Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

UNIT 1: THE PRACTICE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY - Pioneered by: David Burkholder, Paul Parker, and

CLINICAL PHARMACY Charles Walton at the University of Kentucky in the

- A health science disciple in which pharmacists later part of the 1960s
provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy
and promotes health, wellness, and disease Clinical Pharmacology – is a professional disciple that
prevention. combines basic pharmacology and clinical use. Its
- It includes broad responsibility for safe and development began in the early 1950s, primarily as a result of
appropriate use of drugs in patients which include the efforts of Harry Gold
rational selection, monitoring, dosing and control of
the patients overall drug therapy program. 1960 – start of the emergence of clinical pharmacy due to poor
medicine control system
*OTC – self-limiting illnesses or for minor symptoms
- not maintenance drug USA – approach is unit dose dispensing and decentralization
Ex: Paracetamol – NSAID – prn of pharmacy services
- NSAID – NMT 3 days for fever, NMT 5 days for *UDDS – medication in a single unit packaging
inflammation and pain - Ready to administer form
*Acetaminophen overdose – hepatic necrosis - Within 24 hours
*Drug Selection *Decentralization – ward pharmacist
EBM (Evidence-based medicine) – use of best - Both clinical and drug distribution duties
evidence in making decision about the care of individual
patient. U.K – unifies prescription and administration records in the
*JNC 8: Standard Guideline for the treatment of HTN ward – “ward pharmacy”
BP Goal Initial tx
Age ≥ 60 <150/90 Black – initiate thiazide or 1970 – signalled the transition to clinical pharmacy
Age < 60 <140/90 CCCB’s alone or in combi
HTN + <140/90 Non-black – initiate thiazide 1980 – growth of clinical pharmacy practice because of the
HTN + CKD <140/90 CCB/ACE inhibitors/ARBs ability to promote cost effective medicines
Alone in combi except ACE
inhibitors + ARBs 1988 – U.K endorsed clinical pharmacy services to secure
For HTN + CKD – initiates ACE value for money
inhibitors or ARBs
1997 – pharmacists grade and time spent on wards were
Pharmacy in general
- Knowledge on synthesis, chemistry and preparation Application of different scientific principles:
of drugs A. Pharmacology
- Product-oriented B. Toxicology
Clinical Pharmacy C. Therapeutics
- More oriented to the analysis of population needs with D. Clinical pharmacokinetics
regards to medicines, ways of administration, patterns E. Pharmacoeconomics – cost vs outcomes
of use, drugs effects on the patients F. Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a
- Patient-oriented practice person’s response to drugs.

Clinical Pharmacy – arouse out of dissatisfaction with old Clinical Pharmacy Settings
practice norms and the pressing need for a health professional - Hospitals
with a comprehensive knowledge of the therapeutic use of - Community pharmacists
drugs - Nursing homes
- The clinical pharmacy movement began at the - Home-based care services
University of Michigan in the early 1960s - Clinics
- Any other setting where medicines are prescribed and Ex: Diabetes Mellitus – chronic hyperglycemia (high glucose sa
used blood)
- Caused by absolute lack of insulin (Type I – common
Goals of Clinical Pharmacy in children) or relative lack of insulin (Type II DM)
To promote the correct and appropriate use of - Death due to complication
medicinal products and devices. These activities aim at: 1. Assessment
- Minimizing the risk of treatment-induced adverse - Complications is due to blood sugar is poorly
events continued:
*Ex. Steroids o Macrovascular – CAD – risk factor;
- Cushing’s syndrome – buffalo hump Atheroma(plaque) deposit to form
- Continuous use – type C ADR Atherosclerosis, stroke
- Occurs due to long period of administration o Microvascular – Diabetic retinopathy –
- Reversible damage is irreversible
- Addison’s Disease (Adrenal insufficiency)  Diabetic nephropathy – in DM –
- No productivity of steroids in the body concentrated blood can lower down
- Due to abrupt withdrawal after 10-14 days of renal blood supply that triggers
administration renin release that activates RAAS
- Fatal then the Aldosterone is used for
- Solution: taper the dose slowly sodium and water retention and it
*Ex. NSAIDS – COX1 – produce prostaglandin as can lead to increase of blood
gastroprotectant volume and blood pressure
o Soln: take it with meals – after 30 mins BLOOD SUPPLY TO FUNCTION
o Add proton pump inhibitor NORMALLY
o Shift to Selective COX2 inhibitors o Diabetic Neuropathy
 Increase the risk of thromboembolic 2. Plan
effects - Type I DM – insulin
 It is okay to use this as long as - Type II DM – Oral anti-diabetic drugs
there is no history of *Recommend lifestyle modification
thromboembolic effects 3. Monitoring
- Maximizing the clinical effects of medicines - FBS: <126 mg/dL
- Minimizing the expenditures for pharmacological - Pre-prandial RBS: 80-110 mg/dL
treatments - Post-prandial RBS: <140 mg/dL
*Ex. Antiphychotics - HBA1C - <6.5%
- Typical – EPS + cholinergic agents - BP goal: JNC 8 <140/90
- Atypical – less EPS - LDL goal: <100mg/dL
- Eye examination
Three basic components of the clinical role in the practice of 4. Provide drug information/Counselling
pharmacy - Insulin – Arms, thigh
- Communication o Subcutaneous
- Counselling o Rotate the injection site (to prevent
- Consulting lipodystrophy)
o Proper timing of administration
Primary jobs of Clinical Pharmacist  Ultrarapid/Insulin LAG – 5
- To interact with the health care team mins before meal or after a
- To interview and assess patient meal
- To make specific therapeutic recommendation  Long acting – once a day
- To monitor patient response to drug therapy
- To provide drug information
 Intermediate/Protamine –  A – No error capacity to
BID – prebreakfast (2/3), cause harm – SALAD
predinner (1/3)  B – Error occur, but did not
 Regular insulin – 30 min reach the patient
before meals  C – Error reached patient,
but no harm
*ADR: hypoglycaemia – prevent by proper timing  D – Error occurred that
- Mgt: give glucose supplements resulted in… increase
- Awake: glucose tabs patient monitoring, no
- Unconscious: IV infusion of D50 water patient harm
- First manifestation is tachycardia  E – … need for treatment
- Fatal or intervention, temporary
patient harm
Activities of Clinical Pharmacists  F – … initial or prolonged
1. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring hospitalization, temporary
- Assuring steady state concentration in patient harm
therapeutic range by blood concentration  G – … permanent patient
measurement of drugs with narrow harm
therapeutic indices  H – … near death event
*Goal: Ensure that the drug in the body is within
 I – … Death
the therapeutic range
- Ex. Allergic Reaction
*Narrow therapeutic indices drugs:
 PREVENTION – right drug, dose,
o Digoxin
route, frequency, duration
o Warfarin
 Promote rational drug
o Theophylline
o Phenobarbital
 DETECTION – investigating
o Quinidine
unusual circumstances, Rxs
o Phenytoin
 MITIGATION – providing ready
o Heparin
access to antidotes
o Amiodarone
 Make the condition less
o Aminoglycosides
*Therapeutic Index = Toxic Dose 50/Effective
 Ex. Anaphylactic shock –
Dose 50
Epinephrine or IV
*High TI = safer drugs
2. Drug information
5. Resuscitation or Code Blue
- Information about medications to physicians,
- Prepare medications that may be needed
nurses, other health care practitioners
during a code
3. Patient Care Rounds
- Assist with dose calculation to ensure
- Pharmacists are an integral part of the
therapeutic dose
rounding ream and evaluate drug therapy
 First drug given: Epinephrine 1mg ever 3-5 mins
and dosing during rounds
until stable
4. Adverse Drug Events – any adverse events
o Normalize circulation of patient
associated with the use of drugs in human
o Worsen Myocardial Infarction, contract
- Prevention, detection, mitigation of adverse
heart muscle, increase heart rate –
drug events
increase demand of the drug
- Ex. Adverse Drug Reaction – noxious ,
 Ventricular tachycardia – do the defribrillation
unintended reaction reaction to a drug
 3 times after every defrib. No response – give
- Ex. Medication Error - preventable
Amiodarone or Lidocaine or other arrhythmic
 Category in Medication Error
6. Medication Dosing *BSA = √ht (in)x wt(lb) = PI
Dosing adjustment: 3131
- Organ dysfunction – elimination organ
*BSA = √ht (cm)x wt(kg) = KC
kidney for metabolism, liver for elimination
- Age or weight – based on BSA
*Dose = BSA x Adult dose
- Switching between different routed of
1.73 m 2
o A 52-year old patient is weighing 132 lbs
 Creatinine is a chemical waste product in the
with a height 5’2’’. The physcian
blood that passes through the kidneys to be
prescribed a medication digoxin with a
filtered and eliminated in urine
dose of 0.25mg. Compute for the dose
 CrCl helps to estimate the glomerular filtration
of the patient based on BSA. – 0.23 mg
rate (Gfr): the rate of blood flow through the
7. Formulary – list of drugs available in the specific
*Creatinine – important biomarker that assess by
8. Anticoagulation – heparin, warfarin
the kidney
- There should be protocols and processes for
- Produce as a product of metabolism of
handling high risk drugs
- Daily monitoring of laboratory values and
- Normally creatinine is renally excreted
dose adjustment as appropriate
- Increased creatinine = problem in the
*Have narrow therapeutic index
*If drug is excreted via kidney, but have kidney
- PT-INR (2 – 3)
disease, the dose should be LOW
- With Prosthetic heart valve (2.5 – 3.5)
*CrCl – close approximate on how your kidneys
- PT-INR > goal with no bleeding
o < 5 temporary stop the dose or
*Cockcroft-Gault formula
reduce the dose
o CrCl = (140-age) x kg x 0.85
o 5 -9 temporary stop the dose
72 x SCr
o > 9 minor bleeding, stop the dose
- 0.85 for female only.
and give Vitamin K
o CrCl = UV
 Vit K – antidote for
 U – creatinine in urine
o Moderate to severe bleeding – stop
 V – volume of urine for 24 hrs
the dose, give Vit K and give FFP
 P – creatinine in plasma
(Fresh Frozen Plasma)
o The serum creatinine of a 72 years-old
*Increase Anticoagulant – Increase bleeding
female weighing 65kg was found to be
9. Nutrition
5mg/dL. What is the CrCl of the patient?
- Sterile preparation of TPN
– 10.44 mL/min
- Resolving incompatibilities and adjusting the
o The plasma creatinine of a patient was
nutritional formula as appropriate
found to be 0.9 mg/dL. Over 24 hour
10. Anti-Infective Stewardship
period, 1250 mL of urine was collected
- Review antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal
and the concentration of creatinine in
medication use by comparing to patient’s
urine was found to be 185mg/dL. What
condition, site of infection, culture and
is the CrCl of the patient? – 178.43
sensitivity results
11. Outcomes Management
*Serum Creatinine – amount of serum found
- Participating in compliance with care
in the blood
measures by assuring core therapies are
*High CrCl – Low SCr
received by eligible patients
*Low CrCl and High SCr – have kidney
12. Managing Transition of Care
- Medication reconciliation
13. Narcotic Stewardship SOAP Notes
- Pain management using opioid analgesics Subjective
*Ex. Mefanamic acid – NMT 7 days due to GI - Information that explains the reason for the encounter
Irritation and Cardio Problems - Information that the patient reports concerning
*Ketorolac – NMT 5 days due to GI irritation and symptoms, previous treatments, medication used, and
Cardio problems adverse effects encountered
*Tramadol – 5 days habit forming - These are considered nonreproducible date because
14. Pharmacogenomics the information is based on the patient’s interpretation
- Relationship between genomes and the and recall of past events
efficacy elimination, and toxicities of - Identification and Chief complaint
medications - Medical history
- Evaluate genetic code of patients in order to - Review of Systems(ROS)/ Physical Examination
better predict a drug response - Social History
15. Medication Therapy Management Services Objective
- Services that optimize therapeutic outcomes - Information from physical examination laboratory
for individual patients results, diagnostic tests, and present medications
- A systematic process of collecting patient- - Objective data are measurable and reproducible
specific information, assessing medication Assessment
therapies to identify medication-related - A brief but complete description of the problem,
problems, developing a list of medication- including a conclusion or diagnosis that is supported
related problems, and creating plan to logically by the subjective and objective data
resolve them - The assessment should not include a
16. Documentation problem/diagnosis that is not defined above.
- Means by which healthcare professionals Plan
communication with one another - Specific solution for each problem outlined in the
- Physician consultations of the pharmacist assessment
- Drug information question results - Numbered list to match the Assessment
- Relevant drug serum concentrations and - Recommendations for drug dose, frequency, duration
their interpretation - Monitoring
- Patient education - Follow-up

Clinical Pharmacy Practice Areas

- Ambulatory care
- Critical care
- Drug information
- Geriatrics and long-term care
- Internal medicine and subspecialities
- Cardiology
- Endocrinology
- Gastroenterology
- Infectious disease
- Neurology
- Nephrology
- Obstetrics and gynecology
- Pulmonary disease
- Psychiatry
- Rheumatology
- Nuclear pharmacy
- Nutrition
- Pediatrics Problems resulting from unmet drug-related needs
- Pharmacokinetics Drug-Related Needs
- Surgery - Appropriate Indication
- Oncology - Effectiveness
- Safety
Pharmaceutical Care - Compliance
- “Responsible provision of drug therapy for the - Untreated indication
purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a Drug therapy Problems
patient’s quality of life” – Hepler and Strand, 1990 - Unnecessary drug therapy
- Outcomes: - Nonmedical medication
- Cure of disease - Addiction/recreational drug abuse
- Elimination or reduction of symptoms - Nondrug therapy more appropriate
- Arrest or slowing of a disease process - Duplicate therapy
- Prevention of disease or symptoms - Treating avoidable adverse reaction
- Patient-focused pharmacy requires the integration of - Wrong drug
knowledge and skills to provide better patient care - Dosage form inappropriate
- Contraindication present
Major functions of pharmaceutical care - Condition refractory to drug
1. Identifying potential and actual drug-related problems - Drug not indicated for condition
2. Resolving actual drug-related problems - More effective drug available
3. Preventing potential drug-related problems - Dosage too low
- Wrong dosage
Five steps in the pharmaceutical care process - Frequency inappropriate
1. A professional relationship with the patent must be - Duration inappropriate
established. - Incorrect storage
2. Patient-specific medical information must be - Incorrect administration
collected, organized, recorded and maintained. - Drug interaction
3. Patient-specific medical information must be - Adverse drug reaction
evaluated and a drug therapy plan developed - Unsafe drug for patient
mutually with the patient. - Allergic reaction
4. The pharmacist must ensure that the patient has all - Incorrect administration
supplies, information and knowledge necessary to - Drug interaction
carry out the drug therapy plan. - Dosage increase or decrease too quickly
5. The pharmacist must review, monitor, and modify the - Undesirable effect
therapeutic plan as necessary and appropriate, in - Dosage too high
concern with the patient and health care team. - Wrong dose
- Frequency inappropriate
Five key drug-related needs of patient - Duration inappropriate
1. Patients have an appropriate indication for every drug - Drug interaction
they are taking. - Inappropriate compliance
2. Patients’ drug therapy is effective. - Drug product not available
3. Patients’ drug therapy is safe. - Cannot afford drug product
4. Patients can comply with drug therapy and other - Cannot swallow or otherwise administer drug
aspects of their care plans. - Does not understand instructions
5. Patients have all drug therapies necessary to resolve - Patient prefers not to take drug
any untreated indication. - Needs additional drug therapy
- Untreated condition
- Synergistic therapy
- Prophylactic therapy