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Reg. No.

Question Paper Code: 55333


Regulations 2008

Fourth Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC 2252 Communication Theory

( Common to PTEC 2252 Communication Theory for B.E.(Part -Time)
Third Semester ECE - Regulations 2009)

Time: Three Hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL Questions

Part A - (10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1. How many AM broadcast stations can be accommodated i n a 100 kHz bandwidth

if the highest frequency modulating a carrier i s 5 kHz?

2. What is meant by frequency translation?

3. How is the Narrow band FM converted into wideband FM?

4. What are the advantages of Ratio detector?

5. When i s a random process called deterministic?

6. Two resistors of 20 KΩ, 50 KΩ are at room temperature (290 K). For a bandwidth
of 100 KHz, calculate the thermal noise voltage generated by the two resistors in

7. Define threshold effect in AM receiver.

8. What is FM Threshold effect.

9. Calculate the Entropy of the Source with symbol probabilities 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1.

10. State Shannon’s channel capacity theorem, for a power and band limited channel.

Part B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) With necessary diagrams and expressions explain the generation and demod-
ulation of AM.
(8 + 8)


11. (b) (i) Compare the various amplitude modulation schemes. (6)
(ii) With neat block diagram, explain the transmitter and receiver section of
Frequency Division Multiplexing. (10)

12. (a) (i) Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform. Derive an expres-
sion for single tone frequency modulation.
(2 + 2 + 6)
(ii) Compare Narrowband and Wideband FM. (6)


12. (b) Write about the basic principles of FM detection and explain about Ratio
detector. (4 + 12)

13. (a) (i) When is a random process said to be Strict Sense Stationary (SSS), Wide
Sense Stationary (WSS) and Ergodic process?
(ii) State any five properties of autocorrelation function. (10)


13. (b) (i) Explain Narrowband noise. Show that a narrow band noise n(t) can be
represented in terms of its inphase and quadrature phase components. (8)
(ii) Thermal noise from a resistor is measured as 4 × 10−17 W at a tempera-
ture of 20◦ C for a given bandwidth. What will be the Noise power when
temperature is changed to 50◦ . (8)

14. (a) Obtain the expression for figure of merit of DSB-SC receiver using coherent
detection. (16)


14. (b) (i) Derive the figure of merit for FM Receiver. (10)
(ii) What i s the necessity of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used i n FM Sys-
tem? Explain pre-emphasis and de-emphasis with neat circuit. (6)

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15. (a) (i) Justify the need for an efficient source encoding process i n order to increase
the average transmitted information per bit, if the source emitted symbols
are not equally likely, with an example. Consider a discrete memoryless
source for your justification. (8)
(ii) Eight possible messages m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , m5 , m6 , m7 and m8 from a source
and their probabilities are given.
P (m1 ) = 0.5, P (m2 ) = 0.15, P (m3 ) = 0.15, P (m4 ) = 0.08, P (m5 ) =
0.08, P (m6 ) = 0.02, P (m7 ) = 0.01, and P (m8 ) = 0.01.
Construct the Shannon-Fano coding for each of these messages in order to
increase the average information per bit. Find the coding efficiency. (8)


15. (b) (i) State and explain Shannon’s theorems on channel capacity.
(ii) Define Mutual information. State any two properties. (4)

3 55333

Reg. No.

Question Paper Code: 21357

B.E./B.Tech.Degree Examinations, May/June 2013
Regulations 2008
Fourth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 2252 Communication Theory
( Common to PTEC 2252 Communication Theory for B.E.(Part -Time) Third
Semester ECE - Regulations 2009)

Time: Three Hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL Questions

Part A - (10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1. What are t he advantages o f converting the low frequency signal into high frequency signal ?

2. Compare Bandwidth and power requirement in terms of carrier power PC , for AM,DSB-SC and

3. Define the modulation index of FM.

4. What is the need for pre emphasis?

5. Define white noise

6. Define noise figure.

7. What is coherent system?

8. What is Carson’s rule ?

9. Define entropy and its properties.

10. Define mutual information and channel capacity.

Part B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Discuss on the frequency components present in a periodic and non
periodic signal? (4)


(ii) Derive the equation of an AM wave. Also draw the modulated AM wave for
various modulation index. (8)

(iii) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8 ampere when only the carrier is sent. The
current increases to 8.93 A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the
percentage modulation. (4)


11. (b) (i) Draw the VSB spectrum and explain the significance. (4)
(ii) How do you demodulate AM signal? Explain. (8)
(iii) A 1000 KHz carrier is simultaneously AM modulated with 300 Hz,
800Hz and 1.5KHz audio sine waves. What will be the frequencies
present in the output? (4)

12. (a) (i) Derive the mathematical representation of FM waves. (10)

(ii) When the modulating frequency in an FM system is 400Hz and the

modulating voltage is2.4V, the modulation index is 60. Calculate the
maximum deviation. What is the modulating index when the modulating
frequency is reduced to 250 Hz and the modulating voltage is
simultaneously raised to 3.2V? (6)


12. (b) (i) Explain the Armstrong method to generate FM signal. (10)
(ii) How is the phase and frequency modulation are related? Explain. (3)
(iii) Differentiate Narrowband and Wideband FM. (3)

13. (a) (i) Write notes on shot noise and thermal noise. (8)

(ii) Derive the relationship between noise figure and equivalent noise temperature. (8)


13. (b) (i) Explain the following terms mean, correlation, covariance ,
ergodicity. (10)
(ii) How do you represent narrowband noise? (6)

14. (a) (i) Draw the super heterodyne receiver and explain the operation of
each block. (10)
(ii) Derive the figure of merit for AM system for non coherent system, with
suitable assumptions. (6)


14. (b) (i) Derive t he figure of merit of a FM system. (10)
(ii) Explain FM threshold effect. . (6)
15. (a) (i) F i n d t h e H u f f m a n c o d i n g f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s
P={0.0625,0.25,0.125,0.125,0.25,0.125,0.0625} and the efficiency
of the code. (10)
(ii) State Shannon's theorem and explain. (6)


15. (b) (i) Consider the following binary sequence 11101001100010110100…

use the Lempel-Ziv algorithm to encode this sequence. Assume that the binary
symbols 0 and 1 are already in the codebook. (10)

(ii) A telephone network has a bandwidth of 3.4KHz. Calculate the

information capacity of the telephone channel for a signal-to-noise
ratio of 30dB. (3)
(iii) Calculate the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to support information
transmission through the telephone channel at the rate of 9600 bits/sec
with bandwidth of 9.6KHz . (3)