very irregular verb, with its compounds affari, effari,
pro fd ri, is, generally speaking, niore used in poetry than in
ordinary prose. The third persons of the presen!, fa tu r, Jan tur,
the imperati1v eja re, and the participle fa tu s, a, um ( effatum is used
also in a passive sense)., occur most frequently. The ablative of
the gerimd, fatulo, is used in a passive sense even in prose, in the
phrase/antfe audire, to know by hearsay.
Compounds : uffamur, Ovid ; ajfamini, Curtius \ affabar, Virgil ; eff'abor
and effaberis also occur ¡n poetry. The first person for, the subjanetive
fer, feris, fctur, &c., and the participle fans in the nominative, do not oecur,
though the Other cases o í fans are lbund in poetry. Fandus, a, um, only in
the combmation fandum et nefandum; fanda, nefanda, which are equivalent
to/íw et nefas.

[§ 2 2 1.] 4. Cvcpi, 5. Mcr/ñni, 6. JYovi, 7. Odi,

I have begitn. I remember. I know. I líate.
These four verbs are perfccts of obsolete presents, which
have gone out of use, with the exception of nosco, and
coepio, coepere. They consequently have those tenses only,
which are derived from the perfect. In meaning, mtmini, novi,
and odi are presents; novi, I know, shows the transition most
clearly, for it properly means “ I have learnt to know.” (See
§ 203.) Henee the pluperfect has the meaning of an im perfect:
memineram, I remembered ; noveram , I knew ; oderam, I hated,
not “ I had hated,” and the future perfect has the signification
of a simple future, e. g. odero, I shall lía te ; meminero, I shall
remember. Otherwise the terminations are quite regular.
I n d ic a t iv a .

Coepi, Memini, Nmn, Odi ,
coepisli, wieministi, novisti Ovisli), odisíi,
coepit. memimt. 7wvit. odit.
cóepimus, ■memhiiinuf;, nnvi.irms, odimua,
cacpistis, meministis, novistis (mcíís), odisliit,
coepenmt. memiverunt. navermtt (vortatt). odenmt.

cocpemm, &c. memineram, &ü. noveram, &c, oderam, &c.
coopero, &c. meminero , &c. novero. odero, &c.
noveris, &e-
coeperim : &c. mcmmcrim , &u. uoverim, &e. oderim, &c.
eofl^ííícm, &c. j)icr«ÍHÍwefli, &c. Hí/ymem, &c. odissem, &e.
(«0SS6JM .)

------------- only the sing. we- -------------
mentó anrl plur.
coejjj.sse. meminiase. noeisse.
P abticlples.
Perf. pass. c o e p t u s ------ ------ (pcrosxts, exosus, with an
(begnnV active meaning.)
Fut. aet. coepturus. ------ ------ 0.9ZÍÍ-ÍW.
JVbíe. Henee coepisse has a perfect passive coeptus (a, uní) sum; e. g.
Liv. xxx. 3 0 . : quia. a me beiluvi coeptwn est; xxviii. 1 4 . : quum a neidris
pugna coepta esset; but it is used especially in connection with an infinitiva
passive, as in pons instituí, coeptus est; T yros séptimo iiieñse, quam oppugnari
coepta erat, capta cst; de re publica, consuli cnepti sumvs: the active forms
coepit. coeperat, however, may likewise be used in this connection. Compare
defiiht.t est, § 200. Compounds are occoepi, whieh is not unfrequently used
alortg with the regular occipio (the saíne as iavipió), and commemini.

[§ 222 .] 8. Ap&ge, [f, A v e ,. 10. Salve, 11. Vale,

be gone. hall. hail. farewell.
Note. A page is the Greek imperative awaye of «jráyw, and akin wíth
abigo: apage istas sor ores! away with them! especially apage te, get thyself
offi or, with the omission of the pronoun, apage , begone. Sulveo in Flautus,
Trwaiú,. ii. 2. 4-, may be regarded as the present of salve. Comp. Probus,
1 nstit. Grarn,, p. 141., ed. Lindemann. Vale and ave, on the other liand, are
regular imperatives of voleo, I am well, and uzeo, I desire; and they are
mentioned here only on account of their change of meaning.
The plural is, avete, sálvete, válele; the imperafc. fut. aveto, salveto^ váieto.
The future, scdvebis. valehis, is likewise used in the sense of an imperative,
and the infinitives mostly with/«Seo: avere , solvere, valere.
o 3

[§ 223 .] 12. Cedo, give, tell.

This word is used as an imperative in familiar language, for
da and dic, both with and w ithout an accusative, A plural
cette occurs in oíd Latin.
The e is short in this word, which thus difiers from the complete verb cedo,
I yield, give way.

[<§ 224.] 13, Quae so, I beseech.

Quaeso is originally the same as quaero, but iu good prose it
ia generally inserted in another sentenee. Besides this first
person singular, we find only the first person plural quaesümus.

14. Forem, I shoiiM be.

This imperfect subjunctive, which is conjugated regularly,
has arisen from fuerem of the obsolete verb fu o , and belongs
to sum. (See above, § 156.)


[§ 225.] 1. T h e term Impersonal Verbs strictly applies only

to those of which no other but the third person singular is used,
and which do not admit a personal subject (I, thou, he), the
subject being a proposition, an infinitive, or a neuter noun
understood. (See § 441, &c.) Verbs of this kind are :
M iseret (me), I pity, perfect miserítum est,
Pígct (me), I regret, piguit or pigitum est.
Poenitet (me'), I repent, poenituit, fut. poenitehit.
Pudet (me), I am ashamed, puduit or puditum est,
Taedet (me), I am disgusted with (taeduit very rare), per-
taesum est.
Oportet, it is nccessary, oportuit, fut. oportebit.
Note. M iseruit, the regular perfect of miseret, occurs so aeldom, that we
have not here noticed it. The form commonly used is miseritum or misertum

«sí, whteh is derived from the impersonal me miseretur tui, wliich ís not un-
coimnon, although the deponent m isereri ia otherwise used only as a personal
verb, miserear tui. Compare the passages, Cic, p . L igar. 5.: cave te fra tn im
p ro sa.lv.tefra tría ohsecrantium rniserealur; in Verr. i. 30. : jtt'in me tui misereri
non potest, 'where the verb is likewise impersonal.

[íj 226 .] 2. Besides tliese impersonals, there are some others,

which likewise have no personal subjeet, but yet are used in. the
third person plural, and may have a nominative (at least a neuter
pronoun) as their subjeet. Such verbs a r e :
Libet (mihi), I like, choose ; perf. Ubuit or libitum est.
Licet (nii/u), I am perinitted; perf. licuit oi‘ licitum est.
Decet(me), it becomes me, and dedecet, it does not become m e ;
perf. decuit, dedecuit,
Liquety it is obvious; perf. licuit.
Note. Líbuit Las been mentioned here as a perfect of libet, but it is
usually found only as a present, in the sense of libet.

[§ 227 .] 3. There is also a considerable num ber of verbs

which are used impersonally in the third person, while their
other persons occur with more or less difíerence in meaning.
To these belong : interest and referí in the sense of c: it ia
of importance to,” with which no nominative can be used as a
su bjeet; further, accidit. f i t , evenit, and contingit, it lm ppens;
accedit, it is added to, or in addition t o ; aítinet and pertinet
(ad aliquid), it concerns; conducit, it is conducive ; convenit, it
su its; constats it is known or established; expedit, it is expedient;
delectat and ju v a t , it delights, pleases ; fá llit, fu g it, and praeterit
me, it escapes me, I do not k n o w ; placet, it pleases; perf.
placuit and placitum est; praestat, it is b e tte r; restat, it rem ains;
vacat, it is w an tin g ; est in the sense of licet, it is permitted or
possible, e. g. est videre , non est dicere verum , but especially in
poetry and late prose writers.
[§ 228 .] 4. The verbs which denote the changes of the
weather: pluit, it rains; ningit, it snow s; grandinat , it hails;
lapidat (perf. also lapidatum est), stones fall from heaven; fu l-
gurat and fuhninat, it lightens (with this difference, that fu lm i-
nat is used of a flash of lightning which strikes an object);
tonat, it th u n d ers; lucescit and illucescit (perf, illuxit), it dawns ;
vesperascit and advesperascit (perf. advesperavit), the evening
approaches ; — in all these cases the subjeet understood Ís sup-
o 4

poscd to be deus or coelum, which are in fact ofleil added as their

[§ 229 .] 5. The third person singular passive of a great
m any words, especially of those denoting inovement or saying,
is or may be used impersonally, even when the verb is neuter,
and has no personal passive, e. g. curritur, they or people run ;
it.u'r, ventum est¡ clarnatur, Jletur, scribitur, bibitur, &c.
[§ 230.] 6. A ll these impersonal verbs, as such, have no
imperative, the place of which is supplied by the present sub-
junctive, e. g, pudeat te, be ashamed o f ! Tbe participles also
(together with the forms derived from them, the gerund and the
infinitive future) are wanting, with a few exeeptions, such as
liben s, Ucens and liciturus, poenitens and poenitmchis, pudendus.


e ty m o lo g y or nouns and v erb s.

[§ 231 .] W e have hitherto treated of the changes which one

particular form of nouns and verbs, supposed to be known (the
nominative in nouns, and the infinitive in verbs), may undergo
in forming cases and numbers, persons, tenses, moods, &e. B u t
the origin of th at form itself, which is taken as the basis in in-
flcction, is explained in that special braneh of the study of lan­
guage, which is called Etymology. Its object is to tra.ee all tbe
words of the language to their roots, and it must therefore soon
lead us from the L atin to the Greek language, since both are
nearly allied, and since the Greek was . developed at an earlier
period than the L atin. O ther languages, too, must be consulted,
in order to diseover the original forms and significations. W e
cannot, however, here enter into these investigations, and
must contcnt ourselves with ascertaining, within the L atin
language itself, the most prominent laws in the formation of
new words from other more simple ones; a knowledge of these
laws is useful to the beginner, since it facilitates bis acquir-
ing the language. B u t we shall here confine ourselves to nouns
(substantive and adjective) and verbs, for the derivation and

composition of pronouns and numeráis have been discussed in

a former part of this work ; with regard to the (unehangeable)
partióles, on the other hand, etymology is necessary, as it sup-
plies the place of inflection.
The formation of new words from others previotisly existing
takes place either by Derivation, or the addítion of certain ter­
minations; or by Composition. In regard to derivation, we
have to distinguish primitive and derivative w ords; and, with
regard to composition, simple and compound words. W e shall
first trcat of derivation.

I. V erbs.

Verbs are derived either from other verbs or from nouns.

A. W ith regard to the former, we distingidsh four classes of
verbs : 1. Frequentative ; 2, D esideratiae; 3, Dimimitive ,* and
4. Tnchoative,
1. Frcqucntativcs, all of which follow the first conjugation,
denote the frequent repetitlon or an increase of the action ex­
pressed by the primitive verb. They are derived from the
supine by changing the regular atum, in the first conjugation
into tf.o, ita re ; other verbs of the first conjugation as well as
of the others remain unchanged, the termination of the su­
pine, um, alone being changed into o, are. O f the former
kind are, e. g., clamo, clamito ; impero, imperito ; rogito, volito ;
of the latter, domo, domítum, domito / adjuvo, adjütum, adjüto ;
and from verbs of tbe third conjugation : curro, cursum, curso ;
cano, cantum, canto ; dico, dictum, dicto ; nosco, notum, noto;
and so also accepto, pulso, defensa, gesto , guasso, tracto. Some
of these latter frequentatives, derived from verbs of the third
conjugation, serve again as primitivee from which new frequen-
tatives are formed, as cursito, dictito, defensito. There are
some double frequentatives of this kind, without the interme­
díate form of the simple frequentative being used or known,
such as actito from ago (acto), and so also lectito from lego, scrip -
tito from saibó, haesito from haereo, visito from video, ventíto from
venio, advento.
Some few frequentatives with the termination ito. itare, are
not derived from the supine, but from the present of the pri-
jmíive verb. This formation Ís necessary when the primitive

verb has no supine, aa is the case with lateo, paveo— latito,

pavita . B u t the following are formed iu this manner with­
out there being such a reason: agito, noscito, quaerito, cogito.
Some frequentatives have the deponential form, as amplexor
from amplector, minitor from minor, tutor from tueor, scitor and
sciscitor from acisco.
[§ 232 .] 2, Desideratives end in ürio, ürire (after the fourth
conjugation), and express a desire of that which is implied in
the primitivo. They are formed from the supine of the latter,
e. g. esürio, esüris, I want to eat, from edo, esum; so also coe-
naturio from coenatum, dicturio from dictum, empturio from
eviptum, parturio from partum , and in this manner Cicero
(ad A tt. ix. 10.) jocosely formed Sullatürit et proscriptiirit, he
would like to play the part of Sulla and to proscribe.
Note. Some verbs in urio after the fourth conjugation, such as ligurire,
scaturirp., prurire, are not desideratives, and it should be observed that the
u in these words is long,

[§ 233.] 3. Diminutives have the termination illo, illare,

which is added to the stem of the primitive verb, without any
further change, and they describe the action expressed as some-
thing trifüng or insignificant; e. g. cantillare from cantare, to
sing in an undervoiee, or síng with a shaldng; conscribillarc,
scribble; sorbillare from sorbere, sip. The number of these
verbs is not great.
[§ 234.] 4. Inchoatives have the termination seo, and fol­
low the third conjugation. They express the beginning of
the act or condition denoted by the prim itive; c. g. caleo, I
am warm, calesco} I am getting or becoming w arm ; arco, I ain
dry, aresco, X begin to be d ry ; languso, I am languid, languesco,
I am becoming languid. I t frequently happens th at a pre-
position is prefixed to an inchoative, as in timeo, pertimesco;
taceo, conticesco. The vowel preceding the termination seo,
scej-c, is either a (asco), e (esco'), or i (isco), according as the in­
choative is derived from a primitive of the first, second, or third
and fourth conjugation (in the last two cases it is isco) ; e. g.
labasco from labare, totter.
pallesco from pallete, be palé.
inyemisco from gemere, sigh.
obdormisco from dormiré, sleep.

M any inchoatives, however, are not derived from verbs, but

from substantives and adjeetives, e. g.
puerasco, I become childish, from puer.
maturesco, I become ripe, from maturus, a, um.
A ll inchoatives take their perfect and the tenses derived from
it from tbe primitive verb, or form it as it would be in the
primitive. (See Chap. L IL , the list of the most im portant
inchoatives.) I t must, however, be observed, that not all verbs
ending in seo are inchoatives. See § 203.
[§ 2 35 .] B. In regard to the derivation of verbs from nouns,
we see that in general the language followed the principie of
giving the term ination of the second conjugation to verbs of an
intransitive signification, and th at of the first to such as have a
transitive signification. Thus we have, e. g.,
a flos, fioris, fiorere, bloom. and from adjeetives:
fron s, fron dís, frondere, have fo- albus, albere, be white.
liage. calvus, calvere, be bald.
vis, vires, virere, be strong, Jíavus, Jlavere, be yellow.
lux, lucís, lucere, sbine. heles, hebere, be blunt or dull.
but, albus, ulbure, vhitewash.
b) numerus, m m erare , count. aptus, optare, fit.
signwn, signare, iuark. líber, a, utn, liberare, liberate.
frau s. fraudis, fraudare, deceive. celeber, bris, bre, celebrare, make
nomen, nominis, nominare, natne. frequent, or celebrat-c.
vulhtís, vulneris, vulnerare, wound. memor, memorare, mention.
arma, armare , arin. communis, communicare , com-
Both kinds are found compounded with propositions, without tbe simple
verbs themselves being tnown or much used ; e. g.
Zaqueus, Maqueare, entwine; acervus, coacervare, accumulate; stirps, ex­
tirpare, extírpate; hilar is, exhilarare, ebeer.

The observation of § 147. must be repeated here, th at many

deponente of the first conjugation (in ari ) are derived from sub­
stantives for the purpose of expressing “ to be iliat which the
substantive indicates; ” e. g. among the first verbs in the list
there given, we find aemulari, andllari, architectari, aueupari
augur a r i; and in like m anner: comes, comitis, com itari; dominus,
dom inari; f u r , fu ra ri. See § 237. The L atin language has
much freedom in formations of this kind, and we may even now
form similar words, just as Persius invented (or ivas the first, aa
far as we know, th at used) comicari, chatter like a crow, and
Horace graecari, live luxuriously like a Graeculus.

II . S u b s ta n tiv e s ,

[§ 236.] Substantives are derived -—

A. F rom Yerba.
1. By the termination oí-, appended in place of the um of the
supine in transitive verbs, to denote a man performing the action
implied in the v e rb ; e. g,
amatar, monitor, lector, auditor,
adidator, fau tor, conditor, conditor,
adjutor, censor, petitor, largitor,
and a great many others. Those which end in tor form femi-
nines in trix, as fa u trix , adjutrix, victrix ; and if in some cases
no such feminine can be pointed out in the writings th at have
come down to us, it does not follow, considering the facility of
their formation, that tliere never existcd one. In regard to the
masculines in sor, the formation óf feminines is more difficult,
but tonsor makes tonstríx ; defensor, defenstrix ; and expulsor,
throwing out the s, makes expultrix .
Some few substantives of this kind ending in tor are formed
also from nouns; as aleator, gambler, from a lea ; janitor, from
ja n u a ; viator from vía.
2. The same termination or, when added to the unaltercd
stem of a word, especially of intransitive verbs, expresses the
action or eondition denoted by the verb substantively; e. g.
pavere, pavor , fear; furere, fu ro r, fu ry ; nitére, nitor, shine ov
gloss. So also, e. g.
clamor, albor, horror, fa vo r, ardor ,
amor, rubor, timor, maeror, splmdor.
[§ 237 .] 3, Two terminations, viz. io gen. ionis, and us,
gen. üs, when added to the supine after throwing off the um,
express the action or eondition denoted by the verb abstractedly,
Both terminations are frequently m et with in substantives
derived from the same verb, without any material difference, as
concursio and concursas, consensio and consensus; so also con-
temptio and contemptus, digressio and digressus, motio and motus,
polio and potas, tractatio and tractatus, and others. Some verbs
in are which have different forms of the supine (see § 171.),
make also substantives of two form s; thus we have fricatio and

frlctio, lavatio and lotio, potatio and patío, and according to

their analogy also cubatio and cubitio, although the supine of
cubare is cubitum only.
In this manner are formed from actives and deponents, for
a) sectio. inotio. Icctio, auditio.
cunctatio. cautio. ultio. sortiiio.
acclamatio , admonitio. acfio. largitio.
b) crepitus. Jletus. cantas, ambitus.
sonitus, visus. congressus. ortus.
Note. Strictly speaking, the Latín language makes this difierence, that
the verbal substantives in io denote the action or condition as actually going
on, and those in us as being and existing; but this difference is frequently
neglected, and it is to be observed, that the writers of the silver age (es­
pecial ly Tacitus) prefer the forms in us without at all attending to the dif-
ference. A third termination produeing pretty nearly the same meaning is
Uva ; as m pichira, painting; conjectura, conjecture ; cultura, eukivation. Some­
tí mes it exists along with the other two, as in positio, positus , positura ; censio,
cenáis, censura. Usually, however, one of them is preferred, in practice,
with a definíte meaning. Thus we have vm-catus. the market, and merca-
tura., commerce. In some substantives the termination cía produces the
same meaning; as querda, complaint ; loquela, speech; corruptela , corrup-

[§ 238.] 4. The termination men expresses either the thing

to which tbe action belongs, both in an active and passive sense,
as fulmen from fulgere, lightning; flum en from fiuere , riv e r;
ngmen from agere, troop or army in its m arch; examen froin
exigere, a swarm of bees driven o u t: or, tbe means of attaining
what the verb expresses ; e. g. solamen, a means of consolation;
nomen (from novimeii), a means of recognising, that is, a ñame.
The same thing is expressed also by the termination mentum,
which sometimes occurs along with m en ; as tegmen and tegu-
mentum, velamen and velamentum , but much more frequently
alone, as in adjumentam from adjuvare, a means of relief; con-
dimentum from eondire, condirnent, i. e. a means of seasoning;
documentum, a document, a means of showing or proving a
thing. Similar words are :
allevamcntum. monumentum. additamentum. experimenium.
ornamentum, fomentam. alhnentum, blandimentum.
Some substantives of this kind are derived from nouns; thus
from atér, blaek, we liave atramentum, The eonnecting vowel

a before mentum, however, may show th at a link was conceived

to exist between the primitive oler and the derívative al-ra-
meníum, such, perhaps, as a verb airare , blacken. In like
manner we have calceamentvm , a covering for the fe e t; capilla -
mentum, a head-dress, wig.
[§ 239.] 5. The terminations bulum and culum (or ülum, when
c or <7 precedes) denote an instrum ent or a place serving a
certain purpose; e. g. venabulum, a hunter’s spear; vekimlum , a
vehicle; jaculum , a javelin; cingulum, a girdle. So also,
umbraculum. cubiculum. ferculum. vinculum.
poculum. latibulum. stabulum. operculum.
The termination cülum is sometimes contracted into citan, as in
vinclum ; and clum is changed into crum, and bulum into brum,
W'hen there is already an i in the stem of the w o rd ; e. g. f u l-
crum, support; lavacrum, b a th ; sepulcrum, sepulchre ; flagrum ,
scourge; ventilabrum. A similar meaning belongs to trum in
aratrum, plough; claustrum, lo ck ; rostrum , beak. Some words
of this class are derived from substantives, as turibulum, censer
(tus, turis ) ; acetabulum, vinegar cru e t; candelabrum, can-
6 . Other and less productive terminations are a and o (gen.
onis), which, when appended to the stem of the word, denote the
subjeet of the action: conviva, guest; advena, stranger; scriba,
acribe; transfuga, deserter; erro, vagrant; libo, drunkard; come-
do, glutton. By means of the termination io words are derived
from substantives, denoting a trade to which a person belongs,
as ludio, the same as histrio, an acto r; pelUo, fu rrie r; restio,
rope maker.
-ium expresses the efíect of the verb and the place of the
action ; e. g. gaudium, jo y ; odium, hatred ; colloquium, colloquy ;
conjugmm and connubium, m arriage; aedificium , building, edifice;
re- and confugium, place of refu g e; comitium, place of as-
-igo expresses a state or eondition : origo from oriri, origin;
vértigo, giddiness ; rubigo, a b lig h t; petigo and impetigo, scab;
prurigo, itch ; and henee, pórrigo, scurf, A similar meaning
belongs to ido in cupido , libido, formido.
[§ 240.] B. From other Substantives.
1. The diminutivos, or, as Quintilian, i. 5. 46., calis them,

vocabula deminuta, are moatly formed by the terminations ulus,

üla, ülum, or culus, a, um, according to the gender of the pri­
mitive w ord: ulus, a, um, is appended to the stem after the
removal of the termination of the oblique cases, e. g. virga,
virgula ; servus, servulus ; puer, puerulus; rex (¿'egis');, regulus;
caput (capitis), capitulum. So also:
portula, nummulus, rapulum. facula.
litterula. hortulus. oppidulum. adolescentulus.
Instead of ulus, a, um, we find alus, a, um, when the termination
of the primitive substantive, us, a, um, is preceded by a vowel,
e. g.
Jtliolus. gimióla. ingeniolum,
alveolus. lineóla. horreolum.
The termination culus, a, um, is sometimes appended to the
nominative, without any change, viz. ín the words in l and r,
and those in os and us of the third declension, which take an r
in the genitive; e. g.
corculum. fraterculus. Jlosculus. munusculum.
tubercidum. sor órenla. osculum. corpusculum.

And so also pulvisculus, vasculum from vas, vasis ; arbuscular from

the form arios ; and in a somewhat different manner riimuscuhts
from rum or; l'mtriculus and ventriculus from linter and venter.
Sometimes the s of the nominative terminations is and es is
dropped, as in
igniculus. aedicula. nubécula. diecula.
pisciculus. pellicula. vulpecida. plebecula.
In words of other terminations of the third declension, and
in those of the fourth, i steps in as a connecting vowel between
the stem of the word and the diminutive termination culus; e. g.
ponticulus. denticulus. versiculus. anicula.
partícula. ossiculum. articulus. corniculum.
coticula. reticulum. sensiculus. geniculum.

The termination ellus, a, um, occurs only in those words of

the first and second declensions which have l, n, or r in their
terminations. Thus oculus makes ócellus; tabula, tabella; asinus,
asellus; líber, libellus; libra, libella; lucrum, lucellum. So also

popcllus, fabclla, lamella, patella, agdlas, cullellus} jlabellum, Jla-

g el tum, íabellum¡ sacelhim. Cistella is the same as cistula> and
thence we have again cislellula, ju st as puellula from puella.
Catettus from canis, and porcellus írom por cus, cannot be brought
under any rule, The termination illus, a, um, occurs more
rarcly, as in bacillum, sigillum, tigiUum, pupillus, like pupulus,
from the obsolete pupus; villum from vinum. So also codicillus,
lapillus, anguilla. The termination unculus> a, um, is appended
cliiefly to words in o, gen. onis or inis; as,
sermunculus. ratiuncula. homunculus.
pugiunculus. quaestiuncula. virguncula.

A few diminutives of this sort are formed also from words of

other terminations, viz. avunculus from avus, domuncula from
domus, furunculus from fu r , ranuncultis from rana. The dimi-
nutive termination leus occurs seldom ; but it is found in equus,
equuUus; acus, acideus; íánnus, hinnuleus.
Note. Only a few diminutives differ in gender from their primitive wonís,
as acideua from acus, fem.: curricidum from curras, mase.; and also ranunculus
from rana, and scamillus (a foot-stool) from scamnum, along with which
however we also find the regular diminutives ramda atid scamellum. Henee,
there are instances of ilouWe diminutives in cases where the primitives Lave
double forms (see í 98.); e .g . catillus and catillum; pileolus and pileolum,
and a few others. The diminutives of common nouns ($ 40.) are said to have
regularly two forms, one in us and the other in a, to designate the two
sexes, as inffmttdus and irifantida, tiriinculus. a, from iiifans and tiro.

[§ 241 ] 2. The termination ium appended to the radical syl-

lable of the primitive expresses either an assemblage of things or
persons, or their relation to one an o th er; c. g. collega, col-
legium, an assembly of men who are collegae (eolleagues) of one
an o th er; so convivium, repast, or assembly of convivac; scr-
vitium, tbe domestics, also servitude; sacerdoiium , tbe office of
p rie s t; minister, rnimstermm, Service ; exul, exilium, eíxile ; con-
sors, comortium., community. W hen this termination is ap­
pended to verbal substantives in or, it denotes the place of the
action, as in repositorium,, repository; conditorium, a place where
a thing is kept, tomb ; auditorium, a place where people assemble
for the purpose of listening to a person.
[í 242.] 3. -ariiim denotes a receptacle ; e. g. granarium, a
granary or place where grain is k e p t; armarium (arma), a cup-
b o ard ; armamentarium , arsenal, or place where the armamenta

are kept. So also plantarium and seminarium , a era r ium, colum-

barium, tabular ium, valetudinarium.
[§ 243.] 4. - etum appended to the ñames of plante denotes the
place where they grow in great num ber; e. g. guercus, quer~
cetina. a plantation of oaks ; so also vinetum, lauretum, esculef,um,
dumetum, m yrtttum , olivetum; and, after the same analogy, sax-
■etum, a fíeld eovered with stones; and, with some change, salic-
tum (from salix), pasture, instead of salicetum; virgultum instead
of virguletum , arbustum from arios (for arbor), instead of arbo-
[§ 244.] 5. -\le appended to ñames of anima-ls indicates the
place in which they are k e p t; e. g. bubíle (rarely bovile), stall
of oxen ; equile, stable (of horses) ; so also caprile, hoedile, ovite.
Some which are formed from verbs indícate the place of the
action expressed by the verb, as cubile, sedile. All these words
are properly neuters of adjectives, but their other genders are
not used. Compare § 250.
[§ 245.] 6. W ith regard to patronymics , or names of descent,
which the L atín poets have adopted from the poetical language
of the Greeks, the student must be referred to the Greek
grammar. The most common termination is tdes, as Priam us,
Prium ides; Cecraps, Cccropides; names in eus and des make
idea (etSíjs); e. g. Atrídes, Pulidas, Heraclidae. The names in
as of the íü'bt declension make their patronymics in ades; as
Aeneas, Aenrades . The termination iádes should properly occur
only in names ending in itis, such as Thestius, Thestiades; but
it is used also in other names, according to the requirements of
the particular verse ; as Laertes, Laertiades; A tlas, Atlahtiades;
Abas, Abantiades; 'Telamón, Telamoniades.
The feminine patronymics are derived from the masculines,
-¿des being changed into is, ides into éis, and ¿ades into ios; e. g.
TantaUdes, Tantalis; Nereus, Nereis; Thestius , Thcstias. Aene-
ades (from Aeneas) alone makes the feminine Aeneis, because the
regular feminine, Aeneas, would be íhc same as the primitive.
In some instances we find the termination me or i one, as Nep-
tunine, Acrisione.

[§ Ü46.] C. From Adjectives.

1. The termination Uas is the most common in forming sub­
stantives denoting the quality expressed by the adjective as an

abstract notion, and is equival en t to the English ty or ity. The

adjective itself in appending ítas undergocs the same changos
as in its oblique caaes, especially in the ane which ends in i.
Thus from atrox, atroci, we obtain atrocítas; from cupidus,
cupidi, cupiditas. So also capax, capacitas; celer, celcritas;
saluber, salubritas; crudelis, crudelitas; fa cilis, fa cilitas; clarusy
claritas; fecundus, fecunditas; venís, veritas. Libertas is formed
w ithout a connecting vowel, and facu ltas and dificultas with
a change of the vowel, as in the adverb dijficuUer.
The adjeetives in his make their substantives in zetas; e. g.
anzzetas, ebrietas, píelas, varictas; those in stus make them in
stas: honestas, venustas, vetustas ; in u similar manner potestas
and voluntas are formed from posse and velle.
2. Another very common termination is ia, but it occurs
only in substantives derived from adjeetives of one term i­
nation, which add ia to the crude form of tbe oblique cases.
From audax, dat. audaci, we have audacia, and from concors,
concordi, concordia. So also clemens, elemcntia; constans, con-
stantia; impudentia, elegantia; appetentia and despicienüa occur
along with appetitio and appetitus , despectio and despechas. Some
adjeetives in us and er, however, likewise form their substan­
tives in ia; e. g. miser} miseria; angusties, angustia; perfidus^
perfidia; and several verbal adjeetives in cundus; as, facundas,
facundia; iracundus, iracundia; verecundas, verecundia.
[§ 247 .] 3. There ara munerous substantives in which tüdo is
appended to tlic case of the adjective ending in i; e. g. acritudo,
aegritudo, aUitudo, crastitudo, longitudo, magnitudo, fortitudo,
similitudo; and in polysyllables in tus, tudo directly grows oi.it
of this termination, as in consuetud,o, mamuMudo, inquietudo,
sollicitudo. Vale tudo stands alone. Some of these substantives
exisfc along with other forms, as beatitudo , claritudo, fin n i-
tudo, lenitudo, and sanctitudo, along with beatiias, claritas, J ir-
mitas, &c. In these cases the words in üdo seem to denote the
duration and peculiaríty of the quality more than those in ítas.
To these we must add the termination monia, which produces
the same signification, e. g. sanctimorda, castimonia, acrimonia ,
after the analogy of which parsimonia and querimonia (stronger
than querela ) are formed from verbs.
4. Substantives in itia , from adjeetives in us, are of more rare
occurrence, as justitia from justus, justi. So aimritia, laetitia,
maestitia, pudic.itia; but also tristitia from tristis.

5. The termination edo occurs only in a few substantives ; as

albedo, dulcedo, gravedo (heaviness or cold in the head), pingziedo
(along with pinguitudó).

I I I . A d j e c t iv e s .

Adjectives are derived : —

A. From Verbs.
[§ 248.] 1. W ith the termination hundas, cliiefly from verbs
of the first conjugation, e. g. errabundus from errare,, cogita­
bundas from cogitare , gratulabundus from gratulari, popula-
bundus from populari. Their signification is, in general, that of
a participle present, with the meaning strengthened, a circum-
stance which we must express in English by the addition of other
w ords; e. g. haesitabundus, fu 11 of hesitation; deliberabundas,
fu ll. of delibcration ; mirabundus, full of admiration ; venera-
hundas, full of veneration; lacrimabundus, weeping profusely.
Thus G ellius explains laetabwulus as one qui abunde lacius est.
There are b u t few adjectives of this kind derived from verbs of
the third conjugation : fremebundus , gemebundas, furilnm dus,
ludibundus, moribundas , nitibundus. There is only onc from a
verb of the second conjugation, viz. pudibundas ; and likewise
one only from a verb of the fourth, lascwibundus.
Note. These verbal adjectives m bundus however cannot be regarded as
mere partieiples, for in general they do not govern any case. But we
find in Livy tlie expressions vitabundus castra, mirabundi vanam speciem. A
considerable list of such expressions is given in Ruddimarmus, Tnstit. G ram -
mat. Lat, tom, i. p. 309. ed. Lipa.
Some verbal adjectives in cundas are of a similar kind
facundus, eloijuent; iracundas, irascible; verecundia, full oi
baslifulness ; rubicundm, the same as rubens, reddish.
249.] 2. The ending Idus, ehiefly in adjectives formed from
intransitive verbs, simply denotes the quality expressed by the
v e rb :
calidus , from calere. rubidus, from ruhere.
álgidas , from aJgere. turgidus, from turgere.
madidus, frona madere. rapidus , from rapere.
The termination mis is of more rare occurrence ; e. g. con­
gruas from congruo, agreeing; assiduns, nocirás and innocuas.
v 2
212 LATIN GltA M M A R .

W hen flerived from transitive verbs, it gives to the adjective a

passive meaning, as in irriguus, well w atered; conspicuus, visi­
b le; individims, indivisible.
,1. The terminations itis and hilís denote the possibil5ty of a
thing in a passive sense; e. g. amabilis, easy to love, henee
am iable; placabilis, easy to be conciliated; delebilis, easy to be
destroyed; vincibilis, easy to be eonquered ; facilis. easy to do ;
docilisj doeile; fragilis, fragile. Some of these adjectives, how­
ever, have an active m eaning: horribilis, producing horror, hor­
rible ; terribilis, terrible, that is, producing te rr o r; fer filis,
4. -ax appended to the stem of the verb expresses a pro-
pensity, and generally a faulty one :
puynax, fu rax.
edax and vorax. audax.
loquax. rapas.
The few adjectives in ulus have a similar meaning, as crédulas,
credulous; bibulus} fond of drinking; queridas , querulous.

[§ 25o.] B. From Substantives, viz.

a) From A ppellatíves:
1. The ending tus denotesthe material, and sometimos simi-
larity, e. g.
ferreus. ligneus. plúmbeas. virgíneas,
aureus. citreus. cAnereus. igntus.
nrgenteus. buxflus. corporeus. vitreus.
Some adjectives of this kind have a don ble form i ti -nm s and
-ñ u s; as, eburneus and ehurnus, ficulneus and Jiculnus, iligneus
and ilignus, querneus and quernus, saligneus and salignus. .
2. -ícus expresses belonging or relating to a th in g ; e. g. ■
classicus from clo,ssis; cwicus, relating to a eitizen; dominicus?
belonging to a m aster; rusticus, ru ra l; aulicus, relating to a
c o u rt; bellicus, relating to war, &c
3. The termination llis (comp. § 20.) has the same meaning,
but assumes also a moral signification, e. g. civilis and hostílis,
the same as civicus and hosticus, bnt also answering to our civil
and hostile. So sermfü, sfiní lis, anilis, jiw m ilis, puerilis , virilis.
4. The endings aceus and icius sometimes express a ma­
terial and sometimes the origin, e. g. cJmrtacms, membranaems,

■papyraceus; co.ementiciu$, latericius, patricius , tribunicius. So

also those derived from participles : collaücius, arisen from con-
tributions ; commenticius, fictitious ; mbditicius, supposititious,
and others.
[§ 251.] 5. The termination alis (in English al) is appended
not only to words in a, but also to substantives of other ter­
minations, in which, however, the termination is appended
to the crude form of the oblique cases; e. g. ancora, conviva,
letum — ancoralis, convivalis, leta lis ; but from rex, regis, we
have regaliz; virgo, virginalis; sácenlos, sacerdotalis; caput,
capitalis ; corpúa, corporalis. So also augurulis, aditialis, comí-
tialis, amialis, Jluvialis, mortalis, novalis, socialis, and others.
Also from proper ñames, as Augustalis, Claudialis, Flavialis,
Trajanalis, to denote classes of priest.s instituted in honour of
those emperors. The ending aris is somewhat more seldom,
and principally occurs in such words as contain an l; such as,
articularis, consv.laris, popular is, puellaris, vulgaris, Apollinaris.
The termination atílis denotes ftíness for the thing expressed
by the r o o t; as, aquatüis, Jluviatilis, volatilis.
6. The term ination ius occurs most frequently in derivatives
from personal nouns in o r ; e. g. accusatorius, amatorius, alea-
torius, censorias, imperatorias, praetorius^ uxnrñis. I t occurs
more rarcly in substantives of other terminations, though we
have regius, patrius , aquilonius. From substantives in or which
do not denote persons, but abstraet notions, adjeetives are formed
by simply appending u s ; as decor, decorus, and so also canorus,
adonis, honnrus (less frequently used than honestits).
[§ 252.] 7. -inus is found especially in derivations from ñames
of animals (especially to denote their flesh), e. g.
asininus. farinus . kaedinus anserinus.
caninus. equinus. caballinus. anatinus.
camelinus. taurinas. ’ arietinus. viperinas.

B ut it also occurs in adjeetives derived from names of other

living beings, e. g. divinus, liberthms, inquílinm (from imola),
mascidinus, femininus (marmus, living in the sea, stands alone).
Medicina, sutrina, tonstrina, pistrinnm, textrinum, are to be
explaiucd by the ellipais of á substantive, and denote the locality
iu which the art or trade is carried on.
r 3

The termination mus, on the other hand, occurs chieíly in

devivations from names of plants and minerals, to denote the
material of which a thing is m ade; e. g. cedrinus, fagin u s,
adamantinus, crystattbius, and the ending ñnus in derivative
adjectives derusting time, as erasthms, diutínus, hornotinus, an-
notínus. See § 20.
8. The termination arius expresses a general relation to the
noun from which the adjective is formed, but more partlcularly
the occupation or profession of a person ; e. g.
coriarius. carbón arius, sc'apharius. ostiarius.
sta.tuarius, aerarius. navicularius, consiliarius.
sicarius. argentarius, codicarius. clussiarius.

9. The ending osus denotes fulness or abundance; as in

aerumnosus. aquosus. bellicosus.
animosus, lapidosus• caliginosus.
artificiosas. vinosus. tenebricosus.
The ending uosus occurs exclusively in derivations from words
of the fourth declension : actuosas, ■portuosus, saltuosus, vuU
tuosus; but also monstruosus which is used along with monstrosus.
10. The term ination lentus denotes plenty, and is eommonly
preceded by the vowel ü, and sometimes by o :
fraudulentus. vmoíentus. pidverulentus.
turbzdentus. opulentus. viohntus.
eandentus. potulentus. sangiánolentus,
11. L es 3 productive and signrficant terminations are : -anus
which denotes belonging to a th in g : urbanus, monianus. humanus
(from homo). (Respecting the adjectives formed from numeráis
by means of this termination., see § 118. Thus we find febris
tertiana, quartana, a fever returning every third or fourth day) ;
-— mus generally denotes the manner or nature of a thing : fv.r~
tivus, votivus, aestivus, tempestivas; also from partieiples : capti-
vus, nativus, sativus ;■— ernus denotes origin: fraternas, maternus}
paternus , infernus, externus. The same termination and urnus
occur ín adjectives denoting tim e : vernus, hibernus, hesternus,
aeternus (from aeviternus), diurnus, nocturnus ; —-ítímzis occurs in
finitimus, legitimus> maritimus. The termination -ster in the
adjectives mentioned in § 100. denotes the place of abode or
a quality.

[§ 253 .] 12. A very extensivo class of derivative adjeetives

end in atus, like participles perfect passive of the first conjuga­
ron, but they are derived at once from substantives, without its
being possi ble to show the éxistence of an intermedíate verb.
Thus we have, e. g., aurum and auratus } g ilt; but a verb aurare
does not occur, and its existence is assumed only for the sake of
derivation. Some adjeetives of this kind are formed from sub­
stantives in 'is and end in Itus, as aurltus, provided with ears;
pellitus , covered with a skin; turrilus, having towcrs, and so
also m ellitus, sweet as honey. Some few are formed by the
ending ütus from substantives in us. gen. us ; as, cornutus, as-
tutus ; and according to this analogy nasutus , from nasus, i.
Those in atus are very nurnerous, e. g.
calceatus. aeratus,
clipeatus. dentatus.
oculatus. fa lc a tu s .

[§ 254.] b) From Proper Ñames.

W e may here distinguish four classes: — 1. ñames of men,
2. of towns, 3. of nations, 4. of eountries.
1. The termination ia.nus is the most common in forming
adjeetives from Román ñames of men, not only from those
ending in ius, such as Tullianus, Servilianus, but also from
those in us and other endíngs; as Crassianus, Marcellianus , P au -
lianus. Caesarianus, Catonianus, Ciceronianus: anus occurs only
in naracs in a, and is therefore found less freq u en tly ; as
Cinnanus, Sullanus, still, on the other hand, we find septa
Agrippiana, U-gio Galbiana. Gracchus is the only ñame in us
th at commonly makes Gracchauus ; for Augustamis, Lepidanus ,
and Lucullanus occur along with Augustiamts, Lepidianus , and
Lucullianus. The termination inus is found oliicfly in derivativos
from ñames of families, e. g. Mcssalinus, Paulinus, Riifimt.s,
Agrippina, Plancina; in real adjeetives it occurs much more
rarely, but it is well established in Jugurtha, Jugurthinus (for
which however Jxigurtkanus also might have been used); Plau­
tus, P lau tin u s; Vcrres, Verrinus, to distinguish them from
Piav.tius, Plautw.nus; Verr ius, Verrianus. In Suetonius, more-
over, we find bellum Viriathiuum, fessa Dimsina, and in Cicero
oratio Mctellina (an oration delivcred against Metellus), ad A tt.
i. 13.; helhtm Antiochimtm , Philip, xi. 7.; and partes Antio-

rJdnae, ad Fam. ix. 8. The termination eus in Caesareus,

Hercvlfíus, Romuleus, is used only by poets.
There are two terminations for forming adjectives from Greek
m ines of men, eus or íus (in Greek £los, see § 2.) and leus.
Some names form adjectives in both terminations with a slight
difference in meaning, e. g. P hilippeus and P küippicu s, P y th a -
goreus and P ythagoricus, Isocrateus and Isocraticus, Hornerías
and H omericus. O f others, onc form only is used, as D e -
mosthenicus, Platonicéis, Socraticus. To these we m ust add
those in -iácus fonned from names in ios, e. g. A rch ias. On the
other handj we have Antiochius , A ristotelm s, or with a different
pronunciation, A diilleu s, JEpicureus, Iíe ra d eu s, Sophodeus , Theo-
dure.us. Sometimos adjectives in eus are formed also from L atin
names, though, at the best period of the language, never without
a defmite reason; c. g. in Cicero, in Vcrr. iii. 49., MarcelUa and
Verria, Greek festivals in honour of those persone; but after-
wards we find, without this peculiar meaning, Augusteus, Ta i -
culleus (in P lin y and Suetonius), N eron m s, Román objeets being
thus designated by words with a Greek termination.
Note. It must however be observed that ti ic liorna ii gentile names in tus were
originally adjectives, and were always used as such, W e tlms read lex Cor-
nel 'ta, Julia, TuHia, vía.'Flaminia, Valeria, App'w, aqua Julia, circus Flaminius,
theatrum Pompejtim , horrea Sidpicia, instead of the adjectives in anus. Nay, tlie
Romans made tiiis very proper distinction, tliat the adjectives in ius denoted
overy thing whieh originated witli the person in question :¡nd was destined for
public use, wliile those in unus denoted that which was named after the
person for some reason ov otlier; e .g . lex Sulpicia , but seditio Sulpiciaria ;
aqua Appia, but mala A ppiaiia; porticus Pompeja, Tbut claxsis Pompejana, &c.
The former meaning is also expressed wíiun the mime itself is used adjectivcly,
as aqua Trajana, portas Trajanus, tbougli an adjective in iamis was formed
even from names ending in anus, as nuditm Sejanianmn, SCtum SUaniamun.
According to this analogy Augustas, a, um, wa.s used for Augustianus, Augus-
íanus, or Augustalis; e.g . domus Augusta, p a z Augusta, scriptores historias
Augustae. Tlie poeta went still furtlier, and Horace, for example ( Carm . iv.
5. 1.) i ay s ; It.omulae gentis cusios, for iicnmdeae.

[§ 255.] 2. From names of places, and chiefly from those

of towns, adjectives are derived ending in ensis, Inus, as and
a) -ensis, also from common or appellative nouns, c, g. castren-
sis from castra ; ciremsis from circus ; and from names of tow ns:
Cannae, Cannensis; Catino.¡ Catinem is; Ariminum, Ariminensis;
Cnmum, Cornensis; Mediolanvm, Mediolanensis; Salmo, 8?il-
monensis ; from (G reek) towns in m ( éa): Antiochensis, Antigo-

nensis, Áttalensis, Nicmnedensis, but in Heracliensis the i is

prever ved.
/3) -mus from ñames in ia and ium ; e. g. Ameria, Amerinus ;
A r id a , Aricinus ; Florenlia, Florentinus ; Caudium, Caudinus ;
Clusium, Chisinus ; Canusium, Canusinus. And so also from
Latium, Latinus, and from Capitolium, Capitolinus.
7 ) -as (for all genders) is used less extensively, and only
forms adjeetives from ñames of towns in um, though not from
all. I t occurs in Arpinum, A rp iñ a s; Aquinum, A quinas;
Privernum, P rivernas; Ferenthmm, Ferentinas (ager ) ; Casili-
nurn, Casilinas (along with Casilinensis), B ut Ravenna also
makes Ravennas ; Capena, Capenas ; A rdea, A rd e a s; Inter-
amna, Interamnas (also ager) ; Frusino, Frusinas. Antiuvi
makes Antias, but we find also Antiense templum and Antiatinae
S) -antis from ñames of towns in a and a e ; e. g. Roma, Ro-
m anus; Alba, A lb a n u s * u p a r la , Spartanus; Cumae, Cu-
manus ; Syracusae, Syracusam is ; Thebae, Thebanus ; also from
some in um and i : Tusculum , T usn danu s ; Fundí, Fundanus.
[í 2 ">e.] Greek adjeetives^ however, formed from ñames of
towns, or such as were introduced into L atin through the litera-
ture of the Greeks, follow different rules whieh must be learned
from a Greek grammar. W e will here only remark that the
most frequent ending is tus, by means of which adjeetives are
formed also from Greek ñames of eountries and islands ; e. g.
A /gyptus, A egyp tiu s; Lesboa, Fcsbius; Rhodus, Rhodius; Co-
rinthus, Corinthius ; Fphesus, F phesius; Clnus, Clilus (instead
of Chiius); Lacedaemon, Lacedaemonms ; Marathón, Maratho-
nius; Salarais, Salam inius; F reiría, Erelrius. Other ñames
in a take the termination aevs, as Smyrna, Sm yrnaeus; Tegea,
Tegeaeus; Larissa, L arissaeus ; Perga, Pergat us, and so also
Cumae (KiÍ/m?) makes the Greek adjective Cumaeus. In the
case of towns not in Greeee, even when they are of Greek
origin, we most frequently find the termination m u s; Tarcntmn,
T arm tin u s; Agrigm tum , Agrigentinus; Centuripae, Centuri-
pinus ,• Metapontum, Metapontinus ; Rhcgium, Rheginus, whereas
the L atin Regium L epidi malíes the adjective Regiensis. I t not
unírequently happened th at the Romans, as may be observed

* Albtmm is formed from A lba Longa> Albeusis Ji um Alba 011 lake Fuuiluu-

in some instances already mentioned, formed adjeetives from

G reek ñames of towns in their own way, and without any
regard to the Greek forma ; e. g. A theniensis instead of Athe-
naeus, Thébanus instead of Thebaeus (while Thebaicus is an ad­
jective derived from the Egyptian Thebes), Eretriensis along
with E retrius , S?jracusanus along with St/racusius, Ehusim is
more frequently than the Greek form Eleusinius. The Greek
ending 5vs was most commonly changed into ensis ; sometimes,
however, it was retained along with the L atín form, as HaJi-
carnasseus and ffalicarnassensis. In like manner the Greek
¿t t ¡ s was sometimes retained, as in A M en tes ; and sometimes

changed into anus, as in Panormitanus, Tyndaritanus, especially

in all the Greek ñames of towns componnded with polis, as
Neapolitanus, Megalopo lita ñus. The other Greek terminations
are usually retained in Latin.
[§ 257 .] 3. From ñames which originally belong to nations,
adjeetives are formed in icus and ius, in most cases in icus, e, g.
from Afe.r, Britannus, Gallus, Germanus, Italus, M ar sus. Medus,
Celta, Persa , Scytha, Arabs , Aethiops, wc liave the adjeetives
A fricus, Britaniácus, Célticas, Arabicus, & c.; those in ius are
formed from some Greek ñames, as Si/ru,s, S y riu s ; Cilix,
Cilicius; Thracc, Thracms. O ther ñames of nations are at
once substantives and adjeetives, as Graecus, E truscus , Sardus ,
or adjeetives and at the same time substantives, as Romanus,
Lathm s , Sabinus. Other substantive ñames again serve indeed
as adjeetives, but still form a distinct adjective in icus, as llis -
panus, liisp a n icu s; Appulus, Appulicus ; Sarnnis, Samrriticus.
In like manner, Caercs, Vcjens, Camers, Tihurs are both
substantives and adjeetives, bu t still form distinct adjeetives
according to the analogy of ñames of towns : Cae.retomis, Vejen-
tanus, Camcrthms, Tiburtinus.

Note, It must bo retnarked that poets ar»l the later prose writers, in ge­
neral, use the substantive íorm also as an adjective; e. g. Marsus apar, Colcha
venena, alt.hmigli Colchicus and Marsicus exist; Horat. Carm. iv. 6- 7.: Dar-
danas turres quateret; vers. 12.: inpulvere Teucro; vers. IS.: AcMvis flamims
were, instead of Achaicis. And this is not only the case with these forms of
ihe second declension, which externally resoluble adjeetives, but Ovid and
Juvimal say Numiclac leones, Nnmülae ursi instead of Numidici; and Persius
gays: Itig'us ora for Ligustica. The Greek feminine forms of ñames of nations
are likewise used as adjeetives ; thus Virgil says : Cressa pharetra for Crética,
Ansorús ora for Ausoma, nnd the like. The same liberty is tallen by poets
with the ñames oí' rivers in us. Thus Horace, Carm. iv. 4. 38, has: Metau-

rum flamen¡ de A r t PoeL 18.: flumen Rhenum. Even pro^ewriters sometimes

follow tlieír example in tliis respect: Plin. Ilist. N at. iii. 16.: ostium JSrida-
TUim; Caes. B . G. iit. 7., and Tucit. Aun. i. 9., Ilist. iv. 12.: mare Oceanum.

[§ 258.] 4. The names of countvies, with some exceptions,

such as the L atin names of districts, Latium and Samnium, and
those borrowed from the Greek language, Aegyptus, E pirus} Per sis,
are themselves derived from the ñames of nations; e, g, B ri-
tannia, Gallia, Italia, Syria, Thracia, sometimes with slight
changes, as in Sardi, Sardinia; and Siculi, Sicilia, A frica and
Corsica are real adjectives, to which térra is •understood. From
some of these countries, adjectives are formed with tlie terminations
ensis and anus, &$ Graeciensis, Hispaniemis, Sicüiensis; Africanus,
Gallicanus, Germanicianus, which must be carefully distinguished
from the adjectives derived from the names of the respective
nations. Thus exercitus Hispaniensis signífies añ army stationed
ín Spain, but not an army consisting of Spaniards; but spartum
Hispanicum is a plant indigenons in Spain. The following are
some peculiar adjectives of Greek form ation: Aegyptiacus, 8 y -
riacus. Graeeanicus is strangely formed, and expresses Greek
origin or Greek fasliion.
[§ 259.] C. From other Adjectives.
Diminutives are formed from some adjectives by the tennm a-
tions ulus, olus, culus, and fllus, according to the rules which
were given above, § 240., with rcgard to diminutive substantives.
Thus we have parvuhts, horridulus, nasutulus, prim ulux; au-
reolus i pauperculus , leciculus, tristiculus; misellus, novellus,
pulchellus, tenellus. Double diminutives are formed from paucus
and pauhts : paululus or pauxillus , and pauxillidus , a, um ; and
from bonus (benus'), bellus and helhdus. Respecting the diminu­
tivos derived from comparatives, comp. § 104. 2. Note.
The termination aneus appended to the stem of an adjective
(and participle) In us, expresses a resemblance to the quality
denoted by the primitive ; e. g. superoacaneus, of a superfluous
nature ; but there are only few words of this kind : rejectaneus,
subitaneus, collectaneus, and, according to their analogy, consen-
taneus, praecidaw us, succidaneus.
[§ 260 .]
Besides derivation new words are also formed b;
composition. In examining such words we may consider either
the first or the second parfc of which a compound consists.
The first word is either a noun, a verb, or a particle. The

second remains unchanged, e. g. benefacio, beneficium, maledico,

sai ay o ; a contraction takes place only in nolo, from ne (for non)
and voló, and in malo, from mage (for magis) and voto. Prepo-
eltiona are used more frequently than any otlier partióles in
forming compound words. Respecting their signification and
the changes produced in pronunciation by the mectíng of hete-
rogeneous eonsonants, see Chap. L X V I.
There are only a few words in which verbs form the first
part of a compound, and wlierever this is the case, the verb
f a d o forms the latter part, as in arefacio , calefacio, madefacio,
patefacio, condocefacio, commonefacio, assuefacio and consuefacio.
The only change in the first verbs (which belong to the second
conjugation) is that they throw off the o of the present.
W hen the first word is a noun (substantive or adjective), it
regularly ends in a short i.
patricida. a rm ig e r , particeps, aequiparo.
artifex. aquilifer. ignivomus. amplifico.
tubicen. capripes. misemeors. breviloqucm.
c a u sid ic u s. carnivorua, rupicapra. alienígena.
aedifico. belligero. stiLlicidium, vilipendo.

So abo bíceps, trigem inifratres, centifolia rosa, centimanus Gyges,

from centum, whereas otlierwise the compositions with numérala
are different, as quadrvpes , and without any change: quinquerc-
mis. A contraction takes place in tibicen for tibiieen, from tibia
and cano> whereas in tubicen and fidicen the connecting vowel
is short according to the rule, there being no i in the words
tuba and Jides. W hen the second word begins with a vowel,
the connecting i is thrown out, as in magnanimus, ittianimis,
with whieh we may compare unimanus and uniformis.
Those words the parts of which are declincd separately, may
likewise be regarded as compounds, although they form one
word only in so far as they are eommonly written as such ; as
respublica, jusjurandum , rosmarinus, tresviri. So also those of
which the first word is a genitive, as senatüsconsultum, plebiscitum,
duumvir, triumvir, that is, one of the duoviri or tresviri,
Note. The Greek language rogulurly makes tbe first part of a compound,
when it is a noun, end in o; e. g. </iiX¿(toíio£, koyoyf¡á<¡¡o£, c-ü>tuiTt>ijiíi\aZ, Svpti^ní-
MÍ. As many such Greek compounds passed over into the Latin language,
such. as philosophus, p/iilologiis, graecostatiis, Galtograeoi, we juay form similar
compounds Iji modern Latin, but only in the case of pi-oper names, ;ts

FrancogalH, Graeco-Latinus. There is tío good reason for rejecting them, if

they really denote One thing which ia formed by the combmatioñ of two

[§ 261.] The latter word in the composition determines to

what part of speech the whole belongs. In composition 8
with partióles, the second word either remains imchanged, or
undergoes only a slight variation in its vowel. This variation
m ust be here considered, especially with regard to the radical
vowel of the verb; for the vowels ?’, o, u, a and c remain riri-
changed, as in ascribo, comminor, appmio, excoto, addñco, iliabor,
subrepo i but a and e and the diphthong ae frequently undergo a
change: 1. a remains only in the compounds of caceo, maneo,
...nd traho; b u t'in most other cases it is changed into í3 e. g.
eonsiitiio from s tatuó, accipio from capio, ahjicio from jacio, a r­
ripio from rapio, incido from vado, adigo from ago; so also at-
lingo from tango, confringo from fr a n g o ; it is changed into e in
ascejido, aspergo, confei'cio, refello, impertió (along with impartió).
2. t sometimes remains unchanged, as in appeto, contego, contero,
conqcro, but sometimes it is changed into í : assideo from sedeo,
abxtineo from temo, artigo froin regó, aspicio from specio. Both
forms occur in the compounds of leg ere, e. g. perlígo, read
through ; intelttgo, understand, but intellego too was used iu
early times. 3. The diphthong ae remains unchanged only in
the compounds of liaereo, as adhaereo; it is changed into i in the
compounds of caedo, laedo, quaero, e. g. incido, Mido, inquiro.
Other particulars may be gathered from the lists of irregular
In the composition of nouns with verbs, the second word
undergoes more violent changes, and the rules already given
respecting derivation must be taken into account here. R ut
nouns are also formed in composition with verb3 by the mere
ibbreviation of the ending, and without any characteristic syl-
able of derivation. Thus we have from cano, tubicen; from
'¡t ro, elaviger, arm iger; from fero, cistifer, signifer ; from fació,
artifex, pontifex ; from capio, princeps, municeps, particeps.
Compounded adjeetives are derived from verbs by the termina-
tion us, which is appended to the. verbal stera: mortiferus, igni-
vomus, dulcisonus, like consonus, carnivorus, causalkms ; and from
substantives ivith a very slight or no change at all, c. g. centi-
mfnms, r.apripes, misericors, wiiformis.

Note. When tlie parts of a compound word are separated by the insertion
of one or two unaceented words, it is called, by a, grammatieal term, a tmesis.
Such a tmesis, however, occurs in prose only In the case of relative pronouns
compounded with cauque, more rarely in those witli libet and in adjectives or
adverbs compounded with per, so that . we may say, e.g, qaud enim aunque
'udicium subierat vicit; qua re cimque patero tibí serm am ; guale id cauque
est; p e r m ihigratum feceris; p e r mihi, inquam, grattan feceris.

C H A P. L X II.



[§ 262 .] 1. A s the adjective qualifi.es a substantive, so the

adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective (consequcntly a participle
also), and even another adverb; e. g. prudens homo prudenter
(ujit ; feíix homo feliciter v ia it ; eximia doctus; domus ederiter
extructa; satis bene scripsit.
Note. There are only certaín cases in which an adverb can be joined with
a substantive, viz. when the substantive ís used as an adjective or participle,
and aceordíngly denotes a quality, as popvlus late rex for late regnans, ruling
far and wíde ; admodum puer eral, he was very young, or very much like a
"boy ; — or when a participle is understood to the adverb, e- g. Tacit. Aun. ii.
20.: gravibm superTie ic-tibus conflictabmthtr, that is, superne accidentíbtts, C o rn ­
ing ÍTO in above; íbid. 12. 61.: nullis extrínsecas a.djume.ntia veiar.it, that is,
extrínsecas ductis or assumptis, by outward or external reasons. In this manner
Livy frequently uses the adverb á re a in the sense of neighbouring ; e.g. i. 17. :
multarían circa civitatum irritatis animis. An adverb may be joined with pro­
nominal adjectives, wheu their adjective cliaracter pi-edominates, as in homo
plañe noster, entirely ours, that is, devoted to us.

2. Adverbs belong to those parts of speech which are in-

capable of inflexión, for they have neither cases ñor any other
forms to denote the diffcrence of persons, tenses, or moods.
B u t an adverb approaches nearest the declinable parts of speech,
inasmuch aa adverbs derived from adjectives or partieiples
take the same degrees of comparison as the latter. W e have,
therefore, in the first place to consider only the etymology of
adverbs and then their degrees of comparison.
W ith regard to their etymology, adverbs are either simple or

primitive ( prim itiva ) or derived {derívala). W e shall first treat

of derivative adverbs; their number is great,, and certain laws
are followed in their formation.
[§ 263.] 3. B y far the greater num ber of derivative adverbs
end in c and ter, and are derived from adjeetives and participles
(present active and perfect passive).
Adjeetives and participles in us, a, um, and adjeetives in
er, a, um (th at is, those which follow the second declension),

Adverbs with the termination c.

Thus ultus, longus, molestas, doctas, eviendatus, ornatus, make
the adverbs alte, longe, moleste, docte, emendóte, órnate. W ith
regard to adjeetives in er, a, um, the formation of adverbs
varíes according as they throw out the e in the oblique cases or
retain it (see § 48. and 51.), for the adverbs follow the oblique
cases. Thus líber and miser make libere and misere; b u t aeger
(aegrí) and puleher (pu lch rí ) make aegre and pulchre. Bonus
makes the adverb bene, from an ancient form benus. Bcne and
male are the only adverbs of this class that end in a short e.
Note 1. Jnferne, below, and interne, within, although derived from adjeetives
in us, are used with a short e, the former by Lucretius and the latter by
Ausonms, the only -writers in which these adverbs respectively occur. Tó
these we must add superite, above, in Lucretius and Horace, Carm. ii. 20. 11.,
though in tbe latter the quanüty of the e is a disputed point. It cannot be
ascertaíned whether the poets made the e in these words short by a poetieal
licence, or whether these adverbs have any thing particular.
Note 2. Some adverbs in e differ in their meaning from their respective
adjeetives, but they must nevertheless be reg arded as derived from them.
Thus sane (from sanus, sound, well) signifies “ e e v t a i n l y v&lde (from validust
strong, contracted from valide , which furníshes the degrees of comparison)
signiíies “ very;" and plañe signifies “ plainly," likejoííimtó, but also tafees the
meaning of “ entirely,” or “ thoroughly.”
[íj 2G 4.] 4. All other adjeetives and the participles in ns (con-
sequently all adjeetives which follow the third declension) form

Adverbs in ter,

and retain the changes which occur in the genitive. The

genitive is Ís changed into i ter, except the genitive in ntis (from
the nom. in «.?), which makes the adverb in n ter; e. g. elegans,
e legauter; amans, am anter; convcnicns, convementer; but par,
224 LA T IN G I1 A M M A l i .

p a r ite r : u tilis , u tiliícr ; te ñ á is, tc n u ite r ; eclcr, c ris, ceJcvitev ; s a -

h ibar, s a lu b r ite r , and so also f e r o e i t e r , sim p lic ite r , d u p lic ite r ,
(or inore frequently contracted into a u -
c o n c v r d ite r , a u d a c ite r
d a c te r ) .
Note 1. The termination ter serves also to form the adverbs aliter, other-
wise, and propter, beside ; tlie fortuer from the original form alis, neuter alid,
and the iat-ter from prope, being abridged for propiter. (See lío . 7. note 1.)
Vehcmenter is derived from vehememt, but tiikes the signification of “ very,”
like valde: e. g. Cic. de Off. i.í. 21. : nehementer se moderatum praebuit. The
indeclinable nequam has the adverb nequiter.
Note 2. The adjectives mentioned in § 101., which have double termi­
nations, us, a, um, and ií, e, ought to have aíso a double form of their
adverbs, but this is the case only in hilare and hílariter; with regard toim be-
cillus it renaains uncertain, as the positive of the adverb does not oceur; and
in the case of the other adjectives of this kind the adverb is wanting alto-
gether. There are, on the other hand, some adjectives in us, a, nm, of which
the adverbs have tivo furms (cibunduutia) ; as dure, dnriter; firm e, Jirm iler ,'
nave, v.aviter; humane, inhúmeme-—hm m niter , mhumaniter; large, largiter;
Incidente, luculenterticrbidenle, turbulenter; and in the early language many
more, which are mentioned by Priseian, xv. 3. Of violentas, jravdulerdm .
and tcmidentiis, adverbs in ter only e x is t: violenter, frauchdenter, termdenter,
[§ 2G5.] 5. Although in grammar an adverb is assigned to
every adjective, yet the dictionary must frequently be consulted,
for there are some adjectives whose very signification does not
admit the formation of an adverb, as, for example, those
which denote a material or colour; while with respect to others
we can say no more than that no adverb of them is found iu the
writers whose works have come down to us, as of the adjectives
amens, dirus, discors, gnarus, rudis¡ trux, imbellis, immobilis, in-
Jlexililis, and others compounded in the same manner. O f vetus
the adverbs are vetuste and antique, and of fidu s, fideliter , de­
rived from other adjectives of the same meaning. I t frequently
happens th at adverbs exist in the degrees of comparison, without
their form of the positive being fo u n d ; e. g. tristiter and socor-
diter are not to be found, and instead of aberiter, ubertim is used ;
but the comparatives tristius , socordius, uberius, and the super­
lativos are of common use. The adverb magne does not occur,
b u t its irregular comparative magis, and the superlative máxime,
are of very common occurrence. Multum, plus, plurimum have
no adverbs, b u t these neuters in some cases serve themselves as
[§ 266.] 6. Sometimes particular cases of adjectives supply
the place of the regularly formed adverbs in e; a) of some ad-

jectivea Ín us, a, um, and er, a, um, the ablative singular in o

is used as an adverb; e. g. arcano and secreto, secretly; cito,
quíck ly ; continuo, im mediately; crebro, frequently; fa lso ,
w rongly; gratuito , g ra tis; liquido, clearly; manifestó , mani-
festly: mutuo, as a loan, henee m utually; necessarío, neces-
sarily ; perpetuo, pcrpetually; precario, by entreaties; raro,
rarely ; sedulo, sedulously; serio, serióúsly ; súbito, suddenly;
tuto, safely. To these must be added some adverbs formed
from participles : auspicato, composito, consulto, directo, festinato,
nec- or inopinato , improviso, iterato, mérito, opiato, praeparato,
sortito. Along with several of these ablative adverbs, the forms
in e also are occasionally u sed ; but apart from the origin, the
forms ia o do not differ either in meaning or in their degrees of
comparison from those in e.
Note 1. Vere and vero have a somewhat different sense : the regular ad­
verb of verus, ti'ue, is vere: but vero is used in answers in tlie sense of “ in
truth,” or “ certainly,’’ but it is more commonly applied as a conjunction ín
the sense of L‘ but,” or “ however.” We will explain its use in answers by
an example. Wlien I ara asked, adfuiüine Tieri in convivio ? I answer, ego vero
adfui; or, without a verb, ego vero, minime vero; and vero thus being merely
indicative of a veply, will often be untransiatable into English. The case of
corte and ceño is generally different from that of vere and vero: the adverb
which usuaüy t.akes the meaning of its adjective is corto, while certe takes the
signification of “ at least,” to limit an assertion; e, g. victi sumus, aut, si dig-
nitas vinci nonpotest, fr a c ii certe, Certe , however, is frequently used also in
the sense of our “ certainly,” especially in the phrase certe seio, which, in
Cicero, is even more frequent than certa sc.i.o. See my note on Cic. lib. i.
in Verr. 1.
N ote 2. Omnino, from omnis, altogether, or in general, may also be
reckoned arnong this class of adverbs. The etymology of oppido , very, is
very doubtful. Profecto, truly, alao belongs to this class, if it be derived
from prnfecius^ a, um; but if it be the same as p ro fa d o , which is more
probable, it belongs to those which we shall mention under No. 10.
[§ 267] 7. b) In some adjeetives of the third declension the
neuter singular supplies the place of the adverb; as facile, dif-
Jicile, recens, sublime, impune and abunde, which, however, is not
derived from an adjective abundis, but from abundas, To these
we must add some belonging to adjeetives of the second de­
clension: ceterum, plerumque, plurimum, potissimum more"fre­
quent than potissimef multum and paulum (for which, however,
in combination with comparatives, the ablatives multo and paulo
are more commonly used), nimium (the*same as nimis), parum ,
and lastly the numeral adverbs primum, iterum , tertium, quartum,
&c., which haye also the termination o (see § 123.), and pos-

tremum (o), extremum (o), supvemum and ultimum (o), which are
formed according to the analogy of the numeral adverbs. Poeta
in particular and Tacitus who follows their example are accus-
tomed to use the neuter of adjeetives, of the second as well as of
the third declension* as adverbs; e. g. multurn similis, acutum
cernere, mite, dulce, erassum, perjiditm ridere> indoctum canere,
certum and incertum vigilare, triste and torvum clamare, immite
sibilare, aeternum discordare, and in the plural multa gemere, tri-
stia ululare, crebra ferire.
Note 1 . W e have e v e r y reason to consider the adverb prope, which has
become a preposition, as tlie neuter of an obsoleto adjective, propis; for
propter, which, as an adverb, has the same meaning, is evidently the regular
adverb, being contracted from prnpiter, and tlie comparativapropior, and the
adverb propius, must likewise be traced to propis. Saepe ís perhaps a word
o f tlie same kind, but tlie degrees of the adjective, saepior and iaepissimus,
are no longer in use.
Note 2. Instead of difficile, however, the regular adverbial forms diffi-
ciliter and difficulter are still more common. Facilite?' is unclassical.
[§ 2 G8,] 8. A considerable number of adverbs have the ter­
mination im, and are for the most part derived from participles ;
e. g. caesim, punctim, conjunctim, míxtim, contemptim, cursim,
citatim, gravatim (tlie same as gravute), nominatim, passim (from
pandere), praesertim (from prae and sera), privatim, pedetentim,
raptim, sensvm, carptím, separativa, stahm, striethn, tractim.
Adverbs of this kind however are formed also from other parts
o f speech, but they generally take the participial termination
atim, even when they are not derived from nouns of the first
declension: catcrvatm, cuneatim, gregatim, turmaíim, curiatim,
gradatim, ostiatim, oppidatim, prúvinciatím, vicatim., paulatim>
dngulatim, generatim, summathn, minutatim. AlsO confestim
(connected with festinare), furtim, singultim, tribütim, ubertim,
viritim, vicissim. JÍjfáthn {ad fatim, see § 205.), so full as to
burst; interim is derived from ínter ; olím from the obsolete o Hits
which is the same as Ule.
[§ 269.] 9. A smaller class of adverbs is formed from nouns
by the termination Uus, generally to denote origin from that
which is expressed by the primitive; as coelitus, from heaven;
funditus, from the foundation, radically; medullitm. penitus,
primitus the same as primum, radicitus, stirpitus. Soine aré
derived from adjeetives, as antiguitus, divinitus, and humanitus.
Among the same class we reckon those adverbs which end in
ADTEttBS. 227

us or itus, and are not derived from nouns, but from other parts
of speech. Such are intus, from within; subtus, from below ;
extrinsecus and intrinsecus, from without and within; mordicus
(from morderé), e. g. mordicus tenere; versus, towards (from ver-
tere), which is eommonly used as a preposition.
[§ 270.] 1 0 . A large number o f adverbs, lastly, arises from
the adverbial use of different cases o f substantives, and from
the composition o f different parts of speech. In thia manner
aróse the adverbs of tím e: noctli, vesperi, mane, tempore or tem-
pori, simul (from similis), diu and quamdiu, tamdiu, aliqiiamdiu,
interdiu, hodie (though contracted from hoc die), quotidie, quot-
tennis, postridie, perendie, pridie, nudius tertius (from reúne dies
tertius, the day before yesterday, or the third day from the
present)^ nudius quartus, nudius quintus, nudius tertiusdecimus,
propediem, initio, principio, repunte and derepente (ablative of
repens), imprimís and cumprimis, protenus and protinus (from
pro and the preposition temis), alias, actutum, commodum (just
or directly, while the regular adverb cornmode retains the
meaning conveniently ”), modo, postmodo, alternis, interdum,
cummaxime, tummaxirne, nunc ipsum and tum ipsum, denuo (i. e. ■
de novo), ilicet ( iré licet), illico (properly in loco), and extemplo;
interea and praeterea lengthen the a, so that it is not quite
certain whether they may be considerad as compounds of ínter,
praeter and ea, the neuter plural.* So also the adverbs o f
place: foris, foras, insuper, obviam, obiter (from ob and iter),
peregre, praesto, recta (seil. via), una, commhius, from a near
point, and eminus, from afar (from maniis). In haetenus,
eatenus, quatenus, aliquatenus, the ablative is governed by the
preposition tenus. The signification of these adverbs is originally,
that of locality, Init they are frequently used also in a figurative
[§ 271.] The mode or manner of an action, in answer to the
question qui (an ancient ablative of quid), how ? is expressed by
adverbs of the same class ; as aponte, an oíd ablative; forte , an
ablative o? fors ; fortuito (u), fo r sit, fo r sitan ( fors sit an), forsan
and fors have the same meaning as fortasse and fortassis (in
* Prof. Key, The Alphabet, p. 77. foll., aceounts for the length of the a hy
the very probable supposifcion that the original forms were posteam, inteream,
praeteream, on the analogy o f the exisfcing words postquam, anteqttam, praeter-
quam, See. — T r a n s í .
q 2

prose fortasse and forsitan alone are used); nimirum, scilicet,

videlicet, utpote (from ut and pote, properly “ as possible,” henee
11namcly/’ or “ as”), dumtaxat, praeterquam, quomodo, quemad-
modum, admodum, quamobrem, quare, quapropter¡, quantopere,
tantopere, maximopere and summopere, or separately quanto opere,
tanto apere, & c.; quantumvis or qitamvis, alioqui or alioquin, cete-
roqui or ceteroquin, frustra, to be explained by the ellipsis of vid,
and to be derived from fraus, fraudo; incassum, nequicquam,
summum (not ad summum), tantum, solum, and tant7.tmm.odo, so-
lummodo, gratis (from gratiis, whence ingratiis), vulgo, bifariam,
trifariam, multifariam and omnifariam, with which partem must
be understood.
Lastly partim which was originally the same as partem, as in
Liv. xxvi. 46: partim copiarum ad tumulum expugnandum
mittit, partim ipse ad arcem ducit, but it is more eommonly
used either with a genitive or the preposition ex, in the sense of
alii— alii; e. g. Cic. Phil. viii. 11.: quum partim e nobis ita ti-
midi sint, ut omneni populi Romani beneficiorum memoriam abje-
cerint, partim. ita a república aversi, ut huic se Itosti favere prae
se ferant ; and in the sense of alia— alia, as in Cic. D e Off. ii.
21: eorwm autem beneficiorum partim ejusmodi sunt, ut ad uni­
versos cives pertineant, partim úngulas ut attingant,
[§ 272,] Note. On the signification o f some o f the ábnve-mentioned adverbs.
The adverb3 continuo, protinus, statim, confe.stim, svhito, repente and derepente,
achdimi. Mico, ilicet, extemplo, signify in general “ directly” or “ imme-
(liately,1* but, strictly speaking, continuo means immediately after ; statim,
without delay; confestim, directly: súbito, suddetily, unexpectedíy; pro-
tinus, further, i. e. in the same direction in wlndi the beginning was made;
lience, without interruption; repente, and derepente, tvliich strengthens
the meaning, signífies “ at once,” and is opposed to sensim, gradually;
e. g. Cic. de Off. i. 33.: amicitias, quae mintis deiectent et minus probentur,
magis decere censent sapientes señarm dissuere, quam repente praeddere; actvtum
is instantaneously, eodem acta; ilicet occurs more rarely than Mico, but has
almost the same meaning, “ forthwith,” or “ the i n s t a n t e . g . Sallust, Jug.
45. : ubi formulo illa mentibus decessit, ilicet lascivia atque superbia incessere;
Cic. p. Muren, 10. : simulatque mcrepuit suspicio tumultus, artes illico imstrae
conticescunt. Extemplo, which is similar in its derivation (for Icmplum is a
locus religiosus), is similar also in meaning ; e. g. Liv. xli. 1 . : alii gerendum
bellum ex templo, mitequarn contraharé copias hostes possentfl alii consulendum
prirn senatum censebant.
[§ 273.] PraeserÜm, praecipue, imprimís, cumprimis, and apprime, are gene-
rally translated by “ priueipally but they have not all the same meaning.
Praesertim is our “ partieularly,” and sets f'orth a particular circumstanec
with emphaais; praecipue retains the meaning of its adjective, praecipmts

being the opposite of coinmunis: jns praecipmun therefore ia a privilege aud

opposed to jas commune, so that praecipue anawers to our 11 especially." The
sense o f imprimís and aimprimis is clear from their composition — before or
in preference to many others, principally ; apprime, lastly, occurs more
rarely, and quiillfies and strcngthens only adjeetives, as apprime ífccfow,
apprime ntilis. Admodum also strengthens tlie meaning; it propei’ly signifies
“ according to measure,” that ís, in as great a measure as can be, e, g. ad-
modmn grahim mihi feceris ; litterae tuae me admodum delectaruni. In com­
binaron with numeráis it denotes approximation, and occurs frequently in
Livy and Curtius; ín Cicero we find only nihil admodum, that is, “ in real i ¡y
nothing at all.”
[§ 2 1 1 .] It is difficult to determine the diüerence among tbe words which
iv e gtniñrally transíate by “ only,” viz. modo, dumtaxat, solían, tantum, solum-
modo, íaulummodo, The common eqxiivalent for only Í3 modo; solum (alone)
is “ merely,” and points to something higher or greater; tantum is only or
niercly, but intimates that something else was expected, e- g- dixit tantum, non
probavit. These significations are strengthened by composition: íantmnmodo
and solummoda, the latter of which however occurs only in late ■writers.
Dumtaxat is not joined with verbs, and seems to ausTvcr to our “ solely e. g.
Caes. Bell. Ció. ii. 41.: peditatv, dumtaxat proeul ad speciem utitur, solely
from afar; Curt. viii. 4. ( 1 .) : quo (carmina) signifteabatur male instituisse
(.¿raucos, quod tropaeis regum dumtaxat nomina inscribereiúur ; ibid, ix. 36. (9.) :
(testas tatos circa flamen campos inundaverat, tumulis dwntaxat eminentibus,
velut insulis parvis. In another signification this word is the same as certe,
at least (see (J 266.), and denotes a limitation to a particular point, as in
Cicero : nos animo dumtaxat vigemus, re famüiari comminuti sumus, in courage
at least I am not wanting; valúa me Athenac delectaruni, urbs dumtaxat
ct iLrbis ornamenta et hominum benioolentia. Saltem also signifies “ afc least,”
but denotes the reduetion of a demand to a mínimum; e. g. when I say :
redde. mihi libros, si non omnes, saltem tres, or, as Cicero says, aripe mihi huno
dolorem, aut minué saltem; finge saltem aliquid commode.
[§ S75J Frustra conveys the idea of a disappointed expectation, as in
frustra suscipere labores; neqtdcquam that o f the absence of success, as in
Ilorat. Carm. i. 3. 2 1 . : nequicquam deu.t abscid.it Océano térras, si lamen
impiae rales transiliunt nada. Incassum is less commonly used; it is composed
o f in and cassum, hollow, empty, and therefore properly signifies “ into the
air,” or “ to no purpose,” as tela incassum jactare.
Alias and alioqui both mean “ elsewhere,” but alias signifies “ at another
time,” or “ iu another place,” whereas alioqui (like ceteroqui and ceterum)
means “ in other respeets as 111 Livy : trmiiipkatiim de Tibwtibus, alio-
qidn mitis victoria fuit, or “ or else ” (in case of a thing mentioned before
not taking place), like aliter; as in Tacitus: dedit tibi Augus,tus pecuniam non
ea le.ge, ut semper daretiir: langiiescet alioqiá industria. No difíerence in the
use o f alioqui and alioquin has yet been discovered. The additi 011 or
omission of the íl, at least, does not appear to depend apon the letter at the
beginning o f the word following.




[§ 27G.] 1. T h e Simple or Primitive Adverbs are few in num­

ber, when compared with the derivatives, especially with those
derived from adjeetives* and ending in v and ter, The significa-
tion of the latter depends upon that of their adjective* and has
generally a very definite extent; but the primitive adverbs ex­
press the most general circumstances that are to be considered
in eonnection with a faet* and are indicated by the questions
how ? when ? where ? whether ? and the general answers to
them ; but they are fur this reason deserving of particular
attention* together with their compounds and derivativos.*
2. To this class belong the negative partíales: non, haud, and
ne, together with immo; the qffirmatives : ?io.e, quidem, and vilque,
certainly (from which word the negative adverb neutiquam¡ by
no means, is formed), nempe, namely, surely ; vel: in the sense
o f " e v e n ” (see § 108.); and the interrogative cur, w h y ? (pro­
bably formed from quare or cid reí) : the words which express,
in a general way* the mode of an action, viz. paene* feré, and
fermé, nearly, almost; iemere, at random; rite, duly, according
to custom; vix, scareely; nimis (and nimium, see § 267. ), too
much ; satis or sat, enougli. sufficiently; saltem, at least; slc and
ita, so, thus; and ítem, and itídem (which are derived from
ita), just so* and the double form identidem, which, however,
has assumed the meaning of a partióle o f time* a constantly,”
íCone time like the other; ” ut or uti, as, and henee sicut or sicut?.;
quam, how much; tam¡ so much; tamquam, like ; périnde and

* "VVlth regard to the following list of partióles, which, from their great
importan ce towards undcrslanding tbe ancient writers, has been drawn up
with care, we must observe, that by the term primitive adverbs we do not
understand those, o f which no root is to be found, but those which cannot
in any useful or practica! way be included among the classes o f derivative
adverbs mentioned before, A more deep etymologicaí investigation would
lead us into too slippcry ground, on which we could expect but little
tlianks either from teachers or pupils.

próinde (derived from inde), as though, like; secus, otlierwise,

differently : the adverbs o f place; uspiam and usquant, some-
where ; nusquam, no where ; proa/i, far; prope, near(§ 267. Jiote ) ;
ubi, where ? Un, there; im.de, whence ? inde, henee, together
with their numerous compounds and correlativos, of which we
shall speak presently : the adverbs o f lime: quando, when ?
with its compounds aliquando, once ; quandoque, at some time ;
quandocunque, whenever; quondam, formerly (contains the
original relative quum, which has become a conjunction) ; nunc,
now ; time and tum, then; unquam, ever; nunquam, never;
jam, already ; etiam (from et and jarn") and quoque, also; etiam-
nunc and etiamtum, still, y e t ; semeí, once ; bis, twice (the other
adverbial numeráis, see Chap; X X X I I I , ) ; saepe, often ; usque,
ever ; heri or here, yesterday ; eras, to-morrow ; olim, formerly ;
mox, soo ii after ; dudum} previously; pridem, long since ; tándem.,
at last or length; demum, not until; from inde are derived
déinde and éxinde, or abridged deiu and exin, thereupon, after-
wards; súbinde *, immediately after, or írom time to time: dein-
ceps, in succession; denique, lastly: further, the adverbs with
the suffix p e r : semper, always; nuper, lately; parumper and
paulisper, for a short time; tantisper, for so long, eommonly to
indícate a short time, (í for so short a time.”
Most of the prepositions are originally adverbs, but as they
usually take the case of a substantive after them, they are regarded
as a distinct class of the parts of speech. But they must still be
looked upon as adverbs when they are jorned with a verb with­
out a case; as in Virgil, Pone subit conjunx, “ behiud there follows
his wife.” Henee it happens that clam, secretly, and coram, in
the prcsence of, are generally reckoned among the prepositions,
whereas palam ( proptdam), publicly, is universally called an
adverb, though it is formed precisely in the same manner. Ante
and post. when used os adverbs, generally have the lengthened
forma antea and postea (also antehac and posthac), but occur as
adverbs also without any change of form.
Noto 1 . "We must not pass over unnotioed the transition o f partióles o f
place into partióles o f time, whieh occurs in other languages also. This

* The accent on the antepemiltima for the compounds o f inde is neccssary

according to Priscian, p. 1008. (618. K r.)

Q 4

accoimts for tUe use of /tic, ibi, ubi, where we should use au adverb ex-
pressive o f time. Ñor can we wouder at several o f these adverbs ap-
pearing frequently as conjunctions (in wliieh eharaeter they will have to
be mentioned again in Chap. L X V II.), for whenever they serve to conneel
sentences, they become, grammatically speaking, conjunctions; but when
within a sentcnce they denote a eiromustanee connected with a verb, they
are real adverbs. Some o f them are used in both characters.
[§ £77.] Note 2 . The Signification of the above Primitive Adverbs.
The ordinary negation is non; haud adds to the negation a special
subjective colouring, with very different meanings— either lL not at all,"
or “ not exactly." The comía writers use this negation frequently, and
in all kinds o f combinatious; but the authors of the be 9t age limit
its use more especially to its combination with adjeetives and adverbs
denoting a measure; e. g. haud mvlturn, haud maguían, haud parvus, kaud
■madiocris, kaud paulo, haud procul, haud longc, especially haud sane in con-
nection with other words; as haud sane facile, res haud sane difficilis, kaiul
sane intdligo ; also haud qvisquam, haud unquam, haud quaquam, by which com­
bination something more is expressed than by the simple negation. In eon­
nection with verbs, haud appears much less frequently, and on the whole
only in the favourite phrase haud scio an, which ís the same as nescio an,
iintil later writers, such as Livy and Tacitus, ¡igaiu make tmlimited applíea-
tion of it.
N e does not belong to this place as a conjunctíon in the sense o f “ in order
that not,’’ but only in so far as it is used for non in the eonnection o f ne-quidem,
not even, and with impera ti ves, e. g. Tu mi cede malis, sed contra audentior
ito, do not yield to inisforlunes. Henee nec (jwque) also must be mentioned
here, because it is used instead of ne-quidem, seldom with Cicero, but more
frequently with Quintilian; e, g. ii. 13. 7 .: alioqui nec scriberem \ v, 1 0 . 119,:
alioqui nec tradidiasem; i. v. 18.: extra carmen non deprekendas, sed nec in
carmine mtia ducenda sunt. \
Jmmo signifies “ no," but with this pecnliarity, that at the same time
something stronger is put in tlie place of the preceding statement which is
denied; e. g. Cic. ad Att. ix. 7.: causa igüwr non bona est? Jmmo óptima, sed
agelvr foedissime ; de Off. iii. 23,: si patriam prodere conabitur pater, silehitne
jilius? Imino vero obsecraba patrem, ne id faciat. This increase may be
sometimes expressed in English by “ nay,” or “ nay even.” But this does
not justify the assertion that immo is an affirmative adverb.
[§ 27®-] Quidem is commonly used to eonneet sentences, atid must then be
looked upon as a conjunction; but it is employed also as an adverb to set
fortli a word or an idea with particular emphasis, aud then answers to our
“ certalnly ” or “ indeed.” Very frequently, however, especially with pro-
nouns, it only increases their forcé by the emphasis ; e. g. optare hoc quidem
est, non docere, this I cali wish, but not teach; praecipitare istud quidem est, non
descendare. Henee it also happcns that on the other hand, when quidem is
necessary to counect sentences, a pronoun is added, for the salte of quidem,
which might otherwise be dispensed with. Cicero, e. g,, says: Oratorias ex-
ercitationes non tu, quidem, ut spero, reliquisti, sed certe philosophiant illis ante-
posuisti. From quidem aróse equidem, which ís considered to be a compound
o f ego and quidem, and is used exclusively in this sense by Cicero, Virgil,
and H orace; but in others, and more particularly in later authors, it occurs
preciscly in the same sense as quidem; e.g. Sallust. Cut. 52. 16,: quare
J’ IU M ITIVJS A D V E R liS . 233

vamm eqiúdcm hoc comilium. est; Curt, v. 35.; certiora dehidtí cognoscit ex
Uagistane Babylonio, non eqmdem vinctum regem, sed in periculo esse, aut
mortis aut vincularían,
Nempe answers pretty nearly to our “ surely.” and 'frequently assumes a
sarcastto meaning, when we refute a person by concessions which he is obliged
to make, or by deductions. It ia never used for the merely explanatory
“ namely," or “ that is,” which in the case o f simple ideas is either not ex­
pressed, at all, or by the forms is (ea, id) est, qui est, divo, or intelligi volo, or
by the adverbs sdlicet atid mdelicet. Respeeting the manner ín which it is
expressed in the connection of propositions, see § 345.
[§ 279.] The ad'verbs paene, fere, andfermé, to which we may s.Aá prope, on
account of its mcíming (irom § 267. note), all serve to límit a atatement, but
there are certain differences io their application. Paene and prope approach
eadi other nearest: paene being almost and prope nearlv ; and thus we say
in Latin paene dixerim and prope dixerim in quite the same sense, I might
almost say. As prope contains the idea of approximatiou, so paene denotes a
degree. Thus we say : Id viri prope aeqváles sunt, are nearly of the same age;
and Caesar, on the Other liand, says : non solían in ómnibus (Gralliae) civitati-
bus, sed paene etiam in singulis domibus facüones sunt, “ but almost in every
family," ivhieh is more than the factions in the towns. PropemÓdum¡ in a
ccrtaiu degree, is formed from prope. F ere and ferm e differ from the other
primitive udverbs, in regard to their long e, for the others end in a short e.
They therefore seem to be derived from adjectives; but the derivation ftom
feriis leads to no results. The two words differ only in form, and are used
in inaccurate and indefmite statements, especially with round numhers and
such notions as may be reduced to a number. W e say centumfere Tiomines
aderant to express our “ somewhere about one h u n d r e d paene or prope cen-
tum, nearly a hundred, jmplying thereby that there should have been exactly
one hundred. And so also fere onmes,fere semper,* and with a verb : sic fe r e
fieri solet, so it mostly or generally happens, the same as fe re semper fit.
Henee it is frequently used as a mere form o f politeness, when there can be
no doubt about the correetness o f a statement; as in quoniam fe r e constat, as
it is a fact, I presume.
[§ 2so ] Temere, at randera, is opposed to a thing which is done consulto,
or deliberately; henee the expressions inconsulte ae temere, temere et impru-
dentar, temere et mdlo consilio. Combined with non, temere aequires (but not
in Cicero) a peculiar signification; it becomes the same as non facile, and
softeus an r¡ isemon ; for instance, in H orace: miüs avarus non temere est
animus, a poet is not easily avaricious ; or non temere quis tam invitis ómnibus
ad principatmn accessit quam Titas. Rite seems to be an ancient ablative
like riiu; its meaning accords with the supposition, but the form* (ris, ritis)
is uncevtain.
[§ üsi.] The words sic. ita, tam, answer to the English “ so and to thera
we may add tantopere from § 271., and adeo from § 289. With regard to
tlieir difference we remark, that- sic is more particularly the demonstrative
“ so" or “ thus,” as in sic .van, sic vita hominum est, sic se res habet; ita
defines more accurately or limits, and is our “ in such a manner," or “ in so
f a r e . g. ita sencctus honesta est, si suum jits retinet; ita defendito, ut nemi-
nem lardas. Very frequently, however, ita assuines the signification o f sic,
but not sic the limiting sense o f ita, respeeting which we shall have occasion
to speak in another place (§ 726.). Tam, so much, increases the degree,

and h;ií its natural place before adjeetives and adverbs, but rarely before
verbs, where tatdopere is used instead. Adco, to that degree or point,
increases the eypressíon to a certain end or result; e. adeone hospes es in
hac urbe, vt haec- nescías? Henee in the conneetion o f propositions, it forms
the transición to the conclusión o f an argument, or to the essential part o f a
thing. Cicero, when he has related a thing, and then chooses to introduce
the witnesses or documents themselves, frequently says : id adeo ex ipso
¡¡enatiiscousulto cognoscite; id adeo sciri facillime potest ex litteris publicis
civitatum (in Verr. iv. 64. iii. 51.), and puts the adeo always after a pronoun.
(Comp. Spalding on Quintil, i¡. 16. 18.)
[g ese.] ü t, as, must be mentioned here as a relative adverb, expressive
of similarity. From it is formed uftque by means o f the suflix que, which
will be considered in § 288. I t signifies “ however it may b e ," and henee
“ certainly.” Curt. iv. 44,: nihil qiridem ¡kábeo venule, sed fortunara meam
utique non, vendo.
The compounds sicut, pelut, tamqmm, to which we must add quasi, when
used without a verb and as an adverb, signify “ as ” or “ like.” The differ-
enee in their application seems to be, that tamqmm and quasi express a
inerely conceived or imaginary similarity, whereas sicut denotes a real one.
Henee Cicero says : tanupiam. sejpens e latibulis rntulisli t e ; gloria virtidem
taraquam vmbra sequüur; philosophia omnium artíum quasi parens est, where
the similarity mentioned is a mere conception or supposition ; but it ap-
proaehes nearer to reality in me sicut alterum parerdem diligit; defendo le
sicid caput meum. Velut is used by late authors in the same sense as quasi;
but in Cicero it has not yet acquired this signification, but has the peculiar
meaning of our “ for example," as bestias, quae gignuntitr e térra, velut
crocodili; mu elogia monumentorum hoc significante velut koc ad portam ? and
other passages. A ll these adverbs occnr also as conjunctions; iu Cicero,
however, only tamquam (besides quasi), with and without the addition
o f si.
P e rinde and proinde have the same meaning, and are adverbs o f similarity ;
but perinde is much more frequently found in prose writers. The reading is
often uncertain : and as proinde is well established as a con junetion in the
sense of “ therefore” (see § 344.), many philologers have been o f opínion
that proinde, where ver the sense is “ like,” is only a corriiption of perinde.
But this supposition ís contradicted by the authorif.y of the poets, who use
proinde as a word of two syllables. (Comp. lluhnken on Kutil. Lupus,
p. 31.) W e most frequently find the combinatious periiule ae, perinde uc si,
as if, as though; perinde ut¡ in proportion as, to connect sentences. (See
§ 340.) But without any such additions, Cicero, for example, de Fin. i.
2 1 . says: vivendi artem tantam tatuque operosam et perinde fructuosam (and
as fruitful) relinquat Epicurus f
[§ ¡¡ss.] ►S'ccas has been classed among the primitivos, because its deriva­
tion is uncertain. W e believe that it is derived from sequor; and we might
therefore have included it, like mordíais, among those adverbs mentioned in
§ 2 6 9 . W e hold that its primary signification is lt in pursuance,” “ after,”
“ beside," which still appears in the eompounds intrinsecus and extrínsecas.
(i) 28Í).) Henee it comes to signify “ less," or “ otherwise," viz. “ than it
should be." Thus we say, mihi aliter videhir, rede seeiisne, nihil ad fe,
justly or less justly, where we might also say an m i n u s s i res secns cecideril,
P H IM lT lV Ii ADVERES. 235

If tlie thing should tum out dífíerently, that is, less we]]. A comparative
secius (also spelled seqinus) occurs very rarely, because secus itself has the
signification o f a comparative; it is joined with an ablative, níhilo secius,
not otherwise, nevertheless; quo secius the same as quo mimts, in order
t.hat not.
[§ 2.%.] To unquam, ever, and usquam, somewhere, we must apply that
whieh has already been eaid of quisquam, § 129.: they require a negation in
the sentence; and although this negation may be eonneeted with another
word, unquam and usquam become the same as nunquam and m isq u a m e. g.
ncqv.c te usquam vidi, the same as te nusquam vidi. The place o f a negative
proposition may, however, be taken by a negative question, as num tu evm,
,unquam vidisti? hast thou ever seen him? But uspiam is not negative, any
more than the pronoun quispiam; but it is the same as alicubi, except that
its meaning is strengthened, just as qukpiom is the same as aliquis. In the
writings o f modern Latinista and grammarians we find the form nvspiam,
which is said to be the same as nusqaum. But imspiam. does not exist at all,
and its formation is contrary to analogy.
[§ 285.] It is difficult to define the difFurcnce between tum and tune, be-
cause the editions of our authors themselves are not everywhere correct.
But in general the difference may be stated thus : tuna is “ then,” 11 at that
time,'1 in opposition to mine; tam is “ then,” as the correlativo o f the relative
qwim; e. g. quum omnes adessent, tum Ule exorsus cst dicere, when all were
present, then he began to speak. Without a relative sentence, tum ís used ín
the sense o f our “ hereupon," “ thereupon; but we may always snpply such
a sentence as “ when this or that had taken place.” The same difícrcnce
oxists between etiamnunc and etiamtum, which we transíate by “ still” or
“ yet,” and between nunc ipsum and twm ipsum, quummaxime and tummaxime,
just or even then; for etiamnunc, nunc ipsum, and qmtmmcxmie, refer to the
present; but etiamtum, tum ipsum, and tummaxime to the past; e. g. etiam-
mine puer est, and etiamtum puer erat; adest quvmmaxime frater meits, and
aderal tmimaxime frater, my brother was just then present. Compare
§ 732.
[§ £86.] Jara, combined with a negative word. answcrs to our “ longer; ”
e. ir. nikil jetm spero, I no longer hope for anything; JBrutus h'Jhdinae vixjam
snstinebat, could acarcely maintain himself any longer. It is also used for
the purpose of connecting sentenees, and then xnswers to our “ further” or
“ now.”
TJsque, ever and anón, does not occur very frequently in this sense; e. g.
in Horace, Ejñst. i. 10 . 24.: naturam expelías fvrea , tamen mque recurre!. It
is eommonly accompanied by a preposition; viz. ad and in, or ab and ex, and
denotes time and place; e. g. usque ad por tam, usque a prima aetaie. See
Chap. L X V , 4.
[§ 287.] Nüper, lately, is used in a very relative sense, and its meaning de-
pends upon the period which is spoken o f; for Cicero (de NuL Deor. ii. 50.)
says o f certaín medical observations, that they were nuper, id est paucis ante
saemlis reperta, thinking at the time o f the whole long period in which men
had made observations. In like manner, the Iength o f time expressed by
moda (see § 270.) and moz is indefinito. The latter word, as was observed
above, originally signified “ soon after,” but it is very often used simply in
the sense o f “ afterwards." Dudiim is probably formed from diu (est)

dum, and unswers to the English “ previously ” or “ before,” in relatlon to

a tíme which has just passed away; whenee it may often be translated by
“ shortly before;” e. g. Cic. ad AtL xi. 2 4 . : quae dudum ad me et qiuie etiam
ante ad Tvlliam scripsüti, ea gentío esse vera. But the length o f time Ís set
forth more strongly in jamdudum, long before, or long since. This word, with
poets, eontains the idea o f impatience, and signifies Ll without delay,” “ forth-
with,” as iu the line o f Virgil, Aen.ii. 103.: jamdadum sumite pimías. The
same strengthening o f the meaning appears in jampridem, long since, a long
time ago. Tándem, at length, likewise serves to express the impatience
with which a question is put, and even more strongly than nam (§ 134.) ; e. g.
Cic. Philip, i. 9.: haec utrum tándem, lex ed an legumomnium dissolutio?

[§ 288 .]3. The Adverbs of Place, mentioned above, No. 2.,

ubi, where ? and unde, whence ? together with the adverbs derived
from the relative pronoun, viz. quo, whither ? and qua, in what
way ? are in relation to other adverbs, demonstratives, reíati ves,
and indefinites, which are formed in the same manner. A ll
together form a system of adverbial correlatives, similar to that
of the pronominal adjeetives. (See aboye, § 130,) W e shall
begin with the interrogative form, which is the simplest. Its
form (as in English) is the same as that of the relative, and
diflers from it only by its accent. The relative acquires a more
general meaning, either by being doubled, or by the suffix cun­
que, which is expressed in English by “ ever,” as in s< wherever.”
Without*' any relative meaning, the simple form acquires a more
general signification by the suffix que, or by the addition of the
particular words vis and libet. (W e cali it an adverbmm loci
generóle,') The fact of the suffix que not occurrmg with quo and
qua is easily accounted for by the possibility of confounding
them with the adverb quoque and the ablative quaque; but still,
in eome passages at least, quaque is found as an adverb, and so
also the compound usquequaque, in any way whatever. The
demonstrative is formed from the pronoun is, and its meaning is
etrengtliened by the suffix dern. The mdefinite is derived from
the pronoun aliquis, or by compositions with it. W e thus obtain
the following correlative adverbs : —

* W e say without in regard to the general analogy. There are, however,

passages in which the suffix que forms a generalising relative, and in
which, e. g. quandoque is used for quawfomnque, as in Elorat. A rs Poet. 359.:
quandaqm bonus dormítat Homñrtts, and frequently in Tacitus. See the com-
mentators on Livy, i. 24. 3.

Interrog. Relative. Demonstr. Indefinite. Universal,

Ubi, where ? ubi, where. ibi, there. alicubi, some- •ubique,

ubiubi. where. ubit’w,
I every-
f where.
Uude, whence ? mide, whence. inde, thence. alicunde, from undíqite, from
mulmndc. indidem. some place. undems. J- every-
undecunque. undelibet, Jwhere.
Quo, whither P quo, whither. co, thitlier. ali.quo, to some quovií, to
quoquo. eodem. place. quolibet, ■- every
quo aunque. 1 p lílC C i
Qna, in what qua, in the ea, iu that aliqua, in some qiuioíS,
diiection ? in way in which. way. way. quolibet,
1f e vin
wliat way ? \ way.
quaqua. eadem.

[§ 289.] To these we must add those which are formed by com-

position with alius, nullus, uter, and answer to the question where ?
alibi, elsewherc; nullibi, nowhere (which, however, is based only
on one passage of Vitruvius, vii. 1., its place being supplied byn us-
quam) ; utrübi or utrobi, in which of two placea ? with the answer
utrobique, in each of the two places. Inibi is a strengthening form
o f ibi, and signifies <£in the place itself.” To the qnestion
whence ? answer aliunde, from another place ; utrimque, from botli
sides, ;which formation wc find again in mtrinsecus, from within,
and extrinsecus, from without- To the question whither ?
answer alio, to another place ; to utro, to wliich of two sides ?
answer utroque, to both sides, and neutro, to neither. The fol­
lowing are formed with the same termination, and have the
same meaning : quopiam and quoquam, to some place (the formcr
in an affirmativej and the latter in a negative sentence, like
quisquam); intro, into; retro, back; ultro, beyond; citro, this
side, chiefly used in the combination of ultro et citro, ultro citro-.
que (towards that and this side), but ultro also signifies “ in
addition to,” and “ voluntarily.” Porro is formed from pro,
and signifies “ onwards ” or ” further,” e. g. porro pergere, In
the latter sense it is used also as a conjunction to conncct
sentences. Compounds of fio are : adeo, up to that degree or
point, so much; eousque, so long, so fa r; and of quo: quousque
and quoad, how long ? W e have further to notice the adverbs
with the feminine termination of the ablativo á (which is probably

to be explatncd by supplying vio), which liave become preposi-

tions; viz. cifra, contra, extra, intra, supra, derived from tlic
original forms, cis, con, ex, in, super; also infra, below ; and
ultra, beyond (from the adjeetives infer and ultcr, which however
do not occur); errea, around; and júxta, by the side or in like
manner. The derivation of the two last is doubtful, but they
belong to the adverbs of place. In this way aróse also: nequa-
quam and haudquaquam, in. no way; usquequaque, in all points,
in all ways3 composed of the above-mentioned quaque and usque,
[§ 290.] W e here add the correlatives to the question whither?
quorsum or quorsus ? (contracted from quoversum or quoversus),.
The answers to them likewise end in us and um (but sometimes
the one and sometimes the other is more commonly used) :
horsum, hither: aliquoversum, towards some place ; aliorsum, to­
wards another place; quoquoversus, towards every side; utroque-
versum, intrormm, prorsum, forward ( prorsus is better known
in the derivative sense of “ entírely”) ; rursum, or more fre-
quently retrorsum, backvvard (rursus remained in use in the
sense of “ again”) ; sursum, heavenward (also sursum versus, a
double compound); dcorsum, downwards; dextrorswm, to the
right; sinistrórsum, to the le ft; adversas or aduersum, towards
or opposite, usually a preposition; seorsus or seorsum, separately.
[§ 291.] 4. The above-mentioned demonstramos, ibi, there ;
inde, henee, and eo, thither, are used only with reference to rela­
tive sentences, which precede ; e. g. ubi te heri vidi, ibi nolim te
iterum conspicere, where I saw thee y estere! ay, there I do not
wish to see thee again; linde venerat, eo rediit, he returned
thither., whence he had come. More definite demonstratives,
therefore, are requisite, and they are formed in Latin from the
three demonstative pronouns by means of special terminations.
The place where ? hic, istíc, illic, (there).
whither? late, istuc, üluc, (thither).
whence ? hinc, istinc, illinc, (thence).
Instead of -istuc and illuc, the forms isto and illa also are in use.;
These adverbs are employed witli the same difference which wé.
pointed out above ( f 127.) as existí ng between the pronouns hic,,
iste, and Ule, so that hic, huc, and hinc point to the place where
I, the speaker, am; istic, istuc, and istinc, to the place of the..
second person, to whom I speak ; and illic, illuc, and illinc to.
c o M rA R iso N o r adverbs.

tlie place of the third person or persone, who are spoken of.
The following are compounds of huc and hinc: adhuc, until
now; hucusqzte, as far as this place; abhinc and dehinc, from this
moment (counting baekwards). To the question qua ? in what
way ? we answer by the demonstratives hac, istac, illac, which
are properly ablatives, the word vid being understood.
Nota 1. Cicero thus writes to Atticus, who was staying at Home, while
lie himself livecl in exile at Thessalonica, in Macedonia (ííi, 12.) : Licet Ubi
significaran, ut ad me veniros, id omittam tamen : inteUigo te re istic prndense,
Me ne verbo quídam levare me posse. Istic, where you are, that is, at lióme,
you can be really useful to m e : Me, here where I live, that ís, at Thessa-
lmiica, you would not even be able to comfort me with a word. In this
manner the Romans in their letters briefly and distinctly express tlie lo-
culities o f the writer and the person addressed, as well as of the persona
written abtmt.
[§ 2D2.] Note 2. Adhuc expresses tlie duration of tíme down to the present
moment, and therefore answers to our “ still,” when it signifies “ until
now ” (we also lind usque adhuc) ; and strictly speaking, it should not be
coitfounded either with etiamnunc, which does not contain the idea o f d a-
ration of time, and answers to the question when? or with usqm eo and
etmmtum, which are the corresponding expressions o f the past time. But
even good authors apply the peculiar meaning of tlie word to the present,
and use adhuc also of the relative duration o f the time past; e. g. Liv. xxi. 4 8 .:
Scipio quamquam gravis adhuc vulnere crol, iamen— profecíus est; Curt. vii, 1 9.:
praecipitatus ex equo barbaras adhuc tamen. repugnabat. “ N o t yet,” is ex­
pressed by nondwm. even in speaking of the present, more rarely by adhuc



[§ 293.] 1 . T h e Comparison of Adverbs is throughout depend-

ent upon the comparison of adjectives, for those adverbs only
have degrees o f comparison, which are derived from adjectives
or partieiples by the termination e (o) or Ur ; and wherever the
comparison of adjectives is wanting altogether or partly, the
same deficiency occurs in their adverbs.
2. The comparative of adverbs is the same as the neuter of
the comparative of adjectives (majas only has the adverb magis,
§ 265.), and the superlative is derived from the superlative of
the adjectives by changing the termination us into c ; e. g.

doctior, doctius; elegantior, elegantíus • emendatior, emendatius ;

superlative : docíissiuius> doetissime ; cleganfcíssim.e, emendatissime y
summus, summe. The positivos in o (e. g. cito, raro) also make
the superlative in e ; meritissimo and tutíssivio however are more
commonly used than meritissime and tutissime.
Note. Thus the positive (see § 111.) is-wanting of deterius, deterrime;
potáis, poüssime (we more frequently find potissimuvi) ; prius, primum or
j}rimo%tbr prime ís not used, but, apprime, principal ly) \ the positive ociter,
to which ocins and ocissime belong, occurs very rarety, since the comparatíve
ociics lias at the same time the meaning o f a positive. O f vtilde, very (con-
tracted from valide, § 2 63 .) the degrees validius and validissime do not,
indeed, occur in Cicero, but are used in the silver age of the language,

[§ 294 .] 3. Tlic primitive adverbs, and those derived from

other words by the terminations im and tus, together with the
various adverbs enumerated in § 270. foll., that is, in general
all adverbs which are not derived from adjeetives and participles
by the endings e (or o instead of it) and ter, do not admit the
degrees of comparison. The only exeeptions are diu and saepe:
diutius, diutíssime ; saepius, saepissime. Nuper has a superlative
nuperrime, but no comparative, and satis and temperi liave the
comparatives satius (also used as a neuter adjective) and tem­
pe-ñus (in Cicero). Respecting secws¡ the comparativo of secus,
see § 283.
Note. There are a, few dimimitive adverbs: clanculum from clam, p ri-
mulum. from primum, celermscule, saepiusctde, from the comparatives celerius
and saepius. Selle, prettily, is a diminutive of bene, and from bello are de­
rived iellus an.d bellissimus, without a comparative, and henee the adverb



[ § 295.] 1. P r e p o s i t i o k s are indeclinable words, or, to use

the grammatical term, partícles, which express the relations of
nouns to one another or to verbs: e. g. a town in Ita ly ; a
journey through Ita ly ; my love fo r you; the first century after
Christ; he carne out o f his house; he lives mar Berlín i on the

Khinc, &c. They govern in Latín either the accusative or

ablative, and some (though mostly in a different sense) both
cases. Their Latin ñame is derived from the fact of tlieir being
placed, wíth a few exceptions, before tbeir noiin. W e have
already observed (Chap. L X I I .) that a considerable number of
tliese partióles are properly adverbs, but are j ustly reckoned
among the prepositions, as they more or less frequently govern
a case, Apart from their etymology, and considering only their
practical application in the language, we have the following
classes of prepositions: —

1. Prepositions with the Accusative.

Ad, to.
A p n d with, near.
Ante, before (in regard to botli time and place).
Adversas and adversum, against.
Cis, citra, on this side.
Circo, and circttm, around, about.
Circiter, about (indefinite time or number).
Contra, against.
.Erga. towards.
Extra, without.
htfra, beneath3 below (the contrary of supra).
Inter, among, between.
Intra, within (the contrary of extra).
Juxta, near, beside.
Ob, on account of.
Penes, in the power of.
Per. through.
Pone, behind.
Post, after (both of time and space).
Praeter, beside.
Prope, near.
Propter, near, on account of.
Secundum, after (in time or succession), in accovdance with, as
secundum naturam vivere.

Supra, above.
Trans, on the other tiide.
Versus (is put after its noun), towards a place; e. g* in Galliam
versus, Massiliam versus.
Ultra., beyond.

2. Prepositions with the Áblaíivc.

A , ab, abs (a, before eonsonants; ab, before vowels and some
eonsonants; and abs only in the combination of abs te, for
which, however, a te also is used), from, by.
Absque, without (obsolete).
Coram, before^ or in the presenee of.
Cum, with.
D e, down from, concerning.
E and ex (e before consonante only, ex before both vowels and
eonsonants), out of, from.
Prae, before, owing to.
Pro, before, for.
Srne, without.
Tenus (is put after its noun); as far as, up to.

3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative.

In with the accus. — 1. in, on, to, to the question Whither ? —

2. against. W ith the ablat. in, on, to the question
Where ?
Svh, with the accus.— I. under, to the question Whither? —
2. about or towards, in an indefinito statement of time, as
suh vesperam, towards evening. W ith the ablat., under, to
the question Where ? Desab is also used in this sense.
Super, with the accus., above, over; with the ablat., upon, con-
cerning, like de.
Subter, under, beneath, is used with the accusative, whether it
expresses being in or motion to a place; it rarely occura
with the ablative, and is in general little used.
P R E P O S Il’IOIÍS. 243

Remarks upon the Signification o f the Preposittons.

[§ 20G.] I. Prepositions with the Accusative.

A d denotes in general an aim or object both in regard to time and place,

and answers to the questions Whither ? and Tíll when ? e. g. venía, proficiscor
ad t e ; Saphocles ad summani sonectutem tragoedias fecit. Henee it also
denotes a fixed tíme, as ad horctm, at the hour : ad diera, on the day fixed
u p on; ad tempus facere aliquid, to do a thing at the right time. In other
cases ad tempus signifies “ for a time,” e.g. perturbatio animi plerumque brevis
est et cal tempus. Sometimes also it denotes the approach of tíme, as ad
lucem, ad vesperam, ad extremum, towards daybreak, cvening, towards the
en d ; and the actual arrivai of a certain time, as ín L ivy : ad prima signa
veris profectus, at the first sign o f spring.
Ad, in a ¡ocal sense, signifies “ near a place,” to the question W here P as
ad urbem esse, to he near the to w n ; ad portas urbis; cr-mntissima pugna ad
lacum Trasimenum ; pugna navalis ad Tenedum ; nrbs sita est ad ruare ; it is
apparently the saíne as in iu such phrates as ad aedem S e l l o n a e or with the
omission o f the word aedem : ad O p is; ad omnia deorum templa gratula-
tionern feeim u s; negotium kabere adportum ; u d foru m ; but in all these cases
there ís an allusion to buildings or spaces connected with the places rtamed.
W ith numeráis ad is equival ent to our “ to tlie amourit o f ” or “ nearly,"
e. g. ad ducentos, to the amount of two hundred, or nearly two hunured, and
without any case it is an adverb like circiter, as in Caesar, occisis ad hominum
milibus quatuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt ¡' Liv. viii. 18 : ad viginti
matronis per viatorvm accitis ( ablat. absol,) ; iv. 5.9 : qvoi'um ad dúo milia et
qningenti capiuntur. The phrase omnes ad unum, ad unum omnes perierwit
means, “ even to the very last man,” including the last liimself.
A d, denoting an object or purpose, is of very coramon occurrence, and
henee arísea its signification of-“ in rcspect o f ; ” e. g. vidiforum. comitiumque
adornatuni, ad speciem magnifico orualu, ad sensitm cogitationemquc acerbo et
htgubri; or facinus ad mmnoriam posteritatis insigne; homo ad labores belli
impiger, ad usum et disciplinam peritas; ad consilia pruilens, &c. B ut this
preposition is used also in figurative relations to express a mode(, standard,
and object of comparison, where we say “ according to,” or “ in comparison
w ith ;” as ad modum, ad effigiem, ad simiíitudinem, ad speciem alieujvs reí, ad
normam, ad exemplum, ad arbitrmm et nutwm., ad voluntatem alieujvs facere
aliquid,- persuadent mathematici, terram. ad univarsum coeli complexum quasi
pancti instar obtinere. Particular phrases are, ad verbum, word for word;
nihil ad hanc rem, ad himc hominem., nothiug in comparison witli this thing or
this man.
[§ 297.] Apttd. “ with,” both in its proper and figurative sense-; e .g . with
me the opinión o f the multitude has no weight, apud me nihü valet hominum
opinio. In eonnection with ñames of places it signifies “ near," like a d ; e. g.
Epaminondas Lacedaemonios vicit apud Mantineam ; male pugnatum. est apud
Caudium, apttd Aniemm (the ñame o f a river). I t must however be
observed that the early writers sometimes (see my note on Cic. iu Verr.
iv. 22.), atid Tacitus and later authors frequently, use apud for in, nnd not
mcrely for ad; as Avgvatim apud urbem Nolam extinctas est; stataa apud thear-
trurn Pompeji locatur ; apud Syrimn morbo absumptvs est; apud senatum dixit,
and in many other passages, in which the coutext leaves no doubt. In apvd
b 2

praetorem and apud judiees, the preposition must likewise be taken to

llenóte the place of the judicial transactions ; we use in tiña cape “ before,"
which however cannot be rendered in Latín by ante.
Apud is used also with the muñes of authors, instead of in ■with the nanie
of their ivniits ; as apud Xeuopkmdem, ct/md Tcrentimn, apud Ciceronem lcgi~
tur, &c., hut not ín Xenophonte, because 111 Latin the ñame o f an author ís
not used for that o f his ivorks as in our language.
Ante, “ before,” denotes ¡liso a preferenee, as ante omnia hoc mihi máxime
placét, above all other thiiigs ; l'tic eratgloria militari ante omnes, he excelled
[§ m ] Oís and citra are eommonly used in rcferencc to place, e. g. cis
Taivrurn montcm, and are the contrary o f trana ; citra Rubtconem, 011 this side
of the Rub icón. But in htter though good prose writers (Quintilian, Piinv)
it frequently occurs for s/ne, “ without,” íib in citra invidiam nominare; citra
'«rastran grcvmmatice non potest esse perfecta m e clici citra scientiam wiusices
Circum is the more ancient, and circa the later form ; Cicero uses them
both in t.he sense o f “ around ” (a place) ; and circum, with the strengthened
meaning, “ all around e. g. urbes (june ci?’cum C'apuam smit, and urbes
cima üapuam; homilías circum and circa se habere; térra circum axem su
convertit; homo praetorem circum omnia fora sectatnr. The phrases circmn
mnicos, circmn meinos. circum villas, circum hundas nailtcre, signiiy to send
around to one’s friendo, &c. Circa is used besides, of time also, in the sense
of sith (but not by Cicero) ; Livy and Curtius, e. g., say : circa lucís ortum,
circa canden hurtan, circa Idas. C’ircu in ihc sense o f concerning, like de,
erga, and atlncrwts, the Greek <mri!, iieciirs only in the sil ver age of the
fauguago, iu Qtíiiililian, Plmy, and Tacilu s; e.g. varia circum haec opiato;
circa déos ct religiones negligentior; publica circa Jumas artes socordia.
Circiter is used, it is truc, with an accusative, as in cireiter meñdiem., about
noon; circiter Calendan, eirciter Idus Martias, circiter octamm horam. but it
is more frequently an adverb.
[§ aia.] Advcrmis and contra originally signiiy “ oppnsiie to but they ex­
press alsn the direetion of an aetion towards an object, with this dillcrenee,
that contra always denotos hostílíty, like our “ against” (while erga denotes a
friendly disposition, “ towards” ), whereas athersus is used in either sense.
Thus Cicero saya : pracsidia illa, qv/ie pro templis ómnibus cernitis, contra vim
collocata sunt; and frequently contra natnram., contra leges; but mcus erga te-
amor, palcmus animis, Jinvvolentía, and similar expressions. W e say adversas
aliquem impetum/acere as well as modestan), justuni esse, ¡ind reverentiam ad-
hibare advarsus aliquem. But erga a.lso occurs now and then ín a hostile
sense, not indeed in Cicero, but- in Nepos and Tacitas, e .g . Nep. Datam. 10.:
odio communi, quod erga regem susceperant.
[§ 300.] E xtra , “ without,” “ outside of,” occurs also in the sense ni praeter,
except,ing, apart, as extra jocian.
Infra, e. g. infra Imam nihil est 7iisi moríale et caducum. It also implies a
Inw estimation; as in infra se onnda humana ducere, judicare, or infra se.
posita; and “ below” or “ under” in regard to measure or size ; un sunt mag-
nitudine paulo infra elephantos.
Inter denotes also duration of time, like our “ d u rin g;" as mier tot unnos,
ínter cocnam. ínter epulas. W ith regard to its ordinary signification “ among,"1
we must observe that in¡,er se is our “ one a n o t h e r e . g. amant ínter se pueri,

obtrectaut iuícr se, furtim ínter se aspieielant, where in rcality another pro­
noun is omitlecl.
Titira, “ within," to both qnestions W h ere? and W h ith er? i-níra hostium
praesidia esse and vm ire; millam intra Occamtm praedonum navetn esse auditis;
majai'es nastri An.tioekum intra montem Taurwm regvare jusserunt. It also
denotes time, both in its duvation and a period which lias not come to its
cióse, e, g. omnia commemorabo quae intra dece-m minos nefarie factn sunt} dur-
ing the last ten years ; intra nonum diem opera absoluta sunt, intra decinmrn
dtem wbeni ccpit, tliaí is, before nine or ten days had elapsed.
Juxta, “ beside,” e. «.jiu.ta murtati, juxta urbem¡ sometimes also “ next to "
in rank and estiuiation, as iu L iv y : fides humana colitur apud eos juxta divinas
religiones. But it is only unelassical authors that \KH. juxta. Ín the sense oí’
secundum or-according to.
Oh, “ on account oíj" implies a reason or occasíon, e.g. ob egregictm virtutem
donaius; ob dclictum; oh eam rem, for this reason; cpiamobrem or quamobeausam,
for which reason; ob hoc ipsum, for this very reason. In the sense o f ante, its
use ís inore limíted, as in ob oados versari.
Penes rarely occurs as a prepositíon of place in the sense o f apud, and is
more commonly used as denoting, in the possession or power o f; e. g. penes
regem. omnis potestas est; penes me arbitrium est imjus rei.
[g Mi.] Per, denoting place, signifies “ through” and occurs very frequently ;
but it also signifies 11in” in the sense of “ throughout;” e .g . Caesar conjura-
iionis socios in vinc-ulis kabendos per mimicipia cemuit, that is, in aíl the mu-
nicipia; peí' domos Iwspitaliter invitantur; militas fu g a per prozimas civitates
dissipati sunt. W hen it denotes time, it signifies during : per noctem ceniuntur
.lidera; per hosca dies, during these daya ; por ídem tempus, during the same
tim e; per Irittmáwa, per secessmiem piebis, during the sccossion o f the plebs.
P er with the accusative of persons ii “ through,” “ by the instrumentality
of,” e. g. per te salvus sum. P er, in many cases, expresses the manner in
which a tliing is done; as per litteras, by letter ; per injuriam, per scelus et
latrociniuni, per potcsiatem auferre, eripere, with injiwtico, criminally, by au-
tliority; per ludmn ae jacum fortanü ómnibus cvcrtít, by play and jo t e he
drove him out of lits property ; per iram, from or in anger; per smmlationem
anucitiae me prodiderunt; per spcciern honor is or anxilii ferendi, &c., per
causam, nnder the pretuxt; per occustonem, on the occasíon ; per ridieidum, in
a ridícnlous maimer. In many cases a simple’ ablative might be used instead
o fp e r with the accus., but p er expressos, 111 reality, only an accidental mode
of doing a thing, and not tiic real means or instrument.
P er, in tliu sense of “ 011 account of,” occurs only in a few phrases : per
aetutem, 011 accouut ofhis age ; per valfíiudinem, 011 account o f illness ; per me
Ucet, it is allowed. as far as I am concerned. In supplication or swearing,
it is tbe English “ b v ;" ns jurare per aliquid¡ aliquem orare p er ulirpád; and
so also in cxclamations : per deas imtnortales, j>er Jocc-m, &c.
[§ ;¡oü.] Pone, “ behiud,” is not frequently nsed either as an adverb or a
preposition, and is almost obsolete. Tacitus, e. g,, says, matt.us pone tergum
rinctae, for post lergmn.
Praeter. From tlie meaning “ beside,” or along ” (implying motion
or ]]assing by), as in Cicero : Serví praeter oados Lolli poeula ferebant,
there avises the signification of 11 e x c e p t i n g c , g, iu L i v y : in hoc legato
ventro nec houiinis qiúdqvam est praeter jiguram et spectem, ñeque Tiomuni
•:¿vis praeter habüum ei soman Latinae liugium; and in Cicero: Aniicttm tibi ex
n i)

consularibus ncminem esse video praeter Lucullum. except, or best Je Lucullus.

I t also si^nLües “ besides,” when something is added to what has been al-
ready snkl. and it is then followed by etiam', e. g. praeter auctoritatem eiiam
virad (tcl coerccnáiim Jiabet, praeter ingentem populationem agi'omm— pugnatum
etiam egregie est, and may often be translated by “ independent of,” or
“ not to mention.”
Praeter also indieates a dbtinctíon, as in praeter esteros, praeter alius,
araeter omnes exccllcre or facere aliquid.
The signification of “ against,” ov “ contrary to,” is counected with that
o f beside ; e. g. praeter consuetudiuem, praeter opinionem, expectationem, vo­
lúntate m olwijus ; praeter modum. iuunoderíitely \ praeter ruduram, eontrary tu
Propter, for prope, near, is not nncommon, e, g. propter Sicüiurn ínsulas
Vulcaniae sunt; dúo Jilii propter patrem cubantes, &c. I t has already been
remaiked (§ 2 64 .), that it is a contraction o fpropiter.
B ut it most frequently signifies “ 011 account o f i m p l y i n g the moving
canse, as in ego te propter humamtatem et modestiam tuam diligo. I t is move
rarely used in the sense of p er with persons, as in propter te líber sum,
propter quos vivit, throngh whose aid he lives.
[§ 303.] Secundum is derived from sequor, secundus, and therefore properly
signifies “ next,” “ in the sequel,” “ in suceession," e .g . secundum comitia,
itu Dieuiaiely after the eomitia ; L iv y ; Hannibal secundum tam prosperam ad
Caimas pugnam victoris magis quam. bellum gerentis curis intentas erat Also
“ next in rank ; ” as in Cicero, secundum detim homines hominibus máxime
utiles esse possunt; secundum fratrem Ubi pluranmu tribuo; secundum te nihü
est mihi amicius solihidine ; Livy says that the Roinan dominion was máximum
secundum dcorum opea imperium. The signification “ along,” is still inore
eloscly conected with its original meaning, as in secundum mare iter faccre,
secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantu?'.
In a fignratíve sense secundum is the opposite oí' contra -■ eonsequently, 1,
“ in accordance ivith," as secundum mturam vivero, secundum arbitrium (di-
cujas facere aliquid; 2. “ in favour of,” as in secundum praeseutem judicavit,
secundum te decrevit, secumlum anisar», nostram disputavit. tío also in the
legal espression vindicias secundum libertatem daré, postulare, for a pcrson’s
Supra. is the opposite o f infra , and is used to both questions, Where ? and
W hither? In English it is “ above,” implying both spaee and measure, e. g.
supra vires, supra cansueiudinem, supra numerum; and with numeráis, supra
daos menses, séniores supra sexaginta anuos. It is more rarely used in the
sense of praeter, beside ; as in Lívy, supra belli TmIíkí ruetum id quoque acccs-
nercct; and in that of ante, before, as in C'aesar, paulo supra hanc memoriam, a
little before the present time.
Versus is joined also (though rarely) to the prepositions ad or in: ad
Oceanum versus prqficisci, in Italiam versus navigare.
Ultra not unfrequently occurs as denoting measure; e. g. ultra feminam
mottis, idtra fortem temerarius, more than n woman, and more than a bravo
man usually is,

2 . Prepositions with the Ablative.

[§ 301•] A i (this is the original form, in Greek á-<¡), from, in regard to

both place and time (ü cujas moi'te, ab dio tempore tviccshnus nnnus esf), and

also to denote a líving being as the author of an action, as in amari. diligi ab

altquo, discere ab aliquo, and with neuter verba, which have the meaning of a
passive ; c. g. interire ab aliquo, which is the same as occidi ab aliquo. The
following particulars, however, must be observed : —
a) W ith regard to its denoting time, -we say a prima aetate, ah ineimte
aetate, a primo tampore or primis temporibm aetatis, ab initio aetalis and ab
infantia, a pueritia, ab adolescentia, as well as in connection with concrete
nouns : a puero, a pi/.eris, ab adolescentulo, ab infante, all of which expressions
signify “ from an early age.” The expressions a parvis, a párvulo, a teñera, a
teueris wriguiculis, are less common and of Greek origin. A puero i-.; used in
speaking of one person, and apueris in speaking of several; e .g . Diodor um
Stoicum a puero audivi, or Sócrates docuit flsri nnllo modo posse, ut a pueril
tot rerum ínsitas in animis notiones "haheremus, nisi animus, antequam Corpus
üdrasset, in rerum cognilione viguisset.
Ab initío and a principio, a primo properly denote the spaee of time from
the beginning dowu to a certain point. Tacitas, e. g., says, urbem liomam
a principio reges liabuere, that is, foi* a certain period after its foundation.
Frequently, however, this idea disappears, and ab initio, &c. become the
same as initio, in the beginning; e. g. Cotmdi ium animus ab initío, non fides
ad extremum defuát, he was neither wanting in courage at íirst, ñor in faith-
fulness at the la s t; ab initio imjas defensiorñs dixi, at the beginning of my
0) W hen ab denotes place, it frequently expresses the side 011 which a
thing happens, or rather whence it proceeds ; as a fronte., a tergo, ai occasu
et orla (soli¿) ; Ahxander afronte et a tergo kostem habebat; Horatius Cocles
a tergo pontem intm'scindi jubebat; Caesar a dextro cornu proelimn commisil.
Henee a reo dicere, to speak on behalf o f the defendant, and with the verb
stare; as a senata stare, to stand on the side o f the senate, or to be of the
party of the senate: a bonorum cansa stare. to be on the side of the patriota,
— or without the verb atare, in the same sense : hoc est a me, this is for me,
in my favour, supporta my assertion ; haecfacitis a nobis contra vosmet ipsoa,
to our advantage, ov facere m an intransitive sense: hoc nikilo magis ab
adoersariis, quam a nobis facit, this is no less advantageous to our opporsents
than to ourselves. So also, the adherenfcs or followers of’ a school are called
a Platoue, ab Arütotele, a Critotao, although in these cases we may supply
profeeli, that is, persons who went forth froin such a school. Sometimes,
though chieíly in the comie writers, ai is used instead of a genitive : anciUa
ab Andria,for es and ostium ab aliquo cm crepvit
[§ sus.] In a íigurative sense it signifies “ with regard to c, g. Aníonms
ab eqiútatu jinnus esse dicebatur; imparati sumas quum a müitibus, tum a
pecunia; mcdiocriter a doctrina histrutíus; rnops ab amicis ; felix ab omni
laude ; Horace : Nihil est ab omni parte beatum. In the sense of “ on the
side of,” . it also denotes relationship, aa in Augustus a matre Magman Pom -
pejiwi artissrmo contingebat gradu, on hiá mother’ s side.
Ab denotes that which is to he removed, and thus answers to our “ from,"
or “ against,” e. g. forum defenderá a Clodio, auiiodire templum ab Haimibate,
muñiré vasa a frigore et tempestatibus, that is, contra frigus. So also tutus a
pericido, secure from danger, and timare a suis, to be afiaid of one's own
Statim, confestím, rcceus ai aüqua r e , “ i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r , ” h a v e o r i g i n a l l y
r e fe r e n c e to p la c e , b u t p a s s f r o m t h e i r in e u n in g o f p l a c e i n t o t h a t o f t im e ;
u 4

e.g . Scipio confesthn a proelio— ad naves redüt, immediately after the battle
Scipio returned to the fleet; hostes a prospera pugna castra oppiignaverwit,
L i v .; ah itinere facere aliquid, to do a thing while 011 a journey.
Ab, further, often describas a circumstanee as the cause of a thing, and may
be transiated by, “ in consequence of,” “ from,” or “ out of,” as in L ivy : dice-
bantur áb eodem animo ingenioque, a quo gesta suni, in eonsequence of the same
sentiincnt; ab eadem fidueia animi, áb ira, a spe. Legati Carthaginieuses ali-
quanto minore cum misericordia ab racenti memoria perfidias audíti sunt, in
consequence of the yet fresh recollection; Curtius : Alexander vates quogtte
adhibere coepit a supersütione animi, from superstitious prejudices,
A l , used to denote an ofEcial function, ia quite a peculiarit.y of the Latin
language ; e. g. alicujus or alicui esse (seil. servum or libertinri) a pedibus, to
be a person’s lacquey, ab epistolis (secretary), a rationibus (keeper of
accounts), a studiis, a voluptatibus.
[§ 305.] Absqtie is found only in the comic writers, and modern Latinísts
should not introduce such antiquated words into their writings. See Burmann
on Cic. de Inve?it. i. 3 6 .; Huhnken, Dict. Terent. p. 228. ed. Sehopen. There
is only one passage in Cicero, ad Alt. i. 1 9 .: mdlam a me epistolum ad te sino
ábsque argumento pero mire, in which the writer seems to have intentionally
used absque, because he could not well have written the proper worcl sine.
on account of the proximity of sino.
[§ 307.] Cum, “ with,” not only expresses “ in the company o f persons,” as cum
aliqua esse, cwm aliquo iré, venire, proficisci, facere aliquid (also secwm, that
is, with one’s self), but also aceompanjing cireumstanoes, as Verres Lampsa-
cum vaniteum magna calamitate et prope pernicie civitatia; hartes cum detrimento
sunt depuUi; and numerous other instances; also equivalent to our “ in,”
in the sense of “ dressed i n a s in hac officina Praetor (Verres) majorem
partein diei cum túnica pulla sedere salebat et pallio. 'When conibíned with
verbs denoting hostility, cum, like our “ with,” has the meaning o f “ against
cum aliquo bellum get'ere, to be at war with somebody: thus eum aliquo queri,
to complain of or against a person.
[§ 308.] De is most cotninonly “ coneerning,” “ about,” or “ on,” as in
multa de te aiidivi, líber de contcmnenda morte, seil. scripius; liegulus de cap-
tiuis commidandís Romam missus est. A lso in the phrases de te cogito, I think
of thee; actam est de me, I am undone. Cousequently, iraditur de Homero,
is something very different from traditar ab H om ero; in the former sentence
Ilomer is the object, and in the latter the subject. In the epistolary síyle,
when a new subject is touched upon, de is used in the sense o f quod attinet
ad aliquid; as in Cicero : de fratre, coufido ita esse, ut semper volui; de me
aatem, suscipe paulisper meas partes, et eum te esse finge, qui sum eg o ; de
rationibus referendis, non erat incommodum, &c. B u t very frequently it has
the signification of “ dow nfrom ,” or “ from a higher p oint;” as descerniere
de rostris, de coelo; Verres palean de sella ae tribivnali promadkct; further, it
denotes the origin from a place ; as homo de solíala, declmnator de ludo,
nescio qui de circo máximo, Cic. pro Milon. 2 4 .; or “ of,” in a partitiva
sense, as homo de plebe, unus de popido, unus de multis, one of the m any;
unus de septem, one of the seven wise m e n ; C. Gracchum de superioríbm
prime solum lego; versus de Phoenissis, verses from the tragedy of the
Fhocrussae; partem de istius impudentia retiaebo, and in the plorases de meo,
tuo, stto, &c., de alieno, de publico.
D e also denotes time, which avises from its partitivo signification. Cicero

says, Milu - iú comitium de nocte venit, that is, oven by night, or spending
a part o f the night ín coming to the comitium: vigilare de nocte, Alexander
de dic inibat convivía, even in tibe daytiine; henee multa de nocte, media de
nocte, that is, “ in the depíh o f night,” “ in the middle of the night,” the
signification of the point oí' beginning being lost in that of the time in general.
Fac, si me amas, ut considérate düigenterque naviges de mense Decembri, i. c.
take care, as you are sailing in (a part o f) the month of December.
In other cases also de is not unfrequently used for ab or e x ; thus Cicero
says, andivi hoc de párente meo piier, and with a somewhat far-fetched dis-
tinction between what is accidental and what is intentional ; in Verr. iii. 5 7 .:
Non hoc nune primum audit privatus de inimico, reus áb accmatore; effugere
de manibus; Eionysms mensas argenteas de mmiibun delubris jvssii anferri ;
especially in connectioii ■with. emere, mercari, conducere de aliquo. Gloriarn.
vietoriain parere, parare, de aliquo or ex aliquo; triianphum agere de Gallis,
Allobrogibus, Aetolis, or ex Gallis, &c. are used indiscriminately,
In sorae combinations de has the signification of “ in aceordance with,” or
“ after,” lite secundum: de consilio meo, de amieorum sententia, de consüii
sententia, according to the resolution of the council; de commimi sententia; de
more. In other cases de with a noun following denotes the manner or cause
of an action: denuo, de integro, afresli; de improviso, unexpectedly ; de in­
dustria, purposely ; defacie novi aliquam, I know a person by his appearanee.
In combination witli res and causa: qua de re, qua de causa, quibus de causis,
for which reasons.
[§ 309.] E x (íbr this is the original form, it was changed into c wben
consonants fullowed, whence a certain cusíoin was easily formed), “ from,”
“ out of,” is quite common to denote a place, as an answer to the question
whence? and in some peculiar phrases; such as: ex eqtto pugnare; ex equis
colloqui, to converse while riding on horseback ; ex muro jiassis mauibíis pacem
petere; ex arbore pendtre; ex loco superiore dicere; ex Hiñere scribere; con-
spicari aliquid ex propinqito, e longhupuy vidare aliquid, ex transverso impntum
fa cere; ex adverso, and e regione (not ex), opposite; ex omni parte, in or from
all parts. E x aliquo audire, accípcre, cognoscere, scire, and the like, to hear
from a person’s own m outh; victoriam reportare ex aliquo populo, where ex is
the same as de. E x vino, ex aqxia coquere, btbere, where we say, “ with wine,”
&c. are common medical expressions.
E x , when a particle of time, denotes the point from which : ex tilo die, from
that day; ex hoc tempore, ex quo (not e), since; ex conaulatu, expraetura, ex
dictatura, after the consulship, & c .; diem ex die expcctare, to wait one day
after another, or day after day.
E x , “ from,” denoting cause; as in ex aliquo or aliqua re doleré, laborare
ex pedibus, e renibus, ex oadis, ex capite; perire ex m ü n erib u sex quodam ru­
more nos te lúe, ad mensem Jamuirium expectabamiis; ex lassititdñie artius
dormiré, after a fatigue, or on account o f fatigue; quum e via lawguerem,
from or altor the jou rn ey; ex quo mreor, whence I four, and still more fre­
quently, ex quo, whence, or for which reason. Henee it hay also Ihe signiii-
catíon of “ in consequence of,” or “ in accordance with,” and that in a great
many expressions; such a s: ex lege, ex decreto, ex testamento, ex ScnatmcMH-
sulto, ex Señalas auctoriUUe, ex sententia equivalent to de sententia, e.r con-
suetudine, e more.
W ith thiswe must connect the cases in which ex denotes the manner of an
action ; as ¡n ex animo laudure, to praise hcartily; ex sententia nnd ex tolnrUale,

according to one’s wisli: c natura vivere, in accordance witli natura; ex im­

proviso, ex inapinato, ex composito, ex praeparato, ex aequo, &e.
E x denoting a change o f a previous State: e servo te libertum meum f e c i ;
nihil est tam miserabile qmm ex beato miser; repente Verres ex homine tamquum
apoto poculo 'Circaeo factus est vetees.
Iu a partitive sense, ex denotes the wliole from which sometliing is taken,
and is of frequent occurrence: thus unus e plebe, unus e muJtis, is the same as
unus de plebe aurl de mvltis. Connected with this are the plumea: aliquid
est e re mea, something is to my advantage; e república (not ex), for the good
o f the state.
[§ sioJ Prae, “ before,” signifies place only in combination with cigere, /erre,
oí' other verbs expresslng motion, and with pronouns : prae me /ero, prae se
/crU prae vobis iulistis. which denote the open display o f a thing or o f a
Prae is eommonly used Ín coinparisons \ as in Cicero: prae se omnes con-
teinnit; ut ipse Cónsul in 7iac causa prae me minus etiam quam privatus esse
videatur, in comparison with me ; Romam prae sua Capua irridebunt; omnium
minas atque omnia perlada prae salute sua leída duxerunt.
It ia frequently used also in the sense o f “ on account of,” iinplying an
o b s ta c le e . g. solem prae sagiüarum multitudine non videbitis; non medias
fidiv.í prae lacrimis possum reliqua ncc cogitare nec scribere,* non possum prae
fleta et dolare diutius in hoc loco com.mora.ri, and so always with a negative
partióle, which however is sometimes implied ín the negative signification o f
the verb ; e. g. Liv. vi, 40.: quum prae iadignitate rerum stupor silentiumque
ceteros patrian defixisset; x,\.wi¡¡. 33.: sileniium prae metu, oeterorum/uit.
[§ 311] Pro, in regard to place “ before,” or “ iu front o f a thing e. g.
pro vallo, pro castris acicm imtruere, that is, inthe front of, cióse by, or under
the w all; copias pro oppido collocare; pro templis ómnibus praesidia collocata
sunt; hasta posita est pro aede. Jovis Siatoris; Antonius sedens pro aede Cas-
toris in/oro. It also signifies, “ at the extreme point of a thing," so that the
persou spoken of is in or upon the thiug, e. g. pro suggestu aliquid pronun-
tiare, pro tribunali edicere, pro rostris laudare. Henee also pro testimonio
dicere, to declare as a witness, and other expressions denoting place, where
pro Ís the same as in; e.g. Tacit. Ann. i. 44. : stubant pro contione, the same
as in contione; ibid. ii. 81.: pro muris vocans, on the etlge of the wal).
The signification o f something standing “ before ” a thing is the origin of
that of “ for,” both in the sense of “ instead," and that o f proteetion : Unus
Cato est pro centum milibus; Marcelli statua pro patíbulo /uit; homo jam pro
damnedo est; se gererg or esse pro eive ,•habere pro kostibus, pro sociis; habere
pro certo ; aliquidpro mercede, propraemio est; aliquid pro nihilo estimare,
habere, putare; also “ for" in speaking o f payment: pro reciura solvere, to
pay for freight; dij.it se dimidium, quod pacbut esset, pro ülo carmine daiurum;
praemia mihi data mnt pro hac industria maxima. “ Fov,” the opposite of
“ against:” hoc pro me est, or valere debet; Cicero pro Murena oraüonem ha-
huit, and in numerous other instances.
[§ m ] Pro, “ in accordance with” or, “ in proportion to,” occurs very
frequently; e-g. cimtatibus pro numero müitum pecuviarum sumínas describere,
according to the number o f soldiers furnished by them ; ego vos pro mea
summa et vobis cognitain rempublicam diligentia moneo, pro avetoritate consu-
lari hortor, pro mugnitudim periculi obtestor, ut pací consulatis. Henee in
many particular phrases; as, pro tempore or pro temporibus, in accordance

witli the eircums lances o f the time, that is, pro condiiione temporum, "hut by
no means “ for the time being,” or “ for a t i m e pro re or pro re nata, ac-
enrding to eirenmstances or emergen cica; pro meo jura, according to my
right; pro eo ut, pro eoac, according as; e.g. Digratimn mihi referentpro eo
ac mereor, i. e. pro eo quod, quantum, according to my rnerits : especially to
denote división» or share : pro parte, or pro mea, tua. sua pa?'te, for my part, as
far as lies iu m e; pro oirili parte, according to the cap¡w;ity o f an individual;
as in : pro vi?'üi parte rempublicani defendere; pro portiane, in proportion;
pro rata portione, or pro rata parte, in a corred- proportion. In the phrase
pro se quisque, every one for his part, tlie three words liave íilmost grown into
o n c; c. g. pro se quisque avrum, argentvm et aes iupublicum conferunt, every
une, though with a someivliat strengthened meaning, “ every one without
cxception.” Quam pro after comparatives deserves especial notice; e. g.
major qiunnpro numero hammam pugna fíditur ; sedes exct’laior quam pro liábitu,
corpor is.
[§ 3¡3.] Tcnm is used to denote limitation, e.g. Aniiochus Tauro tenas
regnare jtissiis ext, as far as Mount Tsuirus, especially in the combination o f
verbo and nomine ttrnus, as lar as the word or the mimo goes. So also ore
tumis mpientía excrcitatus in Tacitus, that is, that he eould speák wisely, but
not uct wisely. It is only in poetry that this preposition is connccted with u.
genitive, and chie/ly with a. genitive plural; e. g. labrorvm tenas, up to the lip ;
ernrum temía, laterwmtenua; hut, inJ.ivy, xxvi 24., too wefind Corcyrae tenus.
The accusutivc is still inore rare.

3. Prepositious with the Accusative cmd Ablative.

[§ 3 U .] In with the accusative expresaos the point in space towards which

a movement is directed, like our “ to,” or “ i n t o in aedem iré, in publicum
prodire, in Graeciam proficisci, in civitatem recipere; al.so the direction in
whicli a thing extends, e.g. decem pedes iu latiútidmem. in longitudinem, in
ültitudinm, in breadth, length, heíght: further; independent of locality, it
denotes the object towards which an action is directed, either with a íriendly
or hostil e intention : amor in patriam, odium in malos cives, in duces vehemem,
in milites liberalis, dicere in aliquam, and so also oratio in aliquam, a speech
against some one.
.Lt iílíU denotes an object or purpose : haec wvmmlari ex veris in falsa non
possunt; in majus celebrare, for something greater, so that it becomes some-
thing greater; is imperator inpocnam exercitus expetiius esse viüeb.ir; pecunia
dato, est in rcm militarem; páticos in speciem captivos dwcebant, for the sake o f
appearanee; in contumelium perfugae appellabanhtr, for the purpose o f dis-
gracing them; cum in eam santentiam midta dixisse.t, in support o f thís
opinion ; in Jianc formidam. ¿a has, leges, in haec verba, &c., smbere, foedus
t§ riih.j When joined with words denoting time, it expresses a prede-
tenninntion o f that time like the English “ for;” e.g. invitare alirjuem in
posterum diem, for the following day ; prac-dicere in multas anuos, in puncos
die>t, in mvitos menses subsidia vitae habere. in hodiermim diem, for this pre­
sent day; and soin many plitases; as, in diem vivere, to liveonly for the day ;
in fvíurmn, in posterwn, in rdiqimm, for the fature; in aeternvm, in per-
pctmim, for ever; in praesens, for the present; in all these cases the word
tempus muy be added. Without denoting time, in is used also with the
25:2 L A T IN G R A M M A Ií.

accusative of other words to expresa the future; e. g. Patres in inccrtuvt

comitiorum eoentam auctoras Jiunt, give tlieir sanctkm to the yet uncertain
resolutions of the comitra.
Wlien jomed with tlie numeral singuli, or wlien tliis word is to be imder-
stood, in expresses a distribution, like the English “ on,” “ fov,” or “ over
e. g. in singidas civitates binas censores describere; queritur Sicilia iota, Vermut
ab aratoribus pro frumento in modios singidos duodenos sestertios exegisse; so
also pretium in capita statwsre, i. e. in sinovia capita: ternis nwinmis Ín peder»,
tecum transegit, i. e. in singultos pedes. W e must here notice uSso tbe ex-
pression in singulos dies, or in dics alone, “ from day to day,” with compa-
ratives and verbs containing the idea of a comparative, such as crescere,
It lastly denote.?, in some phrases, the manner o f an action; servilón,
hostilem, miserandum in modum; mirwn, miraMlem, mirandum in modum; in
universum, in general; in commune, in common ; in meem, alternatcly, or
instead o f; in. Sruti locura consulatam petere, in the placu or instead oí'.
[§ 31G.] Tit with the ablative, when it denotes place, most eommonly ex­
presses “ being in a place or in a thing," while with the accusative it indi-
cates a movement or direction towards it. It may sometimes be translated
by “ on,” or “ upon,” but always answers to the question Where ? e, g.
coronam, in callo habere; aliquid in humeris f e r r e ; in ripa fluminis; in litare
mo.ris urbs condita est; pons ín fhwá-ne est Wlien a number ur quantity is
indicated it answers to “ a m o n g e . g. esse, haberi, poni, numerari in bmús
eivibus: in magvis viris, in mediocribns oratortbiis, in septem vagantibus,
among the seven planets, so that in is equal to ínter. A particular plirase is
aliquid in manibus est, a thing is in hand, or has been commenced; as in Livy :
haec contenho minime idoñeo tempore, quum tantiun bdli in manibvs csset, oc-
cupat’at cogitidioncs homimim. In manibus habere, to be engaged upon a
thing; as in Cicero: Quam spem mine liabcat ín manibus et quid riwliatur,
breuiter jam expoíiam. Aliquid in oculís est, a thing is obvíous.
jStow and tlicn we find, in good authors, in with the accusative, where the
gvammatical rule requives the ablative. See tiie c.oiumentators on Livy ii. 14.;
but this is limited to a very few politieal and legal expressions, such as in
potestatem, in amicitiam dicioncmque esse, muñere (Cíe. Diein. in Q. Caecü. 20 .,
in Verr. v. 38), in vadimoniitm, in moram esse, and even these cases must
be considerad only as exceptions. In the comic writers, however, we not
unfreqiiently find mihi in mentem est. See Beniley on Terent. Heaut. v, 2,
[§317,] The general signification o f ímwith th« ablative is “ ín,” or “ with,”
and without reference to locality it denotes a eoincidenee of certain ciremn-
stanccs and attributes ; e. g. in hoc Jiomine, in hac re, hoc admirar, hoc laudo,
hoc displicet., in this inan; a phrase of this kind is quantum in eo or in me, te,
&u., fuit, as much as was in my [íower. In the following sentenees it is our
“ with,’’ or 44 ijotwithstauding : ” in sv.mma copia nmturum, nentu turnen
Ciceronis laudam. aequavit; in sivmmis tuis occupaliunihns, with all thy very
important eiigagements; alter, vti dixit Xsocrates in JEphi>ro vt Theopompo,
frenis egit, alta•calcaribm, as Isocrates s;iiil when speaking of Eptiurus and
[§ ais.] Wiicn real expressions of time, such as saeculum, annus, memis,
dies, nox, vesper are employed, the simple ablativo denotes the time at which
(see § 475.) ; bul in is used with substantives, which by Ihcnnsclves du not

denote time, but acquirc that meaning by being connected with in; rb, in
conmlntu, in pra.etu.ra, iii meo reditu, in primo, consprctu, in principio, in bello,
although in. these cases too the simple ablative is sometimes used; but in
appears more especially in eonnection with a gerund, as in legenda and in
legendis libris, in urbe nppugnanda, in itinere faciendo — all these expressions
in the first iustance denoting time, but passing into kindred moanings. In
praesenti or praesentia, signifies “ at the present moment,” or “ íbr the
present.” The phrase, est in eo, ut aliquid fiat, signifies, something is on the
point o f happening.
[§ 319.] Sui), e, g. Rornani sub jugum missi sunt; se conjicc re sub scalas, to
throw oneself under the stairs; alicui scamman sub pedem fiare, and fign-
ratively, sub imperium luvm redeo, and so also aliquid cadit sub aspectum, “ a
thing falla within the horízon,” us well as cadit sub judicium ct deUctum sapi-
entis, sub intelligentiam, it belongs to the philosopher, is left to him. When
it denotes time, it signifies, 1 . “ about,” that is, shortly before, as sub ortum
solis, shortly before sunrise; sub noclem, sub vesperam; 2 , more rarely,
Kimmediately a f t e r e . g. sub eas Uñeras statini. recitatae surtí tuae, Cic, ad
Fam. x. 16.; statim sub mentionem, C-oelius in Cic. ad Fam. viii. 4,; A frico
bello, quod. fuit sub rec.erdem Romanam parem, Liv. xxi. 1 1 .; and sub haec
dicta, sub hanc vocem, are used by the same writer. The phrase sub idem
tempus contains only an approximate rtefmition of time, and signifies “ about
the same time,"
Suh, with the ablative, is always “ u n der;” first, with regard to things
that strike our senses, and sccondly, to denote inferiority in rank : sub divo,
or sub dio, under the slty, in 'the open air ; suh oculis, under, i. e. before our
eyes ; sub regibus esse, sub imperio, sub hoc sacramento militari, sub magütro
enstí : it rarely denotes a condition, and only in late writers; e, g, lege,
sub poena. Sub specic, “ under the appearance,” and sub obtentu, “ under the
pretext,” are little nsed. Sometimes sub is found with the ablative to
denote time, but only where eontemporaneity is to be mdicated ; e. g.
Ovid. Fast. v. 491.: Haec, tria sunt sub eodem tempore fusta; Caes. Seil.
Ciu. i. 27.: ne siih ipsa profeclione milites oppidum irrumperent; and in liles
manner we may say sub adeentu, e. g. Romanontm, ivhilu they were arriving.
Compare Drakenborch on Liv. ii. 55.; who, however, gives to this sub too
great. an extenfc.
[§ 330.] Super has, in prose, the ablative only when used in the sense o f
de, “ eonceriimg,” or “ in respect of,” as in super aliqua re ad aliquem scribere,
but ehiefly in writers of the ailver age of the language.
With the accusative it signifies “ over,” “ above,” and answers to both
rj-.K'slions Whither ? and Where ? super aliquam. sedere, accnmbere, sifvs est
Aeneas super Nuitiicium Jlumen, Aeneas was buried above the river; that is,
on its bauks, but on an eminence of the bank. The phrase super coenam
signifies “ during dinner.” With numeráis it is 11 above," or “ more than
e. g. Aimidarum, tunlus acervus fuit, vi metientibus dimidium super tres modios
explcsse sint quídam auctores, one half more than three modii, or three inodii
and a half; and iu other expressi'.ns, as res super vota fluúnt, more than was
wished. In these two significations of “ above” (in its sense o f place as welí
as that of “ more than ” ), super is the same as s u p r a but it Ís used more fre-
quently than the latter in the sense of “ besides,” or “ in addition to super
bellnrn annona preinit; super morbum etiam famas ajfecit exercitum, super
cetera ; so also in the phrase nliits super ai ium, one after the other.

Súbt-er is rarely used with the ablative, and only in poetry: Cicero uses
the accusative iti the expression Plato iram in pectore, mpiditatem suhíer
praecordia locavit. Otherwise it frequently occurs ¡is ini miverb, in the sense
o f oiir “ below.”

[§ 321 .] 2. The adverbs clam, palam, sinud and procid, are

sometimes connected by poets and late prose writers with an
ablative., and must then be regarded as prepositions: clam and
its diminutive clanculum, cr without a person’s Jmowledge, ”
e. g. clara uxore mea et filio, are frequently found as prepositions
in the comie writers, but are joined also with the accusative;
palam is the opposite of clam. and the same as coram ; e. g.
palam populo¡ in the presence of the people; simul is used by
poets, without the preposition cum, in the sense of “ w ith; ”
e, g. Sil. Ifcal. v. 418.: avulsa est protimis hosti ore simul cervix,
the neeli together with the face : Horace uses shnul his, together
with these, and Taeitus frequently ; e. g. AnnaL iii. 64.: Sep-
temviris simul; procul, with the omission of ab, ia frequent in
Livy and Taeitus, and signifies, “ far from ; ” e. g. procul urbe,
mari} voluptatibus, and in the phrase procul dubio or dubio
procul, instead of sim dubio.
[§ 322 ,] Respeeting usque as an adverb, see above, § 286. It
is eommonly accompaníed by a preposition ab and ex, or ad, in
and sub, and expresses the idea of continuity from one point to
another; e. g. vetus opinio est, usque ab heroicis duda temporibus ;
usque ex ultima Syria atque Aegypto navk/art: similis plausus
me usque ad Capitolium celebravit; usque in Pamphyliam legatos
mittere ; usque sub extremum brumae imbrem, where usque is our
“ until.” It is only in poetry and late prose writers, that usque
alone is used for usque ad; e. g. Curtius, viii. 31., says of the
Indiana:— corpora usque pedes carbaso velant. This is inde-
pendent of the names of towns, where the prepositions ad and
ab are generally omitted.
[§ 323.] 3. But many of the above-mentioned prepositions
are used as adverbs, that is, without a noun depending on
them. This is chieíly the case with those which denote place ;
ante and post, adverstem and exadversum (opposite), circa
(around), circumcirca (all around), contra (opposite), coram (in
the presence of), extra, infra, juxta , prope and propter (near),
pone (behind), supra, ultra, super and subter. Circiter also,

and sometimes ad (§ 296.), are used in the adverbial sense of

“ about” or “ nearly” with numbers, whieh ave indefimtely
stated. Contra, when used without a case and for the purpose
of connecting sentences, is a conjimction, like our “ but,” or
“ however.”
Note. Instead of ante ¡md post as adverbs, we liare also tbe special
forms antea and postea (consequent.ly the conjunctions anteáquam, postea-
quam), see § 276. Ante, however, is preferred as an adverb in combina­
tion with partieiples; e. g. ante dicta, vita ante acta, and post is frequently
used to connect sentences.
Contra, as an adverb, occurs in tbe phrase of Plautus, auro contra, or
contra auro; that isT gold being placed on the other side; so that auro is
not a dative, but an ablative; fur which other authors, however, use tbe pre­
position contra awum, for gulu, when a price is indicated.
Juxta, as an adverb, eommoiily signifies “ equally,” or “ in like manner,” and
is the same as aeque ; e. g. in Livy : aliaque casteüa (dedita sunt) juxta igno-
bilia; Sallust; eorwtt ego vitam mortemque juxta aestano, I deein o f equíil
importance; margaritas u feminis juxta virisque gestantar, by women as well
as by men. It is frequently followed by ac or ñique, Ín tbe sense o f “ as.”
Praeter is used as an adverb for praeterquam ; that is, not with the accu­
sative, but with the case required by the verb preceding, as in Sallust:
cetcrae imiUitudtni diem statnt, anta quam sino fraude (without punishmcnt)
Uceret ab armis discedere, praeter ret'um eapitálium coiulemnatin. W e thus
might say, hoc nemini, praeter tibí, videtur ; but it ís better to sajp ra eter te,
or praeterquam (nisí) tibi.
Prope and propter are very frequently used as adverbs; prope, however,
is sometimes accompaníed by the preposition ab, as in tam prope a Sicilia bellum
gúsütm. est, so near Sicily ; prope a meís aedibus sedabas, near my liou.se.
Ultra, as an adverb, and accompanied by a negative partióle, signifies “ no
longer : 11 Jiaud ultra pati possum ; belhim Latinum non idb'a dilatitm est.
When it denotes place or measure, it signifies “ further oí1 “ beyond,"

[§ 324 .] 4. It was remarked above, that the prepositions

versus and tenus are placed after their case. Sonic other pre­
positions also may take the same place, but not indiscriminately.
Thus, the four prepositions ante, contra, ínter and propter,
are sometimes placed after the relative pronoun (occasionally
after the demonstratíve hic also); e. g. diem statuunt, quam
ante ab armis discederet, quem contra venitt quos Ínter, quera
propter; other prepositions of two 01* more syllables, as circa,
circum, penes, ultra, and adversus,- are more rarely used in
this w ay; the monosyllabic prepositions, post, per, ad and de,
are thus used only in ísolated cases or phrases, and de rarely
in any other than legal formulas; e. g. quo de ay ¿tur, res qua de
judicatmn est. Further, those same four dissyllabic prepositions
256 L A T IS G JtA.M M .A R .

ante, contra, ínter and propter, together witli the monosyllabic

ob, post, de, ex and in, when they govern a substantive accom-
panied by an adjcctiye or pronoun, are frequently placed between
the adjective and substantive ; e. g. medios ínter bastes, certis de
causis, magna ex parte, aliquot post menscs, and still more fre­
quently between the relative pronoun and the substantivo ; e. g.
quod propter studium, qua in re, quam ob rem, quam ob caumni.
Per , ab, and ad are but rarely placed in this way. The prepo-
sition cum is always placed after or ratlier appended to the
ablativo of the personal pronouns me, te, se, nóbis and vobis.
The same ia commonly the case with the ablativos of the
relative pronoun, quo, qua, and quibus, but we may also say,
cum quo, cum qua, and cum quibus. This preposition also
prefers the middle place between the adjective or pronoun and
the substantive. (See § 472.) What has been said here applies
to ordinary prose; and the practice of those prose writers,
who place the above-mentioned prepositions and others even
after substantives, must be regarded as a peculiarity. Iu
Tacitus, for example, we often find such arrangements as, Mise-
num apud, viam propter, Scythas Ínter, Euphratem ultra, cubi-
culum Caesaris juxta, litora Calabria,e contra, ripam ad Araxis,
verbera ínter ac contumelias, and the like. The place of voram
after its noun seems, comparatively speaking, to be established
by better authority than that of any other. Poets go still fur-
ther, and eeparate a preposition entirely from the case belonging
to it; e. g. in Horace, Serm. i. 3. 70.: — Amicus dulcís cum mea
compenset vitiis bona.



[<§ 325.] T he majority o f the prepositions are used also to

form compound words, especially verbs, modifying, naturally,
by their own meaning that of the words to which they are joined,
The prepositions themselves often undergo a change in their pro-

nunciation and orthography, on account of the initial letter of

the verb to which they are prefixed. But the opinions of ancient
aa well as modern grammarians diífer on no point so much as
upon the detail of these changes, some taking into account
the facility of prormnciation, and assimilating the concur­
ren t letters of the prepositions and the simple verb accord-
ingly, others prefcrring to leave the prepositions unchanged,
at least ín writing, because the former method admits of much
that is arbitrary. Even in oíd M S S . and in the inscribed
monuments of antiquity the greatest inconsistency prevails, and
we find, e. g., existere along with exsistere, collega along with
conlega, and imperium along with inperium, in the same book.
In the following remarks, therefore, aa we must have some­
thing certain and lasting, we can decide only according to
prevalent usage, but there are some points which we must
determine for ourselves as well as we can.
A d remains unchanged before vowels, and before the con-
sonants d, j , v, m ; before other eonsonants it undergoes an
assimilation, that is, the d is changed into the letter which
follows it, and before qu into the kindred c, as in acquiro,
acquiesco. Before gn the d is dropped, as in agnatus, agnoseo.
But grammarians are not agreed as to whether d is to be re­
lamed before l, n, r, s, and still less, as to whether it may stand
before f Even the most ancient M S S . are not consistcnt, and
we find in them, e. g. adloquor, adfecto, adspiro, and on the
other hand, allicio, affiigo, assuetus, aspecius, asccndo. Our
own opinion is in favour of the assimilation, and we make an
exception only in the case of adscribo, on account of the agree-
ment of the M S S . on this point. The signification of ád remains
the same as usual, as in adjungo, assümo, affero, apponn, alloquor.
In approbo and affirmo it either expresses a direction towards,
or merely -strengthens the meaning of the simple verb.
Ante remains unchanged; in anticipare and antistare alone, the
e is changed into i, though antesto also is approved of. Its
meaning is “ before,” as in antepóno, anteféro.
Circum remains unchanged, and retains, in writing, its m
even before vowels, although in pronunciation (but without the
elisión of the vowel preceding) it was lost. Only in circumeo
and its derivatives the is often dropped, as circueo. Its
258 L A T IN G llAM M AE ,

meaning is “ arouncV’ “ about,” as in drmmago, circumdo, cir-

Inter remains unchanged, except in the word intelligo. ita
meaning is “ between" or “ among,” as in interpono.
Ob remains generally unchanged, and undergoes tlie assi-
milation only before c, f , g, and p. In obsolesco, from the
simple verb oleo, and in ostcndo from tendo, we must recognise
an ancient form obs, like abs for ab. Its meaning of “ against”
or “ before” appears in oppono, offero, occurro, oggamúo.
[§ 326.] Per remains unchanged even before l, though some
tliink otherwise; in pellicio, however, it is univeraally asshm-
lated. The r is dropped only inthe word pajero, I commit a per-
jurium. Its meaning is " through,” as in perlego, pprluceo, perago.
When added to adjeetives it strengthens their meaning (§ 107.),
but in perfídus and perjuras, it has the power of a negative
Post remains unchanged, except in pvmoerium and pomeri-
dianus, in which st is dropped; its meaning is “ after,'’ ás in
Praeter remains unchanged, and signifies “ passing by,” as in
praetereo, praetermitto.
Trans remains unchanged before vowels, and for the most part
also before consonants. In the following words the ns is dropped:
irado, trciduco, trajicio, trano, which forms are more frequent
than transdo, transduco, tmnsjieio, transno, though the latter are
not to be rejected. When the verb begins with s, the s at the
end of trans is better omitted, and we should write transcribo,
transilio. Its meaning “ through, ” “ over,” or “ aeróse,” appears
in transeo, trajicio, and transmitió, I cross (a rivevj ; trado, sur-
[§ 32"-] A , ah, abs, y iz.: a before m and v ; ab before vowels
and most consonants, even before f } though qfui exists along with
ahfui; in aufero (to distinguish it from affero) and avfngio, ab
is changed into av or au ; abs occurs only before c and t, but
appears mutilated in asporto and aspemor. Its meaning is
“ from” or “ away/’ as in amitto, avehor, abeo, abjicio, abrado,
aufero, abscondo, abstineo.
D e, “ down” or “ away from,” as in d,ejido, dcscendo, de.traho,
datero, rub o ff; despido, look down upon, despise. In some

compounds, espccially adjectives, it has a negative power, as in

decolor, deformis, demens, desipio, despero; iu demlror, deamo,
and dtjc.ro, on the other híind, it seems to strengthen the meaning.
E and ex, viz.: ex before vowels, and before eonsonants some­
times e and sometimes e x : ex before c, p , q, s, t, except in
escendo and epato ; before f it assimikites to i t ; e is used before
all the other eonsonants, except in exlex. W e, therefore, should
write exspecto, exsüium, exstinguo, but the ancient grammarians,
as Quintilian and Priscian, are for throwing out the s, and in
MSS. wc usually find extinguo, extruxi, exequor, and expecto,
exvl, exitium, notwithstandmg the ambiguity which sometimes
may arise. Its meaning “ out of ” or “ from,” appears in ejido,
emineo, enáto, eripio, effero (extülí), excello, expono, exquiro, ex-
trako, exaudió, exigo, exulcero, &c. The idea of completion is
iinplied in several of these compounds, as in ejjficio. enarro, exoro.
[§ 328.] In is changed into im, before b and p and another
m, and it is assimilated to l and r. Its meaning is “ in” or
“ into,” as in incurro, impono, Mido, irrumpo. Wlien prefixed
to adjectives and partieiples, which have the signification of
adjectives, it has a negative power, and does not appear to be
the preposition in, but equivalen t to and identieal with our in or
un, e. g. indo et us, incautus, ineptus (from aplus), iiisipiens, im-
providus, imprudens¡ imparatus, the negative of paraius, because
there is no verb imparo. Some other compounds of this kind
have a double meaning, since they may be either negative adjec­
tives, or partieiples of a compound verb : e. g. indictus, unsaid,
or announced; infractus, unbroken or broten in to; invocahts,
uninvited, or accosted, called in. The participle perf. passive,
when compounded with in, often acquirea the signification of
impossibility : e. g. invictus, unconquered and unconquerable;
íWe/éssMs/indefatigable; infinitus, immeasurable.
Prae remains unchanged, but is shortened when a vowel fol­
lows. (See above, § lo .) Its meaning is “ before,” as in praefero,
praecipio, praeripio. When prefixed to adjectives, it strengthens
tlieir meaning. (See § 107.)
Pro remains unchanged, but in many words it is shortened
even before eonsonants. (See above, § 22.) For the purpose
of avoiding hiatus, a d is inserted in prodco, prodigo, and in those
forms o f the verb prosiim in which the initial e would cause
s 2

hiatus, as prodes, prodest, proderam. (See above, § 156.) Its

meaning, “ forth” or “ forward,” appears in profero, procurro,
prndeo, p?1ojia'o, prospicio.
[§ 329.] Sub remains unchanged before vowels (but sumo
seems to be formed from subimo, as demo and promo are formed
from the same root), but undergoes assknüation before c, f ,
g, 7ii, p ; not always before r, for we have surripio and yet
subrideo, where however the difference in meaning is to be
taken into acconnt. In susoipio, suscito, suspendo, sustimo,
and the perfect sustuli, an s is inserted instead of the b,
whence an ancient form subs is snpposed to have existed, ana-
logous to abs and obs. The b is dropped before sp, but before
se and st it is retained. Its meaning is (Cunder,” as in sum-
mitío, suppono, sustineo ; or “ from under,” as in mbduco, sum-
moveo, surripio ; an approach from below, is expressed in subeo,
succcdo, auspicio, look up to, esteem; and to do a thing instead
of another person, in subsortior. It weakens the meaning in
such verbs as subrideo, subvercor, and in adjeetives^ such as sub-
absurdus, subtristis, subrusticus, subobscurus.
Super, í£ above,” as in superimpono, supersto, supersedeo, set
myself above, or omit.
Subter, “ from under,” as in subterfugio.
Corn for cum appears in this form only before b, p , m ; before
l, n, r, the final m is assimilated to these letters, and before all
other consonants it is changed into n. Before vowels the m Is
dropped, e. g. coeo, cohaereo, and in addition to this a contrac­
tion takes place in cogo and cogito (from coago, coagito). The
m ís retained only in a few words, as comes, comitium, comitor,
comedo. It signifies “ with” or (£ together,” as in conjungo, con-
sero, compono, collido, colligo, corvado, coeo, cocdesco, cohaereo.
In some verbs and participlea it merely strengthens the mean-
iñg, as corrumpo, concerpo, confringo, consceleratus.
[§ 330.] Note. W e must not leave unnoticed here what are called the
inseparable prepositions (among which con is reckoned, ¿lthoug'h. it Ís only
a different pronunciation for cum) ; that is, some little words, which are
never used by thernselves, bufc occur only in compound verbs and adjeetives.
■where they íuodify tlie meaning in the same way a3 the above-mentioned
separable prepositions. The following is a list o f them :
Amb (from the Greek á ^ f), “ around,” “ about,” as in ambio, amlüro (am-
hmíus),-ambigo, ambiguua. In amplector, amputo, the b is dropped on account
oí' the p ; before palatals amb is changed into an; e. g. anceps, amparo, and
also before _/, in the word avfractus.

Dis or di, denoting separation, as in digero, dirimo, dijudico, dispono, dts-

sero, distingue, dimitto (to be distinguíshed from demitto). It strengthens the
meaning in discupio. Before c, p, q, t, dis is retained entire; before j s we
Bometimes have dis, as in disjício, disjungo ; and sometimes di, as in dijudico.
Before s, witli a consonant after it, di is used, and dis when the s after it ís
followed by a vow el: disperso, disto, dissocio, dis-sitadeo; disertas, how­
ever, is formed from dissero. Before f , dis is changed into dif, as in differo.
D i ia used before all other eonsonants.
Re signifies “ back rpmitto, rejicio, revertor. Before a voivcl or an h, a
d ia inserted : redeo, redigo, redhibeo: this is ncglected only in compounds
formed by late and un class ical writers ; e. g. reaedifico-, reagem. The d in
reddo, I give back, is o f a different kind, Tte denotes separation in resalvo,
revello, retego, recingo, rectudo, refringo, reseco; and in relego, rebibo, and
others, it denotes repetition.
Se, “ aside," “ on one side” : scduco, sevoco,secadio, sepono, sejungo. In adjec­
tives it signiíies “ w i t h o u t securvs, sobrius for sebrius (non ebrius), socors
for secóos. Seorsum is contracted from sevormm, aside. A d is inserted in
seditio, separation, sedilion, from se and itio.
Tbe preflxes ne and ve are o f a so mewhat different nature: ne has ne­
gative power, as in nefas, nemo (lie henio, obsolete for homo) > nescio. Ve 33
likewise negative, but occurs iti a much smaller number o f words, viz. in
vemnus and vecors (vecordia), senseless. In vegrandis and vepallidus, it
seems to denote ugliness.



[§ 33i.] 1. C o n j u n c t i o n s are those indeclinable parta o f

speech which express the relations iu which sentences stand
to one another. They therefore are, as it were, the links of
propositions, whence their ñame conjunctions.
Note 1. Some conjunctions, and more particularly all those which form
the first class in our división, connect not only eentences, but single
words. This, however, is in realíty the case only when two propositions
are contracted into one, or when one is omitted, as in Alars sive Mavors
beüis praesidet: tere sive Mavors is to be explained by the omission
o f sive is Mavors appellandus est, which phrase is, in fací, not nnfrequently
used, The propositions vive din ac feliciter and ratio et oratio fumines
conjungit, again may be divided each into two propositions joined by the
conjunctions vive diu et vive feliciter and ratio conjungit JwmÍ7Íes et oratio
conjungit homines. The practice o f language, however, did not stop short in
this contraction, but as we may say ratio et oratio conjungunt homines, and as
we must say pater et filius dormiunt, the language, by the plural o f the pre-
s 3
262 L A T IN GltAMMAE.

dicato, clcarly indicates that the two nontis are united. Henee we may
say, that the (copulativo) conjunctions fít, que, ac, anel ah¡ue joín singla words
also. With regard to the other, especially the disjunctíve conjunctions (for
there can be no doubt about the conjunction “ also,") we must have recourse
to the above explana tion, that two propositions are contracted into one, for
i n. ego uui tu vincamus neccsse est, the nos, which comprehends the two
persons, is the subject o f vincamws, and not ego avi tu.
Note 2 , Many o f the conjunctions to be mentioned prcsently orígi-
nally belonged to othei’ parts o f speech; but they have lost their real sig­
nification, and as they serve to joiti propositions, they may at once be looked
upon as coujunetions; e, g. ccterum, verum,'vero, licet, quamvis, and such
compounds as quare, idcirco, quamobrem. But there are also many adverbs
denoting tirriQ and place, respecting whicli it is doubtful, whether in conse-
quence of the mode o f their application in language, they should not be
classed among conjunctions. Those denoting time (C. g- deinda, denique, pos-
tremum) retain, indeed, their original signification, l>ut when they are doubled,
as tum— han, nunc— nunc, modo— modo, they cvideivtiy serve only to con-
nccfc propositions; the adverbs o f place, on the other haud, are justly classed
among the conjunctions when they drop their meaning of place and express a
eonnection o f propositions in respect o f time, or the relation of cause and
cffect, as is the case with vbi, ibi, and inde, and with eo and quando.

2. In regard to their form (figuráis they are either simple or

compound. O f the former kind are, e. g. et, ac, at, sed, nam ; find
of the latter atque, itaque, attaman, siquidem, enimvéro, verum-
3. In reference to their signification, they may he divided into
the following classes. They denote:
[§ 332.^ 1. A imion (conjunctiones copulativae), as et, ac,
atque, and the enclitic que, combined with the negation belonging
to the verb, ñeque or nec, or doubled so as to become an affirma-
tive, nec (ñeque) non, cquivalent to et Etiam and quoque also
belong to this class, together with the adverbial ítem and itidem.
A s these particles unite things which are of a kind, so the dis-
junctive conjunctions, signifying “ or,” conneet things, which are
distinct from each other. They are aut, vel, the suffix ve, and
sim or sen.
Note. A e is never used before vowels (which, however, do not includej)
ot before an J i j atque occurs most frequently before vowels, but before
consonants also. Henee the two forms ín the same sentence of Cicero
p. Jjalli. 3.: non contra ae Uceret, sed contra atqae oporteret, and it is pro­
bable that in prose as well as in poetry the hiatus was avoided by elisión.
The rule here given ís not invalidated by the ñwt o f ae, being found here
and there before vowels, in editions o f Latin authors, as is the case, for
example, in two passages o f Ernesti’s edition o f Cicero, ad Quint. Frat. ii. 6 ,,
aud ad Alt. xiii. 48. l'or aa this diñbreuce in the use of ac aud atque was uot

noticcd tíll reoently* (in the schools of the D utdi philologers, Üurmann and
Drakenboreh), and as tlie MSS. have not yet been collated in all cases of
this kind, such isoiated remnants of former earelessness cannot be taken
into account. Drakenborcli (on Liv. x. 36. in fin.) observes, that where,-
ever, before liis time, tic ivas found in Livy before vowels, the MSS.
give either atque, aut, at, or something else, and that even those pas­
sages, in which he retained it, such as iii. 16., ao emergentilms malta,
should be corrected. W e cannot, however, entur into -the question, why
ar, was not used before a vowel, while nec and ñeque are used indis-
criminately both beíbre vowels and eonsonants. One languoge avoids a
sound as displeasiug, which in another produces no sucli eflect; suffice it
to say, that the fact itself is beyond all doubt, Another rciuark, however,
which is madtí by many Grammarians, that ac is not used by good writers
before c and q, is unfounded, at least ac before con is frequent in Cicero,
and other authors do not even scruple to use ao before ca, which is otlier-
wise, and with justice, cctnsidered not euphonious.
[§ 333.) The difference between et and que. is correctly described by
Hermann in Elmsley's ed. o f the Medea, p. S31., ed. Lips. ín these
words : “ et (icaí) is a copulative particle, and que (rt) is an adjunc-
tive ono.” In other words, ct connects things which are conceived as
different, and que adds what belongs to, or naturally flows from, things. In
an enumeration of words, therefore, que. frequently forms the conclusión of
the series; e. g. Cicero says: hi, qui solts et lunae reliqiwnimque sidenan orius,
abitas iiwiusqtie cognorunt; and by means o f que he extendí the preceding
idea, without connecting with it any thing which is generically different, as iu :
da illa c,ivitale, tofaque provincia optime incritus; Dolabella (pilque ejus facinoris
miuislri fucrunl; jus potestatemque habere; Pompcjus pro patris majorumque
suoruvi animo studioque in rempublicam miaqua prístina mrtide fecit. In con-
necting propositions with one another, it denotes a consequence or resulfc,
and is equivalen! to “ and therefore,” wliieh explains its peculiarly frequent
application in senatusconmlta (which ave undoubtedly the most valid docu-
ments in determining the genuine usage o f the Latín language), framed as
they wcrc to prevent different points being mlxed up in one enacíment.
E. g. in Cic. Philip, ix. 7.: Quum Ser, Sidpicius sedutem reip. vüae sime prae-
pusueril, cordraque vim gmvitatemqua morbí contcnderit, ut—peroeniret, isque
vítani amixerit, ejtinque ruors consentanca vitac fu e r it: quum talis vir mvrlem
ohicrit, smwtui placero, Ser. Sidpicio statuam aeneam— slatui, circumcpie eam
lueu.rn. liberos posterosque. ejus— habere, eamque causam in basi inscribí, itíiqm
Voss.—locent, quantiqiie locaverhit, taníam pecuniam— uüribuemlam solvembim-
qae curcnt.
Atqne is formed from ud and que, and therefore properly signifies “ and in

* Or, we should rather say, was not noticed again, for the observation waa
first made in a brief but unequivocal manner by Gabriel Faeinus, in his
note on Cic. pro Flaco. 3. in fin. ed. Rom. 1563,; but it was disregarded. It
is still more remarkabie, that none o f the ancient grammarians, tíiough they
carefully natice other phenomcua of a similar kind, have thought it necessary
to draw attention to this eircumstance, which is by no means unimportant.
The passages in lírnesti’s editíon of Cicero, above referred to, have been
corrected in Orelli’s edition.
s 4
264 L A T IN G RAM M Alí.

addition,” “ and also,” tlms putting things on an equality, but at the same
time Iaying stress apon the eonnection. W e express this by pronouneing
“ and” more eruplmtically than usual. For example, socii et externe naílones
siraply indicates tbe combination o f two things independent o f eacb other;
but in socii atque exterae nationes the latter part is more emphatic, “ and also
the foreign," &c. In the beginning o f a proposition which further explains
that which pracedes, and where the simple eonnection is insuflieient, tbe par­
tióles atque and ac introduce a thing witli great weight, and may be r en dered
in English by “ n o w e . g. atqae haec qnidem inca sententia est; atque—de ipsis
Syraeusanis cognoscite; also in answers: cognostine hos versus? A e memoriter.
Num hic duae BaccMdes kabitaut f Atque ambae sorores, i. e, yes, and that,
&c. A c is the same as atque, but being an abridged form it loses somewhat
o f its power in conneeting single w ords; but it retains that power which puts
the things connected by it on an equality, and its use alternates with that o f
et; it is preferred in subdivisions, whereas the main propositions are con­
nected by et; e. g. Cic. in Verr. \. 15.: Cur tibi fasces aa secares, et tmúnm
vim imperii tantaque ornamenta data censes f Divin. 12.: Difficile est tantam
causam et diligenlia conseguí, et memoria complecti, et oratione expromere, ct
voce ac viribus xustinere.
[§ 33i.] Ñeque is formed from the ancient negative partióle and que. nnd
is used for et non. E t non itself is used, when the whole proposition is
afSrmative and only one idea or one word in it is to be n