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Production of WBC – Vitamin K

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE 6. What is the importance of consuming

1. In a healthy person, after a large meal, an adequate amount of proteins in the
the production of ___ will increase.
After fasting the production of ___ will A. They are most commonly used to
increase. meet energy demands of cells
A. Trypsin, trypsinogen B. Proteins serve a variety of
B. Glucagon, glucose functions, and the body does not
C. Glucagon, pepsinogen store excess quantities of proteins
D. Insulin, glucagon C. They are used as cofactors for
2. In a well-fed human eating a Western metabolic reactions and are
diet, the richest source of stored required in minute quantities
chemical energy in the body is D. Proteins are necessary to produce
A. Fat in adipose tissue urea and other important
B. Glucose in the blood metabolites
C. Protein in muscle cells 7. An advantage of a complete digestive
D. Glycogen in muscle cells system over a gastrovascular cavity is
3. Animals that migrate great distances that the complete system
would obtain the greatest energetic A. Excludes the need for extracellular
benefits of storing chemical energy as digestion
A. Proteins B. Allows for specialized regions with
B. Minerals specialized functions
C. Carbohydrates C. Allows extensive branching
D. Fats D. Facilitates intracellular digestion
4. Certain nutrients are considered 8. Because the foods eaten by animals are
“essential” in the diets of some animals
often composed largely of
because macromolecules, animals need to have
A. Only those animals use those mechanisms for
nutrients A. Dehydration synthesis
B. These animals are not able to B. Enzymatic hydrolysis
synthesize these nutrients C. Regurgitation
C. The nutrients are necessary D. Demineralization
coenzymes 9. Fat digestion yields fatty acids and
D. Only certain foods contain them glycerol, whereas protein digestion
5. Which pair correctly associates a yields amino acids; both digestive
physiological process with the processes
appropriate vitamin A. Are catalyzed by the same enzyme
A. Blood clotting – Vitamin C B. Use H20 molecule when breaking
B. Normal Vision – Vitamin A bonds (hydrolysis)
C. Synthesis of cell membrane – C. Require the presence of HCl to
Vitamin D lower the pH
D. Require ATP as an energy source digesting activities in the stomach by
10. The function of mechanical digestion is having
to break down large chunks of food into A. A sufficient colony of H. pylori
smaller pieces. Why is this important? B. A thick, mucous secretion and
Smaller pieces of food active mitosis of epithelial cells
A. Do not taste as good as larger C. A high level of secretion of enzymes
pieces of food by chief cells
B. Have more surface area for D. A cell wall impermeable to acid
chemical digestion than do larger 15. Villi and microvilli in the small intestine
pieces of food A. Neutralize stomach acid
C. Are easier to excrete than are larger B. Activate trypsinogen
pieces of food C. Increase the surface area to
D. Are more easily stored in the increase the efficiency of nutrient
stomach than are larger pieces of absorption
food D. Emulsify lipid molecules
11. The larger surface area in the gut 16. The secretions of the parietal cells
directly facilitates A. Initiate the chemical digestion of
A. Secretion protein in the stomach
B. Absorption B. Initiate the mechanical digestion of
C. Filtration lipids in the stomach
D. Temperature regulation C. Initiate the chemical digestion of
12. Peristalsis is lipids in the stomach
A. A process of fat emulsification in D. Delay digestion until the food
the small intestine arrives in the small intestine
B. Voluntary control of the rectal 17. The bile salts
sphincters regulating defecation A. Are enzymes
C. The transport of nutrients to the B. Are manufactured by the pancreas
liver through hepatic portal vessel C. Emulsify fats in the duodenum
D. Smooth muscle contractions that D. Are normally an ingredient of
move food along the esophagus gastric juice
13. Among mammals, it is generally true 18. After surgical removal of an infected
that gallbladder, a person must be especially
A. All types of foods begin their careful to restrict dietary intake of
enzymatic digestion in the mouth A. Protein
B. After leaving the oral cavity, the B. Sugar
bolus enters the larynx C. Fat
C. The epiglottis prevents swallowed D. Water
food from entering the trachea 19. Obesity in humans is most clearly linked
D. The trachea leads to the esophagus to
and then to the stomach A. Diabetes and prostate cancer
14. Stomach cells are moderately well B. Diabetes and muscle hypertrophy
adapted to the acidity and protein- C. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease
D. Diabetes and decreased appetite A. Only its target cells get exposed to
20. Food being digested in the stomach is in aldosterone
a highly acidic environment. When the B. Only its target cells contain
food is released from the stomach into aldosterone receptors
the small intestine, why is the C. It is unable to enter non-target cells
environment no longer acidic? D. Non-target cells destroy
A. Secretion increases the flow of aldosterone before it can produce
bicarbonate ions from the pancreas any effect
into the small intestine to neutralize 24. You are dissecting a fish in your biology
the stomach acid laboratory section. Your teaching
B. Enterokinase activates trypsinogen, assistant points out a long oval
thus neutralizing the stomach acid structure and tells you it is an endocrine
C. Bile salts from the gallbladder gland. Which of the following would
neutralize the stomach acid you then know is a true statement?
D. When pepsinogen activates pepsin, A. It secretes a product that is
one result is the neutralization of released through a series of ducts
stomach acid in the stomach B. The gland’s products will only
21. If there is a strong genetic link for interact with receptors on the cell
diabetes mellitus in your family, how membrane
might you minimize your risk of C. The gland’s product is lipid soluble
developing the disorder D. The gland produces and secretes its
A. Monitor your blood glucose levels product into the blood
daily 25. In experiments where researchers
B. Take oral insulin daily suspect that a hormone may be
C. Maintain a healthy weight, eat a responsible for a certain physiological
balanced diet, and exercise effect, they may cut the neurons
D. Eat complex carbohydrates like leading to the organ where the effect
starch instead of sweets being studied occurs. What is the
22. When digestion and absorption of purpose of cutting these neurons?
organic carbohydrates results in more A. To make sure that the effect is not
energy-rich molecules than are occurring through actions in the
immediately required by an animal, the nervous system
excess is B. To make sure that the organ being
A. Eliminated in the feces affected cannot function unless
B. Stored as starch in the liver researchers stimulate it with an
C. Stored as glycogen in the liver and external electrical probe
muscles C. To impair the normal functions of
D. Oxidized and converted to ATP the organ so that the hormonal
23. The reason that the steroid hormone effect can be more easily studied
aldosterone affects only a small number D. To numb the organ so that it can be
of cells in the body is that probed without inducing pain in the
lab animal
26. Different body cells can respond 30. What property of steroid hormones
differently to the same peptide allows them to cross the phospholipid
hormones because bilayer?
A. Different target cells have different A. Steroid hormones are lipid soluble
set of genes and easily cross the phospholipid
B. A target cell’s response is bilayer
determined by the components of B. Steroid hormones can act in very
its signal transduction pathways small concentrations and very few
C. The circulatory system regulates molecules of steroids need to cross
responses to hormones by routing the lipid bilayer
the hormones to specific targets C. Steroid hormones act on cells close
D. The hormone is chemically altered to where they are produced and
in different ways as it travels very few molecules are required to
through the circulatory system travel such short distance to cross
27. Growth factors are local regulators that the lipid bilayer
A. Are modified fatty acids that 31. During mammalian labor and delivery,
stimulate bone and cartilage the contraction of uterine muscles is
growth enhanced by oxytocin. This is an
B. Are found on the surface of cancer example of
cells and stimulate abnormal cell A. A negative feedback system
division B. A hormone hat acts in an
C. Bind to cell-surface receptors and antagonistic way with another
stimulate growth and development hormone
of target cells C. A hormone that is involved in a
D. Convey messages between cells positive feedback loop
28. Steroid and peptide hormones typically D. Signal transduction immediately
have in common changing gene expression in its
A. The building blocks from which they target cells
are synthesized 32. Analysis of a blood sample from a
B. Their solubility in cell membranes fasting individual who had not eaten for
C. Their requirement for travel 24 hours would be expected to reveal
through the bloodstream high levels of
D. Their reliance on signal A. Insulin
transduction in the cell B. Glucagon
29. Which of the following are similar in C. Gastrin
structure to cholesterol? D. Glucose
A. Leptin and serotonin 33. When the beta cells of the pancreas
B. Luteinizing hormone and insulin release insulin into the blood
C. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone A. The skeletal muscles and the
and vasopressin adipose cells take up glucose at a
D. Testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol faster rate
B. The liver catabolizes glycogen
C. The alpha cells of the pancreas C. Follicle-stimulating hormone and
release glucose into the blood luteinizing hormone
D. The kidneys begin gluconeogenesis D. Luteinizing hormone and oxytocin
34. An example of antagonistic hormones 39. The body’s reaction to parathyroid
controlling homeostasis is hormone, raising plasma levels of
A. Thyroxine and parathyroid calcium, can be opposed by
hormone in calcium balance A. Thyroxine
B. Insulin and glucagon in glucose B. Epinephrine
metabolism C. Growth hormone
C. Progestin and estrogens in sexual D. Calcitonin
differentiation 40. Which of the following is the most likely
35. Hormones secreted by the posterior explanation for hypothyroidism in a
pituary gland are made in the patient whose iodine level is normal?
A. Cerebellum A. Greater production of T3 and T4
B. Thalamus B. Hypo secretion of thyroid
C. Hypothalamus stimulating hormone
D. Medulla oblongata C. Hypersecretion of thyroid
36. The interrelationship between the stimulating hormone
endocrine and the nervous systems are D. A decrease in the thyroid secretion
especially apparent in a of calcitonin
A. Steroid-producing cell in the 41. When a person drinks alcohol, the rate
adrenal cortex of urination increases. Which of the
B. Neurosecretory cell in the following best accounts for the increase
hypothalamus in urination?
C. Brain cell in the cerebral cortex A. Alcohol stimulates the release of
D. Cell in the pancreas that produces ADH
digestive enzymes B. Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH
37. If a person loses a large amount of C. Alcohol inhibits the binding of ADH
water in a short period of time, he or to receptors in the nephron
she may die from dehydration. D. Alcohol could inhibit ADH release of
Antidiuretic hormone can help reduce the binding of ADH receptors in the
water loss through its interaction with nephron
its target cells in the 42. Removing which of the following glands
A. Anterior pituitary would have the most wide-reaching
B. Posterior pituitary effect on bodily functions?
C. Bladder A. Adrenal glands
D. Kidney B. Pituitary gland
38. In a lactating mammal, the two C. Thyroid gland
hormones that promote milk synthesis D. Ovaries and testes
and milk release, respectively, are 43. Glucocorticoids do which of the
A. Prolactin and calcitonin following
B. Prolactin and oxytocin A. Promotes the immune response
B. Promote the release of fatty acids D. Take in electrolyte through simple
C. Increase blood glucose levels diffusion
D. Increase insulin production 49. A necropsy of a marine sea star that
44. Fight-or-flight reactions include died after it was mistakenly placed in
activation of the freshwater would likely show that it
A. Parathyroid lands, leading to died because
increased metabolic rate A. It was stressed and needed more
B. Anterior pituitary gland, leading to time to acclimate to the new
the cessation of gonadal functions conditions
C. Adrenal medulla, leading to B. It was so hypertonic to the
increased secretion of epinephrine freshwater that it could not
D. Pancreas, leading to a reduction in osmoregulate
the blood sugar concentration C. Its contractile vacuoles ruptured
45. A disease that destroys the adrenal D. Its cell dehydrated and lost the
cortex should lead to an increase in the ability to metabolize
plasma levels of 50. The body fluids of an osmoconformer
A. Glucocorticoid hormone would be ___ with its ___ environment
B. Epinephrine A. Isosmotic, freshwater
C. Adrenocorticotropic hormone B. Hyperosmotic, saltwater
D. Acetylcholine C. Isosmotic, saltwater
46. In response to stress, the adrenal gland D. Hypoosmotic, saltwater
promotes the synthesis of glucose from 51. A human who has no access to fresh
non-carbohydrate substrates via the water but is forced to drink seawater
action of the steroid hormone instead will
A. Glucagon A. Thrive under such conditions, as
B. Cortisol long as he lived at the ocean most
C. Thyroxine of his life
D. ACTH B. Excrete more water molecules than
47. The force driving simple diffusion is ___, taken in, because of the high load
while the energy source for active of ion digestion
transport is ___. C. Develop structural changes In the
A. The concentration gradient, ADP kidneys to accommodate the salt
B. The concentration gradient, ATP overload
C. Transmembrane pumps, electron 52. Urea is produced in the
transport A. Liver from NH3 and CO2
D. Phosphorylated protein carries, ATP B. Liver from glycogen
48. To maintain homeostasis, freshwater C. Kidneys from glycerol and fatty
fish must acids
A. Excrete large quantities of D. Bladder from uric acid and water
electrolytes 53. Urea is
B. Consume large quantities of water A. Insoluble in water
C. Excrete large quantities of water
B. The primary nitrogenous waste 58. Birds secrete uric acid as their
product of humans nitrogenous waste because uric acid
C. The primary nitrogenous waste A. Is readily soluble in water
product of most birds B. Is metabolically less expensive to
D. The primary nitrogenous waste synthesize than other excretory
product of most aquatic products
invertebrates C. Requires little water for
54. Excessive formation of uric acid crystals nitrogenous waste disposal, thus
in humans leads to reducing body mass
A. Diabetes, where excessive urine D. Can be reused by birds as a protein
formation occurs source
B. Insatiable thirst and excessive urine 59. Which accurately describes selectively
formation permeability?
C. Gout, a painful inflammatory A. An input of energy is required for
disease that primarily affects the transport
joints B. Lipid-soluble molecules pass
D. Osteoarthritis, an inevitable through a membrane
consequence of aging C. There must be a concentration
55. Ammonia gradient for molecules to pass
A. Is insoluble in water through a membrane
B. Has low toxicity relative to urea D. Only certain molecules can cross a
C. Its metabolically more expensive to cell membrane
synthesize than urea 60. Why are the renal artery and vein
D. It’s the major nitrogenous waste critical to the process of
excreted by insects osmoregulation in vertebrates?
56. The advantage of excreting nitrogenous A. The kidneys require constant and
wastes as urea rather than ammonia is abnormally high oxygen supply to
that function
A. Urea can be exchanged for sodium B. The renal artery delivers blood and
ions nitrogenous waste to the kidneys
B. Urea is less toxic than ammonia and the renal vein
C. Urea does not affect the osmolar C. The kidneys require higher than
gradient normal levels of hormones
D. Less nitrogen is removed from the D. The renal artery and vein are the
body main pathways regulating how
57. In animals, nitrogenous wastes are much is produced by the kidneys
produced mostly from the catabolism of 61. The transfer of fluid from the
A. Starch and cellulose glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule
B. Triglycerides and steroids A. Results from active transport
C. Proteins and nucleic acids B. Transfer large molecules as easily as
D. Phospholipids and glycolipids small ones
C. Is very selective as to which C. Diffusion area from the collecting
subprotein-sized molecules are dust
transformed D. Diffusion of salt from the
D. Is mainly a consequence of blood descending limb of the loop of
pressure in the capillaries of the Henle
glomerulus 66. Increased ADH secretion is likely after
62. Which process in the nephron is least A. Drinking lots of pure water
selective B. Sweating-induced dehydration
A. Filtration increases plasma osmolarity
B. Reabsorption C. Eating a small sugary snack
C. Active transport D. Blood pressure becomes
D. Secretion abnormally high
63. What is the function of the osmotic 67. After blood flow is artificially reduced at
gradient found in the kidney? The one kidney, you would expect that
osmotic gradient allows for kidney to excrete more of the hormone
A. Electrolytes to move from low to known as
high concentrations in the absence A. Angiotensinogen
of ATP B. Renin
B. The precise control of the retention C. ADH
of water and electrolytes D. Atrial natriuretic peptide
C. The loop of Henle to deliver water 68. Food processing occurs in stages. What
to the renal vein is the correct order?
D. The filtration of large cells at the A. Ingestion, digestion, absorption,
glomerulus elimination
64. Processing of filtrate in the proximal B. Absorption, digestion, elimination
and distal tubules C. Ingestion, absorption, digestion,
A. Achieves the conversion of toxic elimination
ammonia to less toxic urea D. Ingestion, absorption, digestion
B. Maintains homeostasis of pH in E. None of the above
body fluids 69. Digestion begins in the oral cavity.
C. Regulates the speed of blood flow Which statement does not describe the
through the nephrons processes taking place?
D. Reabsorbs urea to maintain osmotic A. The teeth break up food
balance B. Saliva moistens it for easier
65. The high osmolarity of the renal swallowing
medulla is maintained by all of the C. An enzyme in saliva begins the
following EXCEPT hydrolysis of starch
A. Active transport of salt from the D. The tongue pushes the bolus of
upper region of the ascending limb food into the pharynx
B. The spatial arrangement of E. None of the above
juxtamedullary nephrons 70. During diastole
A. The heart contracts
B. The heart relaxes C. To vibrate when air is exhaled to
C. The atria contracts produce sounds
D. The ventricles contract D. To dislodge food that may have
E. None of the above slipped past the epiglottis
71. Heart attacks may be due to E. To sweep mucus with trapped
A. Smoking particles up and out of the
B. Atherosclerosis respiratory tract
C. Cholesterol 76. Smoking is a serious assault on the
D. Stress respiratory system causing the
E. Al of the above following, except
72. Arteries are connected to veins via A. Lung cancer
A. Arterioles B. Heart disease
B. Venules C. Chronic obstructive pulmonary
C. Capillaries disease (COPD)
D. Nerve cells D. Goiter
E. None of the above E. None of the above
73. Allow the transfer of substances 77. In general, these blood vessels carry
through their walls oxygen-poor blood
A. Arteries A. Arteries
B. Arterioles B. Veins
C. Capillaries C. Pulmonary vein
D. Veins D. Coronary artery
E. All of the above E. None of the above
74. Countercurrent exchange of gas in the 78. The heart pumps oxygen-poor blood to
gills of a fish the lungs via
A. Speeds up the flow of water A. Pulmonary artery
through the gills B. Pulmonary vein
B. Maintains a gradient that enhances C. Ventricles
diffusion D. Atria
C. Enables the fish to obtain oxygen E. None of the above
without swimming 79. Hemoglobin
D. Means that blood and water flow at A. Carries O2
different rates B. Helps transport CO2
E. Allow O2 to diffuse against its C. Buffers the blood
partial pressure gradient D. All of the above
75. What is the function of the cilia in the E. None of the above
trachea and bronchi? 80. Alveoli are so small that specialized
A. To sweep air into and out of the secretions are required to keep them
lungs from sticking shut from the surface
B. To increase surface area for gas tension of the moist environment.
exchange What are these called?
A. Mucus
B. Surfactants 87. All are part of the alimentary canal
C. Moist air except
D. Interstitial fluid A. Pharynx
E. None of the above B. Stomach
81. All are fat soluble vitamins, except C. Intestine
A. A D. Anus
B. C E. Rectum
C. D 88. Regulate the passage of food into and
D. E out of the stomach
E. K A. Satiety
82. In order to prevent birth defects, B. Hypothalamus
pregnant women are given Vitamin B9, C. Muscles
otherwise known as D. Sphincters
A. Retinol 89. Gastric juice
B. Riboflavin A. Kills all bacteria and all microbes
C. Ascorbic acid B. Breaks cells apart
D. Folic acid C. Protect proteins
E. None of the above D. All of the above
83. Circulatory system facilitates exchange E. None of the above
with all body tissues to 90. Water soluble hormones are
A. Exchange gases A. Carbohydrate-derived
B. Dispose waste products B. Lipid-derived
C. Acquire nutrients C. Amino acid-derived
D. All of the above D. Nucleic acid-derived
84. Generally returns blood to the heart
A. Capillaries II. TRUE/FALSE
B. Arteries 1. After glycogen stores are filled,
C. Veins excessive calories are stored as fat,
D. Bronchiole regardless of their original food source
85. When carbon dioxide is exchange for TRUE
oxygen, it is transported back to the 2. Carbohydrates and fats are normally
lungs as used as fuel before proteins are used
A. Carbon dioxide TRUE
B. Carbonic acid 3. The small intestine is the major organ of
C. Bicarbonate ion chemical digestion and nutrient
D. None of the above absorption F
86. Breaking down of food into molecules TRUE
involves two phases: 4. Negative pressure breathing ventilates
A. Mechanical and physical your lungs. The relaxation of the rib
B. Physical and chemical muscles diaphragm expands the chest
C. Chemical and mechanical cavity, reducing air pressure in the
D. None of the above alveoli and drawing air into the lungs
5. The circulatory systems facilitate
exchange with all body tissues
6. Pepsinogen, Na, and Cl are secreted
into the lumen of the stomach
7. It is not important for the internal sacs
of the lungs to be moist, as this disrupts
the exchange of gases
8. Villi are projection that move mucus
trapped with contaminants upward to
the pharynx
9. When the diaphragm contracts, it
moves upward, thus giving more room
for the air to expand
10. Saliva may act as a buffer to neutralize
stomach acid

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