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04.

Sejam as somas 𝑆0 e 𝑆1 definidas por:

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
𝑆0 = ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ + (3[𝑛⁄3])
0 3 6
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
𝑆1 = ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ + (3[𝑛 − 1⁄3] + 1)
1 4 7
onde [𝑟] representa o maior inteiro menor ou igual a r. Calcule 𝑆0 e 𝑆1 em função de n.
Solução
Seja:
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
(1 + 𝑥)𝑛 = ( ) + ( ) 𝑥 + ( ) 𝑥 2 + ( ) 𝑥 3 + ⋯ + ( ) 𝑥 𝑛
0 1 2 3 𝑛
2𝜋
Façamos 𝑥 = 𝑤 = cis ( 3 ). Temos que:

𝑥3 = 𝑥0 𝑥4 = 𝑥 𝑥5 = 𝑥 𝑥6 = 𝑥0 𝑥7 = 𝑥 𝑥8 = 𝑥2 ⋯

1 √3 1 √3
𝑥0 = 1 𝑥=− + 𝑖 𝑥2 = − − 𝑖
2 2 2 2
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
(1 + 𝑤)𝑛 = {( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } + {( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } 𝑤 2 +
0 3 6 1 4 7
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
+ {( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } 𝑤 3
2 5 8
Logo,
𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛
(1 + 𝑤)𝑛 = ( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ +
0 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5
√3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
+𝑖 {( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ }
2 1 2 4 5 7 8
Como:
2𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
1 + cis ( ) = 2 cos ( ) cis ( )
3 3 3
2𝜋 𝑛 𝜋 𝜋 𝑛 nπ
∴ {1 + cis ( )} = {2 cos ( ) cis ( )} = cis ( )
3 3 3 3
Portanto,
𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ = cos ( )
0 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 3
√3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
{ 2 1{( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ } = sin ( )
2 4 5 7 8 3
Para a primeira soma, temos que:
𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ = cos ( )
0 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 3
{
1 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛
( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ = 2𝑛−1
2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5
3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
{( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = 2𝑛−1 + cos ( )
2 0 3 6 9 3
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 2𝑛 2 𝑛𝜋
∴ ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ = 𝑆0 = + cos ( )
0 3 6 9 3 3 3
Assim, temos que:
𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛 1 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ = cos ( )
0 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 3
1 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
𝑆1 − {( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = cos ( )
2 1 2 4 5 3
1 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 2𝑛 1 𝑛𝜋
{( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = − cos ( )
2 1 2 4 5 3 3 3
√3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 2𝑛 √3 𝑛𝜋
{( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = √3 − cos ( )
2 1 2 4 5 3 3 3
Agora, temos as equações:

√3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 2𝑛 √3 𝑛𝜋
{( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = √3 − cos ( )
2 1 2 4 5 3 3 3
√3 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛𝜋
{( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ⋯ } = sin ( )
{2 1 2 4 5 7 8 3
Somando as duas expressões,

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 2𝑛 √3 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋
√3 {( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ⋯ } = √3 − cos ( ) + sin ( )
1 4 7 3 3 3 3
2𝑛 √3 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋
3 √3 − 3 cos ( 3 ) + sin ( 3 ) 2𝑛 − cos ( 3 ) + √3 sin ( 3 )
𝑆2 = =
√3 3