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Experimental Study of Self-Centering Shear Walls

with Horizontal Bottom Slits


Xilin Lu 1; Xiangliang Dang 2; Jiang Qian 3; Ying Zhou 4; and Huanjun Jiang 5

Abstract: This paper introduces a new design form for prestressed shear walls with horizontal bottom slits utilizing cast-in-place technology.
Horizontal slits are placed symmetrically at the wall-foundation interface of prestressed shear walls while the concrete in the middle of the
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wall width remains connected with the foundation. Furthermore, unbonded prestressed tendons inside the wall are adopted to provide
self-centering ability. Tests on prestressed self-centering shear walls with horizontal bottom slits under cyclic loading were conducted
to investigate their seismic performance. Test results were analyzed from the tests, and a comparison was made among traditional shear
wall and self-centering shear walls with horizontal bottom slits of different configurations. The experimental results indicate that the tested
cast-in-place shear walls exhibit excellent self-centering ability with the lateral load capacity similar to traditional shear walls. The quantity
and distribution range of the cracking in the walls were significantly reduced, to the advantage of damage reduction. The flexural/shear
deformations and the strains of the walls were limited to a very low level as the deformations were concentrated at the bottom of the shear
walls. According to the results of the tests, an analysis method was presented to calculate the flexural strength of the proposed shear walls.
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001673. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Author keywords: Self-centering; Shear walls; Prestressed; Cyclic tests; Concrete structures; Concrete and masonry structures.

Introduction Unbonded posttensioned precast walls with strength and initial


stiffness similar to monolithic cast-in-place reinforced concrete
Structures can be damaged under moderate and rare intense earth- walls can soften and undergo large nonlinear lateral displacements
quakes, which may further cause enormous economic loss, and with little damage. Erkmen and Schultz (2009) investigated the
the loss would be more severe if the structural damage is difficult effects of different tendon layouts, tendon end-anchorage configu-
to restore or even beyond repair. Current design approaches encour- rations, and external vertical load on the self-centering ability of
age structural inelastic response during rare but strong and intense unbonded precast concrete shear walls subjected to earthquake
earthquakes. As a consequence, flexural plastic hinges, which lead loading. The analytical study results indicate that with proper con-
to structural damage and residual displacements, would be formed figuration of end-anchorages for posttensioned tendons, the walls
in structures. possess self-centering ability even when the posttensioning force
To minimize structural damage and residual displacement after vanishes.
an earthquake, self-centering structural systems are developed. Hamid and Mander (2010) investigated the seismic performance
Previous studies have demonstrated the enhanced seismic perfor- of a full-scale superassemblage of precast hollow core wall units.
mance of self-centering shear walls. Kurama et al. (1999) described The superassemblage consisting of six 1.2 m wide prestressed
the behavior of unbonded posttensioned precast concrete walls hollow core units was tested under several different conditions.
under lateral load with an analytical wall model using fiber No structural damage occurred up to the 4% drift limit in the tests,
elements, and a relevant seismic design approach was proposed. and only minor nonstructural distress was observed at 3% drift.
Nagae et al. (2011) conducted shaking table tests of two full-scale,
1
Professor, State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil four-story buildings simultaneously on the NIED E-Defense shak-
Engineering, Tongji Univ., 1239 Siping Rd., Shanghai 200092, China. ing table. The two buildings were similar, with the same height and
E-mail: lxlst@tongji.edu.cn floor plan; one building utilized a conventional reinforced concrete
2
Ph.D. Candidate, Research Institute of Structural Engineering and
structural system with shear walls and moment frames, whereas the
Disaster Reduction, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji Univ., 1239
Siping Rd., Shanghai 200092, China (corresponding author). E-mail:
other was constructed with posttensioned members. The tests were
11dangxiangliang@tongji.edu.cn designed to assess current codes and recommendations and used to
3
Professor, State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil develop new analysis tools and design recommendations. Perez
Engineering, Tongji Univ., 1239 Siping Rd., Shanghai 200092, China. et al. (2013) conducted static tests on five large-scale unbonded
E-mail: jqian@tongji.edu.cn posttensioned (UPT) precast concrete walls with horizontal joints.
4
Professor, State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil The results demonstrated that the response of UPT precast concrete
Engineering, Tongji Univ., 1239 Siping Rd., Shanghai 200092, China. walls can be controlled by adjusting parameters such as the total
E-mail: yingzhou@tongji.edu.cn area of posttensioning steel and the level of prestressing. In addi-
5
Professor, State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil tion, the results showed that these walls can undergo nonlinear
Engineering, Tongji Univ., 1239 Siping Rd., Shanghai 200092, China.
lateral drifts without significant damage while maintaining their
E-mail: jhj73@tongji.edu.cn
Note. This manuscript was submitted on December 25, 2015; approved self-centering characteristics. Sritharan et al. (2015) developed a
on August 3, 2016; published online on September 26, 2016. Discussion system consisting of a precast wall with end columns (PreWEC).
period open until February 26, 2017; separate discussions must be sub- The wall and end columns in the system were anchored separately
mitted for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Structural to a foundation using unbonded posttensioning. It has been exper-
Engineering, © ASCE, ISSN 0733-9445. imentally verified that the PreWEC system can be designed

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Fig. 1. (Color) Schematic representation of self-centering wall with horizontal bottom slits: (a) elevation; (b) construction details

cost-effectively to have the damage minimized and provide self- joint, the tension deformation and strain of the wall panel was signifi-
centering capability, while the lateral load bearing capacity remains cantly reduced to protect the wall from being damaged. The prestressed
similar to that of a comparable reinforced concrete wall. steel tendons were used to provide extra vertical restoring load to
Several researchers conducted investigations on seismic perfor- achieve self-centering capacity by eliminating the residual strain of
mance of hybrid precast concrete walls (Holden et al. 2003; the reinforcements crossing the wall-foundation joint. The joint-
Restrepo and Rahman 2007; Smith et al. 2011). Hybrid precast crossing rebars in the shear wall could be used for energy dissipation,
concrete walls are posttensioned with unbonded tendons which and these rebars casting together with the concrete could also provide
provide the restoring force along with the gravity loading. A sep- additional dowel forces to prevent the slide of the shear wall panel.
aration gap forms at the wall-foundation connection when lateral While aspects of the seismic response of the proposed walls are
displacement occurs during an earthquake, and the gap closes when different from the traditional reinforced concrete shear wall, the
the wall returns to its original position after the earthquake. Hys- components of their construction are conventional and standard-
teretic energy dissipation devices in the form of low yield strength ized, not requiring special manufacturing. The benefits of self-
longitudinal rebars acted as fuse connections crossing the joint centering ability and low damage of the wall panel can be achieved
between the wall panel and the foundation. by utilizing currently available construction methods and materials.
As shown in the previous investigations, the prestressed tendons
provide the self-centering ability and the bottom joints that open
when the wall subjected to the lateral force ensure the low-damage Experimental Investigation and Specimen
of the shear wall. Most studies of self-centering shear walls con- Description
centrated on the behavior of the precast concrete walls. However,
some practical structures were already built or retrofitted using Eight specimens including one traditional shear wall and seven
cast-in-place shear walls with unbonded prestressed tendons to self-centering walls with horizontal bottom slits (Table 1) were
achieve self-centering ability (Panian et al. 2007; Stevenson et al. built and tested under quasi-static reversed cyclic loadings. The di-
2008). The concept of posttensioned structural systems is not new, mensions of the specimens were identical, with the wall panels
but its application in cast-in-place concrete walls has not been being 2 m high × 1 m long × 125 mm wide. The distance mea-
demonstrated through laboratory testing and the performance char- sured from the top of the foundation beam to the lateral loading
acteristics of this system have not been quantified. point was 2.3 m. The aspect ratio of 2.3 was determined to achieve
This paper expands the self-centering concept to cast-in-place the rocking response of the wall specimens instead of the shear slip
concrete walls, and presents an investigation into the seismic response according to ACI ITG-5.1 (ACI 2007), in which the mini-
behavior of self-centering shear walls with horizontal bottom slits. mum aspect ratio of 0.5 is recommended.
The cast-in-place walls are proposed as an alternative to conven- Different wall configurations (Table 1) were designed with the
tionally reinforced concrete shear walls. As shown in Fig. 1, hori- aim of investigating how the following factors affect the shear wall
zontal slits are formed by inserting separating steel plates placed behavior: (1) bottom slit length, (2) location of steel strands, and
symmetrically at the wall-foundation joint of prestressed shear (3) initial level of prestressing. All these parameters were important
walls and keeping the reinforced concrete in the middle of the for the application of the new concept in engineering structures.
wall width connected with the foundation. Furthermore, unbonded The slit length, which was equal to the length of the separat-
prestressed tendons are used to provide self-centering ability. The ing steel plate along the longitudinal dimension of the wall, was
structural deformation is concentrated at the wall-foundation joint determined by the quantity of reinforcement crossing through
by gap opening, allowing the wall to undergo large lateral displace- the wall-foundation joint. Fig. 2 depicts the reinforcement details
ments with little damage. The separating steel plates used as of the specimens for different arrangement (SW0, SW1-1, SW1-
bottom slits in the shear wall weakened the connection at the 2, SW1-3) with elevation, where the reinforcement in the top
wall-foundation joint so that the cracks could be easily formed beam and foundation beam are not shown for the sake of sim-
at the joint by the guild of the steel plates. Because the inelastic plicity. Reinforcement arrangements for all specimens were
deformation was primarily concentrated at the wall-foundation the same except the quantity of reinforcement crossing the

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Table 1. Wall Configurations Tested
Horizontal distance from
Specimen Bottom slit steel strands to the centerline Quantity of Average initial Extra vertical load by
number length (mm) of the wall (mm) steel strands prestress (MPa) hydraulic jacks (kN)
SW0 Null — — — 370
SW1-1 180 420 2 464 370
SW1-2 360 420 2 465 370
SW1-3 1,000 420 2 475 370
SW2-1 180 220 2 455 370
SW2-2 180 220 and 420 4 459 240
SW3-1 180 420 2 272 370
SW3-2 180 420 2 762 370
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Fig. 2. (Color) Reinforcement details of specimens (elevation): (a) SW0; (b) SW1-1; (c) SW1-2; (d) SW1-3

wall-foundation joints (Fig. 2). As shown in Table 1, the slit 6 (6 × 6 mm-diameter rebars) and 0 (no rebars), respectively.
lengths in SW1-1, SW1-2, and SW1-3 were different and According to Henry (2011), the shear friction was relied on
the quantities of the reinforcement crossing the joint were to transfer the shear at the base. However, New Zealand
14 (4 × 10 mm-diameter rebars þ 10 × 6 mm-diameter rebars), Standards 3101:2006 (NZS 2006) requires shear dowels to be

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values might cause the yielding or fracture of the steel strands when
the shear wall undergoes large drift. Besides, the concrete at the
wall toes would undertake more compression force when higher
initial prestressing was applied, which could cause a negative effect
for the performance of the shear walls. Because of that the concrete
compression capacity at the wall toes is critical for the shear wall
performance with the setting of bottom slits that reduced the tension
damage of the concrete.
Separating steel plates were placed at the top of foundation
beam with anchor bars embedded in the foundation beam. Then
the foundation beam and the wall panel were cast, with no space
between the steel plates and the concrete.
The concrete compression strength was critical to the perfor-
mance of the specimen wall, so the concrete at the toes of specimens
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was confined with closely spaced stirrups (spacing ¼ 50 mm) to


enhance the performance of concrete in compression (strength
and ductility). The height of the portion with closely spaced stirrups
was 1 m at the bottom of the wall panel. The closely spaced stirrups
help in developing the flexural capacity of the wall, which is more
critical in posttensioned shear walls where the added imposed com-
pressive forces brings concrete close to its ultimate crushing strain.
Confinement at the boundary zones prevents premature crushing of
the concrete and buckling of the longitudinal bars. The detail of the
confining reinforcement at the toes of the specimens is illustrated
in Fig. 3.

Construction Methodology

During the construction of the prestressed specimens with bottom


slits, the steel strands were placed vertically in their final position,
and the joint-crossing rebars as well as the separate steel plates
were cast together in the foundation beam. Then the reinforcing
bars in the wall panel were assembled before casting (Fig. 4). After
casting, the steel strands were prestressed to the design level. There
Fig. 3. Reinforcement details of specimens (cross section): (a) SW1-1; were no obvious construction differences between the traditional
(b) SW2-1; (c) SW2-2 shear wall specimen and the prestressed specimens. All specimens
were built using currently available construction methods and ma-
terials not requiring special manufacturing processes.

placed across the joint at the base of unbonded PT walls. To


Test Setup and Procedure
resist any slide at the wall-foundation interface, two shear dow-
els made of steel were used in the specimens with bottom slits. A schematic representation of the test setup and photograph of
Steel strands were employed in the tests of the prestressed the specimen are shown in Fig. 5. Out-of-plane braces were used
elements, with an area of 140 mm2 each. The unbonded length of to prevent wall panel deformations in the out-of-plane directions.
the strands was 3 m, equal to the total height of the specimen. The Extra vertical loads were applied by hydraulic jacks at the top of
layout of the steel strands in SW2-1 and SW2-2 were different from the specimens to simulate gravity loadings. Vertical load values are
that of the other specimens, as shown in Fig. 3. Four steel strands shown in Table 1. The vertical load that represented the sum of the
were put in SW2-2 to investigate the influence of steel strand quan- self-weight and permanent loads was 370 kN in the test. The axial
tity on the shear wall behavior. The horizontal distance from compression ratio is 0.143 according to the strength of the concrete
the steel strands to the centerline of the wall in SW2-2 were and the shear wall dimension. The value was suitable for shear wall
220 and 420 mm, as shown in Table 1. structure buildings when the shear wall acted as the main vertical
The initial prestressing values of the different specimens are and lateral load bearing element of the structure. The load value of
given in Table 1. To achieve self-centering ability, the prestressing SW2-2 was different from the others, so that the total vertical load
value of all the specimens with bottom horizontal slits were deter- provided by hydraulic jacks and prestressed steel strands remained
mined by means of the equation: Ap f pi þ 0.9N w ≥ As fsu , where the same as that of SW1-1. A reversed-cyclic lateral displacement
Ap f si is the initial prestressing force, N w is the vertical load applied history shown in Fig. 6 was applied to all specimens, with one cycle
by hydraulic jacks, and As f su is the tensile strength of all the before the load step of 8 mm and three cycles of the same amplitude
energy-dissipating reinforcement [ACI ITG-5.2 (ACI 2009)]. in and after the 8 mm load step. All of the lateral load steps were
The determined prestressing values were relatively low as the extra displacement-controlled, and the lateral loading ended when the
vertical load provided by the hydraulic jacks was considered lateral load bearing capacity dropped below 85% of the maximum
enough to guarantee the self-centering behavior of the shear wall lateral load bearing capacity.
(Smith 2012). Because the steel strands in the tests were placed far Arrangement of displacement transducers is presented in Fig. 7.
from the centerline of the wall section, excessive initial prestressing These displacement transducers were used to measure the in-plane

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Fig. 4. (Color) Specimen with prestressed steel strands during construction: (a) reinforcements of foundation; (b) state before assembly of the
reinforcing rebars; (c) state before casting of wall panel

displacements of the wall panels and foundation beam (D1, D2, diagonal cracks at 16 mm load step (0.70% drift ratio). The cover
D3), flexural/shear deformations of the wall panels (D5, D6, D7, concrete started spalling during the 32 mm load step (1.40%
D8), and the gap behavior and horizontal slip at the wall-foundation drift ratio). The specimen achieved the maximum lateral loading
joint (D4, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13). Arrangement of strain gauges capacity at 40 mm load step (1.74% drift ratio). No significant
is presented in Fig. 8. The strain gauges presented by black rectan- crushing of the confined concrete at the wall toes was observed
gles in Figs. 8(a and b) were used to measure the strain of the ver- until the 56 mm load step (2.43% drift ratio), during which fracture
tical and horizontal reinforcements as well as the strain of concrete of the longitudinal reinforcement also occurred.
surface at the wall toes. Compared to specimen SW0, which showed typical flexural-
shear damage pattern, the prestressed shear wall specimens with
bottom slits showed primarily flexural damage pattern with few
Material Properties diagonal cracks. The reason of the strength degradation was crush-
ing of the concrete at the wall toes. As the damage patterns of spec-
Average concrete compressive strength of f c ¼ 20.8 MPa was imens with bottom slits were similar, the damage progression of
specified for each specimen as the concrete strengths of SW1-1 only is described in this paper in detail.
20−30 MPa were widely used for the cast-in-place structure con- The response of SW1-1 was dominated by the opening of the
structions in China. The reinforcement samples, tensioned before gap at the wall-foundation joint, which began almost at the 2 mm
the test, possessed the following properties: fy ¼ 527 MPa, fu ¼ load step. Horizontal cracks were initiated at the 6 mm load
683 MPa for 6 mm-diameter reinforcement; and fy ¼ 448 MPa, step (0.26% drift ratio) as the joint-crossing rebars bonded with
f u ¼ 576 MPa for 10 mm-diameter reinforcement. The yield stress the concrete of the wall panel were subjected to tension. The
of steel strand was fpy ¼ 1,740 MPa, and the ultimate tension cracks expanded horizontally as the lateral loading displacement
strength was f pm ¼ 1,950 MPa. increased. However, the quantity of cracks was relatively small be-
cause the nonlinear deformation was concentrated at the joint be-
tween the wall panel and foundation.
Experimental Results Vertical cracks of wall toes were found at the 32 mm load step
(1.39% drift ratio) with little concrete cover spalling (Fig. 9). Then
the specimen reached the maximum lateral loading capacity with
Progression of Damage
obvious concrete spalling at 40 mm load step (1.74% drift ratio).
Specimen SW0, that was conceived to represent a traditional Test of SW1-1 ended after the cycle of 72 mm (3.13% drift ratio)
cast-in-place shear wall, behaved as a ductile unit, with energy dis- when the confined concrete at the wall toes crushed.
sipated through the formation of a plastic hinge at the bottom of the Fig. 10 shows the photographs of SW0, SW1-1, SW1-2, and
wall panel. The first horizontal crack was observed at the toe during SW1-3 right after the load steps of 20 mm and 40 mm, correspond-
the load step of 5 mm (0.22% drift ratio). Then the vertical rebar at ing to the drift ratios of 0.87 and 1.74%, respectively. The effect
the extreme end of the toe yielded at the 8 mm load step (0.35% of different slit lengths on the performance of the specimens is
drift ratio). After that, the horizontal cracks extended gradually to presented.

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Fig. 6. Cyclic loading history of test
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Fig. 5. (Color) Test overview: (a) schematic representation of test set-


up; (b) picture of the specimen

As the quantity of joint-crossing rebars decreased, the range of Fig. 7. Arrangement of displacement transducers
cracking distribution and quantity of cracks significantly decreased.
Because the concrete of the wall panel and the joint-crossing rebars
were bonded, the cracks formed when the bonded rebars were The residual drifts of the prestressed specimens with horizontal
subjected to tension. Moreover, few diagonal cracks can be found bottom slits were much smaller than that of SW0, the traditional
in SW1-1, SW1-2, and SW1-3 because the setting of the separating shear wall, at the same loading displacements. The comparisons
steel plates. indicate that the specimens with horizontal slits performed better
There was no joint-crossing rebars in SW1-3, so barely any with excellent self-centering ability.
tension stress was generated in the wall. Then no flexural cracks
were formed because the gap opening concentrated the deformation
at the bottom of the wall panel. Backbone Curves
Fig. 12 compares the backbone curves of specimens with different
configurations. The relationship between the performances of the
Hysteretic Curves
specimens and these configurations are as follows.
The hysteretic curves of all specimens are shown in Fig. 11 with As shown in Fig. 12(a), the maximum load capacity of the speci-
the measured base shear force, F, versus loading displacement, Δ, men increased with the decrease of the bottom slit length because
as well as the wall drift, θ. Slight movement of the foundation beam there were more joint-crossing rebars to provide resistant moment.
(measured by D1 presented in Fig. 7) was measured during the test; The backbone curves of SW0 and SW1-1 are almost overlapped
however, the data presented in this paper have been corrected in before reaching the maximum force point. This is because the steel
order to isolate the wall response. strands in SW1-1 provided the resistant moment instead of the
As shown in Fig. 11, all the specimens showed ductile behavior longitudinal reinforcements cut by the separating steel plates. The
with no sudden lateral capacity loss. The stiffness degradations in contribution of the resistant moment came from the increase of
the posttensioned shear walls were lower or close to that of the the stress in the steel strands and the extra vertical load provided
traditional shear wall. Because the traditional shear wall specimen by the initial prestress. The average peak load capacities of positive
was well designed according to the design code, stiffness degrada- and negative loading directions were 248.27, 229.10, 224.62 kN
tions of all the specimens were acceptable. for SW1-1, SW1-2, and SW1-3, respectively. The maximum load

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Fig. 8. Arrangement of strain gauges: (a) on reinforcements; (b) on surface of concrete

during the casting process) at the compression side of the wall toes
when loaded in the negative direction. Generally speaking, an in-
crease of the prestressing level is beneficial because higher lateral
load capacity is achieved. However, increasing the prestressing
level too much could lead to sudden (and brittle) failure mecha-
nisms, such as rupture of the strands or crushing of the concrete
at the bottom of the wall.
As shown from the test results, the trends for different param-
eters of the cast-in-place self-centering shear walls are similar to
that of the precast self-centering shear walls in a previous study
(Kurama et al. 1999).

Energy Dissipation
Fig. 9. (Color) Vertical crack of wall toe in SW1-1 at 32 mm load step The equivalent viscous damping coefficient calculated with
Jacobsen’s approach (Jacobsen and Ayre 1958) was used here to
compare the energy dissipating ability of the specimens.
As shown in Fig. 13(a), the traditional shear wall SW0 demon-
capacities of SW1-2 and SW1-3 were decreased by 7.7 and 9.5% strated the highest equivalent viscous damping coefficient value,
from SW1-1. meaning the best energy dissipating ability. With increasing slit
Fig. 12(b) shows that the specimen lateral capacity was lower length of specimens, the coefficient decreased as less energy dis-
when the steel strands were placed closer to the center line of the sipating rebars were involved.
specimen (comparison was made between SW1-1 and SW2-1). The Figs. 13(b and c) indicate that the effects of the location of the
backbone curves of SW1-1 and SW2-2 were similar to each other steel strands and of the initial prestressing level on the energy dis-
as the total vertical load, i.e., the sum of the load provided by hy- sipation capacity of the specimens with bottom slits were minor.
draulic jacks and the prestressing load, was to the same in these two
specimens. The maximum capacity of SW2-2 was higher, and the
bending moment of SW2-2 was increased by 5.4% compared with Flexural and Shear Deformations
SW1-1 because the middle two steel strands elongated during the
The lateral deformation of a shear wall usually consists of three
cyclic lateral loading and provided extra resistant moment. How-
components: flexural deformation, shear deformation, and rigid
ever, this extra bending resistance is usually of minor importance in
slip deformation. The measured results from displacement trans-
usual practical applications of unbonded tendons, because the un-
ducer D4 shows that the rigid slip deformation was small enough
bonded length of the tendons is considerably long, and the stress
to be neglected.
increase is rather low when a shear wall is subjected to lateral loads.
The shear deformation of the wall panel was corrected accord-
Curves in Fig. 12(c) show that higher initial stress in steel
ing to the data measured through the displacement transducers
strands resulted in higher lateral capacity because the higher initial
(Massone and Wallace 2004). The flexural deformation (Fig. 14)
stress could provide larger vertical loading on the top of the spec-
can be calculated as
imens. The maximum load capacities of SW1-1 and SW3-2 were
increased by 10.5 and 13.1% from SW3-1 as the initial prestressing U f ¼ U f;I þ U f;II þ θb h1 ð1Þ
value increased. The base shear force of SW3-2 in the negative
direction was lower than expected. This might be caused by poor where U f;I and U f;II , calculated with Eqs. (2) and (3), were
construction (voids or sand pockets in the concrete generated determined from the vertical displacement measurements, and

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Fig. 10. (Color) Cracking distribution of the specimens: (a–d) 20 mm (θ ¼ 0.87%); (e–h) 40 mm (θ ¼ 1.74%)

the deformation caused by gap opening is included in U f;II ; and in the figure was amplified by ðh1 þ h2 Þ=h1, assuming the shear
θb h1 is the deformation caused by rotation at Point 2 in Fig. 14 force was the same in each cross section of the wall panel.
Fig. 16 demonstrates that θb h1 þ U f;II took the largest propor-
d7 − d8
U f;I ¼ α1 h1 ð2Þ tion compared to the other components, especially in the specimens
l with horizontal bottom slits, as the deformations were concentrated
at the joints with gap opening and thus the flexural and shear
d9 − d13 deformations of the wall panels were reduced.
U f;II ¼ α1 h2 ð3Þ
l
In these equations α1 = distance from the top of the measured Strain Results
point to the centroid of the curvature distribution divided by
the measured height, which is determined according to Massone The strains of the vertical reinforcements at upper part of the wall
and Wallace (2004); d7 , d8 , d9 , and d13 = measured data from (No. 10 and No. 12), the strains of the horizontal reinforcements of
D7, D8, D9, and D13, respectively; l = length of the cross section the wall (No. 21, No. 22 and No. 23), and the strains on the concrete
of shear walls; h1 = height of the region of D7 and D8; and surface at the wall toes (No. 25) are displayed in Fig. 17. The strain
h2 = height of measure region of D9−D13. results of SW0 and SW1-1 were compared to show the benefit from
Point 1 in Fig. 14 presents the measured point of D2 (Fig. 7), the setting of the horizontal bottom slits. It is shown from Fig. 17
which shows the total lateral deformation of the wall panel. Fig. 15 that the strains of the reinforcement in SW1-1 were significantly
shows the flexural deformation of specimens with different bottom less than the traditional shear wall specimen SW0.
slit lengths. Specimens with longer bottom slit lengths had larger The strains measured from the No. 10 and No. 12 strain gauges
flexural deformations, which is consistent with the observed crack show that the vertical strains of the reinforcements in the wall panel
distributions during the test. were significantly reduced in compression and tension directions.
Fig. 16 shows the components of this lateral deformation, where The strains in SW0 were beyond yield with relatively large residual
the four components previously described are shown. As the dis- strains. Conversely, the strains in SW1-1 show that the vertical
tance from Point 2 in Fig. 14 to the top of the foundation beam was reinforcing bars remained elastic during the test with barely no
relatively small, θb h1 þ U f;II can be regarded as the approximate residual strains. The reason is that the inelastic deformation was
gap opening component of the total deformation. The shear defor- concentrated at the wall-foundation joint of the shear wall as the
mation calculated from measured data presented the deformation wall-foundation connection was weaken by the slits to make sure
within the scope of h1 , and the total shear deformation U s plotted the wall toes uplift freely.

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Fig. 11. Hysteretic curves

Figs. 17(c–e) display the strains of horizontal reinforcing bars in interface and thus prevented the reinforcements in the upper part
the SW0 and SW1-1. The horizontal reinforcing bars in SW0 of the wall from yielding.
were beyond yield slightly during last loading cyclic of test, and
the counterparts of SW1-1 remained elastic with relatively low
strain values. This indicates that the shear force resistant require- Residual Drift
ment was significantly reduced through the setting of bottom slits, The average residual drifts at the first cycle of each load step are
which was coincident with the results that few diagonal cracks were plotted in Fig. 18. It shows that after loading step of 20 mm, all the
found in the shear walls with bottom slits. specimens with bottom slits performed as expected with much less
The strains on the surface of concrete at the wall toe shown in residual drift on unloading when compared to SW0. The acceptable
Fig. 17(f) indicate that the tension strain of the concrete in SW1-1 maximum residual drift of 0.5% was recommended by Rahman and
decreased and the compression strain of the concrete remained Sritharan (2007) at the maximum transient drift of 2.5%. So the
almost the same with the traditional shear wall. residual drifts of the prestressed walls were all acceptable according
The formation of plastic hinges at the base was different be- to Fig. 18. The results indicate that the self-centering ability was
tween the traditional shear wall and the prestressed shear walls achieved by placing separating steel plates and steel strands.
with slits. As shown in the strain results (Fig. 17), the length of
plastic hinge of SW0 was larger than 300 mm as the reinforcement
Analysis Method
yielded. The strain of reinforcement at 300 mm height in SW1-1
was much less than SW0, so the length of the plastic hinge in the According to the process of the tests, the failure mode of pre-
SW1-1 was much smaller than SW0, which indicates that the inelas- stressed shear walls with bottom slits was characterized by horizon-
tic deformation was primarily concentrated on the wall-foundation tal cracks with few diagonal cracks. This failure mode was

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Fig. 12. (Color) Comparison among the backbone curves of the specimens as a function of different parameters: (a) slit length; (b) location of PT
steel; (c) initial stress in PT steel

Fig. 13. (Color) Comparison in terms of equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the specimens as a function of different parameters: (a) slit length;
(b) location of PT steel; (c) initial stress in PT steel

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J. Struct. Eng., 04016183


Assumed plastic hinge height, Hcr , over which the plastic cur-
vature was uniformly distributed at the wall base was determined
according to ACI ITG-5.2 (ACI 2009). Then the rotation at the wall
base could be confirmed according to the average strain within the
plastic hinge height. After that, the force in the prestressed tendon
and the vertical joint-crossing rebars could be settled by calculating
the uplift at their counterpart position, considering the unbonded
length of the steel strands and the bond slip of the joint-crossing
rebars. Then a new neutral axis location was calculated from ver-
tical equilibrium at the base of the wall, and the former steps could
also be iteratively repeated until c 0 0 converges. The final value of
c 0 0 could be used to calculate the flexure strength of the prestressed
shear wall with bottom slits as the following equation:
     
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a00 lw a00 a00


M m ¼ T 1 l1 − þ Nw − cc − þ T 2 l2 −
2 2 2 2
Fig. 14. Flexural deformations of the wall panel X   0 0

a
þ Fsi lsi − ð4Þ
2

where a 0 0 ¼ βc 0 0 = length of the equivalent stress block and c 0 0


is obtained from iteration; cc = thickness of concrete cover;
li ði ¼ 1; 2Þ and lsi ði ¼ 1; nÞ = distance from the edge of concrete
confinement to the position of the prestressed tendon and joint-
crossing rebars, respectively; T 1 and T 2 = force in the prestressed
tendons; and Fsi ði ¼ 1; nÞ = force in the joint-crossing rebars.

Conclusions

This paper introduces a new design form for prestressed shear walls
with horizontal bottom slits. The cast-in-place self-centering walls
are proposed as an alternative to conventionally reinforced concrete
shear walls, and the benefits of self-centering ability and low dam-
age of the wall panel can be achieved by utilizing currently avail-
able construction methods and materials.
Fig. 15. (Color) Flexural deformation of specimens with different The separating steel plates used as bottom slits in the shear wall
bottom slit length weakened the connection at the wall-foundation joint so that the
cracks could be easily formed at the joint by the guild of the steel
plates. Because the inelastic deformation was primarily concen-
trated at the wall-foundation joint, the tension deformation and
associated with the dominant flexure response of the wall. There- strain of the wall panel was significantly reduced to protect the wall
fore, the proposed prestressed shear wall with slits built with from being damaged. The prestressed steel tendons were used to
cast-in-place process could be designed depending on the flexure provide extra vertical restoring load to achieve self-centering capac-
strength. The flexural strength of the shear wall should be con- ity by eliminating the residual strain of the reinforcements crossing
trolled by crushing of confined concrete at the wall base because the wall-foundation joint. The joint-crossing rebars in the shear
the relatively low initial prestressing values were used in the tests wall could be used for energy dissipation, and these rebars casting
to avoid yielding of the steel strands. Limit states that defined a together with the concrete could also provide additional dowel
multilinear idealization of the wall response were introduced by forces to prevent the slide of the shear wall panel.
Perez et al. (2007). The analytical method in this paper is similar, The measured lateral cyclic behaviors of self-centering shear
except for the method of calculating the flexural strength of the walls with horizontal bottom slits are presented. Effects of shear
shear wall because the crossing rebars were used in the proposed wall configurations including bottom slit length, location of steel
wall system. strands and initial prestress in steel strands on damage pattern, lat-
Fig. 19 shows the state when crushing of confined concrete oc- eral capacity, and energy dissipation are demonstrated. The dis-
curred. The concrete cover at the wall toe was assumed to be spalled placement of the specimens with bottom slits was dominated by
and ignored as the ultimate strain capacity of the confined concrete, the gap opening at the wall-foundation joint, and the flexural/shear
εcu , was reached at the edge of the confinement. The stress at the deformations and strains of wall panels were relatively small com-
wall toe was simplified using equivalent stress block parameters, pared to the traditional shear wall specimen. The residual drifts of
α and β, for confined concrete (ACI ITG-5.2). When calculating the specimens with bottom slits were also small, which indicates
the flexural strength of the prestressed walls studied in this paper, the self-centering ability worked positively as expected.
the conventional section analysis cannot be applied because of the During the cyclic tests, few diagonal cracks were observed in
nonexistence of strain compatibility condition between the un- the specimens with bottom slits that displayed the flexural damage
bonded prestressed steel and concrete at the section level, so that pattern, and the damage of the wall panel was much less than that of
the iteration was required by assuming an initial value for the the traditional shear wall specimen. The crack quantity and the
neutral axis length, c 0 0 , as shown in Fig. 19. distribution range were largely reduced as the bottom slit length

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Fig. 16. (Color) Deformation components

increased. The maximum load capacity of the specimen can be effects on the energy dissipation capacity of the specimen with
increased by (1) decreasing the bottom slit length, (2) placing bottom slits.
the steel strands further to the center line of the specimen, and (3) in- The strain results of SW0 and SW1-1 were compared to show
creasing the initial stress in steel strands. The trends for different the benefit from the setting of the horizontal bottom slits. The
parameters of the cast-in-place self-centering shear walls are sim- results show that the strains of the reinforcement in SW1-1 were
ilar to that of the precast self-centering walls in a previous study. significantly less than the traditional shear wall specimen SW0.
The traditional shear wall specimen presents the highest equiv- The formation of plastic hinges at the base was different between
alent viscous damping coefficient value. And with the increasing of the traditional shear wall and the prestressed shear walls with slits.
the slit length of specimens, the coefficient decreased as less energy The length of the plastic hinge in the prestressed shear wall was
dissipating rebars were involved. The results also showed that the much smaller than the traditional shear wall, which indicates that
location of steel strands and the initial prestress value had minor the inelastic deformation was primarily concentrated at the

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Fig. 17. (Color) Comparison of the strain results between SW0 and SW1-1: (a) No. 10; (b) No. 12; (c) No. 21; (d) No. 22; (e) No. 23;
(f) No. 25

Fig. 18. (Color) Residual drifts

wall-foundation interface and thus prevented the reinforcements in


the upper part of the wall from yielding.
Moreover, the deformation and strain results show that the shear
deformation and the strain in the horizontal reinforcements of pre-
stressed shear wall with slits was relatively small when compared
Fig. 19. State at confined concrete crushing point
with the traditional shear wall. The comparison results indicate that

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J. Struct. Eng., 04016183


the shear force resistance requirement could be significantly re- Hamid, N. H., and Mander, J. B. (2010). “Lateral seismic performance of
duced through the setting of the bottom slits as the uplift action multipanel precast hollowcore walls.” J. Struct. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)
of the wall became dominant. According to these results obtained ST.1943-541X.0000183, 795–804.
from the tests, the reinforcement ratio of the horizontal rebars in the Henry, R. S. (2011) “Self-centering precast concrete walls for buildings in
regions with low to high seismicity.” Univ. of Auckland, Auckland,
shear walls with slits could be reduced, which means the steel
New Zealand.
material could be saved when using the proposed shear walls in Holden, T., Restrepo, J., and Mander, J. (2003). “Seismic performance of
the structures. precast reinforced and prestressed concrete walls.” J. Struct. Eng.,
According to the process of the tests, the failure mode of 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:3(286), 286–296.
prestressed shear walls with bottom slits was associated with the Jacobsen, L. S., and Ayre, R. S. (1958). Engineering vibrations with
dominant flexure response. Therefore, the proposed prestressed applications to structures and machinery, McGraw-Hill, New York.
shear wall with slits built with cast-in-place technology could be Kurama, Y., Sause, R., Pessiki, S., and Lu, L. W. (1999). “Lateral load
designed depending on the flexure strength. The flexural strength behavior and seismic design of unbonded post-tensioned precast
of the shear wall was controlled by crushing of confined concrete concrete walls.” ACI Struct. J., 96(4), 622–633.
at the wall base. When calculating the flexural strength of the pre- Massone, L. M., and Wallace, J. W. (2004). “Load-deformation responses
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Heriot-Watt University on 09/26/16. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

of slender reinforced concrete walls.” ACI Struct. J., 101(1), 103–113.


stressed walls, the conventional section analysis cannot be applied
Nagae, T, et al. (2011). “Design and instrumentation of 2010 E-defense
because of the nonexistence of strain compatibility condition be- four-story reinforced concrete and post-tensioned concrete buildings.”
tween the unbonded prestressed tendon and concrete at the section Rep. No. 2011/103, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center
level, so that the iteration method was required. (PEER), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA.
The proposed system could be applied in high-rise building NZS (New Zealand Standards). (2006). “Concrete structures standard.”
design. Because the slits set in the shear wall could reduce the dam- NZS 3101, Wellington, New Zealand.
age of the wall panel, they should be used at the place where severe Panian, L., Steyer, M., and Tipping, S. (2007). “An innovative approach to
damage would occur for the traditional shear wall structures. It is earthquake safety and concrete construction in buildings.” J. Post-Tens.
suggested that slits should be set at the levels where subjected to a Inst., 5(1), 7–16.
relatively large bending moment during the earthquake, then the Perez, F. J., Pessiki, S., and Sause, R. (2013). “Experimental lateral load
response of unbonded post-tensioned precast concrete walls.” ACI
severe damage of these places could be avoided.
Struct. J., 110(6), 1045–1055.
Perez, F. J., Sause, R., and Pessiki, S. (2007). “Analytical and experimental
lateral load behavior of unbonded posttensioned precast concrete
Acknowledgments walls.” J. Struct. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:11(1531),
1531–1540.
This research is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation Rahman, A., and Sritharan, S. (2007). “Performance-based seismic
of China (91315301-4) and State Key Laboratory of Disaster evaluation of two five-story precast concrete hybrid frame buildings.”
Reduction in Civil Engineering (SLDRCE14-A-07). Any opinions, J. Struct. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:11(1489),
findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this paper 1489–1500.
are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views Restrepo, J., and Rahman, A. (2007). “Seismic performance of self-
centering structural walls incorporating energy dissipators.” J. Struct.
of the individuals or organizations acknowledged.
Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE) 0733-9445(2007)133:11(1560), 1560–1570.
Smith, B. (2012). “Design, analysis and experimental evaluation of hybrid
precast concrete shear walls for seismic regions.” Univ. of Notre Dame,
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