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HVAC & REFRIGERATION

FOR THE

PE EXAM

ENGINEERING PRO GUIDES, LLC


© 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1: Introduction

Section 2: Thermodynamics - Refrigeration Systems*

Section 3: Thermodynamics - Steam Systems*

Section 4: Psychrometrics*

Section 5: Heat Transfer*

Section 6: Fluid Mechanics

Section 7: Applications - Equipment and Systems*

Section 8: Applications - Supportive Knowledge

Section 9: Exam Preparation Checklists

Section 10: Sample Exam


Problems
Solutions

* Energy Balances are an integral part of the majority of these sections.

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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.1 Key Concepts and Skills ................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Units ............................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 Disclaimer .......................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 How to use this Book ......................................................................................................... 5
4.0 Recommended HVAC & Refrigeration References ........................................................... 6
4.1 Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual ................................................................... 6
4.2 ASHRAE Handbooks ...................................................................................................... 6
4.3 ASHRAE Standards ....................................................................................................... 7
4.4 NFPA Codes ................................................................................................................... 7

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion of the Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book
does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on the P.E. exam.

1.1 KEY CONCEPTS AND SKILLS


The key concepts and skills discussed in this book were first developed through an analysis of
the topics and information presented by NCEES. NCEES indicates on their website that the
P.E. Exam will cover a number of topics including the following: Thermodynamics,
Psyhcrometrics, Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, Energy Balances, Equipment, Systems and
Support Knowledge. Next, each of these broad topics were investigated and filtered for
concepts and skills that met the following criteria:

(1) First, the concept and skill must be commonly used in the HVAC & Refrigeration
field. For example, the Fluid Mechanics topic includes skills (e.g., determining the force on a
surface due to a jet and the siphon concept), that are not used in the HVAC & Refrigeration
field. In comparison, pump and fan sizing, determining friction losses and calculating net
positive suction head are regular occurrences in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

(2) Second, the skill and concept must be testable in roughly 6 minutes per problem.
There are (40) questions on the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon exam and you will be provided
with 4 hours to complete the exam. This results in an average of 6 minutes per problem. This
criterion limits the complexity of the exam problems and the resulting solutions. For example,
pressure drop calculations are common in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, but the calculation is
often very lengthy because of the number of steps involved, especially if a unique fluid and flow
condition is used. Thus, common fluids like water/air and common pipe/duct materials are
used.

(3) Third, the key concept and skill must be used by practicing HVAC & Refrigeration
engineers. This criterion is similar to the first criterion. However, this criterion filters the
concepts and skills further by limiting the field to material encountered and used by practicing
engineers. The HVAC & Refrigeration field is vast and there are many different avenues an
engineer can take. Two diverging paths are those engineers involved in research and those
who practice. Research engineers are pushing the boundaries of the field and are highly
focused in their specific area of the field. The Professional Engineering exam does not cover
innovative material or highly focused material.

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(4) The P.E. Exam must test the application of the skill and concept and not the
background knowledge of the topic or concept. The exam also does not cover background
information on the NCEES topics. The P.E. Exam is meant to prove that the test taker is
minimally competent to practice in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The exam is less concerned
with theory and more with the application of the theory, skill or concept. For example, the P.E.
exam is less concerned with the theory of evaporation in a cooling tower and more with the
performance and selection of a cooling tower.

In summary, this book is intended to teach the necessary skills and concepts to develop a
minimally competent, practicing professional engineer in the HVAC & Refrigeration field,
capable of passing the P.E. exam. This book does this through the following means:

(1) Teaching commonly used skills and concepts in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

(2) Providing sample problems that can be completed in roughly 6 minutes per problem.

(3) Teaching skills and concepts used by practicing HVAC & Refrigeration engineers.

(4) Teaching the application of the skill and concept.

1.2 UNITS
The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide focuses exclusively on the USCS. However, it is recommended
that the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the
International System of Units (SI).

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2.0 DISCLAIMER
In no event will Engineering Pro Guides be liable for any incidental, indirect, consequential,
punitive or special damages of any kind, or any other damages whatsoever, including, without
limitation, those resulting from loss of profit, loss of contracts, loss of reputation, goodwill, data,
information, income, anticipated savings or business relationships, whether or not Engineering
Pro Guides has been advised of the possibility of such damage, arising out of or in connection
with the use of this document or any referenced documents and/or websites.

This book was created on the basis of determining an independent interpretation of the
minimum required knowledge and skills of a professional engineer. In no way does this
document represent the National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveying views or
the views of any other professional engineering society.

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3.0 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
This book is organized into the topics as designated by the NCEES. These topics include:

1. Thermodynamics – Refrigeration Systems


2. Thermodynamics – Steam Systems
3. Psychrometrics
4. Heat Transfer
5. Fluid Mechanics
6. Applications – Equipment and Systems
7. Applications – Supportive Knowledge

First, it is recommended that the engineer in training gather the recommended references
presented in the following section.

Second, proceed through the book in the order designated. Go through and first read the
material of the section, then complete the practice problems designated for that section. If you
have trouble with the practice problems, review the material and then read the solutions. The
problems at the end of each section are slightly easier and more straightforward than the typical
problems you would find in an actual P.E. Exam. These problems are meant only to practice
the application of the skill or concept presented in the section.

Following the completion of each of the sections, it is recommended that you go through the
checklists presented towards the end of the book. These checklists pose vital questions to the
engineer in training about their understanding of all the skills and concepts presented in this
book. If you are unconfident with any of the items, please go back and revisit the section.

Finally, set aside a four-hour block of uninterrupted time to complete the sample exam. Gather
your references and calculator and create a test-like environment. Set a timer and proceed to
take the sample exam presented at the end of this book. Remember that the exam is only 40
problems and does not encompass all the possible items that can appear on an exam, but it
should give you an idea of your level of readiness for the exam.

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4.0 RECOMMENDED HVAC & REFRIGERATION REFERENCES
The following references are recommended to be studied prior to the exam and/or to be used
during the exam.

4.1 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REFERENCE MANUAL


The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual or MERM is the most popular and most
comprehensive manual designed for the Mechanical Professional Engineering exam. It is
recommended that the engineer be very familiar with the contents of this book and to bring this
book to the exam.

Another book related to the MERM is the Engineering Unit Conversions book. This is also
another recommended book to use during the exam and while studying for the exam.

4.2 ASHRAE HANDBOOKS


The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers or ASHRAE
publishes four HVAC & Refrigeration books. These handbooks include:

(1) ASHRAE Fundamentals: This is a must have resource for the HVAC & Refrigeration
portion of the exam. It contains valuable information that can be used during the exam and is a
common resource for the practicing professional engineer. Important information found in this
book includes but are not limited to:

(a) Roof, Wall, Window material properties;

(b) Duct sizing formulas, graphs and material properties;

(c) Pipe sizing formulas, graphs and material properties;

(d) Refrigeration diagrams and refrigerant properties;

(e) Material and fluid properties.

(2) ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment: This book provides information on various
HVAC systems and equipment. It is recommended that this book be reviewed prior to the
exam, in order to gain an understanding of the different pieces of HVAC equipment. Engineers
in training typically do not get exposed to all the popular pieces of equipment during their
training period. This book will provide the necessary exposure to the various equipment and
systems.

(3) ASHRAE Applications: This book provides information on various HVAC Applications. It
provides various scenarios encountered by HVAC Engineers and how the systems and
equipment discussed in the previous book are used in different applications. It is recommended
that this book be reviewed prior to the exam, in order to gain an understanding of the different
applications encountered. Often times, engineers in training do not get exposed to the wide
variety of HVAC applications. This book will provide the necessary exposure to the various
applications.

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(4) ASHRAE Refrigeration: The final book in the ASHRAE series is ASHRAE Refrigeration.
This book discusses the various refrigeration systems and excludes the HVAC portion of
HVAC/R. This book is necessary to bring into the exam because of the thermal properties of
foods and refrigerant pipe sizing.

All of the ASHRAE books go into much more detail than is necessary for the exam, it is
important to remember that for this exam the level of complexity must allow for a problem to be
completed in 6 minutes and the problem must not be too obscure and detailed.

4.3 ASHRAE STANDARDS


ASHRAE standards are another common tool used by practicing professional HVAC engineers.
However, the exam does not appear to be based on the latest version of the codes, since it is
not referenced as a resource by NCEES. However, it is recommended at a minimum that the
engineer in training be familiar with the information in each of the following codes.

(1) ASHRAE 15, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems: Often times the HVAC
engineer will have to design a Refrigeration System and this system and this system must meet
the requirements set forth in this standard. It also provides safety designations and
classifications of refrigerants.

(2) ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy: This standard
provides the method and requirements for determining optimum thermal environmental
conditions for human occupancy.

(3) ASHRAE 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: This standard provides the
minimum ventilation requirements for indoor occupied spaces. This standard is used often by
practicing engineers when determining outside air and exhaust air requirements for spaces,
since many governing city, state and federal agencies require their projects to meet this
standard or a variation of this standard.

(4) ASHRAE 90.1, Energy Standard for Building except Low-Rise Residential Buildings:
This standard provides the minimum energy efficiency requirements for common HVAC
equipment. This standard is used often by practicing engineers when selecting and modeling
HVAC equipment, since many governing city, state and federal agencies require their projects
to meet this standard or a variation of this standard.

4.4 NFPA CODES


The National Fire Protection Agency provides codes and standards related to fire protection.
The only recommended NFPA codes are those relating to HVAC systems. These codes are (1)
NFPA 90A and 90B, which are titled the Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and
Ventilating Systems and the Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air
Conditioning Systems.

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SECTION 2: THERMODYNAMICS

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Key Equations .................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 Refrigerants ........................................................................................................................ 5
3.1 Hydrocarbons ................................................................................................................. 5
3.2 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ........................................................................................... 5
3.3 Hydroclurofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ................................................................................. 5
3.4 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) ............................................................................................ 6
3.5 Refrigerant Summary ..................................................................................................... 6
4.0 Boiling Pressure/Temperature ........................................................................................... 8
5.0 Vapor Compression Cycle ................................................................................................. 9
5.1 Evaporator .................................................................................................................... 10
5.2 Compressor .................................................................................................................. 12
5.3 Condenser .................................................................................................................... 14
5.4 Expansion Device ......................................................................................................... 15
6.0 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram ............................................................................................. 16
6.1 Refrigeration Cycle ....................................................................................................... 19
6.1.1 Step 1 Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 20
6.1.2 Step 2 Compressor ..................................................................................................... 24
6.1.3 Step 3 Condenser ....................................................................................................... 26
6.1.4 Step 4 Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 28
6.1.5 Net Refrigeration/Condenser, Work and COP ............................................................ 29
7.0 Codes & References ........................................................................................................ 32
7.1 ASHRAE 15, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems ............................................ 32
7.2 Montreal Protocol ......................................................................................................... 32
8.0 Refrigeration Practice Problems ...................................................................................... 34
Problem 1 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 34
Solution 1 - Evaporator ........................................................................................................ 35
Problem 2 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 36
Solution 2 – Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 37
Problem 3 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 38
Solution 3 – Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 39
Problem 4 – Compressor ........................................................................................................ 40
Solution 4 – Compressor ..................................................................................................... 41

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Problem 5 – Compressor ........................................................................................................ 42
Solution 5 – Compressor ..................................................................................................... 43
Problem 6 – Condenser .......................................................................................................... 44
Solution 6 – Condenser ....................................................................................................... 45
Problem 7 – Condenser .......................................................................................................... 46
Solution 7 – Condenser ....................................................................................................... 47
Problem 8 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................... 48
Solution 8 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 49
Problem 9 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................... 50
Solution 9 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 51
Problem 10 – COP .................................................................................................................. 52
Solution 10 – COP ............................................................................................................... 53
Problem 11 – COP .................................................................................................................. 54
Solution 11 – COP ............................................................................................................... 55
Problem 12 – Refrigeration Codes .......................................................................................... 57
Solution 12 – Refrigeration Codes ....................................................................................... 58
Problem 13 – Refrigerants ...................................................................................................... 59
Solution 13 – Refrigerants ................................................................................................... 60

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

This Refrigeration Guide for the P.E. Exam provides background information on different
refrigerant types, the necessary codes and also provides heavy emphasis on refrigeration
diagrams. A professional engineer should be able to properly navigate a refrigeration diagram
and have a deep understanding of the vapor compression cycle which is critical in refrigeration
systems. In addition, this guide also focuses on the (4) main parts of refrigeration systems,
which are the evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide focuses exclusively on the USCS. However, it is recommended
that the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the
International System of Units (SI).

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2.0 KEY EQUATIONS

Evaporator Net Refrigeration Effect

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Compressor Work

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Net Condenser Effect

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) �� ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Net Condenser Effect Function of Compressor Work and Net Refrigeration Effect

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] + 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢]

Coefficient of Performance

𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢]


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑊𝑖𝑛 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢]

Refrigeration Room Ventilation Rate

𝑄[𝐶𝐹𝑀] = 100𝑋𝐺 0.5 , where G = lbs of refrigerant.

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3.0 REFRIGERANTS
Refrigerants are fluids used in the commercial HVAC field to transfer heat from one source to
another. For example, in a water cooled chiller, refrigerant is used to remove heat from chilled
water and transfer heat to condenser water. Or in a typical residential split air conditioner
system, refrigerant is used to remove heat from the indoor air and transfer that heat to the
outdoors through the use of a condenser.

The main requirement for a fluid to be classified as a refrigerant is the ability to transfer heat.
Refrigerants must also be safe in order to be used for commercial and residential air
conditioning purposes. Refrigerants are classified by the following information: (1) Flammability,
(2) Toxicity, (3) Global Warming Potential (GWP), (4) Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and (5)
Operating Pressure. The flammability and toxicity classifications are shown in ASHRAE 15 and
are discussed briefly in Sections 3.1 through 3.5 and later in Section 7.1. The GWP, ODP and
Operating Pressure of refrigerants are discussed further in Sections 3.1 through 3.5.

Refrigerants can be split into four different types, (1) Hydrocarbons, (2) Chlorofluorocarbons, (3)
Hydroclurofluorocarbons and (4) Hydrofluorocarbons.

3.1 HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons consist of hydrogen and carbon. Some examples of hydrocarbons include
methane, ethane, propane and butane. Hydrocarbons like propane and isobutene can be used
in vapor compression cycles for refrigeration, but most commonly hydrocarbons are used in the
combustion process.

3.2 CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFCS)


CFCs consist of carbon, with the chemical addition of chlorine and fluorine. Common CFCs
include R-12 and R-11, which were used heavily in air conditioning, vapor compression cycles.
Unlike hydrocarbons, CFCs are non-flammable. However, CFCs when improperly handled and
released into the atmosphere have been found to deplete the ozone layer. For this reason,
CFCs have been phased out and in the United States. In fact, CFCs are no longer used in new
air conditioning machines.

3.3 HYDROCLUROFLUOROCARBONS (HCFCS)


HCFCs consist of hydrogen and carbon, with the chemical addition of chlorine and fluorine. The
most common HCFC is R-22, which was used heavily in air conditioning. HCFCs are non-
flammable. They are also no longer used in new air conditioning machines in the United States,
because they contain the ozone harmful element, chlorine. The Montreal Protocol requires that
HCFC's be decreased in consumption and production, until HCFC's are completely phased out
in 2030. Two specific HCFC’s, 22 and 142B, have been phased out of new equipment in 2010,
with the complete phase out of these refrigerants in 2020 (existing and new equipment). The
Montreal Protocol is further discussed in Section 8.2.

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3.4 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFCS)
HFCs have been substituted for CFCs because they have an ozone depletion potential of zero
and contain no chlorine. HFCs are also being substituted for HCFCs because they are currently
the most efficient refrigerants that do not harm the ozone, since they do not contain chlorine.
However, HFCs are also planned to be substituted in the future because of the greenhouse
gases that are emitted.

3.5 REFRIGERANT SUMMARY


A summary of the different types of refrigerants are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1: REFRIGERANT SUMMARY

Refrigerant
Example(s) Remarks
Type
HC-290 (Propane), CH 4 Not typically used in commercial A/C
HCs
(Methane) products, flammable.
Contains ozone depleting chlorine, most
CFCs CFC-11, 12, 113, 114, 115
harmful, phased out in ’95, High GWP.
Contains ozone depleting chlorine, Short
HCFCs HCFC-22, HCFC-123 term replacements, phased out in ’10 from
new equipment, High GWP.
Contains ZERO ozone depleting chlorine,
HFC-134a, HFC-407C, HFC-
HFCs ZERO ODP, Long term replacements, High
410A,
GWP.

Ozone Depleting Potential [ODP]: The ODP is an index developed to identify how damaging a
substance is to the ozone. The reference point from which all substances are compared is
CFC-11. CFC-11 is assumed to have an ODP of 1, more damaging chemicals have a higher
ODP and less damaging chemicals have a lower ODP. A summary of chemicals and their ODP
is shown in Table 2. Refrigerants with chlorine have a higher ODP. It is estimated that each
chlorine atom destroys 100,000 ozone molecules.
TABLE 2: ODP SUMMARY

Substance Ozone Depleting


Potential
[ODP]
CFC-11 1
CFC-12 1
HCFC-22 0.055
HCFC-123 0.02
HFC-134a 0
HFC-410A 0

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Global Warming Potential [GWP]: The GWP is an index developed to identify the potential for a
substance to prevent infrared radiation from leaving the earth's atmosphere. The reference
point, from which all substances are compared, is carbon dioxide. CO 2 is assumed to have a
GWP of 1, chemicals with a higher potential to contribute to global warming have a higher GWP
and those with a lower potential have a lower GWP. A summary of chemicals and their GWP is
shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3: GWP SUMMARY

Substance Global Warming


Potential
[GWP]
CO 2 1
CFC-11 5,000
CFC-12 8,500
HCFC-22 1,700
HCFC-123 80
HFC-134a 1,300
HFC-410A 1,890

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4.0 BOILING PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE
One key principle that must be understood for Refrigeration is the relationship between the
boiling/condensing point of a fluid, in this case a refrigerant, and the temperature and pressure
of the refrigerant. A refrigerant liquid’s boiling point is a function of the vapor pressure of the
refrigerant vapor that is in equilibrium with the refrigerant liquid. If the pressure is low, then
there is a smaller force acting upon the refrigerant liquid, thus it will take a lower temperature to
boil the refrigerant liquid. For example, water at a pressure of 1 atmosphere or 14.696 PSI will
boil at 212 F. However, if the water was at a pressure of 0.122 PSI, then the water will boil at
40 F. This principle is important to understand: Low pressure refrigerants boil at a lower
temperature, high pressure refrigerants condense at a higher temperature.

For more detail refer to the following table and Figure 1.

Water
Pressure
Temperature [F]
[PSI]
Boiling Point
212 14.696

190 9.340

160 4.742

130 2.224

100 0.950

70 0.363

40 0.122

10 0.031

FIGURE 1: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOILING POINT AND


PRESSURE

When a low pressure refrigerant changes from its liquid phase to a gas phase, it can absorb
much more heat than if it were to simply increase in temperature. The same is also true when a
high pressure refrigerant changes phase from its gas phase to a liquid phase, it release much
more heat than if it were to decrease in temperature. The energy required to change the phase
of a liquid from a liquid to a gas is called the latent heat of evaporation. The energy released to
change the phase of a gas to a liquid is called the latent heat of condensation.

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5.0 VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE
The vapor compression cycle is the primary cycle used in commercial refrigeration systems.
This cycle is shown below in Figure 2.

Win

Qin Qout= Qin + Win

FIGURE 2: VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE

The vapor compression cycle starts at (Step 1) the evaporator, with cold, low-pressure, liquid
refrigerant. It absorbs heat and evaporates to a low-pressure gas. Then the gas is (Step 2)
Compressed to a high-pressure, high-temperature gas and (Step 3) condensed to a high
pressure gas. Finally, the gas is condensed at the (Step 4) expansion device to a cold, low-
pressure liquid refrigerant.

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5.1 EVAPORATOR
Step 1: Evaporator. The first step in the vapor compression cycle is the evaporator, which can
also be called a liquid cooler. The evaporator is simply a heat exchanger. Heat is exchanged
from the warm medium (air or water) to the cold, liquid refrigerant. The heat gained by the liquid
refrigerant causes it to change phases to a refrigerant gas. The refrigerant liquid gains the heat
necessary to overcome the latent heat of evaporation, in order to change to a gas.

There are two types of evaporators, (1) an air cooled evaporator and (2) a water cooled
evaporator. Figure 4 shows the (1) air cooled evaporator which is most commonly referred to
as a direct expansion system. In this evaporator, warm air from an air conditioned space is
cooled and redistributed to the space. Figure 3 shows the water cooled system, where chilled
water return is cooled and supplied to the chilled water distribution system.

FIGURE 4: DIRECT EXPANSION FIGURE 3: WATER COOLED

The most common system is the direct expansion system. This system is prevalent throughout
smaller systems, like those serving residential systems. In this system, the hot air from the
space is used to directly evaporate the refrigerant to a hot gas. Note that the hot air from the
space is roughly ~75 °F and the refrigerant liquid is typically 40 °F. The 75 °F room air is cooled
down to ~55 °F and then distributed back to the space. In a water-cooled system, which is
more common for larger commercial systems, chilled water typically at 55 °F is cooled by the
evaporator down to ~45 °F. The colder chilled water is then supplied to another heat
exchanger, where air is cooled and then distributed to the space.

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Besides the two different types of evaporator systems, there are also different types of heat
exchangers used in refrigeration. The most common heat exchangers include: (1) Shell and
Tube, (2) Tube in Tube and (3) Brazed Plate.

(1) Shell and Tube: This heat exchanger is the most common and consists of copper pipes
arranged in a coil that is constructed in a cylindrical shell. One fluid is provided in the shell and
contacts the outer surface of the inner tubes. Another fluid is contained inside of the tubes.
Heat exchange occurs in the shell at the outer surface of the tubes. Often times aluminum fins
are provided on the copper pipes. These fins provide more surface area for heat exchange to
occur.

(2) Tube in Tube: A tube is constructed in a tube, sealed separately to keep the fluids in one
tube from contaminating the other. Heat exchange is conducted at the outer surface of the
inner tube and the inner surface of the outer tube.

(3) Brazed Plate: This type of heat exchanger consists of multiple thin plates separated by a
small distance. Each plate either carries the hot or cold fluid. Heat exchange occurs between
the surface areas of each plate.

As previously mentioned the evaporator acts as a heat exchanger with a cold side and a hot
side. The cold side consists of a mixture of refrigerant gas and liquid. At this point, the partial
liquid-gas refrigerant mixture moves through the evaporator, picking up heat from the hot side.
But instead of heating the gas, the heat is used to boil the remaining liquid. It is important for
the evaporator to boil all of the liquid, prior to the refrigerant entering the compressor in the
following step. Once all the liquid has boiled, the liquid-gas mixture turns into a refrigerant gas
(vapor), called a saturated vapor. Any additional heat will now increase the temperature of the
refrigerant vapor, into a region called super heat. Any release in heat will cause some of the
gas to condense back to a liquid.

It is important for the engineer to understand that the amount of cooling provided through the
evaporation of the refrigerant liquid is much more than simply increasing the temperature of the
refrigerant liquid. For example, R-134a takes 92.82 Btu of heat to change 1 lb of refrigerant
from liquid to gas. While it takes 0.204 Btu of heat to increase 1 lb of refrigerant gas by 1°F.

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5.2 COMPRESSOR
Step 2: Compressor. The next step is where the refrigerant gas is compressed by the
compressor, which raises the temperature and pressure of the gas. The compressor is where
the work takes place. The compressor is also the driving force that moves the refrigerant
through the vapor compression cycle and prepares the refrigerant before it enters the
condenser. It is important that the refrigerant gas is raised to a temperature that is above the
temperature of the fluid in the condenser. This will allow heat to be transferred from the
refrigerant to the condenser fluid. The compression of the refrigerant gas occurs isentropically,
meaning that there is no change in entropy. Since the compressor is not completely efficient
there will be an increase in enthalpy as the heat generated by the compressor is transferred to
the refrigerant gas.

Entropy - a measure of the amount of disorder in a thermodynamic system.

Enthalpy - a measure of the total energy in a thermodynamic system (sensible and latent
energy).

The engineer should be knowledgeable of the 5 different types of compressors and their
advantages and disadvantages, in order to determine when they should be used. The five
types of compressors are centrifugal, scroll, reciprocating, screw and rotary. A brief overview of
the different types of compressors is shown below.

• Rotary: The rotary type compressor compresses refrigerant gas through positive
displacement. Positive displacement simply means that the pressure of the gas
is increased by reducing the volume.
• Scroll: Similar to the rotary type compressor, the scroll compressor uses positive
displacement to increase the pressure of the gas.
• Screw: Similar to the rotary type compressor, the scroll compressor uses
positive displacement to increase the pressure of the gas. The screw
compressor consists of two interlocking screws. The gas moves through the
screw from the beginning thread to the end thread, increasing the pressure as it
moves to the discharge side.
• Reciprocating: A reciprocating compressor compresses gas through positive
displacement. A piston type movement compresses gas as it enters the cylinder.
• Centrifugal: Centrifugal compressors are not like positive displacement
compressors, these compressors rely on a rotating impeller to use its centrifugal
force to move the gas to the outside diameter of the rotating impeller, which
increases the velocity of the gas. The increased velocity is then translated into
increased pressure.

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Another distinction between compressors is made between hermetic, semi-hermetic and open
drive compressors. Hermetic is most often recognized when used in the phrase “hermetic seal”,
which means airtight.

Hermetic: A hermetic compressor is airtight. The compressor and motor are located in a
welded container, so no refrigerant can escape. Since the motor is located in the same
enclosure as the compressor, the compressor needs to account for the motor heat.

Open Drive: An open drive compressor indicates that the compressor and refrigerant are
located in an enclosure and out of the enclosure is a shaft connecting it to a motor. The motor
is outside of the enclosure and the heat is lost to the space and not to compressor.

Semi-Hermetic: A semi-hermetic is similar to a hermetic compressor, except the motor and


compressor are located in a mechanically sealed container, which can be opened without
cutting into the enclosure unlike the hermetic compressor.

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5.3 CONDENSER
Step 3: Condenser. The third step in the vapor compression cycle is the condenser. The
condenser is the counterpart of the evaporator. Similar to the evaporator, the condenser is
simply a heat exchanger. Except in this case, heat is exchanged from the warm refrigerant gas
to the cold medium. The heat released by the warm refrigerant gas causes it to change phases.
The refrigerant gas condenses to refrigerant liquid.

There are two types of condensers, similar to the two types of evaporators. Figure 5 shows a
sample water cooled condenser, where cool condenser water at ~85 °F is used to remove heat
from the refrigerant, causing it to increase in temperature to approximately ~95 °F. Figure 6
shows the air cooled system, where heat is removed from the refrigerant by blowing outside air
over the coil. The location will determine the condenser water and outside air temperatures.

FIGURE 5: WATER COOLED FIGURE 6: AIR COOLED

The methods of heat exchange are similar to that of the evaporator. Refer to the evaporator
section for the different types of heat exchangers.

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5.4 EXPANSION DEVICE
Step 4: Expansion Device. The final step is the expansion device, which is the counterpart of
the compressor. The expansion device reduces the pressure of the liquid, which causes not
only the pressure to decrease but also the temperature to decrease. During this process, some
of the liquid refrigerant is turned into a gas, this is called flash gas. The resultant of the
expansion device is a cold partial liquid-vapor refrigerant mix. The cold refrigerant liquid-vapor
mix then repeats the process at the evaporator.

The expansion device that is primarily used in air conditioning systems is called a thermostatic
expansion valve (TXV). The TXV as its name describes, opens and closes, based on a thermal
device. The adjustment of the opening/closing determines the amount of refrigerant that is
passed through and evaporated. The TXV uses the temperature of the evaporator output as a
basis for determining the amount of refrigerant.

For example, if the TXV senses that the evaporator is producing an output refrigerant
temperature that is too cold, then there is too much refrigerant for the heat load (hot side of the
evaporator) and the refrigerant sent to the evaporator needs to be throttled down (decrease cold
side of the evaporator). If the TXV senses that the output of the evaporator is too high, then the
amount of refrigerant cannot keep up with the heat load (hot side) then the TXV should allow
more refrigerant to the evaporator (increase cold side).

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6.0 PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM
The pressure-enthalpy diagram or P-H diagram is a tool that all HVAC & Refrigeration
engineers should be able to use proficiently. This diagram describes the relationship of
pressure and enthalpy of a select refrigerant. In order to properly understand this diagram, it is
best to go through the vapor compression cycle on a P-H diagram.

On the P-H diagram, pressure is indicated on the y-axis and enthalpy is indicated on the x-axis.
Typically enthalpy is in units of Btu/lb and pressure is in units of pounds per square inch (psi).
The upside down U figure shown on the diagram designates the points at which the refrigerant
changes phase. The left vertical curve indicates the saturated liquid curve and the right vertical
curve indicates the saturated vapor curve. The region in between the two curves describe
refrigerant states that contain a mixture of both liquid and vapor. The locations to the left of the
saturated liquid curve indicate that the refrigerant is in liquid form and locations to the right of
the saturated vapor curve indicate that the refrigerant is in vapor form. The point at which the
two curves meet is called the critical point. The importance of this point is that at any point
above, no additional pressure will change the vapor into a liquid. A simplified pressure-enthalpy
diagram is shown in Figure 7, describing this information.

FIGURE 7: PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM

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The curves break up the diagram into three regions (1) Liquid, (2) Vapor and (3) Mix.

(1) Liquid Region: The liquid region is also known as the sub-cooled region. In this region
there are vertical temperature lines, which increase as enthalpy is increased. Figure 8 is a
simplified P-H diagram illustrating the constant temperature lines.

(2) Vapor Region: The vapor region is also known as the super heated region. In this region
there are vertical temperature lines, which increase as enthalpy is increased. Refer to Figure 8.
There are also lines of constant entropy, which are also important. Entropy is the measure of
the amount of disorder in the system.

(3) Liquid-Vapor Mix Region: In this region, the P-H diagram shows horizontal temperature
lines, which indicate constant temperature. The mix region is the phase change region, where
any addition of enthalpy will cause additional liquid to vaporize instead of raising the
temperature. Figure 8 illustrates the horizontal temperature lines in the mix region. There are
also upward sloping curves which indicate quality. Quality is a measure of the ratio of vapor
mass to total mass. For example quality of 0.1 or 10%, which is located near the saturated
liquid line, describes points that have 10% vapor by mass. The 0.9 or 90% line, which is located
near the saturated vapor line, describes points that have 90% vapor by mass. The previous
figure, Figure 7, indicates the quality lines.

FIGURE 8: P-H DIAGRAM, CONSTANT TEMPERATURE LINES


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The x-y axes of the P-H diagram are the pressure lines running from left to right. The enthalpy
lines are the vertical lines. The skeletal graph shown in Figure 9 below shows the pressure-
enthalpy lines.

FIGURE 9: P-H DIAGRAM, CONSTANT PRESSURE & ENTHALPY LINES

The next important lines on the pressure-enthalpy diagram are those describing lines of
constant entropy, which are used and discussed in section 6.1.2 Compressor.

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6.1 REFRIGERATION CYCLE
One of the most important skills needed for the professional engineer in the HVAC &
Refrigeration field is navigating the refrigeration cycle on a pressure-enthalpy diagram. The
following sections will show each specific part of the refrigeration cycle on the pressure-enthalpy
diagram and it will also highlight the important points and calculations needed.

Throughout this explanation the refrigerant R-134a is used as an example. It is recommended


that the engineer get a copy of the P-H diagram for R-134a and the other common refrigerants.
These diagrams can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals book. A sample R-134a diagram
is shown below, with a sample refrigeration cycle, identifying (Step 1) Evaporator, (Step 2)
Compressor, (Step 3) Condenser and (Step 4) Expansion Device.

FIGURE 10: SAMPLE R-134A P-H DIAGRAM

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6.1.1 STEP 1 EVAPORATOR
The refrigerant entering the evaporator is a cold, partial liquid-vapor mixture. The operating
pressure and temperature of the evaporator is called the suction pressure and suction
temperature. The suction line is the piping that routes refrigerant gas from the evaporator to the
compressor. It is important to note that in the mix region, the pressure and temperature are
dependent variables.

For example, if a compressor operates at a suction pressure of 36.8 psia, then the
corresponding evaporator pressure is 36.8 psia and the corresponding evaporator temperature
is 25 °F, see below figure for points A and B (Values are for Refrigerant R-134a). If the
compressor operates at a suction pressure of 49.7 psia, then the corresponding evaporator
pressure is also 49.7 psia and the evaporator temperature is 40 °F. See below figure for points
A' and B'(Values are for Refrigerant R-134a).

FIGURE 11: R-134A P-H DIAGRAM WITH EVAPORATOR, SUCTION PRESSURE VERSUS EVAPORATOR TEMPERATURE

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The evaporator moves the refrigerant from point A (partial liquid-vapor mixture) to point B, a fully
saturated vapor refrigerant. As the evaporator transfers heat to the refrigerant, there is no gain
in temperature, since all the heat is used to convert the remaining liquid to a gas. In an ideal
evaporator, there is just enough heat transfer to convert all the liquid to gas and nothing more.
Thus, the output of an ideal evaporator is 100% vapor at the same entering temperature, refer
to figure 12 below. In this figure, we see that as the refrigerant moves through the evaporator,
the temperature remains the same and the percentage of vapor increases, until it reaches
saturation at 100%.

FIGURE 12: IDEAL EVAPORATOR, ZERO SUPERHEAT

Also introduced in the figure above is the term superheat. If additional heat were to be added to
the 100% vapor refrigerant, then the heat would be used to increase the temperature and it is
this increase in temperature that is called superheat.

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In Figure 13 below, an evaporator with 15 °F superheat is shown. The refrigerant reaches
100% vapor prior to leaving the evaporator. All the additional heat from this point is used to
increase the temperature of the refrigerant until it reaches a temperature of 40 °F. This
refrigerant has a superheat of 15 °F because the final temperature is 15 degrees passed the
saturation temperature of 25 °F. It is important to note that the pressure remains constant
throughout the evaporator.

FIGURE 13: EVAPORATOR WITH 15 F OF SUPERHEAT

On the pressure-enthalpy diagram superheat is shown as horizontal movement along the


suction pressure line passed the 100% vapor curve. The figure on the following page shows the
difference between 0 °F and 15 °F superheat. Point B is the 100% vapor point at a constant
evaporator/suction pressure of 36.8 psia and a temperature of 25 °F. Point B' results from
additional heat/enthalpy added to the refrigerant. The refrigerant moves from point B to point B',
where the resulting temperature is 40 °F.

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FIGURE 14: R134A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM, 0 °F VS. 15 °F SUPERHEAT

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6.1.2 STEP 2 COMPRESSOR
The compressor is characterized by the refrigerant suction and discharge conditions. Horizontal
lines are drawn across the refrigerant's pressure enthalpy diagram for the suction and discharge
pressures. Then the incoming temperature of the compressor, as determined by the leaving
temperature of the evaporator, is used as the starting point of the compressor, as shown by
point B' on Figure 15. The compressor then increases the pressure of the refrigerant up to the
discharge pressure. Compression occurs at constant entropy, also known as isentropic
compression. Therefore the intersection of the constant entropy line and the discharge
pressure line will identify the final condition of the refrigerant gas leaving the compressor, as
shown by point C' in Figure 15 below.

FIGURE 15: R134A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM - COMPRESSOR

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A common skill, that is required of a professional engineer, is to determine the work done by the
compressor. This work is shown on Figure 15 as the difference between the compressor
entering enthalpy (H1) and the leaving enthalpy (H2). The equation to determine the work of
the compressor is shown below. This equation multiples the refrigeration flow rate by the
change in enthalpy between the discharge and suction conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻2 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏

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6.1.3 STEP 3 CONDENSER
The refrigerant entering the condenser is now a hot, high pressure refrigerant gas. The
condenser is shown on the pressure-enthalpy diagram as a horizontal line. This horizontal line
is a line of constant pressure, corresponding to the discharge pressure of the compressor. The
condenser proceeds from right to left in the following three steps:

(1) The superheated gas cools down to saturation temperature [C' 160 °F to D' 140 °F]. Cooling
takes place as heat flows from the hot refrigerant gas to the condenser cooling medium.

(2) Next, the100% saturated vapor at D' is converted to 100% saturated liquid at D''. Heat is lost
to the condenser cooling medium as the vapor is condensed to a liquid.

(3) Finally, the 100% saturated liquid is sub-cooled from D'' to D'''[140 °F to 115 °F]. In an
ideal condenser, no sub-cooling occurs. Once the refrigerant is a fully saturated liquid, any
additional heat loss results in a decrease in temperature. This cooling of the saturated liquid is
referred to as sub-cooling. In this example, the refrigerant has gone through 25 °F of sub-
cooling and resulted in a sub-cooled temperature of 115 °F.

FIGURE 16: R134A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM - CONDENSER

A common question is to determine the heat expelled by the condenser, which is shown on
Figure 16 as the difference between the condenser entering condition (H2) and the leaving
condition (H4). The equation to determine the net condenser effect is shown below. This

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equation multiples the refrigeration flow rate by the change in enthalpy between the entrance
and exit of the condenser.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏

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6.1.4 STEP 4 EXPANSION DEVICE
The expansion device is the counterpart of the compressor. Similarly, the expansion device is
characterized by the suction and discharge pressures. Horizontal lines are again drawn on the
refrigerant's pressure-enthalpy diagram. The input condition of the expansion device is
determined by the condenser output conditions.

There are two entering conditions to the expansion device shown on the following diagram,
Figure 17. The first situation has 0 °F of sub-cooling [D’’] and the second situation has 15 °F of
sub-cooling [D’’’].

The expansion device expands the high pressure refrigerant gas adiabatically to a low pressure
liquid-vapor refrigerant mixture. Adiabatic expansion indicates that there is no change in
enthalpy and is characterized by a downward vertical line as shown on the below graph.

Note on the graph below as the refrigerant moves from point D to point A, the refrigerant moves
from the liquid phase of the graph to the vapor-liquid mixture region. The amount of gas that is
formed during this expansion is called flash gas.

FIGURE 17: PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM - CONDENSER

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6.1.5 NET REFRIGERATION/CONDENSER, WORK AND COP:
Typical questions on the PE exam involve being able to navigate the P-H diagram through a
refrigeration cycle. The previous sections described each of the four steps of the refrigeration
cycle in detail and this section provides an overview of the cycle. In addition, this section
provides problems involving net refrigeration, net condenser effect, compressor-work and COP.

The net refrigeration effect is the amount of cooling provided by the evaporator. In order
to determine the net refrigeration effect, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the
evaporator and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. Refer to Figure 18.

FIGURE 18: SUMMARY OF REFRIGERATION CYCLE

The compressor work is the amount of work provided by the compressor. In order to
determine the compressor work, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the
compressor and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. Refer to Figure 18.

The net condenser effect is the amount of heat removed by the condenser. In order to
determine the net condenser effect, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the
condenser and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. When determining the

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leaving condition of the condenser, ensure that the appropriate amount of sub-cooling is used.
Refer to Figure 18. It is important to note that the net condenser effect is equal to sum of
the net refrigeration effect and the compressor work.

A summary of the useful equations are shown below.

Equation 1: Evaporator Net Refrigeration Effect

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏
Equation 2: Compressor Work

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏
Equation 3: Net Condenser Effect

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏
Equation 4: Net Condenser Effect

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] + 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

The next term that the engineer should understand is Coefficient of Performance or COP. COP
is the ratio of the amount of “Work Out” divided by the amount of “Work In”. In the refrigeration
cycle, “Work Out” is equal to the net refrigeration effect. “Work In” is equal to the Compressor
Work, this is the only point at which outside work is put into the system.

Equation 5: COP

𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑊𝑖𝑛 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

COP is a term used to describe the efficiency of a piece of equipment. Another common term is
the Energy Efficiency Ratio or EER. The EER term describes the ratio of the cooling capacity in
units [Btu/hr] to the input electrical power in units [Watts]. The conversion of COP to EER is
shown below.

Refrigeration - 30 http://www.engproguides.com
Equation 6: Relationship between COP and EER

𝐸𝐸𝑅
𝐶𝑂𝑃 =
3.412

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7.0 CODES & REFERENCES
As a practicing Refrigeration engineer, it is important to be aware of the available codes and
references. The codes describe the minimum criteria that the Refrigeration designs must meet.
The references provide additional information to provide additional direction to guide the
designs. In this section, ASHRAE 15 and the Montreal Protocol are discussed.

7.1 ASHRAE 15, SAFETY STANDARD FOR


REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
ASHRAE 15 describes the safety requirements for refrigeration systems. It is a necessary tool
for a professional engineer to be familiar with. It is recommended that this standard be
reviewed prior to the exam in order to increase familiarity.

One common calculation completed by professional engineers is to determine the amount of


exhaust flow required to properly evacuate refrigerant from a space. Refrigerants are heavier
than air and if refrigerants were to be released into an enclosed space (mechanical room), then
the refrigerant would displace the air in the space. If someone were to be in the room, when a
leak were to occur then they could possible suffocate.

As part of ASHRAE 15, a refrigerant sensor and exhaust system must be provided in order to
evacuate the refrigerant in the event of a leak. The airflow required depends on the maximum
weight of refrigerant that can be leaked. This weight is assumed to be the largest refrigerant
amount (lbs) in a single piece of equipment or circuit. A single chiller with multiple refrigerant
circuits can be considered to contain two separate refrigerant systems, thus only the refrigerant
weight in the largest circuit needs to be considered and not both.

Once the refrigerant weight in the largest system is determined, then a simple formula is used to
determine the airflow required.

𝑄[𝐶𝐹𝑀] = 100𝑋𝐺 0.5 , where G = lbs of refrigerant.

ASHRAE 15 also provides a safety rating for variety types of refrigerants.

7.2 MONTREAL PROTOCOL


The Montreal Protocol is a treaty that was signed by the United Nations, with the purpose of
protecting the ozone layer by phasing out ozone depleting substances like CFC's and HCFC's.
Although the Montreal Protocol covers many substances like Halons, which are used in Fire
Protection Systems, this section only covers those substances pertaining to refrigeration.

CFC's, like the refrigerant R-11, were phased out in 1996. There were exceptions made for a
few CFC's, but the exceptions did not include refrigerants. Because of the ban on CFC's
refrigerant manufacturers created HCFC's as an interim solution to reduce the potential for
ozone depletion by refrigerants.

HCFC's, like the refrigerant R-22, were scheduled to phase out in the following manner.

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• January 1, 2004. 35% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's from the US
baseline.
• January 1, 2010. 75% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's and new
machines shall no longer use HCFC's like R-22, R-123 is exempt.
• January 1, 2015. 90% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's from baseline.
• January 1, 2020. 99.5% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's and no
production of HCFC's like R-22 for existing machines, R-123 is exempt for
existing machines. R-123 is banned on all new equipment.
• January 1, 2030. 100% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's. R-123
banned for all existing equipment.

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8.0 REFRIGERATION PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1 – EVAPORATOR
Background: A chiller uses R-134a refrigerant, with a flow rate of 50 lb/min and has a suction
pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA, with no sub-cooling and no super
heating.

Problem: What is the net refrigeration effect of the evaporator?

(a) 10 Tons

(b) 11.5 Tons

(c) 13.5 Tons

(d) 16 Tons

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SOLUTION 1 - EVAPORATOR
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 107 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 54 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (107 − 54) � � ∗ 50 � � ∗ 60 � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

1 𝑡𝑜𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 159,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ ∗ = 13.25 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Refrigeration - 35 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 2 – EVAPORATOR
Background: A chiller uses R-134a refrigerant, with a flow rate of 50 lb/min. The chiller is used
to provide chilled water leaving the evaporator at a temperature of 45 F. .

Problem: Which suction pressure should the evaporator operate at to provide a 10 degree F
differential between the chilled water and refrigeration liquid temperature?

(a) 40 PSIA

(b) 45 PSIA

(c) 50 PSIA

(d) 55 PSIA

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SOLUTION 2 – EVAPORATOR
In order to provide a 10 degree differential between the chilled water temperature at 45 F, the
refrigerant liquid in the evaporator must be 35 F. According to the R-134A P-H diagram, 35 F
corresponds to a pressure of ~45 PSIA.

(a) 40 PSIA - corresponding evaporator temperature = 29 F.

(b) 45 PSIA - corresponding evaporator temperature = 34.9 F.

(c) 50 PSIA - corresponding evaporator temperature = 40.3 F.

(d) 55 PSIA - corresponding evaporator temperature = 45.2 F.

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PROBLEM 3 – EVAPORATOR
Background: A chiller with a refrigerant flow rate of 50 lb/min of R-134a has a suction pressure
of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The evaporator provides 20 F of super-
heating and the condenser provides no sub-cooling.

Problem: What is the net refrigeration effect?

(a) 11 Tons

(b) 12.25 Tons

(c) 13 Tons

(d) 14.25 Tons

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SOLUTION 3 – EVAPORATOR
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 111 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 54 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (111 − 54) � � ∗ 50 � � ∗ 60 � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

1 𝑡𝑜𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 171,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ ∗ = 14.25 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Refrigeration - 39 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 4 – COMPRESSOR
Background: A chiller operates with a R-134A refrigerant flow rate of 200 lb/min, with a suction
pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The condenser provides 10 F of
sub-cooling and the evaporator provides 0 F of superheat.

Problem: What is the work done by the compressor?

(a) 160,000 BTUH

(b) 180,000 BTUH

(c) 200,000 BTUH

(d) 220,000 BTUH

Refrigeration - 40 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 4 – COMPRESSOR
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐻1 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 107
𝑙𝑏

𝐻2 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐻1 , 0.22
𝑙𝑏 °𝐹
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 122
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (122 − 107) � � ∗ (200) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 180,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

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PROBLEM 5 – COMPRESSOR
Background: A chiller has a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 175 lb/min. The compressor is
measured to provide 200,000 Btuh of work. If the evaporator operates at a suction pressure of
40 PSIA and provides 0 degrees F of superheat.

Problem: What is the discharge pressure?

(a) 180

(b) 220

(c) 320

(d) 400

Refrigeration - 42 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 5 – COMPRESSOR
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 𝑋
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 107
𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝑋 − 107) � � ∗ (175) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 200,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ [𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛]

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑋

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑋 = 126
𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 126 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 0.223
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏 °𝐹

Discharge pressure is roughly 320 PSIA.

Refrigeration - 43 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 6 – CONDENSER
Background: A chiller operates with a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 250 lb/min. The suction
pressure is 40 PSIA and the discharge pressure is 200 PSIA. The evaporator provides 0 F of
superheat and the condenser provides 10 F of sub-cooling.

Problem: What is net condenser effect?

(a) 62 tons

(b) 76 tons

(c) 89 tons

(d) 100 tons

Refrigeration - 44 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 6 – CONDENSER
𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 1: 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 2: 𝐹𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝐴 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻4


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 122
𝑙𝑏
𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 3: 𝐹𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒 10 𝐹 𝑙𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑏 − 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 50.5
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = (122 − 50.5) � � ∗ (250) ∗ 60 = 1,072,050 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ 𝑜𝑟 89.4 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑙𝑏

Refrigeration - 45 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 7 – CONDENSER
Background: A chiller operates with a suction pressure of 35 PSIA and a discharge pressure of
225 PSIA. The refrigerant flow rate is 100 lb/min of R-134a. The compressor provides 200,000
BTUH of work. The COP of the chiller is 4.0. What is the net condenser effect?

Problem: What is the net condenser effect?

(a) 83.3 Tons

(b) 93.6 Tons

(c) 120.3 Tons

(d) 139.3 Tons

Refrigeration - 46 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 7 – CONDENSER
𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 1: 𝐷𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡.

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = 4.0 =
200,000 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 800,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 2: 𝐷𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡.

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 + 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 800,000 + 200,000 = 1,000,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ 𝑜𝑟 83.3 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

Refrigeration - 47 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 8 – EXPANSION DEVICE
Background: A temperature expansion valve, senses that the temperature at the end of the
evaporator has increased from 10 F super heat [normal operation] to 15 F super heat [current].

Problem: What best describes the situation and the temperature expansion valve's next action?

(a) Cooling load is decreasing, TXV should decrease refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(b) Cooling load is decreasing, TXV should increase refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(c) Cooling load is increasing, TXV should decrease refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(d) Cooling load is increasing, TXV should increase refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

Refrigeration - 48 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 8 – EXPANSION DEVICE
𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠,

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝑎𝑠 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵 𝑖𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡.

𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔.

𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔,

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑑 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

Refrigeration - 49 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 9 – EXPANSION DEVICE
Problem: Which of the following is NOT a primary function of a thermal expansion valve in a
refrigeration cycle?

(a) Control the amount of refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle.

(b) Ensure the correct amount of sub-cooling is provided by the condenser.

(c) Maintain the correct level of superheat from the evaporator.

(d) Ensure no liquid is passed from the evaporator to the compressor.

Refrigeration - 50 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 9 – EXPANSION DEVICE
• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟
• 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒖𝒃𝒄𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒅 𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒓 𝒊𝒔 𝒅𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅.
𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒔
• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 ℎ𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑜𝑟, 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛
𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡
• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 ℎ𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑜𝑟, 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛
𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡, 𝑡ℎ𝑢𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟, 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑛𝑜 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑.

Correct Answer: B

Refrigeration - 51 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 10 – COP
Background: A chiller with a R-134a. The chiller operates with a suction pressure of 40 PSIA
and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The chiller is rated at 100 tons of useful cooling. The
compressor also provides 84 KW of useful work to the system.

Problem: What is the COP?

(a) 3.5

(b) 4

(c) 4.2

(d) 4.6

Refrigeration - 52 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 10 – COP
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡
𝐶𝑂𝑃 =
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟

This question involves converting the useful cooling of the chiller and the work done by the
compressor to the same units.

1 𝑇𝑜𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 84 𝑘𝑤 ∗ = 23.9 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠
3.517 𝑘𝑊

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 100 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

100 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝐶𝑂𝑃 = = 4.18
23.9 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

Correct Answer: C

Refrigeration - 53 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 11 – COP
Background: A chiller with a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 75 lb/min. The chiller operates with
a suction pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The evaporator produces
15 degrees F of superheat and the condenser produces 10 degrees F of sub-cooling.

Problem: What is the COP?

(a) 4

(b) 4.5

(c) 5

(d) 5.5

Refrigeration - 54 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 11 – COP
First find point H1, which is the enthalpy entering the compressor, by following the suction
pressure line to a superheat temperature of 15 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻1 = 110
𝑙𝑏

Second find point H2, which is the enthalpy leaving the compressor, by following the constant
entropy line from point entering the compressor to the intersection of the discharge pressure.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻2 = 125
𝑙𝑏

Third find point H4, which is the enthalpy entering the evaporator, by following the constant
enthalpy line by following the discharge pressure line to a sub-cooled temperature of 10 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻4 = 50.5
𝑙𝑏

Refrigeration - 55 http://www.engproguides.com
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (125 − 110) = 15

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �
𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (110 − 50.5) = 59.5

59.5
𝐶𝑂𝑃 = = 3.97
15

Correct Answer: A

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PROBLEM 12 – REFRIGERATION CODES
Background: A chiller has two separate refrigeration cycles, with independent refrigerant
charges. One charge has 50 lbs of refrigerant, the other has 75 lbs of refrigerant.

Problem: The refrigerant exhaust system must have a capacity of approximately, how much
CFM?

(a) 707

(b) 866

(c) 1120

(d) 1466

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SOLUTION 12 – REFRIGERATION CODES
The refrigerant exhaust system, must be sized to exhaust the largest single compartment of
refrigerant by weight, in accordance with the following equation. The (2) compartments do not
need to be added.

𝑄[𝐶𝐹𝑀] = 100𝑋750.5 , where G = lbs of refrigerant.

𝑄 = 866 𝐶𝐹𝑀

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PROBLEM 13 – REFRIGERANTS
Problem: Which of the following best ranks refrigerants from least to most harmful to the ozone,
from left to right?

(a) R-11 - Ammonia - R-134a - R-22

(b) R-11 - R-134a - R-22 - Ammonia

(c) R-22 - Ammonia - R-134a - R-11

(d) R11 - R-22 - R-134a - Ammonia

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SOLUTION 13 – REFRIGERANTS
(a) R-11 - Ammonia - R-134a - R-22

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it contains chlorine, ammonia and R-134a do not
contain chlorine and are not harmful to the ozone, however R-22 does contain chlorine since it
is a HCFC. Thus this ranking is incorrect.

(b) R-11 - R-134a - R-22 - Ammonia

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it is a CFC and was banned, R-134a is a HFC and
does not contain chlorine and has an ODP of 0, however R-22 does contain chlorine since it is a
HCFC. Thus this ranking is incorrect.

(c) R-22 - Ammonia - R-134a - R-11

R-22 is a HCFC and contains chlorine. Ammonia and R-134a both do not contain chlorine and
both have an ODP of 0. However, R-11 is a CFC and has a high ODP. Thus this ranking is
incorrect.

(d) R11 - R-22 - R-134a - Ammonia

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it contains chlorine, R-22 does contain chlorine
since it is a HCFC, but to a lesser extent than R-11. Ammonia and R-134a both do not contain
chlorine and both have an ODP of 0. Thus this ranking is correct.

Correct Answer: D

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SECTION 3: THERMODYNAMICS

STEAM SYSTEMS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 2
2.0 Key Equations and Terms .................................................................................................. 3
3.0 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram ............................................................................................... 6
4.0 Steam Tables ................................................................................................................... 12
5.0 Mollier Diagram ................................................................................................................ 15
6.0 Determining Properties of Steam ..................................................................................... 16
7.0 Steam Boilers ................................................................................................................... 18
8.0 Steam Heating Coils ........................................................................................................ 19
9.0 Steam Piping .................................................................................................................... 21
10.0 Steam Traps..................................................................................................................... 22
11.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 23
Practice Problem 1: Steam Production ................................................................................... 23
Solution 1: Steam Production .............................................................................................. 24
Practice Problem 2: Steam Air Coils ...................................................................................... 25
Solution 2: Steam Air Coils ................................................................................................. 26
Practice Problem 3: Steam Boiler ........................................................................................... 27
Solution 3: Steam Boiler ...................................................................................................... 28
Practice Problem 4: Steam - Hot Water Coils ......................................................................... 29
Solution 4: Steam - Hot Water Coils .................................................................................... 30

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

This Steam Guide for the PE Exam provides background information on the steam pressure
enthalpy diagram and the Mollier Diagram and various pieces of steam equipment. The
professional engineer in the HVAC/R industry must have a deep understanding of steam
systems, because it is often used in the heating of both water and air. This guide teaches the
key concepts and skills that are often used in dealing with Steam Systems.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the
test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the
International System of Units (SI).

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2.0 KEY EQUATIONS AND TERMS

Relationship of Enthalpy of Vaporization, Enthalpy of Saturated Vapor and Liquid


Water
ℎ𝑔 = ℎ𝑓 + ℎ𝑓𝑔
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟[ ]
𝑙𝑏𝑚
ℎ𝑓 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
∗ 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 & 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

Enthalpy of Wet Steam (Mixed Region) as a Function of Steam Quality

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔
ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 (𝑚𝑖𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 & 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟)
𝑥 = 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑑𝑟𝑛𝑦𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, % 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Relationship of Entropy of Vaporization, Entropy of Saturated Vapor and Liquid


Water
𝑠𝑔 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑠𝑓𝑔
𝑠𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟[
𝑠𝑓 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝑠𝑓𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Entropy of Wet Steam (Mixed Region) as a Function of Steam Quality


𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ 𝑠𝑓𝑔
𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 (𝑚𝑖𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 & 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟)
𝑥 = 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑑𝑟𝑛𝑦𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, % 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Heat Available from Condensing Steam

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔
𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 [ ]
ℎ𝑟

Throttling: Irreversible Adiabatic [Constant Enthalpy] or Isenthalpic

ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = ℎ𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

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Tank Heating/Cooling: Isometric [Constant Volume]

𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑣𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑣 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 [ ]
𝑙𝑏

Turbine Expansion: Isentropic [Constant Entropy] or Reversible Adiabatic

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑠𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

Compressor: Isentropic [Constant Entropy] or Reversible Adiabatic

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑠𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

Boiler Heating: Isobaric [Constant Pressure]

𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙
𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎]

Heat Exchanger (Boiling or Condensing): Isothermal [Constant Temperature]

𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

Boiler Efficiency

(𝑚̇𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ) ∗ (𝐻𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐻𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛)


𝜀𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 =
𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

Convert Feed-Water Flowrate in GPM to Steam Flowrate in lbs/hr

𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1 𝑓𝑡 3 62.4 𝑙𝑏 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑙𝑏𝑠


1 ∗[ ∗ ∗ ] = 500
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 ℎ𝑟

Simplified Steam Heating Coil: Steam to Water Heat Transfer

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ ∆𝑇

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Simplified Steam Heating Coil: Steam to Air Heat Transfer

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ ∆𝑇

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3.0 PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM
The pressure enthalpy diagram for steam is an excellent tool to gain an understanding of the
steam tables. The pressure-enthalpy diagram describes the liquid, vapor and mix region of
water. As shown in the following figure, the P-H diagram consists of Pressure (PSIA) on the y-
axis and Enthalpy (Btu/lbm) on the x-axis. It is important to note that pressure is shown on a
logarithmic scale while enthalpy is shown in a normal scale. In the middle of the diagram is the
vapor dome. This dome separates the sub-cooled liquid (aka water) on the left side, super-
heated vapor (aka steam) on the right side and the liquid-vapor mix region (aka mixed region or
wet region) in the middle.

FIGURE 1: PRESSURE-ENTHALPY (P-H) DIAGRAM: PHASES OF WATER

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The mixed region is cut by upward sloping lines that represent the percentage of vapor, as
shown in the following figure. The figure shows that as you move from left to right on a constant
pressure line, the percentage of vapor increases from 0% at the saturated liquid to 100% at the
saturated vapor line. The percentage of vapor is also known in other terms as steam quality
and dryness fraction, where saturated vapor has a steam quality or dryness fraction of 1.

FIGURE 2: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM - DRYNESS FRACTION/STEAM QUALITY

The P-H diagram is also helpful in illustrating the relationship between the enthalpy of the
saturated liquid, saturated vapor and the enthalpy of vaporization.

First, take a horizontal line (constant pressure) from the saturated liquid curve to the saturated
vapor curve. These horizontal lines are shown on Figure 3. Then read the corresponding
enthalpies of the saturated liquid and saturated vapor, shown as h f and h g , where h f is the
enthalpy of saturated liquid (fluid) and h g is the enthalpy of saturated vapor (gas). The
difference between these two enthalpies at constant pressure is the enthalpy of vaporization,
shown as h fg . The enthalpy of vaporization is the amount of enthalpy required to evaporate
liquid at a certain pressure. This relationship between the enthalpy of saturated liquid, vapor
and enthalpy of vaporization is shown by the following equation.

ℎ𝑔 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

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FIGURE 3: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM: ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION

If a point in the mix region is selected, then the relationship between the enthalpy of the mixed
steam and the enthalpy of saturated liquid, enthalpy of vaporization and steam quality is as
shown below. “x” is the steam quality or dryness fraction.

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

In the figure above, the point is shown on the 50% steam quality. Therefore only 50% of the
enthalpy of vaporization has been added to the enthalpy of saturated liquid. Substituting 50%
for “x” results in the following equation.

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ℎ𝑓 + 0.5 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

The next important part of the P-H diagram is the constant temperature lines. These lines are
characterized by nearly vertical lines in the sub-cooled liquid and super-heated steam region.
This means that any increase in enthalpy during these phases, causes the temperature of the
liquid or steam to increase and vice versa for decreases in enthalpy. In the mixed region,
temperatures are shown to remain constant with increasing enthalpy and are identified as
horizontal lines. As enthalpy is added to a saturated liquid, the temperature does not change,
because the enthalpy is used to evaporate the liquid to a vapor.

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FIGURE 4: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM: COSNTANT TEMPERATURE LINES

A common point on the P-H diagram that the engineer should memorize is the location of the
boiling point of water at 1 atmosphere (14.7 PSIA), which is 212 °F. It is important to note that if
the temperature of a saturated liquid/vapor mixture is known then the pressure can be
determined. This is because in the phase change region, pressure and temperature are
dependent on each other. In the mixed region, the engineer is unable to determine the location
on the P-H diagram with only temperature and pressure. Another value must also be known,
like entropy, specific volume or steam quality. For example, if the engineer was asked to
determine the enthalpy of water at 212 F, 14.7 PSIA, it would be impossible, because the point
could be located anywhere in between the saturated vapor and liquid lines, along the constant
pressure/temperature lines in the dome.

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Entropy lines on the P-H diagram are shown as downward sloping curves, refer to the figure
below.

FIGURE 5: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM: CONSTANT ENTROPY LINES

Entropy increases as enthalpy is increased in all three regions. Entropy is shown to decrease in
the super heated steam region when pressure is increased. Constant entropy lines are used
during an isentropic process, which means a conversion in which entropy is held constant. One
common process is the flow of steam through an ideal steam turbine. Steam enters the turbine
at a high pressure and leaves at a lower pressure, transmitting the thermal energy to
mechanical work. However, in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, this situation is rarely
encountered.

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The final set of lines on the P-H diagram is the constant specific volume lines, shown below.
Specific volume lines are nearly horizontal in the vapor region and nearly vertical in the liquid
region. It can be seen that in the liquid region, there is very little change in specific volume.
However, in the superheated vapor region, there is a wide range of specific volumes. Specific
volume is shown to increase as pressure is lowered.

FIGURE 6: P-H DIAGRAM: CONSTANT SPECIFIC VOLUME LINES

Although the P-H diagram is a very powerful tool, typically steam tables are used to solve steam
problems. Steam tables are simply a listing of the values of specific volume, enthalpy and
entropy as a function of pressure and temperature at the saturated liquid and vapor curves.

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4.0 STEAM TABLES
There are three main types of steam tables that the engineer must be able to use the, (1)
Saturation Tables as a function of pressure; (2) Saturation Tables as a function of temperature
and (3) Superheated Steam Tables. Graphically the steam tables show the values of the outer
dome on the pressure-enthalpy diagram. The following figure shows the points that are
selected for the steam tables. This figure shows the values as a function of pressure.

FIGURE 7: STEAM TABLES AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE

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The following figure shows the points that are selected for the steam tables. This figure shows
the values as a function of temperature.

FIGURE 8: STEAM TABLES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE

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There are also steam tables for steam in the super-heated region. These steam tables are
shown as a function of pressure and temperature. These values are selected because they are
the easiest to measure in practice.

FIGURE 9: SUPERHEATED STEAM TABLES

The steam tables show that as temperature increases the specific volume, the enthalpy and the
entropy increase. As pressure increases there is a decrease in specific volume, enthalpy and
entropy.

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5.0 MOLLIER DIAGRAM
The Mollier diagram also known as the enthalpy-entropy diagram shows graphically the
various properties of steam ranging from superheated steam to the mixed region. The diagram
does not provide water (liquid) properties. A sample of the diagram is shown below in order to
illustrate the main points of the diagram and how to use the diagram. The aspiring professional
engineer should refer to the actual tables located in the ASHRAE Fundamentals or the
Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual.

FIGURE 10: SIMPLIFIED MOLLIER DIAGRAM

First, inspect the axes, note that the y-axis indicates enthalpy and the x-axis indicates entropy.
The Mollier diagram shows only two regions, the mixed region of vapor and liquid and the
super-heated vapor steam region. The two regions are separated by the downward sloping
saturation line, where steam quality is equal to 1. Secondly, notice the upward sloping (left to

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right) constant pressure lines. Constant dryness fraction or steam quality lines are shown as
downward sloping in the mix region. Finally, the diagram has slightly downward sloping
constant temperature lines, which is only applicable in the super heat region.

6.0 DETERMINING PROPERTIES OF STEAM


One of the main skills that the aspiring professional engineer must acquire is the ability to
determine the properties of steam. In practice, the pressure and temperature of steam can be
found easily. The other useful properties of steam like entropy, enthalpy and specific volume
must be found through the use of the (1) P-H Diagram, (2) Mollier Diagram and (3) Steam
Tables.

A simple way to find the properties of steam given the temperature and pressure is to draw a
simple P-H diagram. For example, assume water is at 14.7 psia and 60 F. Next draw a simple
P-H diagram. It is known that at 14.7 PSIA (1 ATM), the boiling point is 212 F, thus the constant
temperature line in blue can be drawn. Since the temperature of the water is 60 F, then the
point must be located to the left along the horizontal constant pressure line. Note that since
constant temperature lines are vertical in the sub-cooled liquid region, that the enthalpy of water
at 14.7 PSIA, 60 F is equal to the enthalpy of saturated liquid water at 60 F (take vertical line
down from 14.7 PSIA, 60 F to the intersection of the saturated liquid curve.

FIGURE 11: DETERMINING LOCATION ON P-H DIAGRAM

If water was given at a temperature of 212 F and a pressure of 14.7 PSIA, then it would be
impossible to find the location. The point could be located anywhere at the intersection of the

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constant temperature line in blue and the horizontal constant pressure line, which is anywhere
on and in between the saturated liquid and vapor curves.

The previous example is simple because it is near the standard boiling point. However, the
same method can be used for varying temperatures and pressures. For example, water at 600
°F and 300 PSIA. Start the sketch by drawing in the constant temperature line for 600 °F. Then
look up the steam tables as a function of temperature and find 600 °F. In the table, saturated
steam at 600 °F corresponds to a pressure of 1542.5 PSIA. It is known that the point in
question (600 °F and 300 PSIA) must lie on the constant temperature line and it must lie below
the horizontal portion corresponding to a pressure of 1542.5 because the pressure is only 300
PSIA. Thus 600 °F and 300 PSIA steam is located in the super-heated steam region and the
super heated tables should be used.

FIGURE 12: FINDING A POINT ON THE P-H DIAGRAM

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7.0 STEAM BOILERS
Steam boilers are mechanical pieces of equipment designed to convert water in liquid form to
steam through the combustion of a fuel source like natural gas. There are many different types
of boilers but most are characterized by pressure and heat exchanger type.

Low pressure boilers operate below 15 PSI, high pressure boilers operate above 150 PSI and
medium pressure boilers operate in between 15 and 150 PSI. The different types of heat
exchangers describe the location of the fuel and the water. Water tube boilers have water in
tubes, with the hot combustion gases around the tubes, while fire tube boilers have combustion
gases flowing through tubes that are submerged in water.

It is important for the engineer to understand the three different systems that comprise a boiler
system, the (1) Feed-water System, (2) Combustion System and (3) Steam System.

(1) The feed-water system describes the incoming fluid water to the boiler. It consists of a feed-
water pump, water softeners to remove minerals that can damage boilers and de-aerators to
remove oxygen. Feed-water is provided by a mixture of the water supply and condensate
return. The important part of the feed water system is to be able to determine the entering
enthalpy of the feed water, depending on the pressure and temperature of the incoming water.
As previously discussed, water in the sub-cooled region has enthalpy values that are a function
of temperature.

(2) The combustion system describes the fuel portion of the boiler. The combustion system
consists of oxygen supply, typically provided by a fan or air is naturally induced, an ignition, a
fuel supply and piping. It is important to be able to determine the total heat supplied by the fuel.
Total heat is shown as “Q” is a function of the mass flow rate of the fuel, the higher heating
value (HHV) of the fuel and the boiler efficiency. The HHV can be found in the Mechanical
Engineering Reference Manual. Boiler efficiencies are a function of the losses and efficiencies
in the system.

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝜀

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻𝐻𝑉 = ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 [ ]
𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 � �
ℎ𝑟

𝜀 = 𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

(3) The steam system is the output portion of the boiler. It consists of the outgoing steam piping
to the steam consuming pieces of equipment, which in the HVAC & Refrigeration field are steam
heating coils for air distribution and steam heating coils for water distribution. The output of the
boiler is either saturated steam or a super-heated steam and the values for this steam output
can be determined from the saturated steam tables or the super-heated steam tables.

Efficiency of a boiler is found by dividing the output energy by the input energy. The output is
found by determining the change in enthalpy between the feed-water and the super-heated

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steam. The input is determined by the mass flow rate of the fuel and the higher heating value of
the fuel.

(𝑚̇𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ) ∗ (𝐻𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐻𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛)


𝜀𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 =
𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

This efficiency often referred to as the fuel-to-steam efficiency and is a true measure of the
boiler input to output efficiency. There are other efficiencies that are out of the realm of this
book, like the thermal efficiency and combustion efficiency. These items are more
representative of the Thermal & Fluids topic.

8.0 STEAM HEATING COILS


Steam heating coils are in its simplest form, heat exchangers. The steam transfers its latent
heat to either air or water. On one side of heat transfer (energy balance) equation is the
condensing rate of the steam. On the other side of the equation is the energy transferred to
either the air or water.

Derivation of Simplified Equation for Steam to Air Heat Transfer

𝑄̇ = 𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 � �
𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 � � = 0.24
𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

∆𝑇 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [℉]

𝑓𝑡 3 60 min . 0752 𝑙𝑏𝑚


𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = � �∗� �∗[ ] ∗ 0.24 ∗ ∆𝑇
min ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑓𝑡 3

Simplified Equation for Steam to Air Heat Transfer

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ ∆𝑇

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Derivation of Simplified Equation for Steam to Water Heat Transfer

𝑄̇ = 𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 � �
𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � � = 0.24
𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

∆𝑇 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [℉]

𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1 𝑓𝑡 3 62.4 𝑙𝑏 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒


𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1 ∗� ∗ ∗ � ∗ 1.00 ∗ ∆𝑇
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

Simplified Equation for Steam to Water Heat Transfer

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ ∆𝑇

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9.0 STEAM PIPING
Steam flows from high pressure to low pressure without the use of a pump or fan. In the HVAC
& Refrigeration field, steam piping typically consists of a steam supply pipe to the various steam
heating coils and a condensate return pipe which returns the liquid water back to the boiler.

Steam piping is sized through the use of the Darcy Weisbach equation, shown below. This
equation is discussed in more detail in the Mechanical Equipment and Systems Section. Steam
piping is sized to ensure that the appropriate amount of steam [lb/hr] is provided at sufficient
pressure to the heating coils.

𝐿 𝑣2
ℎ𝑓 = 𝑓 ∗ ∗
𝐷 2𝑔

ℎ𝑓 = 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠; 𝑓 = 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐿 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 [𝑓𝑡]


=
𝐷 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 [𝑓𝑡]

𝑓𝑡
𝑣 2 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [𝑠𝑒𝑐 ]
=
2𝑔 𝑓𝑡
2 ∗ 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 32.3
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

In addition, sizing charts are provided for steam at various flow rates and pressures, in order to
speed up pipe sizing calculations. These charts will also be discussed in the Mechanical
Equipment and Systems section.

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10.0 STEAM TRAPS
Steam traps are mechanical devices used to discharge condensate. They are placed
immediately after the steam heating coils and are used to separate any air from the condensate.
Following the steam trap, the condensate is sent back to the boiler through the condensate
piping. There are three types of steam traps, (1) Thermostatic, (2) Mechanical and (3) Kinetic.

The thermostatic trap opens when it is cooled by the sub-cooled water, allowing the condensate
to move to the condensate return piping. When steam is present, the thermostatic trap will
remain closed because of the high temperature.

The mechanical trap works on the difference in densities between steam and condensate. One
type of mechanical trap is the inverted bucket. When steam is present the inverted bucket floats
up, blocking the discharge port. When condensate is present the steam is expelled out and the
condensate begins to fill the inverted bucket, causing it to fall, thereby opening the discharge
port and allowing the condensate to flow out to the condensate return piping.

Kinetic traps distinguish between condensate and steam based on the differences between the
flows and pressures of steam and condensate.

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11.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PRACTICE PROBLEM 1: STEAM PRODUCTION

Water (120 F, 50 lbm/hr) is converted to saturated steam (no super-heat) at a pressure of 15


PSIA. What is the total production of the boiler (Btu/hr)?

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 35,000
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) 45,000
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 55,000
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 75,000
ℎ𝑟

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SOLUTION 1: STEAM PRODUCTION

Water (120 F, 50 lbm/hr) is converted to saturated steam (no super-heat) at a pressure of 15


PSIA. What is the total production of the boiler (Btu/hr)?

The enthalpy of the incoming feed-water at 80 F and a pressure of 15 PSIA is 48.10 Btu/lb.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 48.10
𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the outgoing steam at 15 PSIA, saturated is equal to 1,150.76 Btu/lb.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 1,150.76
𝑙𝑏

The total production of the boiler (Btu/hr) is found by multiplying the difference between the
incoming and outgoing boiler enthalpies by the mass flow rate of the steam.

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 − ℎ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑄 = 50 ∗ (1150.76 − 48.10)
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 55,133
ℎ𝑟

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 2: STEAM AIR COILS

50 lbm/hr of steam enters a heating coil at a pressure of 15 PSIA. 700 CFM of air enters the
coil at 60 F. Assume 100% efficient heat transfer. What is the resulting existing temperature of
the air?

a) 105 ℉

b) 110 ℉

c) 115 ℉

d) 125 ℉

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SOLUTION 2: STEAM AIR COILS

50 lbm/hr of steam enters a heating coil at a pressure of 15 PSIA. 700 CFM of air enters the
coil at 60 F. Assume 100% efficient heat transfer. What is the resulting existing temperature of
the air?

Steam at 15 PSIA has an enthalpy of vaporization of 970 Btu/lb.

𝑄 = 𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑏𝑡𝑢
50 ∗ 970 = 1.08 ∗ 700 ∗ ∆𝑇
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

∆𝑇 = 64 ℉

The final temperature of the air is 124 F.

60℉ + 64 ℉ = 124 ℉

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 3: STEAM BOILER

A steam boiler has a flow rate of 200 lb/hr and an entering feed water of 120 F. The boiler
operates at a pressure of 100 PSIA. The boiler operates off of propane (assume a HHV of
22,000 Btu/lb). The boiler is 80% efficient. What is the required propane fuel rate in (lb/hr)?

𝑙𝑏
a) 12.5
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
b) 14
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
c) 15.5
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
d) 17
ℎ𝑟

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SOLUTION 3: STEAM BOILER

A steam boiler has a flow rate of 200 lb/hr, an entering feed water of 120 F and steam exiting
saturated (no super-heat). The boiler operates at a pressure of 100 PSIA. The boiler operates
off of propane (assume a HHV of 22,000 Btu/lb). The boiler is 80% efficient. What is the
required propane fuel rate in (lb/hr)?

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ (ℎ𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 − ℎ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 )


𝜀=
𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

The incoming enthalpy of the feed water is found through the steam tables to be 88.06 Btu/lb.

The outgoing enthalpy of the steam is found at 100 PSIA through the steam tables to be 1,188
Btu/lb.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 (1,188 − 88.06)𝐵𝑡𝑢


200 ∗
0.8 = ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 22,000
𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = 12.5
ℎ𝑟

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 4: STEAM - HOT WATER COILS

A hot water coil has an incoming water temperature of 70 F and an outgoing temperature of 140
F. Hot water is flowing through the coil at a rate of 40 GPM. What steam flow rate is required to
properly heat the water [lb/hr]? Assume saturated steam at a pressure of 15 PSIA, with no
super heat and sub-cooling and 100% effective heat exchange. .

𝑙𝑏
a) 1,320
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
b) 1,440
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
c) 1,560
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏
d) 1,800
ℎ𝑟

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SOLUTION 4: STEAM - HOT WATER COILS

A hot water coil has an incoming water temperature of 70 F and an outgoing temperature of 140
F. Hot water is flowing through the coil at a rate of 40 GPM. What steam flow rate is required to
properly heat the water [lb/hr]? Assume saturated steam at a pressure of 15 PSIA, with no
super heat and sub-cooling and 100% effective heat exchange. .

Steam at 15 PSIA has an enthalpy of evaporation of 970 Btu/lb.

An energy balance is conducted on the heat loss through condensing the steam and the heat
gained by the water.

𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ 970 = 500 ∗ 40 ∗ 70
𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 1,443
ℎ𝑟

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SECTION 4: PSYCHROMETRICS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Key Terms .......................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 Key Equations .................................................................................................................... 6
4.0 Psychrometric Chart ........................................................................................................... 8
4.1 Properties of Moist Air .................................................................................................... 9
4.1.1 Dry Bulb Temperature ........................................................................................... 10
4.1.2 Wet Bulb Temperature .......................................................................................... 11
4.1.3 Relative Humidity .................................................................................................. 12
4.1.4 Humidity Ratio ....................................................................................................... 13
4.1.5 Enthalpy ................................................................................................................ 14
4.1.6 Specific Volume ..................................................................................................... 15
4.1.7 Dew Point .............................................................................................................. 16
4.2 Movement on Psychrometric Chart .............................................................................. 17
4.2.1 Sensible Heating/Cooling ...................................................................................... 17
4.2.2 Latent Heating/Cooling .......................................................................................... 21
4.2.3 Sensible Heat Ratio ............................................................................................... 25
4.2.4 Mixing of Two Air Streams .................................................................................... 28
5.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 30
Problem 1 - Navigating Psychrometric Chart .......................................................................... 30
Solution 1 - Navigating Psychrometric Chart ....................................................................... 31
Problem 2 - Condensation on Surfaces .................................................................................. 32
Solution 2 – Condensation on Surfaces. ............................................................................. 33
Problem 3 - Change in Enthalpy/Humidity Ratio ..................................................................... 34
Solution 3 - Change in Enthalpy/Humidity Ratio .................................................................. 35
Problem 4 - Air Mixtures .......................................................................................................... 36
Solution 4 - Air Mixtures ....................................................................................................... 37
Problem 5 - Electric Heater ..................................................................................................... 38
Solution 5 - Electric Heater .................................................................................................. 39
Problem 6 - Cooling Coil ......................................................................................................... 40
Solution 6 - Cooling Coil ...................................................................................................... 41
Problem 7 - Humidifier ............................................................................................................. 42
Solution 7 - Humidifier ......................................................................................................... 43
Problem 8 – Dehumidifier ........................................................................................................ 44

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Solution 8 - Dehumidifier ..................................................................................................... 45
Problem 9 - Enthalpy Wheel .................................................................................................... 46
Solution 9 - Enthalpy Wheel ................................................................................................ 47
Problem 10 - Sensible Heat Ratio ........................................................................................... 48
Solution 10 - Sensible Heat Ratio ........................................................................................ 49
Problem 11 – Cooling Load Calculation .................................................................................. 50
Solution 11 – Cooling Load Calculation ............................................................................... 51
Problem 12 – Calculate Amount of Condensate ..................................................................... 52
Solution 12 – Calculate Amount of Condensate .................................................................. 53
Problem 13– Relative Humidity ............................................................................................... 54
Solution 13 – Relative Humidity ........................................................................................... 55
Problem 14– Air Mixtures ........................................................................................................ 56
Solution 14 – Air Mixtures .................................................................................................... 57

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

This section focuses on the skills and concepts related to the Psychrometric Chart. The
Psychrometric Chart is a key tool used by HVAC & Refrigeration engineers in many situations.
It is used in calculating cooling loads and selecting mechanical equipment like enthalpy wheels,
heat exchangers (air), air handlers and fan coils.

This guide focuses on constant atmospheric pressure at sea level, which is the most common
situation encountered by most Mechanical Engineers in the HVAC field. However, if a question
indicates a different pressure or extreme temperatures, then please refer to ASHRAE
Fundamentals for required Psychrometric Charts.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the
test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the
International System of Units (SI).

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2.0 KEY TERMS

Dry bulb temperature indicates the


amount of energy independent of the
Dry Bulb
1 amount of water in the air. Measured
Temperature
with a thermometer.
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

Wet bulb temperature indicates the


Wet Bulb amount of water in the air. Measured
2 with a sling psychrometer or
Temperature
hygrometer.
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

The temperature at which moist air


Dew Point must be cooled to, in order for water to
3
condense out of the air.
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

Humidity ratio or specific humidity is the


4 Humidity Ratio measure of the amount of water in air.
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒑𝒐𝒓
𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 = [ ]
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒓𝒚 𝑨𝒊𝒓

Relative Humidity indicates the amount


Relative Humidity of water in the air relative to the total
5
amount of water the air can hold.
Units = [%]

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Sensible heat indicates the amount of
dry heat. It indicates the amount of
energy either absorbed or released to
6 Sensible Heat change the dry bulb temperature of the
air.
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓
Latent heat indicates the amount of
energy in the air due to moisture. It is
the amount of heat released when
Latent Heat water in the air condenses out or the
7
amount of heat absorbed by water in
order to vaporize the water.
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓
Enthalpy is an indication of the total
amount of energy in the air, both
8 Enthalpy sensible and latent.
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓

Exam Tip #1: Do not spend enormous amounts of time trying to interpolate the exact value on
the psychrometric chart.

The psychrometric chart is provided as part of the NCEES exam, but the chart is small and
unclear compared to the ones typically used in practice. It is the opinion of the writer that this
fact should indicate to the test taker that it is not important to get the values to the nearest
0.0001 (exaggeration) because it is impossible. In addition, the exam writer would not provide
possible multiple choice answers that are fairly close together because of the confusion that
would arise.

Exam Tip #2: During the exam, do not write on anything that is not part of the exam, including
your own psychrometric chart. This may result in disqualification.

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3.0 KEY EQUATIONS

Sensible Heat Equation


𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇𝐷𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
ℎ𝑟
∆𝑇𝐷𝐵 = 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Latent Heat Equation

𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟖 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
ℎ𝑟
𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Latent Heat Equation


𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒, 𝟖𝟒𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
ℎ𝑟
𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
∆𝑾𝒍𝒃 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Total Heat Equation


𝑸𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ (∆𝒉) ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
ℎ𝑟
∆𝒉 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Air Mixing Equation - Dry Bulb

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟏 + 𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟐


𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒
%𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒
%𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

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Air Mixing Equation - Dry Bulb

𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐


𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

Air Mixing Equation - Enthalpy

𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙 = 𝒉𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟏 + 𝒉𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟐


𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙 = 𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦
𝒉𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦
%𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
𝒉𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦
%𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

Air Mixing Equation - Enthalpy

𝒉𝟏 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝒉𝟐 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐
𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙 =
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

Relative Humidity as a Function of Humidity Ratio and Partial Pressures

𝒑𝒘 𝑾𝒘
𝑹𝑯 = 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎% ≈ 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎%
𝒑𝑺𝑨𝑻 𝑾𝑺𝑨𝑻

𝑹𝑯 = 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝒑𝒘 = 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚
𝒑𝑺𝑨𝑻 = 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑾𝒘 = ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚
𝑾𝑺𝑨𝑻 = ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

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4.0 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

The Psychrometric Chart describes the various properties (Dry Bulb Temperature, Wet Bulb
Temperature, Enthalpy, Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity and Specific Volume) of moist air.
Moist air is defined as an air-water mixture. Moist air on a psychrometric chart ranges from Dry
Air to Saturated Air.

Dry air is defined as having no water vapor and is located on the X-axis of the psychrometric
chart. Saturated air is defined as an air-water mixture at equilibrium between the liquid and
vapor phase. Saturated air is moist air in balance with its liquid and vapor phases. At
saturation, air cannot hold any more moisture. It is the extreme opposite of dry air. This
saturated air is defined by the exponential curve, called the saturation curve, which is clearly
shown on Figure 3.

The psychrometric chart does not account for variations in pressure. Pressure is not shown on
any axis, because it is constant. For the PE exam and for this guide, it is assumed that the
psychrometric chart is based on atmospheric pressure (14.696 psia or 1 atm or 29.921 in. Hg),
unless noted otherwise. The psychrometric chart for the PE exam also only shows a range of
the temperatures typically encountered by a typical HVAC & Refrigeration Engineer.

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FIGURE 1: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

The following (3) Psychrometric Chart Topics will now be discussed in detail:

• Air Properties on the Psychrometric Chart: What does each property tell of the air-water
mixture? How much energy does an air mixture have? How do two different air
conditions compare? Is the air hot/cold, wet/dry?

• Movement on the Psychrometric Chart: What causes each type of movement on the
chart (Right to Left, Up and Down, Diagonal). What is sensible heating/cooling? What is
humidification/dehumidification? What is the sensible heat ratio?

• Typical Psychrometric Questions: Mixtures of Moist Air, Humidification/Dehumidification,


Heating/Cooling Questions, Condensation, etc.

4.1 PROPERTIES OF MOIST AIR

Psychrometric Chart – Properties: The psychrometric chart as previously discussed, graphically


shows the following thermodynamic properties of Moist Air, 1) Dry Bulb Temperature, 2) Wet
Bulb Temperature, 3) Relative Humidity, 4) Humidity Ratio, 5) Enthalpy, 6) Specific Volume and
7) Dew Point. If any of the two above properties are known of an air mixture, then the five other
corresponding properties can be found.

The following sections go into detail on each of the thermodynamic properties. It is the intent of
these sections for the reader to gain an understanding of the concepts and to grasp the
meaning of each property.

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4.1.1 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE

This is the temperature most people are familiar with, since the Dry Bulb temperature is the
temperature always shown on thermometers and thermostats. It is called dry because the
temperature is not affected by the moisture in the air. It is a direct indication of the amount of
sensible heat in the air at the given conditions.

In practice, design dry bulb temperatures for typical offices range from 72° to
75° F. Also typical dry bulb temperatures of cool supply air from an air handling
coil ranges from 52° to 55° F. For the purpose of the PE Exam, United States
Customary Units or USCS are used. Please do not spend additional time on
conversions to International System of Units (SI).

FIGURE 2: DRY BULB


On the psychrometric chart, the dry bulb temperature is shown by vertical, TEMPERATURE
parallel lines, below in blue.

FIGURE 3: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - DRY BULB & WET BULB TEMPREATURE

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4.1.2 WET BULB TEMPERATURE

This property takes into account the moisture in the air. The wet
bulb temperature in conjunction with the dry bulb temperature is a
direct indication of the amount of moisture in the air.

The wet bulb temperature is measured through the use of a sling


psychrometer, which consists of a thermometer covered by a wetted
cloth wick. The psychrometer is swung and if the air is dry, then the
wetted cloth wick will begin to evaporate. The energy lost to
evaporation cools the wetted cloth wick, which will in turn decrease
the temperature reading.
FIGURE 4: WET BULB TEMPERATURE
If the air is saturated, then the wetted cloth wick will not evaporate
and the wetted cloth wick will read the same temperature as the air. The drier the air, the more
evaporation will take place, which will cool the wetted cloth wick and will decrease the wet bulb
temperature reading. Thus the difference between the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb
temperature describes whether or not the air is humid or dry.

For example, wet bulb temperatures significantly lower than the dry bulb temperature is an
indication of dry air. A wet bulb temperature near the dry bulb temperature describes air that is
nearly saturated.

On the psychrometric chart shown in Figure 5, the wet bulb temperature lines originate from the
intersection of the corresponding dry bulb temperature and the saturation curve. The wet bulb
lines are shown in pink. If you follow the dry bulb lines shown in blue from the dry air line up to
the saturation curve, you can see that the wet bulb increases until it equals the dry bulb
temperature. When the wet bulb temperature equals the dry bulb temperature, then the air is
saturated.

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4.1.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY

Relative humidity is the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the


air mixture - compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the
air can hold at that dry bulb temperature. For example, an air
mixture at 100% relative humidity is shown on the saturation curve
because the amount of water vapor in the air mixture is equal to
the maximum amount. Dry air is shown as the x-axis, which has a
relative humidity of 0%, since there is no water vapor in the air
mixture.

FIGURE 6: RELATIVE HUMIDITY

The figure on the right shows two equal volumes of air in a jar. One jar
or volume of air contains the maximum amount of water it can hold, as illustrated as a
completely filled jar of water vapor droplets. The other jar is showing only half the amount of
water vapor droplets and therefore has a relative humidity of 50%.

FIGURE 7: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - RELATIVE HUMIDITY

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4.1.4 HUMIDITY RATIO

This property describes the amount of water content in the air,


expressed as the water vapor per unit weight of dry air
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
[ ] or [ ]. Sometimes the humidity ratio
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
is expressed as [ ], where the symbol of these
1 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
units is [W]. Another term used for humidity ratio is absolute
humidity.
FIGURE 8: HUMIDITY RATIO OR
SPECIFIC HUMIDITY

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟


Figure 8 illustrates air with a humidity ratio of .009 [ ], as shown graphically by
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
(9) water vapor droplets. The jar on the right, holding a volume of air, has a humidity ratio of
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
.005 [ ], as illustrated by (5) water vapor droplets in the same volume of air.
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
Mass can be interchanged with volume, if it is assumed that the density is constant. Thus, the
jar with the larger number of droplets for the same volume of air has a higher humidity ratio.

FIGURE 9: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - SPECIFIC HUMIDITY

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4.1.5 ENTHALPY

Enthalpy is the summation of the amount of sensible and latent energy in the air. [Btu/lb of dry
air]. Enthalpy is represented by the symbol = [ℎ]. In HVAC, enthalpy is used to determine the
amount of energy that is in moist air. It is important to recognize that on the psychrometric
chart, enthalpy is shown as downward sloping lines in green. These enthalpy lines are closely
aligned (but not completely) to the downward sloping wet bulb lines. Enthalpy shall be covered
more closely in the following sections. This section is meant to introduce the term and its role
on the psychrometric chart to the reader.

FIGURE 10: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - ENTHALPY

Psychrometrics - 14 http://www.engproguides.com
4.1.6 SPECIFIC VOLUME

Specific volume is used to define the volume taken up by moist air at specific conditions. The
units are defined as [ft3/lb] and the symbol for specific volume is [v]. On the psychrometric
chart, specific volume is shown as downward sloping lines, shown in red on Figure 11.

For example, air at 1 atmosphere, 68° F DB and 60° F WB would have a specific volume of 13.5
ft3/lb and air at 1 atmosphere, 88° F DB and 66° F WB would have a specific volume of 14.0
ft3/lb. It is important to note that specific volume lines are typically shown in 0.5 increments, it is
up to the user of the Psychrometric Chart to extrapolate or interpolate to get more accurate
specific volume measurements.

Most often air at 60 DB/58WB is used as standard conditions, this results in a specific volume of
13.33 [ft3/lb]. Density is simply the inverse of specific volume. At standard conditions, the
density of air is 1/13.33 [ft3/lb] or 0.075 [lb /ft3].

FIGURE 11: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - SPECIFIC VOLUME

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4.1.7 DEW POINT
The dew point can be found by first finding a certain condition on the graph and moving
horizontally left to the saturation curve. This is the temperature at which the air mixture must be
cooled in order for condensation to first occur. In HVAC, this skill is often used to determine
under what conditions condensation will occur on a window, pipe, duct or equipment surface.
One example is the fairly new HVAC system called Chilled Beams. Chilled beams is the system
of cooling spaces through the use of pipes containing cool water suspended below a ceiling, the
pipes are often situated into a passive (no fan) or active (fan) heat exchanger. As warm air
passes over the chilled beam, it cools and falls to the floor, thereby cooling the space below.
Condensation is a concern because if the chilled beam is at a temperature below the dew point
of the air, then as the air hits the coil, water may condense on the chilled beam and drip into the
space.

FIGURE 12: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART - DEW POINT

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4.2 MOVEMENT ON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
4.2.1 SENSIBLE HEATING/COOLING
Sensible heating and cooling is defined as the removal or addition of heat to an air mixture, with
no affect on the moisture content. Its sole effect is on the increase or decrease of the dry bulb
temperature.
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 𝑚̇𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑐𝑝 = 0.240 ;
𝑙𝑏𝑚−℉

𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡 60 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 .075 𝑙𝑏𝑚


𝑚̇= ( )*( )*( )
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑸𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 [ ] = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟖 ∗ ∆𝑻 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

On a Psychrometric Chart, sensible heating and cooling is shown as a horizontal line. It is
horizontal because the amount of water vapor in the air is not changed, thus the Humidity Ratio
remains the same. A horizontal movement increases or decreases the dry bulb temperature.
As the dry bulb temperature increases with sensible heating, the air's capacity to hold water
also increases. The opposite is true with sensible cooling. In addition, sensible heating is
shown on the graph below to decrease relative humidity, while sensible cooling increases
relative humidity.

FIGURE 13: SENSIBLE HEATING/COOLING - HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT

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𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑛𝑜 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒)
𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐻𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠)

𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑠 𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦.

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑛𝑜 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒)


𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐻𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑑𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠)

𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦.

Sensible Heating is characterized by the following: (1) Increase in dry bulb temperature, (2)
Decrease in relative humidity, (3) No change in humidity ratio, (4) Increase in enthalpy, (5)
Increase in specific volume[hotter air takes up more volume], (6) No change in dew point, (7)
Increase in wet bulb.

Sensible Cooling is characterized by the following: (1) Decrease in dry bulb temperature, (2)
Increase in relative humidity, (3) No change in humidity ratio, (4) Decrease in enthalpy, (5)
Decrease in specific volume, (6) No change in dew point, (7) Decrease in wet bulb.

Psychrometrics - 18 http://www.engproguides.com
Quantifying sensible movement on the psychrometric chart is best described through the use of
an example problem.

Example Problem - Sensible Heating

Background: 1,000 CFM of conditioned air at 55° F DB/53° F DB, passes through an electric
resistance heater that provides 12,000 Btu/h of heat to the air, assume that 100% of the air is in
contact with the heater (bypass factor = 0). Assume a constant density of 0.075 lb/ft3.

Question: What are the final conditions of the air? Dry bulb, wet bulb, relative humidity,
humidity ratio?

Solution: The electric heater will only provide sensible heating of the air, therefore the following
equation can be used:

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

𝐵𝑡𝑢
12,000 � � = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 1,000

∆𝑇 = 11.11 = 𝑇𝐷𝐵,𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑇𝐷𝐵,𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙

11.11 = 𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 55° F

𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 66.11° F

We now know the final dry bulb temperature and since only sensible heating occurred, there is
no change in water content, thus humidity ratios are equal 𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 . In order to get the
final conditions of the air, the psychrometric chart must be used. Knowing two values allows the
other 5 properties to be determined, see the following page.

Psychrometrics - 19 http://www.engproguides.com
Step 1: Find initial location, 55° F DB/53° F DB.
Step 2: Show sensible heating movement.
Movement right at constant humidity ratio, by 11.1° F DB.
Step 3: Read properties at final location.
Dry Bulb = 66.1° F DB
Wet Bulb = 57.5° F WB
Relative Humidity = 60%
Humidity Ratio = .0082

FIGURE 14: SENSIBLE HEATING SAMPLE PROBLEM

Psychrometrics - 20 http://www.engproguides.com
4.2.2 LATENT HEATING/COOLING
Latent heat energy is the amount of energy required to produce a phase change, water (liquid)
to water (vapor).

Latent heating and cooling is defined as the removal or addition of moisture (water vapor) to an
air mixture. Latent heating is more commonly known as humidification and latent cooling is
known as dehumidification. In HVAC, common latent heat sources include people, equipment
and outdoor air.

The amount of latent heating/cooling is determined through the following two ways [constants
shown for standard conditions]:

1. ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 => Change in grains of water vapor per pound of dry air.

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟏: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝒎̇ ∗ 𝑯𝒗

Latent Energy is equal to change in mass flow rate

of water multiplied by the heat of vaporization.


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
𝐻𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ]
𝐻𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻𝑣 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 1060 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 1 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟐: 𝒎̇ = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 � � ∗ .075 � 3
� ∗ 60[ ] ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 [ ] ∗[ ]
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 7000 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

Find the mass flow rate of water in air, using the specific volume of air and the specific humidity.
𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
. 075 � � = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑎𝑡 60°𝐹/58°𝐹 𝑎𝑡 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚
𝑓𝑡 3

𝑚𝑖𝑛
60 � � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
ℎ𝑟
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐺𝑅 � � = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

1 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∗� � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠
7000 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟑: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟖 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

Consolidated constants.

Psychrometrics - 21 http://www.engproguides.com
2. ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 => Change in pounds of water vapor per pound of dry air.

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟏: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝒎̇ ∗ 𝑯𝒗

Latent Energy is equal to change in mass flow rate

of water multiplied by the heat of vaporization.


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]
𝐻𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ]
𝐻𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻𝑣 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 1060 [ ]
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟐: 𝒎̇ = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 � � ∗ .075 � � ∗ 60[ ] ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 [ ]
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Find the mass flow rate of water in air, using the specific volume of air and the specific humidity.
𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
. 075 � � = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑎𝑡 60°𝐹/58°𝐹 𝑎𝑡 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚
𝑓𝑡 3

𝑚𝑖𝑛
60 � � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
ℎ𝑟
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 � � = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟑: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒, 𝟕𝟕𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

Consolidated constants.

Exam Tip #3: Ensure that these quick equations can be used, know the signs.

In most cases, the test taker will be able to use the quick equations shown as part of the exam
guide, but it is still important to understand where these quick equations come from. In the
event that the exam provides a non-standard condition, the test taker should be able to rapidly
move from the quick equation back to the original roots [Step 1]. Certain signs include, (1) The
exam states the density of the air in question, (2) the exam gives hint to extreme temperatures
outside of the norm, or (3) the exam indicates a non-standard pressure. For the purposes of
this exam, it is assumed that standard conditions are used. With your understanding of the
derivation of the quick conditions and standard conditions, feel confident that you will be able to
solve similar type problems at differing conditions.

Psychrometrics - 22 http://www.engproguides.com
On a Psychrometric Chart, latent heating and cooling is shown as a vertical line. Latent heating
or humidification is shown as an upward movement and latent cooling or dehumidification is
shown as a downward movement.

Quantifying latent movement on the psychrometric chart is best described through the use of an
example problem.

Example Problem - Latent Heating, Humidification

Background: 1,000 CFM of dry air at 66° F DB/30% Relative Humidity, passes through a
humidifier that provides 12,000 Btu/h of latent heat to the air, assume that 100% of the air is in
contact with the humidifier (bypass factor = 0). Assume a constant density of 0.075 lb/ft3.

Question: What are the final conditions of the air? Dry bulb, wet bulb, relative humidity,
humidity ratio?

Solution: The humidifier will only provide latent heating of the air, therefore the following
equation can be used:

𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒, 𝟕𝟕𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴


𝐵𝑡𝑢
12,000 � � = 𝟒, 𝟕𝟕𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 � � = .0025 = 𝑤 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑤 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
. 0025 � � = 𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − .004
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

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𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 � � = .0065
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

We now know the final humidity ratio and since the air has only undergone latent heating, there is no change in dry bulb temperature, dry
bulbs are equal 𝑇𝑑𝑏,𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝑇𝑑𝑏,𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 . In order to get the final conditions of the air, the psychrometric chart must be used. Knowing two
values allows the other 5 properties to be determined, see below.

Step 1: Find initial location, 66° F DB/30% Rel Hum.


Step 2: Show latent heating movement.
Movement up at constant dry bulb, by .0025 lb h20/lb of dry air.
Step 3: Read properties at final location.
Dry Bulb = 66° F DB
Wet Bulb = 54.5° F WB
Relative Humidity = 48%
Humidity Ratio = .0065

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4.2.3 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO
The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is used when there is diagonal movement on the psychrometric
chart. Diagonal movement would indicate both sensible heating/cooling and latent
heating/cooling. SHR is defined as the ratio of sensible heat to total heat.
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( ) 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( )
ℎ ℎ
SHR = 𝐵𝑡𝑢 = 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( ) 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒+𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( )
ℎ ℎ

The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is used in HVAC to describe the ratio of the sensible space
cooling to total cooling required for a space. Typically, there will be more sensible cooling
required than latent cooling. On the psychrometric chart it describes the slope of the line as
shown in the figure below.

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In order to determine the sensible heat ratio, you must be able to determine the total amount of
heat and the sensible heat through the use of a psychrometric chart.

The sensible heat is determined through the equation:


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

The latent heat is determined through the equation:

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 or 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 0.68 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐺𝑅 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

The total energy can be determined by summing the sensible heat and the latent heat or by
using the following equation.

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑚̇(∆ℎ)
𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡 60 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 .075 𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑚̇= ( )*( )*( )
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡.

𝑸𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ (∆𝒉) ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

∆𝒉 = 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒍𝒑𝒚 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔

In air conditioning, sensible heat ratios range from 0.60 to 0.99, where 0.60 type buildings
include spaces with high humid outside air loads and 0.99 type buildings include computer
rooms/server rooms with high sensible loads and limited outside air and other latent loads.

Example problem, calculate the sensible heat ratio for the following problem:

Problem: Discharge air at 55 °F DB/53 °F WB from a coil enters a space with both sensible
heating and latent heating. The following space conditions of the air is 75 °F DB/50% Relative
Humidity.

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Step 1: Find locations, (1) 75° F DB/50% Relative Humidity & (2) 55° F DB/53° F WB
Step 2: Show sensible change, with a horizontal movement right from (1) to (2).
Step 3: Show latent change, with vertical movement from (2) to (3).
Step 4: Calculate total heat, sensible heat and latent heat changes.
𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟑 − 𝒉𝟐 ) from 3 to 2, indicates latent heat, 1.3 Btu/lb.
𝑸𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟐 − 𝒉𝟏 ) from 2 to 1, indicates sensible heat, 4.8 Btu/lb.
𝑸𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟑 − 𝒉𝟏 ) from 3 to 1, indicates total heat, 6.1 Btu/lb.
Step 5: Calculate SHR as 4.5/6.1 = 0.8.

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4.2.4 MIXING OF TWO AIR STREAMS
A common skill is determining the output conditions of the mixture of two air streams. The
important concept to first understand is that the output conditions of the mixed airstream will be
most similar to the air stream that has the most volumetric flow rate.

For example, if 2,000 CFM of 80° F DB/65° F WB is mixed with 100 CFM of 50° F DB/45° F
WB, then the resulting mixed air conditions will be most similar to the 80° F DB/65° F WB air.
This seems obvious but often times in test situations, the test taker may forget the obvious and
simply rely on the calculations, which can be mistakenly entered into a calculator. This
realization, will give the engineer an insight into the most probable answer of the four possible
choices.

The second concept is that the dry bulb and humidity ratios change linearly. For example, if
2,000 CFM of 80° F DB is mixed with 2,000 CFM of 50° F DB, then the resulting temperature will
be located equally in between 80° F DB and 50° F DB. The resulting temperature will be 65° F
DB.

For example, if 3,000 CFM of 80° F DB is mixed with 1,000 CFM of 50° F DB, then the resulting
temperature will be 72.5° F DB, corresponding to the location on the graph indicated by 75% of
the total mixture is from 80° F DB air.

Refer to the following graph for more information.

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Once an understanding of the graph is shown, then the following equations can be used.

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟏 + 𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟐

𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐


𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

This linear relationship for dry bulb temperatures is also true for humidity ratios and enthalpies,
as shown in the following equations.

Humidity Ratio Mixing Equation

𝑾𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑾𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟏 + 𝑾𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟐

𝑾𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑾𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐


𝑾𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

Enthalpy Mixing Equation

𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝒉𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟏 + 𝒉𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ %𝟐

𝒉𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝒉𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐


𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

Psychrometrics - 29 http://www.engproguides.com
5.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1 - NAVIGATING PSYCHROMETRIC CHART


Background: The return air temperature to an air conditioning coil is 80°F DB and 65% Relative
Humidity. Assume pressure = 1 atm.
𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
Problem: What is the Enthalpy [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 45

(b) 40

(c) 35

(d) 30
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
Problem: What is the Humidity Ratio [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .014

(b) .012

(c) .010

(d) .008

Problem: What is the Wet Bulb (F°)?

(a) 80° F

(b) 75° F

(c) 71° F

(d) 65° F

𝑓𝑡 3
Problem: What is the Specific Volume [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11

(b) 12

(c) 13

(d) 14

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SOLUTION 1 - NAVIGATING PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
Problem: What is the Enthalpy [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(c) 35
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
Problem: What is the Humidity Ratio [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .014

Problem: What is the Wet Bulb (°F)?

(c) 71 °F

𝑓𝑡 3
Problem: What is the Specific Volume [ ]?
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(d) 14

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PROBLEM 2 - CONDENSATION ON SURFACES
Background: Condensation occurs on windows, when moist air comes into contact with a cold
window. This often occurs when windows cool during the night then moist air during the
morning comes into contact with the window. Assume pressure = 1 atm.

Problem: At which of the following below conditions will condensation occur at the exterior of
the window.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

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SOLUTION 2 – CONDENSATION ON SURFACES.
See attached psychrometric chart, next page.
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
(A) Given 55 °F DB, .007 ? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
find that the dew point of the air is approximately 47 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is
50 °F, then no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.
𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) Given 55 °F DB, .20 ? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
that the dew point of the air is approximately 47 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 52
°F, then no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.

(C) Given 80 °F DB, .60 °F WB? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find that
the dew point of the air is approximately 45.5 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 40 °F,
then condensation will occur.

Answer: Yes.

(D) Given 75 °F DB, .50% RH? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find that the
dew point of the air is approximately 55 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 56 °F, then
no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.

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PROBLEM 3 - CHANGE IN ENTHALPY/HUMIDITY RATIO
Background: Air returns from a conditioned space at 80°F/60% relative humidity and is cooled
at an air handling unit down to 55°F DB/ 54°F WB. The air handling unit has no outside air
mixing.

Problem: Determine the enthalpy change and the change in humidity ratio.

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
Enthalpy Change [ ]:
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11.1

(b) -11.1

(c) 15.5

(d) -15.5
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
Humidity Ratio Change [ ]:
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .004

(b) -.004

(c) .010

(d) -.010

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SOLUTION 3 - CHANGE IN ENTHALPY/HUMIDITY RATIO

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
Enthalpy Change [ ]:
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

∆𝒉 = 𝒉𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍

From psychrometric chart, 𝒉𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 ≈ 𝟐𝟐. 𝟔 ; 𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 ≈ 33.7 ;

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
∆𝒉 = 𝒉𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = −𝟏𝟏. 𝟏
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11.1

(b) -11.1

(c) 15.5

(d) -15.5
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
Humidity Ratio Change [ ]:
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 = 𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍

From psychrometric chart, 𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 ≈ . 𝟎𝟎𝟗 ; 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 ≈ .013 ;

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟


∆𝑾𝑳𝑩= 𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = −. 𝟎𝟎𝟒
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .004

(b) -.004

(c) .010

(d) -.010

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PROBLEM 4 - AIR MIXTURES
Background: Return air is often mixed with outside air prior to entering an air handler, where it
is then cooled/heated to the appropriate air delivery temperature.

Problem: Determine the mixed air condition of the following.

1,000 CFM return air at 78°F DB/54% Relative Humidity is mixed with 1,000 CFM outside air at
88°F DB/70% Relative Humidity, what is the resulting state of air?

(a) 80°F DB/54% Relative Humidity

(b) 83°F DB/70% Relative Humidity

(c) 83°F DB/64% Relative Humidity

(d) 86°F DB/54% Relative Humidity

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SOLUTION 4 - AIR MIXTURES
Background: Return air is often mixed with outside air prior to entering an air handler, where it
is then cooled/heated to the appropriate air delivery temperature.

1,000 CFM of 88°F DB/70% rel hum; 1,000 CFM of 78°F DB/54% rel hum

𝟖𝟖𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟕𝟖𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐


𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐
𝟏𝟔𝟔, 𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = = 𝟖𝟑 ℉ 𝑫𝑩
𝟐, 𝟎𝟎𝟎
Next, plot the conditions on the psychrometric chart in order to determine the relative humidity of
the mixed condition. Plot the two entering conditions and connect the two points with a line.
The mixed condition is found at the intersection of the mixed dry bulb temperature and the line
connecting the two entering conditions, refer to the below figure.

Answer - (c) 83°F DB/64% Relative Humidity

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PROBLEM 5 - ELECTRIC HEATER
Background: Electric heaters are placed in air conditioning systems to raise the dry bulb
temperature of air. 2,000 CFM of air at 55°F DB/53°F DB is passed through a 36,000 Btuh
heater. Assume the heater is 100% efficient. Assume a density of 0.075 lb/ft^3. What are the
resulting air conditions?

(a) 70°F DB/55% Relative Humidity

(b) 71.7°F DB/49% Relative Humidity

(c) 72.4°F DB/45% Relative Humidity

(d) 73.6°F DB42% Relative Humidity

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SOLUTION 5 - ELECTRIC HEATER
The electric heater only provides sensible heat, thus the following equation can be used:
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

𝐵𝑡𝑢
36,000[ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 2000

∆𝑇 = 16.7°F

𝑻𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = 𝟓𝟓°F DB + 16.7 = 71.7°F DB

Since only one of the possible solutions as the temperature 71.7 °F DB, then this must be the
correct answer. The final condition is shown at the intersection of the 71.7 F line and the
horizontal rightward moving line [sensible heating].

Answer - (b) 71.7°F DB/49% Relative Humidity

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PROBLEM 6 - COOLING COIL
Background: Cooling coils in air conditioning systems serve as a source of both latent and
sensible cooling, if the apparatus dew point of the cooling coil is below the dew point of the
entering air. 1,000 CFM of air at 78F DB/60% relative humidity enters a cooling coil with a
sensible capacity of 24,000 Btuh and a total cooling capacity of 40,000 Btuh, assume the
cooling coil is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

(a) 55.8F DB/96% Relative Humidity

(b) 62.6F DB/87.1% Relative Humidity

(c) 64.8F DB/89.0% Relative Humidity

(d) 68.1F DB/92.1% Relative Humidity

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SOLUTION 6 - COOLING COIL
Since the cooling coil provides both sensible and latent cooling, both the sensible and latent
heat equations must be used. First the sensible heat equation to determine the dry bulb
temperature and second the latent heat equation to determine the humidity ratio.


1.08 ∗ ∆ ∗

24,000 1.08 ∗ ∆ ∗ 1000

∆ 22.2F

F DB 22.2 55.8F DB

4, .5 ∗ ∆ ∗

40,000 4.5 ∗ ∆ ∗ 1000

∆ 8.89; 32.25

. 8.89 23.4

From the psychrometric chart, 55.8FDB & .23.4 => 55.8FDB/96% Relative Humidity.

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PROBLEM 7 - HUMIDIFIER
Background: An evaporative humidifier works by blowing air over a wet medium, evaporating
the water in the medium into the air, thereby increasing the humidity ratio of the air. This will
reduce the dry bulb temperature of the air since the air lost heat to evaporate the water in the
medium. For the purposes of this problem, this effect will not be taken into account.

1,000 CFM of air at 75°F DB/20% relative humidity passes through a humidifier with 8,000 Btu/h
of latent heat, assume that the humidifier is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

(a) 70°F DB/22.4% Relative Humidity

(b) 72°F DB/33.2% Relative Humidity

(c) 75°F DB/29.3% Relative Humidity

(d) 75°F DB/35.1% Relative Humidity

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SOLUTION 7 - HUMIDIFIER
Since the humidifier only provides latent heat, the following equation can be used.

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

8,000 = 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 1000

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0017; 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = .0037

𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 =. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟕 + .0037 = .0054

Dry bulb temperature does not change, 75°F DB/.0054 lbm H20/lbm dry air.

From psychrometric chart, 75°F DB/29.3% rel. hum.

Psychrometrics - 43 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 8 – DEHUMIDIFIER
Background: A desiccant dehumidifier most often has a silica gel medium, which absorbs
moisture from air as it is passed over the medium. For the purposes of this problem, it is
assumed that the dry bulb temperature is not affected and the dehumidifier only provides latent
cooling (dehumidification).

1,000 CFM of air at 80°F DB/72°F WB passes through a de-humidifier with 10,000 Btu/h of
latent heat, assume that the de-humidifier is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

(a) 80°F DB/.009 lbm H20/lbm dry air

(b) 80°F DB/.011 lbm H20/lbm dry air

(c) 80°F DB/.013 lbm H20/lbm dry air

(d) 80°F DB/.015 lbm H20/lbm dry air

Psychrometrics - 44 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 8 - DEHUMIDIFIER
Since the de-humidifier only provides latent cooling, the following equation can be used.

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

10,000 = 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 1000

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0021; 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = .0151

𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 =. 𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟏 − .0021 = .013

Dry bulb temperature does not change, 80°F DB/.013 lbm H20/lbm dry air.

Psychrometrics - 45 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 9 - ENTHALPY WHEEL
Background: An enthalpy wheel is used to transfer energy (enthalpy) from one air stream to
another. 2,000 CFM of air leaving a building at 80°F DB/69°F WB is used to pre-cool and pre-
dehumidify 2,000 CFM of air at 87°F DB/75°F WB prior to the air entering the building HVAC
system. Assume the enthalpy wheel is 80% effective. What is the resulting temperature of the
air entering the building HVAC system after the enthalpy wheel?

80°F DB/ 69°F WB

Air leaving bldg.


87°F DB/ 75°F WB

Air entering bldg.


??°F DB/ ??°Btu/lb

(a) 80°F DB/32.5 Btu/lb

(b) 81.4°F DB/34.2 Btu/lb

(c) 85.6°F DB/35.8 Btu/lb

(d) 87°F DB/37.1 Btu/lb

Psychrometrics - 46 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 9 - ENTHALPY WHEEL
The enthalpy wheel will be able to transfer the enthalpy from one air stream to the other.
𝑩𝒕𝒖 𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟑𝟖. 𝟓 ; 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟑𝟑. 𝟏 ; from psych. Chart.
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓 𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓

𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 − 𝑬� 𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 − 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 �; 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑬 = 𝒆𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒔𝒔

𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟑𝟖. 𝟓 − 𝟎. 𝟖(𝟑𝟖. 𝟓 − 𝟑𝟑. 𝟏)


𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟑𝟒. 𝟐
𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓

𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 − 𝑬� 𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 − 𝑻𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 �; 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑬 = 𝒆𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒔𝒔

𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟖𝟕℉ 𝑫𝑩 − 𝟎. 𝟖(𝟖𝟕℉ 𝑫𝑩 − 𝟖𝟎℉ 𝑫𝑩)

𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟖𝟏. 𝟒 ℉ 𝑫𝑩

Psychrometrics - 47 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 10 - SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO
Background: 2,000 CFM of air leaves a coil at 55°F DB/53°F WB. The air enters the space with
sensible and latent loads. The resulting temperature in the space is 75°F DB/63°F WB. What is
the sensible heat ratio?

(a) 0.7

(b) 0.75

(c) 0.8

(d) 0.85

Psychrometrics - 48 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 10 - SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO
In order to determine the sensible heat ratio, the sensible and total load must be found.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 � � = 1.08 ∗ (75 − 55) ∗ 2,000 = 43,200
ℎ ℎ

𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = .0081; 𝑊𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = .0096;

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,770 ∗ ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀


𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 � � = 4,770 ∗ (. 0096 − .0081) ∗ 2,000 = 14,310
ℎ ℎ
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 43,200
𝑆𝐻𝑅 = � �= = 0.75
𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 43,200 + 14,310

Psychrometrics - 49 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 11 – COOLING LOAD CALCULATION
Background: A room has the following loads, 2,000 Btuh [lighting]; 2,000 Btuh [computer];
6,000 Btuh [people - sensible]; 6,000 Btuh [walls/roof] and 6,000 Btuh [people – latent]. 800
CFM of air leaves the coil at 55F DB/53F WB and enters the room. What will be the resulting
space conditions?

(a) 70.2F DB/.0082 lb of water vapor/lb of dry air

(b) 71.4F DB/.0097 lb of water vapor/lb of dry air

(c) 73.5F DB/.0097 lb of water vapor/lb of dry air

(d) 75.2F DB/.0141 lb of water vapor/lb of dry air

Psychrometrics - 50 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 11 – COOLING LOAD CALCULATION
The first step in solving this problem is to determine which of the cooling loads are sensible and
which are latent. Sensible loads in a building include: lighting, miscellaneous equipment
(computers, refrigerators, microwaves, etc.), wall/roof heat loads, solar heat gain through
windows and skylights and the heat load from people. Latent loads in a building include:
moisture release from people, moist air infiltration and some equipment although rarely.

Sensible Heat Gain = 2,000 2,000 6,000 6,000 16,000

Latent Heat Gain = 6,000

1.08 ∗ ∆ ∗

1.08 ∗ 55 ∗ 800 16,000

73.5

4,770 ∗ ∆ ∗ ; ? ; .0081

4,770 ∗ .0081 ∗ 800 6,000


.0097

Psychrometrics - 51 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 12 – CALCULATE AMOUNT OF CONDENSATE
Background: 2,000 CFM of air at 78 F DB/55 % Rel. Hum passes through a cooling coil with
an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The resulting discharge air temperature from the coil is 55 F
DB/ 54 F WB. What is the total amount of condensate produced?

(a) 0.05 GPM

(b) 0.62 GPM

(c) 0.77 GPM

(d) 0.91 GPM

Psychrometrics - 52 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 12 – CALCULATE AMOUNT OF CONDENSATE
In order to determine the amount of condensate produced, the change in humidity ratio must
first be determined.

20
∆ .0113 .0087

20
∆ .0026

20 20
. 0026 ∗ 2,000 ∗ 0.075 0.39

20 7.48
0.39 ∗ ∗ 0.05
62.4 20 1

Psychrometrics - 53 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 13– RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Background: This question is meant to test your understanding of the concept of relative
humidity without the use of a psychrometric chart. Quickly rank the following states of air from
Highest Relative humidity to lowest relative humidity.

a) 75° F DB/60° F WB

b) 75° F DB/63° F WB

c) 40° F DB/39° F WB

d) 87° F DB/20° F WB

Psychrometrics - 54 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 13 – RELATIVE HUMIDITY

The state of air with the highest relative humidity will be the air where the wet bulb is nearest to
the dry bulb.

Highest relative humidity = 40° F DB/39° F WB

The state of air with the lowest relative humidity will be the air where the wet bulb is furthest
from the dry bulb.

Lowest relative humidity = 87° F DB/60° F WB

The next two states of air can be distinguished in the same manner. Since the two states have
the same dry bulb temperature, the state of air with the highest wet bulb temperature will have
the highest relative humidity.

75° F DB/63° F WB has a higher humidity than 75° F DB/60° F WB.

Ranking from highest to lowest relative humidity:


𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
1) C 40° F DB/39° F WB ~ 92% Relative Humidity; 0.0048
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
2) B 75° F DB/63° F WB ~ 52% Relative Humidity; 0.0096
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
3) A 75° F DB/60° F WB ~ 41% Relative Humidity; 0.0076
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
4) D 87° F DB/60° F WB ~18% Relative Humidity; 0.0049
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Psychrometrics - 55 http://www.engproguides.com
PROBLEM 14– AIR MIXTURES
2,000 CFM return air at 78°F DB/54% rel hum is mixed with 1,000 CFM outside air at 88°F
DB/70% rel hum, what is the resulting state of air?

(a) 80.1°F DB/70% Relative Humidity

(b) 81.3°F DB/61% Relative Humidity

(c) 83.6°F DB/60% Relative Humidity

(d) 85.0°F DB/55% Relative Humidity

Psychrometrics - 56 http://www.engproguides.com
SOLUTION 14 – AIR MIXTURES

1,000 CFM of 88°F DB/70% Relative Humidity; 2,000 CFM of 78°F DB/54% Relative Humidity

𝟖𝟖𝟏,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟕𝟖𝟐,𝑫𝑩 ∗ 𝟐, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐


𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =
𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟐, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐

𝟐𝟒𝟒, 𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = = 𝟖𝟏. 𝟑 𝑭 𝑫𝑩
𝟑, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

Use the psychrometric chart to find the relative humidity.

Psychrometrics - 57 http://www.engproguides.com
SECTION 5: HEAT TRANSFER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Important Terms & Equations ............................................................................................ 4
3.0 Conduction ......................................................................................................................... 8
3.1 Thermal Conductivity .................................................................................................. 9
3.2 U-Factor ...................................................................................................................... 9
3.3 R-Value ....................................................................................................................... 9
4.0 Convection ....................................................................................................................... 11
5.0 Radiation .......................................................................................................................... 13
6.0 Calculating Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient .................................................................. 14
7.0 Cooling Load Calculations ............................................................................................... 16
7.1 Thermal Mass & Time Lag Factor ................................................................................ 17
7.2 Uncertainty ................................................................................................................... 17
7.3 Roof & Wall ................................................................................................................... 18
7.4 Skylight & Window ........................................................................................................ 20
7.5 People .......................................................................................................................... 21
7.6 Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 21
7.7 Miscellaneous Equipment ............................................................................................. 23
7.8 Infiltration ...................................................................................................................... 24
8.0 Heat Exchangers .............................................................................................................. 26
8.1 Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) ................................................................. 27
8.2 Heat Balance ................................................................................................................ 28
9.0 Practice Problems ................................................................................................................. 29
Practice Problem 1: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................................ 29
Solution 1: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ...................................................... 30
Practice Problem 2: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................................ 31
Solution 2: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ...................................................... 32
Practice Problem 3: Calculate Heat Load Through Wall ..................................................... 33
Solution 3: Calculate Heat Load Through Wall .................................................................... 34
Practice Problem 4: Calculating Heat Load From People ................................................... 35
Solution 4: Calculating Heat Load From People .................................................................. 36
Practice Problem 5: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................... 37
Solution 5: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................................. 38

Heat Transfer - 1 http://www.engproguides.com


Practice Problem 6: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................... 39
Solution 6: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................................. 40
Practice Problem 7: Calculating Heat Load From Windows ................................................ 41
Solution 7: Calculating Heat Load From Windows .............................................................. 42
Practice Problem 8: Heat Exchangers ................................................................................. 43
Solution 8: Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 44
Practice Problem 9: Heat Exchangers ................................................................................. 45
Solution 9: Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 46

Heat Transfer - 2 http://www.engproguides.com


1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

Heat transfer is the topic centering on the movement of heat from one system to the next
system. In this section, the three modes of heat transfer will first be discussed in order to give a
background into the concepts of heat transfer. The three modes of heat transfer are (1)
Conduction, (2) Convection and (3) Radiation. This section leads to determining overall heat
transfer coefficients, which is an important and practical skill and can be used for determining
the resistances of walls and roofs. Following this discussion, this section will delve into the
primary application of heat transfer concepts in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, which is Cooling
Load Calculations. Another important application of heat transfer is heat exchangers, which will
also be discussed first in this section and later in the Mechanical Systems section.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the
test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

Heat Transfer - 3 http://www.engproguides.com


2.0 IMPORTANT TERMS & EQUATIONS

Convert U-Factor to R-Value


1
𝑈=
𝑅
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 [ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 [ ]
𝐵𝑡𝑢

Addition of R-Values

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 … + 𝑅𝑛

Addition of U-Factors
1 1 1 1 1
= + + …+
𝑈𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑈1 𝑈2 𝑈3 𝑈𝑛

Thermal Conductivity Units


𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑘=
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉

Convert Thermal Conductivity to R-Value and U-Factor

𝑡
𝑅=
𝑘
𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉
𝑘
𝑈=
𝑡

Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈 = 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]
∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

Heat Transfer - 4 http://www.engproguides.com


Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =
∆𝑇
ln ( 𝑎 )
∆𝑇𝑏
∆𝑇𝑎 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡

Counter-flow Heat Exchanger

Heat Transfer - 5 http://www.engproguides.com


Parallel-flow Heat Exchanger

Conduction Heat Transfer Equation

𝑘 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )
𝑄=
𝑡
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑄 = 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 � �
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉
𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠 [℉]
𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]
𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

Convective Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = ℎ ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]
∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

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Radiative Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]
∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

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3.0 CONDUCTION
Conduction is the method of heat transfer through material(s) in physical contact. The driving
force in conduction is a temperature difference on either side of the material(s). For example, if
the end of a metal rod is placed in a fire, heat will be conducted through the metal rod to the
other end. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, heat transfer due to conduction is most commonly
calculated for wall and roof heat loads. The outside of a wall or roof is heated by the outdoor
conditions. Then the heat is conducted from the outside of the wall through the wall material
and to the inside of the wall, where the heat is transferred to the space. The formula for
calculating heat transfer due to conduction through a material is as follows:

𝑘 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )
𝑄=
𝑡
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑄 = 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 � �
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉
𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 [℉]
𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]
𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑙 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

FIGURE 1: CONDUCTION THROUGH A BUILDING WALL

The amount of heat transferred is linearly dependent on the difference in temperature between
the inside and outside surfaces of the wall. The conduction equation shows that as the
temperature difference increases, the heat load also increases. The same is also true for the
area available for heat transfer and the thermal conductivity. On the other hand, the amount of
heat transferred is inversely related to the thickness of the wall or roof material.

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3.1 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
The thermal conductivity for various materials can be found in ASHRAE Handbook –
Fundamentals. Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts and
promotes heat transfer. Metals are excellent conductors and thus have a high conductivity. For
𝐵𝑡𝑢
example, aluminum has a thermal conductivity of 128 and iron has a conductivity of
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
~30 . Poor conductors include materials like wood (Douglas fir –0.0833 ) and
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉ ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
insulation materials (Cellular Glass - 0.0275 ; Glass Fiber – 0.0221 ).
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉ ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢∗𝑖𝑛
It is important to note that often times, thermal conductivity is given in units of ,. This
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
value is a thermal conductivity value per inch thickness of materials. Insulation, masonry,
plastering and wood materials often have thermal conductivity per inch of materials. For
𝐵𝑡𝑢∗𝑖𝑛
example, cellular glass has a unit thermal conductivity of 0.33 ), which means that for an
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
inch in thickness of cellular glass material the thermal conductivity is 0.33. For 2” of thickness
the thermal conductivity is halved to 0.165.

Besides thermal conductivity, materials can also be classified by their R-Value or their U-
Factors as shown below.

3.2 U-FACTOR
U-Factor stands for the overall heat transfer coefficient and it is representative of a material’s
ability to conduct heat. Similar to thermal conductance, a higher U-factor value has a higher
ability to conduct and transfer heat. U-factor is related to thermal conductance by the following
formula.

𝑘 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈= [ ]
𝑡 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )

This equation assumes that U does not vary based on temperature. For purposes of the exam,
this is a safe assumption.

3.3 R-VALUE
R-Value stands for thermal resistance and it is representative of a material’s ability to resist
heat. The R-Value is the inverse of the U-Factor and thermal conductance, which are measures
of a materials ability to conduct heat. The relationship between the R-Value, U-Factor and
thermal conductance is shown in the following formula.

1 𝑡 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅= = [ ]
𝑈 𝑘 𝐵𝑡𝑢
1
𝑄= ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )
𝑅

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This equation assumes that R does not vary based on temperature. For purposes of the exam,
this is a safe assumption.

R-values are typically used in the HVAC & Refrigeration field to describe building insulation
materials. Often times, R-values are shown as a function of thickness, similar to the table
below.

Thickness R-Value
1” 5
1.5” 7,5
2” 10
2.5” 12.5

Notice that the unit R-Value is 5 for 1” of insulation. The corresponding R-values for various
inches of thicknesses are found by simply multiplying the thickness in inches by the unit R-
value, refer to the below equation.

𝑡 ∗ 𝑅1" = 𝑅𝑡"

𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠

𝑅1" = 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑅 − 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

𝑅𝑡" = 𝑅 − 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑎 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡"

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4.0 CONVECTION
Convection is the second mode of heat transfer and is defined as the transfer of heat through
the movement of fluids. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, convective heat transfer can be
found in heating and air conditioning systems, whenever a moving fluid passes over a surface at
a different temperature.

One of the most common examples of convection is natural convection. As people enter a
building, the lights get turned on and the sun heats the building. These various heat sources
cause the air in the building to get warmer. The warm air is less dense than the air around it
and begins to rise up and out of the building. The empty space left by the warm air is then
replaced by cooler outside air and the cycle continues. This convective heat transfer through
the movement of air is called natural convection. It is referred to as natural because it does not
rely on a mechanical source, like a fan to move the air.

FIGURE 2: EXAMPLE OF NATURAL CONVECTION

Convective heat transfer has a similar equation to conductive heat transfer, except the U-Factor
or R-Value is replaced with the convective heat transfer coefficient. This convective heat
transfer coefficient characterizes the moving fluid by taking into account its viscosity, thermal
conductance, temperature, velocity and it also characterizes the surface that the fluid is moving
upon. The derivation of this coefficient for various situations is not part of the scope of this
section and is more suited to the Thermal and Fluids Depth Exam.

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Convective Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

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5.0 RADIATION
The third and final mode of heat transfer is radiation. Radiation heat gains for a typical
building’s window or skylight must be calculated with a computer program like Trane Trace 700,
Carrier HAP or a similar load calculation program, because the calculation is iterative and
complex. However, calculations for heat gains from radiation are simplified in hand calculated
applications and it is the opinion of the writer that the simplified equations for radiation are what
can be tested on during the PE exam. Thus only the simplified equations will be discussed in
this section and the subsequent sections.

Radiation is the mode of heat transfer that requires no substance to transmit heat. All
objects above absolute zero radiate or project heat from its surface. For HVAC & Refrigeration
the primary heat gain due to radiation is from solar radiation. Heat is radiated from the sun and
transmitted to a building either by heating up the building envelope or transmitting heat directly
through windows and skylights. These specific examples of solar radiation are described further
in the Cooling Load Calculations part of this section.

𝑄 = ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

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6.0 CALCULATING OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
A must have skill for the aspiring professional engineer is to be able to calculate the overall
heat transfer coefficient (U-factor) for a wall, roof, duct or pipe. This skill will be described and
explained through the following example.

FIGURE 3: OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

It is important to be able to follow the flow of heat from the beginning to the end of this diagram
[from left to right]. The diagram shows how the temperature starts from a high temperature of
87 °F down to 75 °F.

(1) The first method of heat transfer is due to convection. Warm outdoor air moves across the
outer surface of the concrete wall causing the outer surface of the wall to heat up. In reality,
there would also be radiation loads acting upon the surface of the wall, but for simplicity it is
assumed that there are no radiation loads.

(2) Next the heat travels from the outer surface of the concrete wall to the inside surface.

(3) The heat then moves from the outer surface of the insulation and through the insulation.

(4) Next, the heat moves from the outer surface of the gypsum board and through the board.

(5) Finally the outer surface of the gypsum board transmits heat via convection and radiation to
the indoor air.

In order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient, all of the resistances must be summed. It is
recommended that each method of heat transfer should be converted to its equivalent R-Value
in order to simplify the calculation, because R-Values in series are simply added together.

𝑅𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 … + 𝑅𝑛

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R-Values in parallel follow a different equation which is highlighted below.

1 1 1 1
= + +⋯
𝑅𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅𝑛

First, convert all resistances to R-values.

1
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 , 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝 𝑑𝑜 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑.

1
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟

1
𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑 =
ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑

Next, notice that the radiation and convection heat transfer modes are arranged in parallel.
Convert these two items to a single term.

1 1 1
= +
𝑅 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

Now that all terms are in series, the terms can be summed together.

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝 +
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

In order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient (U-factor), simply take the inverse of the total
R-value.

1
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 =
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

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7.0 COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS
Cooling load calculations are typically one of the first calculations completed by a HVAC &
Refrigeration engineer. These calculations serve as the basis for determining air conditioning
equipment sizes. In order to determine the mechanical equipment sizes, the engineer must first
determine what heat is being transferred into the building. The summation of the heat gained by
the building will determine the size of the air conditioning equipment.

The various heat gains and losses into a building can be characterized as either external or
internal loads. External loads include the conduction and radiation heat loads transferred
through roofs, walls, skylights and windows. In addition, outside air can be brought into a
building through ventilation requirements or infiltration, which will cause a cooling load upon the
system. Internal loads include heat loads from people, lighting and miscellaneous equipment
like computers, televisions, motors, etc.

FIGURE 4: VARIOUS HEAT GAINS IN A BUILDING

External Internal
Roofs/Walls – Conduction Lights
Roofs/Walls – Radiation People
Skylights/Windows – Conduction Miscellaneous Equipment
Skylights/Windows – Radiation
Ventilation/Infiltration

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The various heat gains can also be organized into sensible and latent heat gains. Sensible heat
gains are those characterized by only a change in temperature and no change in state. Latent
heat gains are those characterized by moisture gains. These individual heat gains are
discussed in the following sections.

Sensible Latent
Roofs/Walls – Conduction Moisture from Ventilation and Infiltration
Roofs/Walls – Radiation Moisture from People
Skylights/Windows – Conduction Moisture from Miscellaneous Equipment
Skylights/Windows – Radiation
Ventilation/Infiltration
Lights
People
Miscellaneous Equipment

7.1 THERMAL MASS & TIME LAG FACTOR


When completing load calculations it is important to understand the term, time lag factor. When
the sun shines upon a wall early in the morning, although the wall does experience a heat load,
the amount of heat load transferred into the building at that instant is minimal. It takes a certain
amount of time for the heat to be conducted through the wall. This time lag is due to the thermal
mass of the wall. Thermal mass is also known as heat capacity and is defined as the ability of a
material to absorb heat.

7.2 UNCERTAINTY
Calculating heat gains and determining cooling loads has a very high degree of uncertainty.
This is because of the many assumptions that must be made, like occupant loads, activity level
of occupants, occupancy schedules, outdoor weather conditions, equipment schedules, etc.
The engineer should understand that the following calculations are not the most accurate
methods to calculate cooling load and are only shown to highlight concepts that could be tested
on the P.E. Exam.

There are multiple methods used to calculate cooling load calculations like the Radiant Time
Series, Total Equivalent Time Difference and the CLTD/SCL/CLF methods, which are discussed
in ASHRAE Fundamentals. The CLTD/SCL/CLF method is shown in this section because it is
the method that can be tested without a computer and in a relatively short period of time (4-
hours, 6 minutes per problem).

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7.3 ROOF & WALL
The heat loads through a roof and wall can be incorrectly simplified to the equation shown
below. The equation shows that the heat load is a function of the area of heat transfer, the
overall heat transfer coefficient of the roof or wall assembly and the difference in temperature
between the indoors and the outdoors.

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )

FIGURE 5: ROOF AND/OR WALL HEAT LOAD - INCORRECT

The equation previously shown is incorrect. The radiation from the sun onto the building
and the time it takes for the heat to transmit through the materials must be taken into account.
In order to take these two factors into account, the engineer should use the Cooling Load
Temperature Difference (CLTD). These values can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals
1997 edition and older. These tables are organized by latitude, roof or wall type, month and
wall facing orientation direction. In addition, the CLTD is organized by the hour of the day. It is
not the opinion of the author that you will need to look-up these values in ASHRAE 1997.
These values should be given to you as part of the problem, should this type of problem arise
on the exam. It is only important to understand what CLTD is and how to use it when given it in
a problem. The simplified and incorrect equation is revised to the following equation for
calculating heat loads through roof and wall assemblies.

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

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It is also important to note that the CLTD is still a simplified approach to determining the heat
load due to roofs and walls. In actuality the heat load due to the roofs/walls will also be
dependent on many other conditions like the indoor conditions and the heat radiated from the
inner wall/roof to the indoor space.

FIGURE 6: CALCULATING HEAT GAIN THROUGH ROOF OR WALL WITH CLTD

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7.4 SKYLIGHT & WINDOW
The heat loads form the skylights and windows can be split into (2) types of loads, conductive
and radiation loads. The conductive loads for skylights and windows use the same formula as
the one used for roofs and windows, shown below again.

Conductive loads

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

The radiation loads or solar transmission is calculated by multiplying the area of the window or
skylight by the shading coefficient and the solar cooling load factor.

𝑄 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑆𝐶 = 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝑆𝐶𝐿 = 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

The shading coefficient is the ratio of the specific window or skylight's solar transmission
compared to 1/8" clear glass. The shading coefficient is typically specific to the glass
manufacturer and can be found in the manufacturer's product data. During the exam, this value
along with the solar cooling load factor should be given. The solar cooling load factor is given in
the ASHRAE 1997 Fundamentals book and is similar to the CLTD. In addition, SCL is
organized similarly by skylight/window, orientation, month, latitude and hour.

In lieu of SC, the term Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is being used by window/skylight
manufacturers. This term is found by dividing the SC by 1.15. A lower SHGC or SC indicates
that the glass allows less solar heat gain and a higher SHGC or SC means that the glass allows
more solar heat gain.

The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) rates glass and certifies the SHGC and U-
Factor. Additional values like Visible Transmittance, Air Leakage and Condensation Resistance
are also tested and certified.

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7.5 PEOPLE
The heat loads from a person depend on the activity level of the person. ASHRAE has
tabulated heat, loads both sensible and latent heat gains, from people based on their activity
levels, refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals. The loads from people can be calculated using these
heat gain values, the number of people and the cooling load factor. The cooling load factor
takes into account the time lag factor and if it is not given it should be assumed to be 1.0.

Sensible loads

𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝑆𝐻𝐺 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝐹

𝑁 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑆𝐻𝐺 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐶𝐿𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

Latent loads

𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝐿𝐻𝐺 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝐹

𝑁 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 � �
ℎ𝑟
𝐶𝐿𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

7.6 LIGHTING
The heat load from lighting in a building is found by summing up the number of lights of each
type and wattage, then converting the watts to Btu/hr, multiplying this number by the usage
factor and the special allowance factor.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
3.412
𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠 ∗ ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑈𝐹 ∗ 𝑆𝐴𝐹 ∗ 𝑆𝐹
𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑁 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑡𝑦𝑝𝑒.

𝑈𝐹 = 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑆𝐴𝐹 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑆𝐹 = 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

The wattage of the light is based on the manufacturer reported value for the lamps in the lighting
fixture, without taking into account the ballast. The lighting use factor is the ratio of the time the
lights will be in use. This factor is typically 1.0 for most applications like offices, classrooms,
stores, hospitals, etc. The usage factor may vary for a movie theater or inactive storage space.

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The special allowance factor takes into account the heat from ballasts. This factor is typically
1.2 for fluorescent lights and 1.0 for incandescent lights due to the lack of ballasts in
incandescent lights.

FIGURE 7: LIGHTING TYPES -SPACE FRACTION

Finally, the space fraction is the fraction of the total heat from the lights that is transmitted to the
space. Lights located at the ceiling may have a percentage of its heat transmitted into the
plenum and not into the space. This means that the air conditioning system, if the return is
ducted, will not see the percentage of the heat that is transmitted to the plenum. If the plenum
is used as a return, then the air conditioning will see the total heat from the lighting. For
example, the space fraction for a hung fluorescent light (non-ceiling) will be 1.0, because the
light is completely in the space. On the other hand a ceiling recessed light could have a space
fraction of 0.5, meaning that 50% of its heat is transmitted to the plenum and the other 50% is
transmitted to the space.

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7.7 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
The heat gains from miscellaneous equipment can be found by the following equations.

The first equation is used for motors, where P is equal to the nominal horsepower of the motor.
Dividing the horsepower of the motor by the efficiency of the motor allows the heat gains due to
the motor and the heat gains due to the inefficiency of the motor to be taken into account. If the
motor is used continuously during occupied times then the usage factor will be 1.0. Otherwise
the usage factor will be the fraction of the time that it is used during occupied times divided by
the total time the space is occupied. The load factor of the motor takes into account the fact
that motors rarely run at its nominally rated capacity. For example, if a 1 HP motor actually
operates at 0.75 HP then the load factor will by 0.75.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑃
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿
𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑃 = ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐹𝑈 = 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐹𝐿 = 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

The second equation describes heat gain from everyday appliances like microwaves, toasters,
ranges, ovens and computers. The input energy is found by researching the manufacturer's
product data or by referring to typical values reported in ASHRAE Fundamentals. ASHRAE
Fundamentals also has typical usage factors and radiated heat fractions for typical equipment,
which are used in the equation below.

𝑄 = 𝑞𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝑅

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑞𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝐹𝑅 = 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒

𝐹𝑈 = 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

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7.8 INFILTRATION
Infiltration is described as outside air that leaks into a building structure. These leaks could be
through the building construction or through entry doors. Infiltration heat gains are found by the
following equations. These equations are discussed more in the Psychrometrics Section.

The first equation is the total heat gains using enthalpy. In this equation, the volumetric flow
rate of the infiltration or ventilation air must be known. This value is converted and multiplied by
the difference in enthalpy between the outdoor air conditions and the indoor air conditions.

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 60 ∗ 0.075 3 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ [ ]
ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ [ ]
𝑙𝑏

The following two equations split the total heat gain into the sensible and latent heat loads.

Sensible Heat Gains are calculated by multiplying the CFM of the infiltrated air by the difference
in the dry bulb temperatures of the indoor and outdoor air.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏
𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 60 ∗ 0.075 3 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ 0.24 � ℎ𝑟 � ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )
ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )

Latent Heat Gains are calculated by multiplying the CFM of infiltrated air by the difference in the
humidity ratio of the indoor air and the outdoor air.

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 4,840 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )

𝑊 = ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 [𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑤𝑒𝑡 /𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑑𝑟𝑦 ]

It is important to note that these loads are not seen directly by the cooling coil. These are
indirect loads that occur in each air conditioned space. Ventilation air is seen directly at the coil
and thus this air must be cooled down to the supply air distribution temperature which is much
lower than the room condition air.

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8.0 HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat exchangers are mechanical devices designed to exchange or transfer heat from a hot fluid
to a cold fluid. Heat exchangers are used heavily throughout the HVAC & Refrigeration field.
For example, a condenser or evaporator in a chiller is simply a heat exchanger. A cooling or
heating coil is a heat exchanger that transfers heat from one fluid to another fluid. A chilled
water air handling unit transfers heat from hot air to chilled water.

There are many different types of heat exchangers that are briefly discussed in the Refrigeration
Section, but for exam purposes it is more important to understand the two classifications of heat
exchangers, (1) parallel flow and (2) counter-flow heat exchangers. These two classifications
describe the relationship between the direction of flow of the cold and hot fluids.

(1) Parallel flow heat exchanger: This heat exchanger has both the cold and hot fluids entering
at the same end of the heat exchanger. At the beginning of the heat exchanger there is a large
difference between the cold and hot fluids and at the end of the heat exchange the difference
between cold and hot is reduced, refer to the figures below.

FIGURE 8: PARALLEL FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

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(2) Counter-flow heat exchanger: The counter-flow heat exchanger is opposite of the parallel
flow heat exchanger. The cold and hot fluids enter at opposite ends. The figure below shows
the counter-flow heat exchanger, notice the opposing directional arrows.

FIGURE 9: COUNTERFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

8.1 LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (LMTD)


In heat exchangers that do not have a phase change, heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the
cold fluid through the temperature difference between the cold and hot. However, in a heat
exchanger as shown in the previous figures, the temperature difference between the cold and
hot fluids is not always constant and depends on the location in the heat exchanger. Thus the
log mean temperature difference is used. The LMTD describes the logarithmic average
temperature difference between the cold and hot fluid through a generic heat exchanger
(counter or parallel). LMTD cannot be used for heat exchangers with a phase change like a
boiler or condenser. The equation for LMTD is shown below.

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =
∆𝑇
ln ( 𝑎 )
∆𝑇𝑏

∆𝑇𝑎 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒

∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡

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The LMTD is then used to calculate the total heat exchanged by the heat exchanger through the
following equation. The U-value is the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger which is
given by the heat exchanger manufacturer. The Area value is the total area where heat
exchange occurs, which is also given by the heat exchanger manufacturer.

𝑄 = 𝑈ℎ𝑥 ∗ 𝐴ℎ𝑥 ∗ 𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷

𝑈ℎ𝑥 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟

𝐴ℎ𝑥 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒

8.2 HEAT BALANCE


Often times in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, a heat balance is conducted on a heat exchanger
to show that a balance of heat loss from the hot fluid is shown as a heat gain to the cold fluid.
For example, cooling coils are heat exchangers that transfer heat from air to water. The heat
balance governing this heat transfer would be as shown below.

𝑄ℎ𝑥 = 𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑐𝑝,𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ (𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) = 𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ 𝑐𝑝,𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ (𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

If there is a phase change, then the following equation can be used. Heat balances are
discussed further in the Refrigeration Section, Mechanical Systems and the Psychrometrics
section. Heat balances are integral to the HVAC & Refrigeration field, but luckily the equations
governing heat balance are fairly simple.

𝑄ℎ𝑥 = 𝑚̇𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 ∗ ℎ𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 = 𝑚̇𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 ∗ 𝑐𝑝,𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 ∗ (𝑇𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

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9.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PRACTICE PROBLEM 1: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER


COEFFICIENT
Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the following wall conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 0.12
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) .25
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 3.12
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 8.7
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

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SOLUTION 1: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT

The overall heat transfer coefficient is found by first converting all values to R-values.

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.33
ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 3 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 2 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = = = 6.67
𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠 0.3 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 = = = 0.89
𝑘𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 9 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Sum up all R-values that are in series.

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 + 𝑅𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.33 + 0.89 + 6.67 + 0.8

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 8.69
𝐵𝑡𝑢

The overall heat transfer coefficient is simply the inverse of the total resistance.

1 1
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = =
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 8.69

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.12
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

Heat Transfer - 30 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 2: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the following wall conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 0.06
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) .11
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c). 21
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 15
ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

Heat Transfer - 31 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 2: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT

The overall heat transfer coefficient is found by first converting all values to R-values.

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.5
ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 1.5 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = = = 10
𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠 0.15 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 = = = 5.33
𝑘𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 1.5 𝐵𝑡𝑢

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑖𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.59
ℎ𝑖𝑎𝑖𝑟 1.7 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Sum up all R-values that are in series.

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 + 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝 + 𝑅𝑖𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.5 + 5.33 + 10 + 0.8 + 0.59

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 17.22
𝐵𝑡𝑢

The overall heat transfer coefficient is simply the inverse of the total resistance.

1 1
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = =
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 17.22

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.058
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

Heat Transfer - 32 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 3: CALCULATE HEAT LOAD THROUGH
WALL

An east facing exterior wall consists of 8” concrete (R-Value = 2.0), with 2” insulation (R-Value =
8.0) and 5/8” gypsum board (R-Value = 0.8). The wall has dimensions of 8’ height by 20’ long.
If the CLTD at peak load is 20 F, calculate the total heat load through the wall at peak load. The
indoor temperature is 75 F and the outdoor temperature is 87 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 125
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) 300
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 350
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 500
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 33 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 3: CALCULATE HEAT LOAD THROUGH WALL

An east facing exterior wall consists of 8” concrete (R-Value = 2.0), with 2” insulation (R-Value =
8.0) and 5/8” gypsum board (R-Value = 0.8). The wall has dimensions of 8’ height by 20’ long.
If the CLTD at peak load is 20 F, calculate the total heat load through the wall. The indoor
temperature is 75 F and the outdoor temperature is 87 F.

First calculate the U-Value

1 1
=
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝

1 1 𝐵𝑡𝑢
= = .093
𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 2 + 8 + 0.8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

Second calculate the area.

8′ 𝑋 20′ = 160 𝑓𝑡 2

Third calculate the heat.

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 0.93 ∗ 160 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ 20℉
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 296
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 34 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 4: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM
PEOPLE

An office is maintained at space conditions of 75 °F and 50% RH. There are fifteen office
workers located in a 2,000 SF office building. Each worker has their own computer with flat
screen. What is the total heat load from the people to the space?

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 1,750
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) 3,000
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 3,750
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 6,750
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 35 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 4: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM PEOPLE

An office is maintained at space conditions of 75 °F and 50% RH. There are fifteen office
workers located in a 2,000 SF office building. Each worker has their own computer with flat
screen. What is the total heat load from the people to the space?

The total load from each individual person depends on the person's activity level. Refer to
ASHRAE Fundamentals to find the total heat gain from an office worker.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
450
𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 = ℎ𝑟
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛

𝐵𝑡𝑢
450
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 = 15 ∗ ℎ𝑟 = 6,750 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 36 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 5: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM
MOTORS

There are 15 workers in a large air conditioned warehouse, which houses fruits and vegetables.
The workers drive (2) 10 HP electric golf carts throughout the warehouse. The motor has an
efficiency of 80% and the golf carts are only used 10% of the time, assume a 0.1 usage factor.
In addition, the full capacity of the motor is not used. Assume an 80% load factor. What is the
heat load from the golf carts alone?

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 1,800
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) 2,500
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 4,200
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 5,100
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 37 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 5: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM MOTORS

There are 15 workers in a large air conditioned warehouse, which houses fruits and vegetables.
The workers drive (2) 10 HP electric golf carts throughout the warehouse. The motor has an
efficiency of 80% and the golf carts are only used 10% of the time, assume a 0.1 usage factor.
In addition, the full capacity of the motor is not used. Assume an 80% load factor. What is the
heat load from the golf carts alone?

The total heat load from the (2) golf carts can be found from the below equation:

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑃
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿
𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
10 𝐻𝑃
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 0.1 ∗ 0.8
𝐻𝑃 0.80
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 2545 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑜𝑙𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 5,090
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 38 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 6: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM
MOTORS

A 10 HP motor drives a new fan in an air conditioned warehouse. The motor is 80% efficient,
but the motor is located outside of the air conditioned space and its heat does not transfer to the
space. The motor is always running and has a usage factor of 1.0. The fan is located in the
conditioned space. What is the total heat gain to the space?

𝐵𝑡𝑢
a) 21,400
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
b) 25,500
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
c) 30,000
ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
d) 35,200
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 39 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 6: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM MOTORS

A 10 HP motor drives a new fan in an air conditioned warehouse. The motor is 80% efficient,
but the motor is located outside of the air conditioned space and its heat does not transfer to the
space. The motor is always running and has a usage factor of 1.0. The fan is located in the
conditioned space. What is the total heat gain to the space?

The total heat load from the motor AND the fan is given by the below equation:

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿
𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

However, from the problem it is found that only the fan is in the space and we do not need to
account for the heat gain from the motor. We can split out the equation into the two heat gains,
motor and fan.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
1
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 + 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�)
𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

Remove the motor term.

1
𝑀𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�
𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
1
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 + 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�)
𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 )
𝐻𝑃

Plugging in the given values:

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0 ∗ (10)
𝐻𝑃
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 25,450
ℎ𝑟

Heat Transfer - 40 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 7: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM
WINDOWS

An existing clear glass window with an inefficient film and a shading coefficient of 0.9 is being
replaced by a new low-e glass with a shading coefficient of 0.6 and a transmissivity of 0.75.
What will be the percent reduction in solar heat gain by switching to the newer glass, assume an
area of 18 square feet and a SCL of 40 F.

a) 33%

b) 54%

c) 66%

d) 72%

Heat Transfer - 41 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 7: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM WINDOWS

An existing clear glass window with an inefficient film and a shading coefficient of 0.9 is being
replaced by a new low-e glass with a shading coefficient of 0.6 and a transmissivity of 0.75.
What will be the percent reduction in heat load by switching to the newer glass, assume an area
of 18 square feet and a SCL of 40 F.

The equation governing solar heat gain from windows is as follows:

𝑄 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑄𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝐴 ∗ 0.9 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑤 = 𝐴 ∗ 0.6 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑤 − 𝑄𝑜𝑙𝑑
% 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = ∗ 100
𝑄𝑜𝑙𝑑

0.9 − 0.6
% 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = ∗ 100 = 33%
0.9

Heat Transfer - 42 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 8: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. Hot water is
provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F. What is the
LMTD, if the air leaving the coil is at 55 F?

a) 17 ℉

b) 22 ℉

c) 30 ℉

d) 36 ℉

Heat Transfer - 43 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 8: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. Hot water is
provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F. What is the
LMTD, if the air leaving the coil is at 55 F?

The equation for LMTD is shown below:

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =
∆𝑇
ln ( 𝑎 )
∆𝑇𝑏

Since it is a counter flow heat exchanger, the entering and exiting points of the hot and cold fluid
are on opposite ends.

∆𝑇𝑎 = 65 𝐹 − 40 𝐹 = 25 𝐹

∆𝑇𝑏 = 75 𝐹 − 55 𝐹 = 20 𝐹

Inserting into the LMTD equation:

25 − 20
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =
25
ln ( )
20

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 22.4 𝐹

Heat Transfer - 44 http://www.engproguides.com


PRACTICE PROBLEM 9: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. 25 GPM of hot
water is provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F.
What is the temperature of the air leaving the coil? Assume a water density of 62.4 lb per ft^3.
Assume standard air conditions, density of 0.075 lb per ft^3 and a heat capacity of 0.24
Btu/lbm*F. .

a) 50 ℉

b) 53 ℉

c) 63 ℉

d) 65 ℉

Heat Transfer - 45 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 9: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. 25 GPM of hot
water is provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F.
What is the temperature of the air leaving the coil?

A heat balance should be conducted on the hot and cold sides of the equation. Assume 100%
heat transfer, since no other direction has been provided.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 1 𝑓𝑡 3 62.4 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢


𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 𝑥𝑔𝑝𝑚 ∗ ∗ ∗ 3
∗1 ∗ (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 )
ℎ𝑟 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 1 𝑓𝑡 3 62.4 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢


𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 25 ∗ ∗ ∗ 3
∗1 ∗ (75 − 65)
ℎ𝑟 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 125,000
ℎ𝑟

The heat transferred from the hot side must equal the heat gained on the cold side.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛 )

𝐵𝑡𝑢 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 . 075 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢


125,000 = 𝑥𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ � �∗ 3
∗ 0.24 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛 )
ℎ𝑟 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 . 075 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢


125,000 = 5,000 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ � �∗ 3
∗ 0.24 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 40)
ℎ𝑟 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

23 ℉ = (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 40)

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 63 ℉

Heat Transfer - 46 http://www.engproguides.com


SECTION 6: FLUID MECHANICS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 2
2.0 Fluids.................................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Properties of Fluids ......................................................................................................... 3
3.0 Fluid Applications ............................................................................................................... 6

Fluids - 1 http://www.engproguides.com
1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

This guide only focuses on the key properties that must be understood of fluids. The
application of these properties through the implementation of Mechanical Equipment and
Systems like piping, ducting, fans and pumps are discussed further in the Mechanical
Equipment and Systems section.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the
test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

Fluids - 2 http://www.engproguides.com
2.0 FLUIDS
A fluid is a substance that is continually changing its shape when under a shear stress. In
engineering application, fluids include gases and liquids. Gases include air, steam, compressed
air, medical gases like nitrogen, oxygen, etc. and industrial gases like natural gas, ethane,
acetylene, etc. Liquids include domestic water, chilled water, hot water and industrial liquids like
diesel fuel, propane and oil. This section describes the various explicit properties of fluids and
other implicit properties of non-moving fluids.

2.1 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS


The following sections go into detail on each of the thermodynamic properties. It is the intent of
these sections for the reader to gain an understanding of the concepts and to grasp the
meaning of each property.

1. Temperature: This property is the one most people are familiar with, because it is shown on
thermostats and thermometers. Temperature is a direct indication of the amount of heat in the
fluid. The USCS units used for temperature are Fahrenheit and Rankine. Typical Fahrenheit
temperatures for chilled water(medium used for water-cooled Air Conditioning) range from 45°F
to 55°F and hot water temperatures range from 120°F to 140°F. The temperature at which
water boils is 212°F and water freezes at 32°F. Rankine temperatures are used when it is
necessary to define an absolute temperature scale having only positive values. The conversion
between Fahrenheit and Rankine is shown below. When using equations during the exam,
ensure that the correct temperature units are used.

°𝑅 = ℉ + 460

2. Pressure: The pressure of a fluid indicates the amount of force per unit area that the fluid
imparts on the system around it. Pressure is measured in units of pounds per square inch
𝑙𝑏𝑓
(𝑝𝑠𝑖 = ) . There are two different types of pressure scales, (1) absolute pressure and
𝑠𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ
(2) gauge pressure. These two pressure scales differ by their 0 reference point. Gauge
pressures have a 0-reference point as 1 atm. Thus 0 psig, where the g indicates gauge
pressure, is equal to 1 atmospheric or 14.7 psia, where the “a” indicates absolute pressure.
Most real world applications encountered by practicing engineers will have pressures indicated
in gauge pressure. These include pressures measured at the discharge and intake of pumps
and fans and the pressures measured at other pieces of equipment like heat exchangers,
chillers and cooling towers. The relationship between gauge and atmospheric pressure is
shown with the following equation and figure.

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 [𝑝𝑠𝑖] = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 [𝑝𝑠𝑖] + 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Fluids - 3 http://www.engproguides.com
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 = 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 2 𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 = 0 𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 0 𝑎𝑡𝑚

FIGURE 1: Relationship between gauge and absolute pressures

3. Viscosity: The viscosity of a fluid describes the fluids resistance to flow. Viscosity is
measured in 𝑐𝑃 or centipoises and is represented by the variable, µ or mu. Viscosity is
measured with a device called a viscometer. There are many different types of viscometers but
each typically has the fluid moving past/through an object or it has the object moving through
the fluid. The time of travel will vary based on the viscosity of the fluid. For example, water has
a viscosity of ~1.00 cP (centipoises) at 68° F, while syrup has a viscosity of ~1400 cP and air
has a viscosity of ~.01827 cP.
𝑔∗𝑠
µ=� �
𝑐𝑚

𝑔
The units described above are related to cP by a factor of 100. 100 cP is equal to 1 � �.
𝑐𝑚∗𝑠
𝑙𝑏
The imperial units are� � and are related to cP by the following conversion.
𝑓𝑡∗𝑠

𝑙𝑏
1 cP = 6.72 x 10−4 � �
𝑓𝑡 ∗ 𝑠

There are two types of viscosities, dynamic(absolute) viscosity and kinematic viscosity. The
previously discussed viscosity µ is dynamic viscosity. Kinematic viscosity describes the ratio of
the fluids resistance to flow (dynamic viscosity) to the fluids density. Kinematic viscosity is
indicated by the symbol, 𝑣 or nu.
𝑙𝑏
𝜇[ ] 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑓𝑡∗𝑠
𝑣= 𝑙𝑏 =[ ]
𝜌 [ 3] 𝑠
𝑓𝑡

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝜇 = 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦; 𝑣 = 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑓𝑡 2
Kinematic viscosity has the units as shown above.
𝑠

Fluids - 4 http://www.engproguides.com
Viscosities of water have been included below for your convenience.

Kinematic
Temperature Viscosity Density
Fluid Viscosity
[F] [cP] [lb/ft3]
[ft2/sec]
32 Water 1.792 62.42 1.9291E-05
50 Water 1.308 62.41 1.4083E-05
68 Water 1.002 62.32 1.0804E-05
86 Water 0.7978 62.15 8.6259E-06
104 Water 0.6531 61.94 7.0853E-06
122 Water 0.5471 61.68 5.9603E-06
140 Water 0.4668 61.38 5.1104E-06
158 Water 0.4044 61.04 4.4519E-06
176 Water 0.355 60.67 3.9319E-06
194 Water 0.315 60.26 3.5126E-06
212 Water 0.2822 59.83 3.1695E-06

4. Reynolds Number: The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number

𝑉∗𝐿
𝑅𝑒 = ;
𝑣

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑, 𝐿 = ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

5. Density & Specific Volume: The density of a fluid is measured as a weight per unit volume.
Specific volume is the inverse of density and is measures as a volume per unit mass.

6. Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is the term used to describe the ratio between a fluid’s
density compared to the density of water. Water has a specific gravity of 1.0.

Fluids - 5 http://www.engproguides.com
3.0 FLUID APPLICATIONS
The fluid applications section has an overlap between the Mechanical Equipment and
Systems Section. In order to avoid repeating information, please refer to the Ducts, Fans
and Pumps Sections.

Fluids - 6 http://www.engproguides.com
SECTION 7: APPLICATIONS -
EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4
2.0 Key Equations and Terms .................................................................................................. 5
3.0 Air Supply Distribution & Ventilation ................................................................................. 12
3.1 Ducts ............................................................................................................................ 12
3.1.1 Darcy Weisbach Equation ..................................................................................... 12
3.1.1 Determining Velocity in Ducts for Pressure Calculations. ..................................... 13
3.1.2 Determining Diameter of Duct ............................................................................... 13
3.1.2 Determining Pressure Drop in Ducts ..................................................................... 14
3.2 Diffusers, Registers & Grilles ........................................................................................ 14
3.3 Fans .............................................................................................................................. 16
3.3.1 Important Terms .................................................................................................... 16
3.4 Types of Fans ............................................................................................................... 17
3.4.1 Axial Fans .............................................................................................................. 17
3.4.2 Centrifugal Fans .................................................................................................... 18
3.5 Fan Sizing..................................................................................................................... 20
3.5.1 Determining Volumetric Flow Rate [CFM] ............................................................. 20
3.5.2 Determining Total Static Pressure [in. wg] ............................................................ 20
3.6 Fan Curves ................................................................................................................... 23
3.7 Fan Affinity Laws .......................................................................................................... 25
3.8 Multiple Fans ................................................................................................................ 25
3.8.1 Fans in Parallel ...................................................................................................... 26
3.8.2 Fans in Series ....................................................................................................... 27
3.9 Cooling & Heating Coils ................................................................................................ 28
3.9.1 Cooling & Heating Coil Fluids ................................................................................ 28
3.9.2 Cooling & Heating Coil Terms ............................................................................... 29
3.10 Humidification & Dehumidification Systems ................................................................. 31
3.10.1 Humidifiers ............................................................................................................ 31
3.10.2 De-Humidifiers ....................................................................................................... 32
3.11 Air Handling Units ......................................................................................................... 34
3.12 Variable Air Volume Terminal Units .............................................................................. 36
3.13 Energy Recovery Devices ............................................................................................ 37
3.14 Air-Side Economizers ................................................................................................... 41
4.0 Liquid Distribution ............................................................................................................. 42

Equipment and Systems - 1 http://www.engproguides.com


4.1 Pumps .......................................................................................................................... 42
4.2.1 Determining Total Head .............................................................................................. 44
4.2.2 Determining Net Positive Suction Head Available ...................................................... 54
4.2.3 Reading Pump Curves ................................................................................................ 58
4.2.4 Using the Affinity Laws ............................................................................................... 59
5.0 Thermal Insulation ............................................................................................................ 60
6.0 Chillers ............................................................................................................................. 62
7.0 Cooling Towers ................................................................................................................ 63
7.1 Characterizing Cooling Towers .................................................................................... 64
7.2 Cooling Tower Performance ......................................................................................... 67
7.3 Cooling Tower Water Loss and Make-up ..................................................................... 68
8.0 Boilers .............................................................................................................................. 70
9.0 Furnaces .......................................................................................................................... 71
9.1 Types of Furnaces ........................................................................................................ 71
9.2 Efficiency ...................................................................................................................... 71
10.0 Acoustics .......................................................................................................................... 72
10.1 Sound Level as a Function of Distance ........................................................................ 73
11.0 Mechanical Equipment Questions .................................................................................... 76
Problem 1 – Duct Design ........................................................................................................ 76
Solution 1 – Duct Design ..................................................................................................... 77
Problem 2 – Duct Design ........................................................................................................ 78
Solution 2 – Duct Design ..................................................................................................... 79
Problem 3 – Diffusers .............................................................................................................. 80
Solution 3 – Diffusers ........................................................................................................... 81
Problem 4 – Fans .................................................................................................................... 82
Solution 4 – Fans ................................................................................................................. 83
Problem 5 – Fans .................................................................................................................... 84
Solution 5 – Fans ................................................................................................................. 85
Problem 6 – Coils .................................................................................................................... 86
Solution 6 – Coils ................................................................................................................. 87
Problem 7 – Coils .................................................................................................................... 88
Solution 7 – Coils ................................................................................................................. 89
Problem 8 – Humidifier ............................................................................................................ 90
Solution 8 – Humidifier ......................................................................................................... 91
Problem 9 – Energy Recovery Device .................................................................................... 92

Equipment and Systems - 2 http://www.engproguides.com


Solution 9 – Energy Recovery Device ................................................................................. 93
Problem 10 – Pumps ............................................................................................................... 94
Solution 10 – Pumps ............................................................................................................ 95
Problem 11 – Steam Piping ..................................................................................................... 96
Solution 11 – Pumps ............................................................................................................ 97
Problem 12 – Friction Loss ...................................................................................................... 98
Solution 12 – Friction Loss .................................................................................................. 99
Problem 13 – Friction Loss .................................................................................................... 100
Solution 13 – Friction Loss ................................................................................................ 101
Problem 14 – Net Positive Suction Head .............................................................................. 102
Solution 14 – Net Positive Suction Head ........................................................................... 103
Problem 15 – Pumps ............................................................................................................. 104
Solution 15 – Net Positive Suction Head ........................................................................... 105
Problem 16 – Cooling Towers ............................................................................................... 106
Solution 16 – Cooling Towers ............................................................................................ 107
Problem 17 – Air Washer ...................................................................................................... 108
Solution 17 – Air Washer ................................................................................................... 109

Equipment and Systems - 3 http://www.engproguides.com


1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

This section of the exam guide book focuses on the Mechanical Equipment and Systems used
in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The equipment discussed in this section are the most
common pieces of equipment and systems and include: air distribution equipment like ducts,
fans and dampers and fluid distribution equipment like pipes, pumps and valves. Also included
is equipment like chillers, cooling towers, energy recovery devices, boilers, etc.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the
test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

Equipment and Systems - 4 http://www.engproguides.com


2.0 KEY EQUATIONS AND TERMS

Mechanical Horsepower of a Fan


𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝑆𝑃[𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]
𝑀𝐻𝑃 =
6,356
𝑀𝐻𝑃 = 𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 [𝐻𝑃]
𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤
𝑇𝑆𝑃 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

Convert Mechanical Horsepower to Brake Horsepower

1
𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑀𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )
𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Convert Brake Horsepower to Electric Horsepower

1
𝐻𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �
𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Velocity Pressure as a Function of Air Velocity

𝐹𝑃𝑀
𝑉𝑃 = [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]
4005

𝐹𝑃𝑀 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒


𝑉𝑃 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

Simplified Sensible Heat Equation

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄� � = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

∗ 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑡 70℉ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚.

Friction loss due to length of duct

𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔
𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] ∗ 𝑓[ ]
100 𝑓𝑡

Equipment and Systems - 5 http://www.engproguides.com


Fan Affinity Laws

𝑪𝑨𝑺𝑬 𝟏: 𝑵𝒐𝒍𝒅 = 𝑵𝒏𝒆𝒘


𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 1
𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 2
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 3
𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

Fan Affinity Laws

𝑪𝑨𝑺𝑬 𝟐: 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒐𝒍𝒅 = 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒏𝒆𝒘


𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 1
𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 2
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 3
𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

Bypass Factor Equation for Coils

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡
where h is equal to the enthalpy

Bypass Factor Equation for Coils

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡
where T is equal to the dry bulb temperature

Bypass Factor Equation for Coils

𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡
where W is equal to the humidity ratio

Equipment and Systems - 6 http://www.engproguides.com


Moisture Transfer Equation

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )
[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]
𝑊 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚
[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟]
𝑙𝑏
𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [ ]
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑄 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]
𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑙𝑏
𝐻 = 𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑑 [ ]
ℎ𝑟

Energy Recovery Device Efficiency Equations


𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =
𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =
𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥

Energy Recovery Device Determine Actual Sensible Heat Transferred

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )


𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑇𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

Energy Recovery Device Determine Maximum Possible Sensible Heat Transferred

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

Energy Recovery Device Determine Actual Latent Heat Transferred

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑊𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )


𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑊𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑊𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

Energy Recovery Device Determine Maximum Possible Latent Heat Transferred

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑊𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

Equipment and Systems - 7 http://www.engproguides.com


Energy Recovery Device Determine Actual Enthalpy Transferred

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − ℎ𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )


𝑞𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − ℎ𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

Energy Recovery Device Determine Maximum Possible Enthalpy Transferred

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

Darcy Weisbach Equation

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2
ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]
2𝐷𝑔
𝑓𝑡
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,
𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

Darcy Weisbach Equation

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2
ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]
2𝐷𝑔
𝑓𝑡
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,
𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

Positive Suction Head Equation

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒕 = ±𝑷𝒆𝒍𝒆𝒗 − 𝑷𝒇𝒓𝒊𝒄 + 𝑷𝒗𝒆𝒍

Pressure Drop due to Velocity Equation [Pump]

𝑽𝟐 𝑓𝑡
[𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]; 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 ;
𝟐𝒈 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 32.2
sec 2

Equipment and Systems - 8 http://www.engproguides.com


Pump Affinity Laws

𝑄1 𝐷1
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑄2 𝐷2
𝑄1 𝑁1
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑄2 𝑁2

Pump Affinity Laws

𝐻1 𝐷12
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐻2 𝐷22
𝐻1 𝑁12
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐻2 𝑁22

Pump Affinity Laws

𝑃1 𝐷13
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑃2 𝐷23
𝑃1 𝑁13
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑃2 𝑁23

Heat Transfer Between Pipe to Outer Surface

𝐵𝑡𝑢 ∗ 𝑖𝑛
𝑘[ ]
ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 = ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 − 𝑇𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 )[℉]
𝑋[𝑖𝑛]

Where k is equal to the conductivity of the insulation and X is equal to the thickness of the
insulation. K can vary depending on the temperature of the pipe.

Heat Transfer Between Pipe Surface and Air

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = ℎ[ 2 ] ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 )[℉]
𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℎ ∗ ℉

Where h is equal to the surface coefficient of the insulation. This value is a measure of how well
the surface of the material in question is at conducting heat to the ambient air. The value can
increase for higher wind speeds and varying surface and air temperatures.

Equipment and Systems - 9 http://www.engproguides.com


Cooling Tower Range

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛 [℉] − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉]

Cooling Tower Apprach

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉] − 𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛,𝑊𝐵 [℉]

Cooling Tower Effectiveness

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 =
𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ

Cooling Tower Evaporation Rate

𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙
. 000943 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Combining the Sound Levels of Multiple Sources


𝐷𝐵1 𝐷𝐵2 𝐷𝐵3 𝐷𝐵4 𝐷𝐵5 𝐷𝐵6 𝐷𝐵7 𝐷𝐵8
𝐿𝐴 = 10 ∗ log10 (10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 𝑣10 100 + 10 100 )

Sound Level at a Distance from a Point Source (Spherical Propagation)

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 − 1


𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑥 [𝐷𝐵]
𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝐷𝐵]
𝑥 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝑓𝑡 ′ ]

Sound Level at a Distance from a Point Source (Half-Spherical Propagation)

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 2

Sound Level at a Distance from a Point Source (Quarter-Spherical Propagation)

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 5

Equipment and Systems - 10 http://www.engproguides.com


Sound Level at a Distance from a Point Source (Eighth-Spherical Propagation)

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 8

Equipment and Systems - 11 http://www.engproguides.com


3.0 AIR SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION & VENTILATION
In the HVAC field, air distribution systems are used to supply cold/hot air to various spaces to
keep the occupants comfortable and/or to keep equipment at optimum conditions. Fresh air
shall also be provided through the air distribution system to provide appropriate ventilation
levels, in order to alleviate carbon dioxide (CO2) levels.

3.1 DUCTS
The method in which air is routed throughout a building is through the use of ducts, which can
be constructed of metal, plastic or fiberglass. The engineer should be able to accomplish the
following:

1) Determine the velocity in ducts.

2) Determine the pressure drop in ducts.

3) Size the duct based on required velocity or pressure drop.

3.1.1 DARCY WEISBACH EQUATION


The equation used to determine the pressure drop in ducts is the Darcy Weisbach Equation.

2 𝑓𝑡
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] 𝑉 [ 𝑠 ]
∆𝑃 � 2 � = 𝑓 ∗ 𝜌 � 3 � ∗ ∗
𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡 𝐷[𝑓𝑡] 𝑓𝑡
2𝑔[ 2 ]
𝑠

Converting to more commonly used HVAC & Refrigeration units:


2
𝑓𝑡
12 ∗ 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] 𝑙𝑏 𝑉 � �
𝑚𝑖𝑛
∆𝑃[𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝑓 ∗ ∗ 𝜌[ 3 ] � �
𝐷[𝑖𝑛] ∗ 𝑓𝑡 1097

Although this equation is the governing equation for determining pressure drop, it is most often
not used in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. In this field, airflow pressure drop calculations are
simplified through the use of Friction Charts. Friction Charts show pressure drops as a
function of duct diameters, air volumetric flow rate and air velocity. However, these values are
only applicable for standard air conditions (sea level, density of 0.075 lb per ft^3). Airflows,
pressures, elevations and duct construction NOT normally encountered in the HVAC &
Refrigeration field should use the Darcy Equation.

Equipment and Systems - 12 http://www.engproguides.com


3.1.1 DETERMINING VELOCITY IN DUCTS FOR PRESSURE
CALCULATIONS.

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, airflow is typically measured in cubic feet per minute or CFM.
But velocity is the term that is required in determining the pressure drop of the air flow through a
duct. In order to determine the velocity, the area of the duct must be found. Finding the area of
the ducts is a simple calculation for circular ducts, which are shown below.

𝐷2
𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝐷𝑢𝑐𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 [𝑓𝑡 2 ] = 𝜋 ∗ ; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐷 = 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟[𝑓𝑡]
4

For rectangular and oval ducts, the rectangular and oval duct dimensions MUST FIRST be
converted to Equivalent Diameter. Remember, that the pressure loss calculations require a
circular shape.

3.1.2 DETERMINING DIAMETER OF DUCT

The Friction Charts and the Darcy Equation are typically a function of duct diameter. Thus no
calculations are necessary for a circular duct. However, rectangular and oval ducts must be
converted to an equivalent diameter circular duct before the equation can be properly
completed. The equations for determining equivalent diameters are shown below.

Rectangular Duct

(𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625
𝐷𝑒 = 1.30 ∗
(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 a and b are the width[ft] and height[ft] of the duct

Oval Duct

(𝐴 ∗ 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)0.625
𝐷𝑒 = 1.55 ∗
(𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟)0.250

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 + 2 ∗ (𝐴 − 𝑎)

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 A is the major axis and a is the minor axis

A quicker way to determine equivalent diameter is to use the Equivalent Diameter Tables for
Rectangular and Oval ducts shown in ASHRAE Fundaments.

Equipment and Systems - 13 http://www.engproguides.com


3.1.2 DETERMINING PRESSURE DROP IN DUCTS

Once the equivalent diameter of the duct is found and the CFM is known, then simply refer to
the Friction Charts for Ducts and simply read the pressure drop. This process is detailed more
in Fan Section, later on in this section.

3.2 DIFFUSERS, REGISTERS & GRILLES


Diffusers, registers and grilles are devices. These air devices distribute conditioned air to the
space in order to provide thermal comfort for the occupants of the space or to provide proper
thermal conditions suitable for the equipment in the space.

Diffusers are defined as air terminal devices that distribute conditioned air in various directions
through the use of its deflecting vanes. These devices are designed to promote the mixing of
conditioned air with the air already in the space. It is important to properly mix the conditioned
air into the space, in order to distribute fresh air to the entire space and to avoid stagnant air in
the space. However, not all types of diffusers perform the same. Each diffuser will be provided
with a table describing its performance similar to the one on the following page.

TABLE 1: PERFORMANCE DATA FOR 12” X 12”, 4” X 4” DUCT CONNECTION, CEILING DIFFUSER

Velocity [ft/min] 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000


Total Pressure Drop [in. wg] .056 .090 0.131 0.175 0.225 0.290 0.355
Airflow [CFM] 50 60 70 85 95 110 120
NC 14 20 24 28 32 35 38
Throw [ft] 5-8-13 7-9-12 8-12-19 9-13-18 10-15-21 12-17-24 13-19-31

The values shown the table above are specific to a certain manufacturer’s type of diffuser and
size. The third row indicates the total amount of CFM that is distributed through this diffuser.
From this CFM value, the velocity and pressure drop through the diffuser can be determined. It
is also important to note that at higher velocities, the pressure drop increases and the NC or
noise criteria increases. The NC rating corresponds to a curve of DB levels at various
frequencies. This NC rating is used to rate the sound levels of air conditioning equipment and
also used to rate the sound requirements of rooms. For example, a typical classroom will
require a NC rating of 25. Using the table above, this corresponds to a maximum airflow
somewhere between 70 and 85 CFM.

Throw is defined as the horizontal distance from a diffuser at a specified velocity. For example,
T 50 = 15’, indicates that at a distance of 15’ from the diffuser, the velocity of the air will be 50
feet per minute. T 100 = 10’, indicates the distance at which the air velocity is 100 feet per minute
and T 150 = 5’, indicates the distance for 150 feet per minute. Often times throw is shown simply
in the following format, [T 150 -T 100 - T 50 ]. For example, in the table above, an airflow of 60 CFM

Equipment and Systems - 14 http://www.engproguides.com


results in a velocity of 150 fpm at 7’ from the diffuser, a velocity of 100 fpm at 9’ from the diffuser
and a velocity of 50 fpm at 12’ from the diffuser. Refer to the following figure for a graphical
explanation.

FIGURE 1: THROW

Typically in diffuser layout design for occupied areas, it is required to locate diffusers so that the
T 50 length is nearly equivalent to the characteristic length. The characteristic length is defined
as by one of the following definitions:

1. Perpendicular distance between the center line of the diffuser and the wall.
2. Midpoint between the centerline of two diffusers.

Grilles are defined as air devices that consist of an opening with a covered grating or screen.
Grilles are often used to return air back to the fan or to exhaust air from a space. Grilles are not
typically used to supply air because there is an inability to accurately control the amount of air
being supplied.

Registers are simply grilles with a damper that is used to restrict the amount of air flow required
to be returned, supplied or exhausted.

Equipment and Systems - 15 http://www.engproguides.com


3.3 FANS
Fans are provided in HVAC & Refrigeration systems to distribute conditioned air, to provide
ventilation or to exhaust un-wanted air.

3.3.1 IMPORTANT TERMS

Mechanical Horsepower (MHP): Mechanical horsepower is the measure of the power produced
by the fan. Mechanical horsepower is a function of the air flow rate measured in cubic feet per
minute (CFM) and the total static pressure (TSP) measured in inches water gauge (in. wg). The
term “in. wg” is representative of the pressure due to an inch of water column.

𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝑆𝑃[𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]


𝑀𝐻𝑃 =
6,356

Brake Horsepower (BHP): Brake horsepower is the measure of the power drawn by the motor to
turn the fan. BHP is a function of the fan efficiency and the mechanical horsepower.

1
𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑀𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )
𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Horsepower (HP): Horsepower is the size of the motor. Motors come in standard sizes. [1,
1.5, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, etc] Horsepower is calculated through the following
equation and then rounded up to nearest motor size. In the P.E. exam, if the question explicitly
asks for the motor horsepower in standard size then calculate the motor horsepower through
the below equation and then round up to the nearest motor size. If the question does not ask
for standard motor size, then simply provide the output of the below equation.

1
𝐻𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �
𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

*𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝐻𝑃 𝑡𝑜 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒

Velocity Pressure (VP): Velocity pressure is defined as the pressure caused solely by moving
air.

𝐹𝑃𝑀
𝑉𝑃 = [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]
4005

Static Pressure (SP): Static pressure is the pressure caused solely by compression, the
outward force on a duct.

Total Pressure (TSP): Total static pressure is the sum of the velocity pressure and the static
pressure at any point.

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3.4 TYPES OF FANS

3.4.1 AXIAL FANS

Axial fans consist of a fan shaft with fan blades attached around the shaft. Air travels along
the axis of the fan and is blown out. These fans are not as common in the residential and
commercial HVAC & Refrigeration fields and are more common in industrial ventilation type
situations. Within the family of axial fans there are also different types of fans, like the
propeller, tube axial and vane axial fans.

Propeller: Propeller type axial fans consist of a propeller fan in fan housing. This fan,
similar to all axial type fans is only suitable for lower pressures.

FIGURE 2: AXIAL FANS - PROPELLER

Tube Axial: The tube axial fan consists of a propeller fan placed in a tube. This type of fan is
more efficient than the propeller fan and can handle higher pressures.

FIGURE 3: AXIAL FANS - TUBE AXIAL

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Vane Axial: The vane axial fan is a variation on the tube axial fan in which inlet vanes are
provided on the fan to straighten the air and to increase the efficiency of the fan.

FIGURE 4: AXIAL FANS - VANE AXIAL

3.4.2 CENTRIFUGAL FANS


Centrifugal fans consist of a fan wheel, with blades (impellers) along the circumference of
the wheel. Air enters the center of the fan wheel. The centrifugal force due to the spinning of
the fan wheel causes the air to increase in speed and creates a suction pressure at the inlet of
the fan wheel. The air then flows out the edges of the fan wheel and follows the fan housing to
the air outlet. These fans are the most common in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The different
types of centrifugal fans are defined by the shape of the fan wheel impellers, relative to the axis
rotation.

FIGURE 5: CENTRIFUGAL FANS

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Forward Curved: Forward curved centrifugal fans have fan blades that are angled forward in
the direction of the fan rotation. These fans are commonly used for lower pressures and are the
least efficient of the centrifugal fans.

FIGURE 6: FORWARD CURVED CENTRIFUGAL FAN

Backward inclined: Backward inclined centrifugal fans have fan wheel impellers that are
angled backwards relative to the fan rotation direction. These fans are more efficient than the
forward curved fans and are more commonly used at higher pressure

FIGURE 7: BACKWARD INCLINED CENTRIFUGAL FAN

Airfoil: Airfoil fans are defined by the airfoil type fan blades, they resemble jet engine
blades. These fans are the most efficient and can handle high pressures.

FIGURE 8: AIRFOIL CENTRIFUGAL FAN

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3.5 FAN SIZING
The professional engineer must also be able to properly size a fan. There are two main
parameters that must be determined in sizing a fan, (1) Volumetric Flow Rate [CFM] and (2)
Static Pressures.

3.5.1 DETERMINING VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE [CFM]


The volumetric flow rate of air that the fan must blow, will depend on one of the following
factors, (1a) heat/cooling load, (1b) ventilation/exhaust or (1c) velocity.

(1a) First in the HVAC & Refrigeration field fans are used to provide cool/hot air to properly
control the temperature of the space. The amount of air required is determined by the
cooling/heat load and the desired temperature and the supply air temperature.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄[ ] = 𝑚̇ � � 𝑐𝑝 [ ]∆𝑇[℉]
ℎ ℎ𝑟 ℉ ∗ 𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑚𝑖𝑛 049𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄� � = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ �60 �∗( 3
)0.24[ ]∆𝑇[℉]
ℎ ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 ℉ ∗ 𝑙𝑏

𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑡 70℉ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄� � = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

(1b) Second in the HVAC & Refrigeration field fans are used to provide ventilation to
adequately remove noxious fumes, like carbon dioxide from occupied spaces. The amount of
ventilation or exhaust is determined by researching ASHRAE 62.1 for the required factor. This
factor could be dependent on the number of people, for example, “Provide 15 CFM per person”
or it could be dependent on the area of the space, for example, “Provide 1 CFM per square foot
of area”.

(1c) Volumetric flow rate (CFM) can also be determined by the required velocity. This
method is typically used in industrial ventilation situations and in kitchens. A high velocity is
required in these types of systems in order to keep particles suspended in the air so that they
may be exhausted out of the space.

3.5.2 DETERMINING TOTAL STATIC PRESSURE [IN. WG]


The second parameter that must be determined in order to size a fan is the total static
pressure. This is the total pressure that the fan must overcome in order to deliver the correct
amount of CFM to the required location. The total static pressure is a function of the (2a) duct
friction losses, (2b) duct fitting losses and (2c) miscellaneous equipment losses.

(2a) Duct Friction Losses: Straight lengths of duct incur friction losses on the airflow, which
must be calculated by the engineer in order to properly size the fan. The amount of friction loss
is a function of the velocity of air and the size of the duct. The most important tool that is
required is the Friction Charts, which can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook or
the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual.

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FIGURE 9: SAMPLE DUCT FRICTION LOSS GRAPH

A sample duct friction loss chart is shown above. In order to calculate the pressure loss
through a duct, navigate to the intersection of the equivalent duct diameter and the volumetric
flow rate (CFM), then read the pressure loss per 100’ length of duct.

Finally, in order to calculate the total pressure loss, multiply the factor found in the graph by
the total length of duct.

𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔
𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] ∗ 𝑓[ ]
100 𝑓𝑡

(2b) Duct Fitting Losses: Each fitting will also have a friction loss associated with its
construction. In order to find these fiction losses, the engineer will need the ASHRAE
Fundamentals Handbook or the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. Duct fittings
losses are dependent on the type of fitting and the velocity of the air through the fitting. The
type of fitting will have a corresponding “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient”, which can be found in the
ASHRAE Fundamentals book and some typical fitting losses are also shown in the Mechanical
Engineering Reference Manual. The “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient” is the multiplied by the velocity
pressure in order to get the pressure loss due to the duct fitting. Remember that the velocity is

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found by first converting the rectangular or oval duct to equivalent diameter, then calculating the
area. The velocity pressure is found through the following equation:

𝑣2
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ] =
2𝑔

However, in the above equation velocity is in the unit of feet per second and velocity
pressure is in terms of feet of head. Convert, the variables to units most commonly used in
HVAC & Refrigeration.

𝑓𝑡 min 2 𝑙𝑏𝑓
�𝑣 ∗ � . 075 (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦) 𝑖𝑛
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 sec 𝑓𝑡
[ ]
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔 = ∗ ∗ 12
𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏𝑓 𝑓𝑡
2 ∗ �32.2 � 62.4 (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑦)
sec 2 𝑓𝑡

If you combine the constants in the equation above, the velocity pressure can be found
through the following equation. It is important to note that this simplified equation is only
applicable for the standard air density shown above.

𝑉𝑓𝑝𝑚 2
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = � �
4005

Once the velocity pressure is found, then use the K-factor of the duct fitting to determine the
friction loss due to the duct fitting.

𝑉𝑓𝑝𝑚 2
𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑓𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐾 ∗ � �
4005

(2c) Miscellaneous Equipment Friction Losses: In a duct system, there are also
miscellaneous equipment losses due to different types of equipment, like filters, fans, diffusers,
registers and grilles. The friction losses are given by the equipment manufacturer for different
velocities and flow rates.

𝐹𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑐.𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝. [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑢𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑟 ′ 𝑠 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑎

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3.6 FAN CURVES
The fan curve is a graph depicting the various points that the fan can operate. The curve
displays the amount of CFM the fan will provide at a given total static pressure. Fans should be
selected to operate at the stable region. The stable region is the area on the fan curve where
there is a single flow rate [CFM] value for each pressure value. In the unstable region, a
pressure value can have multiple CFM values, which will cause the fan system to surge. The
stable region also has very little change in CFM for large changes in total pressure.

FIGURE 10: FAN CURVE

The second curve that works in conjunction with the fan curve is the system resistance
curve. This curve is the summation of all the friction losses in the ducting system at varying
CFM's. Typically, the friction losses are summed up at the design CFM values, then this design
point is connected to the 0,0 point by an upward sloping square polynomial curve, as shown
below [green]. If for example, the ducting system has a closed damper or dirty filter, this will
cause the curve to shift to the left [red]. If a damper is opened or the dirty filter is cleaned then
the curve will shift to the right [blue].

FIGURE 11: SYSTEM RESISTANCE CURVE

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Combining the system curve with the selected fan curve, determines the operating point of
the fan system, indicated in the figure below in green. Following the vertical line down
determines the CFM and the horizontal line from that point indicates the operating total
pressure. During system operation as dampers close, the system curve shifts toward the left in
red. This movement decreases the amount of CFM delivered by the fan. The opposite occurs
as dampers open in the system, the amount of CFM delivered by the fan increases.

FIGURE 12: FAN DESIGN OPERATING POINT

It has been shown that the amount of CFM blown by a fan can be changed by shifting
the system resistance curve. However, the volumetric flow rate can also be changed by
changing the speed of the fan, which shifts the fan curve. Increasing the speed of the fan
causes the fan curve to shift to the right. Decreasing the speed of the fan causes the fan curve
to shift to the left.

FIGURE 13: FAN SPEED EFFECT ON CFM AND TP

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3.7 FAN AFFINITY LAWS
Often times a fan’s speed or impeller diameter will be changed. If the fan is a centrifugal fan,
then the change in performance of the fan can be predicted quickly through the affinity laws.

First, if the impeller diameter is held constant and the speed of the fan is changed, then flow
rate varies directly with the speed, available pressure varies with the square of the speed and
the power use varies with the cube of the speed.

𝑪𝑨𝑺𝑬 𝟏: 𝑵𝒐𝒍𝒅 = 𝑵𝒏𝒆𝒘

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 1
𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 =� � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 2
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 3
𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

Second, if the speed is held constant and the impeller diameter of the fan is changed, then flow
rate varies directly with the diameter, available pressure varies with the square of the diameter
and the power use varies with the cube of the diameter.

𝑪𝑨𝑺𝑬 𝟐: 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒐𝒍𝒅 = 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒏𝒆𝒘

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 1
𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 2
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =� � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 3
𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

3.8 MULTIPLE FANS


There will be times when fans are run in conjunction with each other. It is important for the
engineer to understand how the performance is affected depending on the different
arrangements of multiple fans.

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3.8.1 FANS IN PARALLEL
A parallel arrangement of fans is characterized by the same pressure increase across each fan
and the total flow is the sum of flows through each individual fan. In the figure below, the total
flow is shown as x 1 + x 2 + x 3 , where x n is the flow through fan “n”. The resulting total pressure
is equal to each individual fan pressure, since they are all the same.

FIGURE 14: FANS IN PARALLEL

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3.8.2 FANS IN SERIES
Fans in series are characterized by the same flow across each fan and the total pressure
increase is the sum of the pressure increase through each individual fan. In the figure below,
the total flow is shown simply as y, which is constant throughout each fan. The resulting total
pressure is equal to the sum of each fan’s individual pressure increase, y 1 + y 2 + y 3 , where y n is
the resulting fan pressure increase at fan “n”.

FIGURE 15: FANS IN SERIES

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3.9 COOLING & HEATING COILS
In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, cooling and heating coils are used to exchange heat between
air and a heat exchange fluid. A heat exchange fluid is transmitted through the coil and as air is
passed over the coil, the air is either heated or cooled. Coils consist of a metal box framing,
which holds a series of copper tubes in staggered rows and columns.

FIGURE 16: COOLING COIL

The amount of heat that is transferred is related to the amount of surface area that contacts the
air. In order to increase surface area, the size of the tubes may be decreased and more tubes
can be provided, the number of rows increased or the amount of fins per inch can be increased.
Aluminum or copper fins are provided on each tube to increase the amount of surface area.
Coils are rated by the height of the fins and the number of fins per inch.

3.9.1 COOLING & HEATING COIL FLUIDS

There are several different types of heat exchange fluids used in cooling/heating coils.

Refrigerant: Hot refrigerant gas or cool refrigerant liquid can be used in a coil to provide either
heating or cooling. In a heating-coil, cool air is passed over a coil containing hot gas. Heat is
exchanged to the cool air, which warms the air. The heat lost by the refrigerant gas causes it to
condense to a liquid. In a cooling-coil, warm air is passed over a coil containing cool refrigerant
liquid. Heat is exchanged to the cool refrigerant liquid, causing it to evaporate. The warm air
loses heat, thereby decreasing the air temperature.

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Water: Chilled water or hot water can be used in a coil to provide either heating or cooling.
The air temperature is either raised or lowered as heat is transferred to raise or lower the
temperature of the chilled or hot water.

Steam: Steam can be provided to a coil to provide heating. Steam enters the coil and as the
air passes over the coil its air temperature increases. As the steam loses heat, it condenses to
its liquid form.

3.9.2 COOLING & HEATING COIL TERMS

It is important to be able to understand the following terms, (1a) Apparatus Dew Point or (1b)
Effective Surface Temperature and the (2) Bypass Factor.

1. Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) or Effective Surface Temperature is the temperature at which all
air would be cooled to if the cooling coil was 100% effective. The ADP must be located on the
saturation curve, refer to the psychrometric chart below. The ADP, leaving coil conditions and
the entering coil conditions are located on the same line.

FIGURE 17: APPARATUS DEW POINT

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How close the leaving coil condition is to the apparatus dew point is a function of the bypass
factor.

(2) The bypass factor describes the percentage of air that is not cooled to the ADP. The air that
is bypassed remains unchanged from the entering coil conditions. The bypass factor is a
function of the airflow, number of rows, surface temperature, number of fins per inch, height of
fins and many other construction attributes of coils. The use of the bypass factor in calculations
is important. The bypass factor can be found through the use of (a) enthalpy, (b) dry bulb
temperature or (c) humidity ratio.

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where h is equal to the enthalpy

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where T is equal to the dry bulb temperature

𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where W is equal to the humidity ratio

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3.10 HUMIDIFICATION & DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEMS
In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, humidification and dehumidification systems are used to
transfer moisture to/from the air. These types of systems are sized based on the amount of
moisture, measured in pounds of water per hour that is added or removed from the air.

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )
[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]
𝑊 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚
[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟]
𝑙𝑏
𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [ ]
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑄 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]
𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑙𝑏
𝐻 = 𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑑 [ ]
ℎ𝑟

3.10.1 HUMIDIFIERS
Humidifiers are used to add moisture to air typically in order to achieve the best conditions for
human occupancy. In dry areas, low humidity causes moisture to evaporate from people’s skin,
creating the feeling that it is much colder than the dry bulb temperature indicates. Other times
humidifiers are used to maintain best humidity levels for equipment or produce.

There are two main types of humidifiers, (1) Steam and (2) Evaporative humidifiers.

(1) Steam Humidifiers, also known as isothermal humidifiers, add moisture to air without a
change in dry bulb temperature. Steam is created through an external means like a gas fired
boiler or electric boiler. Then the steam is typically directly injected into the air stream. It is
common to assume that the temperature of the air will rise since steam is 212 F. However, it is
important to think of steam as water vapor and as it is added to air, it will correspond to an
upward movement on the psychrometric chart [Pt 1 to Pt 2].

FIGURE 18: STEAM HUMIDIFIER

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(2) Evaporative Humidifiers, also known as adiabatic humidifiers, add moisture to air without
a change in enthalpy. Evaporative humidifiers do not require an external energy source like
Steam Humidifiers. Evaporative humidifiers work by blowing dry air over water or through water
droplets. The energy to vaporize the water comes from the dry air. As the air releases heat to
vaporize the water, the air also cools. On the psychrometric chart, adiabatic humidification is
shown as an upward-left movement, along a constant enthalpy line. It is constant enthalpy
because the enthalpy lost to sensible cooling is gained by latent heating [humidification].

Evaporative humidifiers operate on the same principle as air washers, evaporative coolers and
cooling towers. These principles will be discussed further in the Cooling Tower section.

3.10.2 DE-HUMIDIFIERS
De-Humidifiers are used to remove moisture from air in order to achieve the best conditions for
human occupancy, equipment or produce. In humid areas, high humidity causes the feeling
that it is much hotter than the dry bulb temperature indicates. Other times de-humidifiers are
used to maintain best humidity levels for equipment or produce. De-humidifiers are especially
important in preventing mold and mildew from forming.

There are two main types of de-humidifiers, (1) Condensing and (2) Desiccant de-humidifiers.

(1) Condensing de-humidifiers or cooling humidifiers work by decreasing the temperature of


the incoming air so that it is unable to hold moisture, which causes condensation. A cooling coil
acts a dehumidifier. In the Psychrometric chart below, hot, humid air enters the coil and leaves
as cool air. The amount of water vapor removed from the air is shown in red. In some cases
the air is reheated in order to lower the relative humidity and increase the dry bulb temperature.

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FIGURE 19: COOLING COIL - DEHUMIDIFIER

(2) Desiccant de-humidifiers or chemical dehumidifiers use desiccants to adsorb or absorb


water from air. As the air loses its water vapor, the heat from condensing the water vapor is
gained by the air stream, which causes the air to increase its dry bulb temperature. A desiccant
de-humidifier is shown as a downward-right movement, along the constant enthalpy line
(adiabatic).

FIGURE 20: DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFER

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One type of dehumidifier uses a Lithium-Chloride and Water solution. A Li-Cl, water solution is
sprayed over humid air. The Li-Cl has high affinity water. As the humid air is blown through the
Li-Cl-Water solution, the Li-Cl picks up the moisture in the air. The amount of moisture that can
be removed is dependent on (1) percentage of Li-Cl and (2) the temperature of the solution.

(1) A solution with a high concentration of Li-Cl can absorb more moisture and the opposite is
true of a low concentration.

(2) A solution with a low temperature can absorb more moisture and the opposite is true for a
higher temperature solution.

These types of dehumidifiers are dependent on the incoming conditions of the air, the equalized
temperature of the Li-Cl solution and the equalized concentration of the Li-Cl. The equalized
conditions are similar to the ADP for coils. These conditions describe the temperature and
humidity ratio that the incoming humid air would achieve if the dehumidifier was 100% effective.
A bypass factor is often indicated for a dehumidifier and is used in the same manner as the
bypass factor for coils.

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑟


𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

where T is equal to the dry bulb temperature

The concentration of the Li-Cl solution determines the equivalent humidity ratio, however this
determination is complex and is out of the scope of a 6-minute problem.

3.11 AIR HANDLING UNITS


Air handling units or AHUs are a common piece of equipment in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.
An AHU is a built-up, air moving and conditioning device. It is typically constructed of metal
framing with a multitude of individual air handling components. Each of the individual
components is discussed throughout this book. It is simplest to think of an AHU as put together
or built up by various building blocks or components. Components that most often comprise an
AHU are shown below:

1. Mixing Box: Typically the first component in an AHU is a mixing box, which mixes the correct
amounts of outdoor air with return air through the use of dampers.

2. Air Filter: An air filter is then provided prior to the next devices, in order to protect the
following devices and to keep them clean.

3. Heating and/or Cooling Coil: A heating and/or cooling coil is then provided to condition the
air to the correct leaving temperature.

4. Humidifier or Dehumidifier: If required a humidifier and/or dehumidifier is provided to


condition the air to the correct humidity level.

5. Fan: A fan may either be provided ahead or behind devices, depending on the engineer's
decision. If the fan is placed last, then the configuration is deemed a draw-thru fan, because the

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fan draws the air thru the other devices. A blow-thru fan, blows the air thru the other
components.

6. Energy Recovery Device: If there is an opportunity for energy recovery, then an ERV like a
heat pipe may be provided.

FIGURE 21: SAMPLE AIR HANDLING UNIT

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3.12 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME TERMINAL UNITS
A Variable Air Volume (VAV) terminal unit or commonly referred to as a VAV box is a device
that is used to regulate the volumetric air flow rate provided to a space. A VAV box is typically a
metal box with a duct inlet, outlet and a motorized damper. The motorized damper is controlled
by a thermostat located in a space. As the thermostat measures the temperature in the space,
it reacts to changes in the space by either restricting or allowing more airflow through the VAV
box.

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑉𝐴𝑉 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 − 𝑀𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤

The maximum airflow corresponds to the Maximum Heat Load, which is typically the design
heat load.

The minimum airflow can correspond to the Minimum Heat Load. However, typically this
amount is restricted by the minimum amount of air changes required in the space.

𝐿′ ∗ 𝑊′ ∗ 𝐻′
𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 =
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

A single air change per hour is found by determining the volume of the space and dividing it by
an hour.

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3.13 ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICES
An energy recovery device is an air to air heat exchanging device. In the HVAC & Refrigeration
field, energy recovery devices are used to exchange energy from outgoing exhaust air to
incoming outside air. During the winter months the outside air is pre-heated prior to entering the
air handler and during the summer the outside air is pre-cooled.

The amount of heat transferred by the device is determined by the effectiveness of the device.
The effectiveness of an energy recovery device is defined as the ratio of the actual heat
transferred to the maximum amount of heat that can be transferred. The effectiveness can be
rated in terms of sensible heat transfer, latent heat transfer or total heat transfer.
𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =
𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =
𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥

The actual amount of energy transferred is found by multiplying each individual airstreams mass
flow rates by the change in conditions, whether it is a change in temperature, change in
humidity or change in total enthalpy.

FIGURE 22: ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICE

Actual Sensible Heat Transferred [function of dry bulb temperature]

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑇𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

Actual Latent Heat Transferred [function of humidity ratio, lbs of water vapor per lb of dry air]

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑊𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑊𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑊𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

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Actual Total Heat Transferred [function of enthalpy]

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − ℎ𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 )

𝑞𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − ℎ𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

The maximum amount of energy transferred is met if the entering condition of the 1st air stream
exits the energy recovery device at the same conditions as the entering condition of the 2nd air
stream. However, if one airstream has more air flow than the other, then the smallest airstream
should be used.

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ (𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑊𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ (ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 )

There are various types of energy recovery devices that will be described in this section, (1) the
rotary sensible wheel, (2) the rotary enthalpy wheel, (3) the wrap-around heat pipe and (4) the
run around loop.

1) Rotary Sensible Wheel

A rotary sensible wheel is typically a metal wheel that rotates and exchanges only sensible heat
from one air stream to another. The wheel is connected to a gear and motor, which rotates the
wheel. As a section of the wheel picks up heat from air stream, the wheel then rotates to the
other air stream to move the heat to the cooler air stream.

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2) Rotary Enthalpy Wheel

A rotary enthalpy wheel is similar to a rotary sensible wheel, in that it has the same type of
construction and parts. But a rotary enthalpy is used to absorb moisture as well as heat. A
section of the wheel absorbs heat and moisture from the more hot and humid air stream, then
rotates and transfers the moisture to the more cold and dry air mixture.

3) Wrap-Around Heat Pipe

A wrap around heat pipe is used typically in warm humid climates in spaces with a high amount
of outside air requirements. In these types of environments, warm, humid outside air is
conditioned to a low temperature in order to condense the water out of the air. A wrap-around
heat pipe is used to pre-cool the incoming warm humid outside air by transferring heat to the
exiting cool supply air. This has the effect of providing sensible re-heat to the supply air.

FIGURE 23: WRAP AROUND HEAT PIPE

The heat pipe contains a pressurized refrigerant, which proceeds through the vapor
compression cycle. In the first phase, warm air passes over the cool liquid refrigerant. This
effectively pre-cools the outside air before it enters the main cooling coil. During this first phase,
the liquid refrigerants gains heat, causing it to vaporize and move to the other side of the coil. In

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the second phase, on the other side of the coil, the cool air passes over the warm vapor, which
re-heats the air. In addition, the warm vapor is condensed to a liquid, allowing the process to
start over again.

In this example, energy is transferred from the entering outside air to the exiting supply air. The
heat pipe can also be used to transfer energy between two different air streams. For example, it
can be used between the outdoor/supply air and the return/exhaust airstreams.

4) Run-Around Loop

The last energy recovery device that is explained in this section is the run-around loop. The run
around loop consists of two heat exchange coils connected by piping, a fluid and a pump. A
heat transfer fluid, typically water or a glycol-water mixture is pumped between the two coils.
The fluid transfers heat from one air stream to the other air stream.

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3.14 AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZERS
An economizer is another type of mechanical equipment that is used to save energy. In its
simplest form, an air-side economizer consists of two sets of dampers. One set controls the
amount of return air that is directed either to exhaust or back to the air handler and another set
of dampers control the amount of outside air routed to the air handler.

Cooling Season: When the outside air (OAIR) has a lower enthalpy than the return air (RAIR),
then the OAIR is directed to the coils and the RAIR is routed to the exhaust. By routing the
lower enthalpy air (OAIR), the coil requires less energy to provide cooling. If the enthalpy of the
RAIR is lower than the OAIR, then the RAIR is routed to the coil and only the minimum amount
of OAIR is routed to the coil. OAIR is still required in order to maintain the proper amounts of
fresh air to the occupants.

FIGURE 24: ECONOMIZER DIAGRAM

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4.0 LIQUID DISTRIBUTION
In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, liquids are distributed throughout various types of systems,
like chilled water, hot water, condenser water and condensate systems. These systems have
three things in common, (1) piping, (2) pumps and (3) liquids.

(1) Piping is used as the means to transfer the liquid from one point to the next. It is important
to be able to (a) determine the pressure drop through a piping system and (b) determine the
velocity of liquid through a pipe. These skills will be discussed as part of this section.

(2) Pumps are used to provide the necessary mechanical energy to move a desired liquid flow
rate at the desired pressure. The important pump skills consist of (a) selecting the appropriate
pump, (b) determining the necessary volumetric flow rate, (c) determining the total dynamic
head and (4) determining the net positive suction head available. All of these items are
discussed in this section, except determining the volumetric flow rate, which is dependent on the
amount of energy that is required and has already been discussed in multiple areas.

(3) The properties of liquids that are important have been discussed in the fluids section.

4.1 PUMPS
There are three main types of pumps, centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pumps. Rotary and
reciprocating pumps are positive displacement pumps. This document will not cover positive
displacement pumps in detail because they are not typically used in the HVAC & Refrigeration
field. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pumps used in HVAC & Refrigeration.
The following information is tailored to centrifugal pumps and should not be applied freely to
positive displacement pumps.

Centrifugal pumps operate on the principle of "centrifugal force", which is the conversion of
rotational kinetic energy imparted by rotating impellers onto the liquid to produce a flow rate
(kinetic energy) at a certain pressure (pressure energy). Fluid enters the pump at the center or
eye of the impeller. The rotating impellers then push the fluid to the outer edges, imparting a
flow rate and pressure. See Figures 1 and 2 for a diagram of the fluid flow.

There are two main families of centrifugal pumps (1) end suction pumps [refer to Figure 25] and
(2) in-line pumps [refer to Figure 26]. These two families differ on the path the water takes from
the inlet to the outlet. In the end-suction pumps, the fluid enters the pump at the impeller and
exits the pump at a 90 degree angle from the inlet. The in-line pumps have parallel inlets and
outlets.

Within each family are horizontal and vertical type pumps, which are characterized by the
orientation of the pump shaft as either horizontal or vertical. In addition, pumps can be further
classified by the number of stages that the fluid proceeds through. Finally the last classification
is how the pump is connected to the motor. Pumps can be long-coupled where the pump is
connected to the motor by a flexible coupling or they can be close-coupled where the
connection between the pump and motor is through a rigid coupling.

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FIGURE 25: CENTRIFUGAL END SUCTION PUMP - CUTAWAY: 90 DEGREE ANGLE BETWEEN SUCTION AND DISCHARGE

(1) Fluid flows into the center of the impeller, (2) as the impeller rotates,(3) the centrifugal force
pushes fluid to the edges (4) until the fluid travels out the pump discharge.

FIGURE 26: CENTRIFUGAL IN-LINE PUMP - CUTAWAY: IN-LINE SUCTION AND DISCHARGE

(1) Fluid flows into the center of the impeller, (2) as the impeller rotates,(3) the centrifugal force
pushes to fluid to the edges (4)until the fluid travels out the pump discharge.

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4.2.1 DETERMINING TOTAL HEAD
Sizing a pump depends on two criteria, (1) the flow rate and (2) the total dynamic head. The
flow rate is determined by the needs of the HVAC & Refrigeration system. The pump may be a
chilled water pump serving several air handlers, so the flow rate (GPM) can be found by adding
up the design flow rates to the air handlers and any diversity required. The (2) second criteria is
the total dynamic head. Determining total head is a must-have skill for the engineer.

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛: (1)𝐺𝑃𝑀 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (2)𝑇𝐷𝐻 [𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑]

Total head or total dynamic head is the total equivalent height of water that a fluid must be
pumped against.

Head is a unit of pressure and has the units of feet of head, which is the total pressure exerted
by a certain amount of feet of a water column.

FIGURE 27: 1 PSI IS EQUAL TO 2.31 FEET OF HEAD

Total head can be broken up into the following components, (1) Static head or Elevation
Difference between the inlet and the outlet of a piping system and (2) Friction loss. In a closed
system, both static (elevation) head and friction loss are present. However, in a closed system
there is no elevation difference, because the beginning and the end of the piping system are the
same, therefore there is no elevation difference. Refer to the following figures, which describe
the different pressure losses in an open and closed system.

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FIGURE 28: OPEN SYSTEM

The typical example of an open system in the HVAC & Refrigeration field is the
condenser water system serving a cooling tower. The pump moves the condenser water from
the cooling tower basin through piping, then through the chiller and back to the top of the
cooling tower. The pump must provide a total dynamic head to account for the (1) Static
[Elevation] head and (2) the Friction Head through the piping, chiller, fittings, other equipment
and appurtenances.

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(1) The static head is the difference between the inlet and the outlet. The elevation difference
between the inlet and the pump, on the suction side of the pump is called the suction static head
and the elevation difference between the outlet and pump, on the discharge side is called the
discharge static head. The difference between discharge and suction static head is the
static/elevation head that the pump must pump against.

FIGURE 29: OPEN SYSTEM

(2) Friction head. Friction head consists of pressure losses due to equipment like chillers,
cooling towers, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, air handlers, etc. The amount of friction head
from these pieces of equipment are provided by the manufacturer and are typically provided in a
table format with total friction head or pressure loss for the equipment versus the flow rate.
Friction head also consists of pressure losses due to the piping and the various fittings like
elbows, tees, valves, etc. Calculating friction had due to piping will be discussed later in this
section.

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FIGURE 30: CLOSED SYSTEM

The typical example of a closed system in the HVAC & Refrigeration field is the chilled
water system serving the air handlers and chillers. The pump moves chilled water to and from
the chiller and through the air handlers. The pump must provide a total dynamic head to
account for only the Friction Head through the piping, chiller, fittings, other equipment and
appurtenances. There is no static/elevation head because the system is closed.

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Friction Loss: Friction loss is found through the use of either the Darcy Weisbach equation or
the Hazen-Williams equation. The Darcy Weisbach equation is slightly more involved and will
be explained below, starting with the equation.

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2
ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]
2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,
𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

During the exam, in order to quickly complete a friction loss question using the Darcy Weisbach
Equation, the aspiring professional engineer must have the necessary tools readily available to
find the values necessary to complete the equation. These include the following:

Necessary Tools:

1) Inner Diameter tables of common pipe materials and sizes.

Collect inner diameter [ft] tables of schedule 40/80 steel [Pipe sizes to 30"], type K, L, and M
copper tubing [Pipe sizes to 6"] and schedule 40/80 PVC [Pipe sizes to 30"]. Provide inner
diameters in feet for ease in using the Darcy Weisbach Equation. Commonly engineers use a
combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

2) Flow unit conversions.

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, volumetric flow rates are typically given in units and need to
be converted to cubic feet per second for use in the Darcy Weisbach equation.

1 𝐹𝑇 3
𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 𝐺𝑃𝑀 𝑏𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑒𝑡 .
448.83 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Once the volumetric flow rate is converted to cubic feet per second, then simply divide the value
by the inner area of the pipe to find the velocity of the fluid through the pipe.

3) Inner Area table of common pipe materials and sizes.

Collect inner area [ft^2] tables of schedule 40/80 steel [Pipe sizes to 30"], type K, L, and M
copper tubing [Pipe sizes to 6"] and schedule 40/80 PVC [Pipe sizes to 30"]. Provide inner
areas in feet^2 for ease in finding the velocities through the pipes. Commonly engineers use a
combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

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4) Kinematic viscosity tables of common fluids at various temperatures

The kinematic viscosity is used to find the Reynolds number.

Water Temperature [°F] Kinematic Viscosity


[ft^2/s]
32 1.924 x 10-5
40 1.664 x 10-5
50 1.407 x 10-5
60 1.210 x 10-5
70 1.052 x 10-5
90 0.823 x 10-5
100 0.738 x 10-5
120 0.607 x 10-5
140 0.511 x 10-5
180 0.383 x 10-5
212 0.317 x 10-5

5) Moody Diagram.

The Moody Diagram is used with the Reynolds number and the roughness factor to find the
friction factor.

6) Pipe Roughness

Collect pipe roughness factors ∈ for common pipe materials, steel, PVC, copper, etc.
Commonly a combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book are used.

Material Roughness (ft)


Steel .0009833
PVC .000005
Copper .000005

Moody Diagram: The Moody diagram uses the Reynold's number and the relative roughness
factor to determine the friction factor. The relative roughness factor is found by first finding the
roughness value corresponding to the pipe material. Then the roughness factor is divided by
the inner diameter of the pipe. It is important to ensure that the roughness factor and the
diameter are in the same units.

The Reynold's number is found by multiplying the velocity of the fluid through the pipe by the
diameter of the pipe and dividing by the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

𝑉∗𝐷
𝑅𝑒𝑦𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 =
𝜈

𝑓𝑡 2
𝜈 = 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 [ )
sec

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𝑓𝑡
𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [ )
sec

𝐷 = 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 [𝑓𝑡]

These two values (a) Relative Roughness and (b) Reynold's Number, determine the friction
factor, which can be found by finding the intersection of the vertical Reynold's number line
shown in black and the Relative Roughness factor curves shown in red.

FIGURE 31: MOODY DIAGRAM - FINDING THE FRICTION FACTOR. STEP 1: FIND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS FACTOR, STEP
2: FIND INTERSECTION OF REYNOLD'S NUMBER AND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS FACTOR. STEP 3: READ
CORRESPONDING FRICTION FACTOR.

Now, that all the variables of the Darcy Weisbach equation have been determined, simply plug
in the variables into the equation to determine the friction head.

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2
ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]
2𝐷𝑔

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SCHEDULE 40/80 STEEL PIPES - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS

Schedule 40 Steel Schedule 80 Steel


Inner Inner Inner Inner
Pipe Pipe
Diameter Area Diameter Area
Size Size
[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]
1/8" 0.022 0.0004 1/8" 0.018 0.0003
1/4" 0.030 0.0007 1/4" 0.025 0.0005
1/2" 0.009 0.0001 1/2" 0.035 0.0010
3/4" 0.069 0.0037 3/4" 0.062 0.0030
1" 0.087 0.0060 1" 0.080 0.0050
1-1/4" 0.115 0.0104 1-1/4" 0.107 0.0089
1-1/2" 0.134 0.0141 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0123
2" 0.172 0.0233 2" 0.162 0.0205
2-1/2" 0.206 0.0332 2-1/2" 0.194 0.0294
3" 0.256 0.0513 3" 0.242 0.0459
3-1/2" 0.296 0.0687 3-1/2" 0.280 0.0617
4" 0.336 0.0884 4" 0.319 0.0798
5" 0.421 0.1389 5" 0.401 0.1263
6" 0.505 0.2006 6" 0.480 0.1810
8" 0.665 0.3474 8" 0.635 0.3171
10" 0.835 0.5476 10" 0.797 0.4989
12" 0.995 0.7773 12" 0.948 0.7058
14" 1.094 0.9397 14" 1.042 0.8522
16" 1.250 1.2272 16" 1.193 1.1175
18" 1.417 1.5763 18" 1.344 1.4183
20" 1.568 1.9306 20" 1.495 1.7550
24" 1.886 2.7922 24" 1.797 2.5362

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COPPER TUBES - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS
Copper Tube Type K Copper Tube Type L Copper Tube Type M
Inner Inner Inner Inner Inner Inner
Pipe Pipe Pipe
Diameter Area Diameter Area Diameter Area
Size Size Size
[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]
1/4" 0.025 0.0005 1/4" 0.031 0.0008 1/2" 0.047 0.0018
1/2" 0.044 0.0015 1/2" 0.045 0.0016 3/4" 0.068 0.0036
3/4" 0.062 0.0030 3/4" 0.065 0.0034 1" 0.088 0.0061
1" 0.083 0.0054 1" 0.085 0.0057 1-1/4" 0.108 0.0091
1-1/4" 0.104 0.0085 1-1/4" 0.105 0.0087 1-1/2" 0.127 0.0127
1-1/2" 0.123 0.0120 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0124 2" 0.167 0.0220
2" 0.163 0.0209 2" 0.165 0.0215 2-1/2" 0.208 0.0340
2-1/2" 0.203 0.0323 2-1/2" 0.205 0.0331 3" 0.248 0.0485
3" 0.242 0.0461 3" 0.245 0.0473 3-1/2" 0.288 0.0653
3-1/2" 0.282 0.0625 3-1/2" 0.285 0.0640 4" 0.328 0.0845
4" 0.321 0.0811 4" 0.325 0.0832 5" 0.409 0.1313
5" 0.400 0.1259 5" 0.406 0.1296 6" 0.490 0.1886
6" 0.478 0.1798 6" 0.487 0.1863 8" 0.649 0.3306
8" 0.632 0.3136 8" 0.644 0.3255 10" 0.808 0.5133
10" 0.787 0.4870 10" 0.802 0.5053 12" 0.968 0.7361
12" 0.943 0.6983 12" 0.964 0.7295

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SCHEDULE 40/80 PVC PIPING - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS

Schedule 40 PVC Schedule 80 PVC


Inner Inner Inner Inner
Pipe Pipe
Diameter Area Diameter Area
Size Size
[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]
1/8" 0.021 0.0003 1/8" 0.016 0.0002
1/4" 0.029 0.0006 1/4" 0.024 0.0004
1/2" 0.052 0.0021 1/2" 0.046 0.0016
3/4" 0.069 0.0037 3/4" 0.062 0.0030
1" 0.087 0.0060 1" 0.080 0.0050
1-1/4" 0.115 0.0104 1-1/4" 0.107 0.0089
1-1/2" 0.134 0.0141 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0123
2" 0.172 0.0233 2" 0.162 0.0205
2-1/2" 0.206 0.0332 2-1/2" 0.194 0.0294
3" 0.256 0.0513 3" 0.242 0.0459
4" 0.336 0.0884 4" 0.319 0.0798
5" 0.421 0.1389 5" 0.397 0.1240
6" 0.505 0.2006 6" 0.480 0.1810
8" 0.663 0.3457 8" 0.630 0.3121
10" 0.831 0.5428 10" 0.791 0.4914
12" 0.991 0.7711 12" 0.941 0.6957
14" 1.089 0.9321 14" 1.034 0.8400
16" 1.245 1.2174 16" 1.184 1.1018
18" 1.401 1.5410 18" 1.335 1.3987
20" 1.562 1.9160 20" 1.485 1.7308
24" 1.880 2.7744 24" 1.785 2.5020

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4.2.2 DETERMINING NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD AVAILABLE
The professional engineer must be able to properly determine net positive suction head
in order to avoid cavitation. Cavitation occurs when the suction pressure (head) is less than the
vapor pressure of the water. If the suction pressure is lower than the vapor pressure, then small
vapor bubbles form and when these bubbles reach the pump where the pressure is increases,
the bubbles implode causing damage to the impellers and other parts of the pump. This is what
is known as cavitation.

Suction head is defined as the pressure at the inlet of the pump and net positive suction
head is the difference between the suction head at the inlet and the vapor pressure of the water
at the inlet of the pump.

𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑆𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐴𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑆𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 − 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

Suction head is found by determining all the pressures acting upon the fluid whether positive or
negative. The following figure best describes all the pressures that can be acting upon a pump.

FIGURE 32: DETERMINING NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

(1) P abs : This pressure refers to the absolute pressure acting on the fluid. If the tank is
pressurized, then the value is pre-determined. If the tank is open to the atmosphere, then the
pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere [atm] or 14.7 psia or 33.9 ft of water.

(2) P elev : This pressure identifies the elevation difference between the top surface of the liquid
and the pump centerline. This value can be positive or negative and is measured in “feet of
head”.

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(3) P fric : The friction pressure or head is the amount of pressure lost due to friction in the
piping, fittings, equipment, valves, etc. leading from the fluid source to the pump.

(4) P vel : The velocity head pressure is the pressure due to the flowing liquid. This term is only
used if there is a pressure gauge at the suction of the pump. The pressure gauge measures the
static pressure at the pump and this term is used to measure the velocity pressure. In order to
determine the total suction pressure the static pressure and the velocity pressure are summed
together.

(5) P suction : Finally, all of the pressures leading to the pump are summed and the resulting
value is the suction pressure at the pump.

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𝑻𝒆𝒓𝒎 Description Formula
The suction pressure 𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡 = ±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 − 𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐
𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 at the inlet of the or
pump. 𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 + 𝑃𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
The elevation head is
±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 , ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑]
equal to the difference
𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑣𝑒 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝
𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 between the surface of
𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝
the liquid and the
pump centerline.

Friction losses in the


𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 piping leading to the Darcy Weisbach equation or pipe friction loss tables
pump.
The velocity head
pressure. Typically
very small amount.
Only use this amount if
the pressure in a
𝑉2 𝑓𝑡
pipeline is found by a [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]; 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 ;
𝑃𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 static pressure gauge. 2𝑔 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
Add the velocity 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 32.2
pressure to the static sec 2
pressure gauge
reading to find the
total pressure at that
point.

The vapor pressure of the water is found by simply looking up fluid property tables and finding
the vapor pressure at the operating temperature. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, water is the
most common fluid used in pumping systems and a table of corresponding vapor pressure and
temperatures are shown below. Use the MERM or ASHRAE Fundamentals book to find similar
tables.

Water Temperature [°F] Vapor Pressure [ft of head]


32 0.20
41 0.29
50 0.41
59 0.57
68 0.78
77 1.076
86 1.42
104 2.47
140 6.66
176 15.84
212 33.90

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From the table above, it can be seen that as the temperature of the water increases, the
pressure at which vaporization will occur also increases. The issue of cavitation becomes even
more critical at higher temperatures.

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4.2.3 READING PUMP CURVES
Pump curves are created by the manufacturers of the pumps through a series of tests
and describe the operating points for a specific impeller diameter and pump type. The curve
plots the corresponding flow rates at varying pressure, similar to a fan curve.

Pump Curve

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4.2.4 USING THE AFFINITY LAWS
It is often necessary to determine how a pump will operate under differing operating conditions.
The operating conditions of a pump that can most readily be changed are the impeller diameter
and the rotational speed of the pump. In order to predict how a centrifugal pump will behave
prior to changing the speed or the impeller diameter, the engineer can use the affinity laws
shown below.

The first set of affinity laws is that the flow rate (Q) is directly proportional to the size of the
diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the rotational speed (N) of the pump.

𝑄1 𝐷1
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑄2 𝐷2

𝑄1 𝑁1
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑄2 𝑁2

The second affinity law is that the total head (H) is directly proportional to the square of the size
of the diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the square of the rotational speed (N) of the
pump.

𝐻1 𝐷12
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐻2 𝐷22

𝐻1 𝑁12
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐻2 𝑁22

The third affinity law is that the power (P) is directly proportional to the cube of the size of the
diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the cube of the rotational speed (N) of the pump.

𝑃1 𝐷13
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑃2 𝐷23

𝑃1 𝑁13
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑃2 𝑁23

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5.0 THERMAL INSULATION
Insulation is provided in HVAC & Refrigeration systems on pipes, ducts, walls and roofs.
Insulation for walls and roofs was discussed in the Heat Transfer section. The primary purpose
of insulation is to limit heat transfer. For example, in chilled water pipes, insulation is provided to
limit heat transfer to the chilled water and to keep the water cold. In hot air ducts, insulation is
provided to limit heat loss to the surrounding areas.

Insulation is characterized by its ability to conduct heat transfer and is rated by either a
k-value, U-factor or an R-value. K-values are often used when rating pipe, duct or equipment
insulation where R-values and U-factors are typically used to describe roof and wall insulation.
Please refer to the Heat Transfer section for more detail on insulation for roofs and walls. This
section primarily deals with insulation for pipes and ducts, specifically being able to determine
the insulation requirements for a pipe or duct, in order to (1) Control Surface Temperature.

Controlling Surface Temperature: One important skill that the professional engineer must attain
is the ability to determine the insulation required to keep the surface temperature of a pipe, duct,
wall, roof or other piece of equipment within a set range. A common problem encountered in
the HVAC & Refrigeration field is determining the required insulation for a chilled water pipe in
order to stop condensation from forming on the surface.

The governing equation for this problem is that the heat transfer from the chilled water pipe
through the insulation and to the outer surface is equal to the heat transfer from the outer
surface to the ambient air.

𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 = 𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Heat transfer in the system is constant.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 ∗ 𝑖𝑛
𝑘[ ]
ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 = ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 − 𝑇𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 )[℉]
𝑋[𝑖𝑛]

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Where k is equal to the conductivity of the insulation and X is equal to the thickness of the
insulation. K can vary depending on the temperature of the pipe.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = ℎ[ 2 ] ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 )[℉]
𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℎ ∗ ℉

Where h is equal to the surface coefficient of the insulation. This value is a measure of how well
the surface of the material in question is at conducting heat to the ambient air. The value can
increase for higher wind speeds and varying surface and air temperatures.

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6.0 CHILLERS
Detailed information on chillers is provided in the refrigeration section.

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7.0 COOLING TOWERS
Cooling towers are mechanical pieces of equipment that function on the principle of
evaporative cooling. Evaporative cooling is the process by which a liquid is cooled to a lower
temperature by evaporating a small portion of the liquid into an airstream. Relatively dry air
moves through a falling liquid and as the air moves it picks up water vapor from the liquid,
thereby increasing the air’s moisture content. In order for the liquid to evaporate, the liquid
needs a heat source to meet the latent heat of vaporization. This heat source is the sensible
heat loss from the remaining liquid.

A cooling tower consists of two fluid flows, the air flow and the water flow. The water
flow starts from the top of the cooling tower. Warm water is pumped to a series of nozzles. The
nozzles’ purpose is to break up the water into tiny droplets to increase the surface area of the
water that is in contact with the air stream. The droplets then fall through a fill material, which
also serves to break up the droplets further to increase the surface area of the water. As the
water moves downward it steadily decreases in temperature as heat is lost due to evaporation.
Finally, the water collects at the basin, where it is sucked out and distributed to its required
location.

The air flow starts at the bottom of the tower, where cold dry air is brought into the
cooling tower where it comes into contact with the water droplets. As the air moves upward
through the tower it picks up water vapor and slightly increases in temperature. Prior to exiting
the cooling tower, the air must travel through the drift eliminators, which is a series of baffles.
The purpose of the drift eliminators is to catch any suspended water droplets in the air stream
and return them to the fill.

FIGURE 33: COOLING TOWER SCHEMATIC

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7.1 CHARACTERIZING COOLING TOWERS
The following section provides information on the different types of cooling towers used in the
HVAC & Refrigeration field. This information is provided to give the engineer additional
background on cooling towers.

Mechanical vs. Natural Draft Cooling Towers:

There are two main categories of cooling towers: (1) Mechanical draft and (2) Natural
draft cooling towers. Natural draft cooling towers move air based on the difference in buoyancy
of the airstream inside and outside of the cooling tower. Mechanical draft cooling towers move
air through the cooling tower by means of a mechanical fan. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field,
mechanical draft cooling towers are the primary type of cooling tower.

Induced vs. Forced Draft Cooling Towers:

Induced and forced draft cooling towers are both mechanical draft type fans and differ by
the location of their fan. Forced draft fans blow air into the cooling tower and are located at the
airstream entrance into the cooling tower. Induced draft cooling towers on the other hand, have
the fans located at the exit of the airstream for the cooling tower and suck air into the cooling
tower.

Counter-flow vs. Cross-flow Cooling Towers:

Counter-flow and cross-flow cooling towers are characterized by the relationship


between the air flow and water flow. In a counter flow tower the air and water flow are at 90
degrees to each other. The water is falling downwards and the air is moving across from either
left to right or right to left. In a cross-flow tower, the air and water flows have directly opposing
directions. The water is falling downwards and the air is moving upwards.

FIGURE 34: CROSSFLOW SCHEMATIC

FIGURE 35: COUNTERFLOW SCHEMATIC

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The following figure is a schematic of a forced mechanical draft, counter flow cooling tower.
The fans are located at the air inlets, near the bottom of the cooling tower. Also the air flow
counters the water flow as the water drops downward through the fill material.

FIGURE 36: FORCED MECHANICAL DRAFT, COUNTER FLOW COOLING TOWER

The following figure is a schematic of a forced mechanical draft, cross flow cooling tower. Since
this cooling tower is forced draft, the fans are again located at the inlet of the cooling tower near
the bottom. The air flows counter or perpendicular to the water as the water falls downward
through the fill.

FIGURE 37: FORCED MECHANICAL DRAFT, CROSS FLOW COOLING TOWER

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The following figure is a schematic of an induced mechanical draft, counter flow cooling tower.
The fan is located at the exit of the cooling tower and air is sucked or induced through the
cooling tower. This cooling tower is also a counter flow type, where air flows upward through
the fill and counters the downward moving water droplets.

FIGURE 38: INDUCED MECHANICAL DRAFT, COUNTER-FLOW COOLING TOWER

The following figure is a schematic of an induced mechanical draft, cross flow cooling tower.
Again the fan is located at the exit of the cooling tower. This cooling tower is a cross flow
cooling tower, where air flows perpendicular through the fill as it crosses the falling water
droplets.

FIGURE 39: INDUCED MECHANICAL DRAFT, CROSS-FLOW COOLING TOWER

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7.2 COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
The professional engineer must be able to properly design and select a cooling tower to fit
the HVAC & Refrigeration application. Cooling towers are characterized by two terms the
approach and the range. The range of the cooling tower is the difference between the entering
and exiting temperatures of the cooling tower water.

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛 [℉] − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉]

The approach or approach to wet bulb is the temperature difference between the water out
and the wet bulb temperature of the air.

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉] − 𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛,𝑊𝐵 [℉]

The approach is important because it describes the level of performance of the cooling
tower. The smaller the approach the better the cooling tower is at providing cooling. The wet
bulb temperature of the entering air is the lowest the temperature of the exiting water can reach.
If a cooling tower has a 0 degree approach then the cooling tower is using all of the available
heat exchange from the air to cool the water. Typical approaches are in the range of ~10 °F.

FIGURE 40: APPROACH, EFFECTIVENESS AND RANGE

Approach also leads to another important term in determining the performance of cooling
towers, called effectiveness. Effectiveness is a term used to describe how effective the cooling
tower is at cooling the water or how close the actual temperature difference between the water
temperatures in and out is to the maximum temperature difference. The maximum temperature
difference that a cooling tower can produce is the difference between the water temperature in
and the air wet bulb temperature.

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𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 =
𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ

The range is important because when used in conjunction with the water flow rate, the
capacity of the cooling tower can be found. The capacity and the amount of cooling provided by
the cooling tower are found by multiplying the flow rate of the cooling water by the difference in
temperature at the inlet and outlet of the cooling tower, using the following equation, Q = mc∆T
and for a simplified equation to use during the test, follow the derivation below.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇ [ ] ∗ 𝑐𝑝 [ ] ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝚤𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ̇ 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝑇 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝚤𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝚤𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒.
Substituting volumetric flow rate [GPM] and density of water for mass flow rate, results in the
following equation.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑎𝑙 1.00 𝑏𝑡𝑢


𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 8.33 ∗ 60 ∗ 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �∗ ∗ (𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )
𝑔𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

Simplifying the constants, results in the following equation.

𝑔𝑎𝑙
𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 500 ∗ 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ (𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )
𝑚𝑖𝑛

7.3 COOLING TOWER WATER LOSS AND MAKE-UP


In a cooling tower, water is lost due to multiple sources such as evaporation, drift and blow-
down. The first term, evaporation, is calculated through the following equation, where the
assumption is made that the total heat loss is due to the heat loss through evaporation.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ] ∗ 𝑐𝑝 [ ] ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐺𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝐸𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇𝑣𝑝 [ ] ∗ 𝐻𝑣𝑝 [ ]
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐻𝑣𝑝 � � 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � � ∗ 𝑐𝑝 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑚̇𝑣𝑝 [ ] ∗ 𝐻𝑣𝑝 [ ]
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉ ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝐵𝑡𝑢
500 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ (𝑇𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) = 500 ∗ 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ 1,060[ ]
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏𝑚
𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙
. 000943 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �
𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛

With a 10°F difference between entering and existing temperature, the evaporation rate is
approximately 1% of the cooling tower flow rate.

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The second water loss is due to drift. Drift is the amount of water that is carried out
through the airstream. Drift eliminators provided prior to the discharge are best described as a
maze of baffles that the air must travel through before exiting to atmosphere. The drift
eliminator trap the water droplets that get picked up by the exiting air and send the droplets
back to the fill material. Typical water loss due to drift is less than 0.2%.

The third major source of water loss is due to blow-down. Blow-down is required
because as water is evaporated it leaves behind the total dissolved solids (TDS), which
increases the concentration of the TDS in the water. In order to bring the concentration of the
TDS back to normal conditions so that it may be used safely with the equipment, the high
concentrated TDS water is drained regularly and this is what is referred to as blow-down. The
water is then replaced with fresh water and this is referred to as make-up water.

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8.0 BOILERS
Boilers are covered in detail in the Refrigeration – Steam Systems Section.

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9.0 FURNACES
Furnaces are mechanical pieces of equipment used for space heating. Furnaces consist of a
burner with a combustion air intake, fuel intake and an igniter. The hot combustion flames are
routed through a heat exchanger, where heat is exchanged to the cold air as it is blown across
the heat exchanger coils. Warm air is then blown to the space and the combustion
gases/products exit the furnace through an exhaust vent pipe.

The fuel that is most commonly used is natural gas. Furnaces can be used in both residential
and commercial situations.

9.1 TYPES OF FURNACES

The two main types of furnaces are condensing and non-condensing furnaces. The traditional
non-condensing furnace operates in the initial description of a furnace. These furnaces can
have efficiencies in the range of 80% to 84% AFUE. A condensing furnace takes the
combustion products that were initially routed to the exhaust vent and passes them through
another heat exchanger. This extracts more heat to the air and cools the combustion products
to a temperature where water begins to condense out of the air. Because of the water, this
second heat exchanger is made of a corrosive resistive material. A condensing furnace can
have efficiencies in the range of 90% to 98% AFUE.

9.2 EFFICIENCY

The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) is the term used by manufacturers to rate the
annual efficiency of their furnaces. It describes the ratio of the amount of useful heat out of the
furnace compared to the amount of fuel input to the furnace. This efficiency rating is regulated
by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is used to take into account the constant on/off
operation and seasonal effects on the furnace. The DOE requires that all furnaces have
efficiencies greater than 78% AFUE.

Steady state efficiencies are also provided by the manufacturer and indicate the best efficiency
of the furnace when operated at peak conditions.

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10.0 ACOUSTICS

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, acoustical engineering is used to determine the sound levels
in occupied spaces and around HVAC & Refrigeration equipment. Sound is a sequence of
waves that moves through air. The frequency of the waves determines the pitch of the sound.
A high frequency corresponds to a high pitched sound and a low frequency corresponds to a
low pitched sound. The loudness of the sound is a measure of the pressure of the wave. In
practice, sound is typically measured in terms of the unit decibel [DB].

Equipment produces sound not at just one frequency. The manufacturer of the equipment will
produce sound tables, which provides sound levels at a range of frequencies. A sample
equipment sound performance data is shown below.

Sound Performance Data


Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
[HZ]
Sound 51 60 67 68 70 71 61 52
Level [DB]

Equipment sound performance data is often simplified to a single DB level. In order to convert
the performance data to a single level, the sound levels at the various frequencies are weighted.
The following table shows the A-weighting, which is used to give sound levels at lower
frequencies a lower rating. This is because sound levels at lower frequencies are not as easily
heard by the human ear.

Sound Performance Data with A-Weighting


Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
[HZ]
Sound 51 60 67 68 70 71 61 52
Level [DB]
A- -26 -16 -9 -3 0 1 1 -1
Weighting
Sound 25 44 58 65 70 72 62 51
Level
[DBA]

Once the DBA values are found, the sound levels at the various frequencies can be combined
with the following equation.
25 44 58 65 70 72 62 51
𝐿𝐴 = 10 ∗ log10 (10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 𝑣10100 + 10100 )

𝐿𝐴 = 75 𝐷𝐵𝐴

The above equation can also be used to find the equivalent sound level of two point sources,
like two condensing units.

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Sound levels can be reduced through the use of silencers and insulation. These types of sound
reducing equipment, like duct silencers are provided with performance data similar to
mechanical equipment.

Sound Performance of Duct Silencer


Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
[HZ]
Sound -5 -6 -8 -8 -9 -6 6 -5
Level
Reduction
[DB]

In order to calculate the sound reduction, simply subtract the reduction levels from the sound
levels of the mechanical equipment.

10.1 SOUND LEVEL AS A FUNCTION OF DISTANCE


HVAC & Refrigeration equipment like condensers and cooling towers generate undesirable
noise. Often times, clients and architects request that mechanical equipment is located a
sufficient distance away from occupied areas in order to limit noise for occupants. The following
quick calculations are used to determine the sound level from a piece of equipment as a
function of distance from the equipment.

The sound levels are also dependent on the equipment’s surroundings. If the equipment is
suspended, then sound will propagated through the air in a spherical pattern as shown in the
figure below.

FIGURE 41: SPHERICAL SOUND PROPAGATION

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At a distance of 0’ from the equipment, the sound level is as stated by the equipment
manufacturer. The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the
equation below for a spherical sound propagation.

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 − 1

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑥 [𝐷𝐵]

𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝐷𝐵]

𝑥 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝑓𝑡 ′ ]

FIGURE 42: HALF SPHERICAL PROJECTION

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a
half-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the ground
and not surrounded by walls.

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 2

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FIGURE 43: QUARTER SPHERICAL PROJECTION

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a
quarter-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the
ground with a wall on one side.

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 5

FIGURE 44: EIGHTH SPHERICAL PROPAGATION

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a
eighth-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the
ground with walls on two sides.

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 − 20 ∗ log10 𝑥 + 8

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11.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT QUESTIONS

PROBLEM 1 – DUCT DESIGN


Background: The pressure at the outlet of a 2,000 CFM fan is 0.75 in. wg. The fan discharges
into a 12” X 18” duct. The duct runs for an equivalent length of 125’ to a supply diffuser. What
is the pressure at the supply diffuser?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

(a) 0.62 in. wg

(b) 0.53 in. wg

(c) 0.41 in. wg

(d) 0.25 in. wg

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SOLUTION 1 – DUCT DESIGN
Since standard conditions are used, the friction chart is applicable.

First calculate the equivalent diameter.

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625
𝐷𝑒 =
(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

1.30 ∗ (12" ∗ 18")0.625


𝐷𝑒 =
(12" + 18")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 16"

Or refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals Table – Equivalent Rectangular Duct Dimensions for


converting Rectangular Dimensions to Equivalent Diameter.

Next navigate the friction chart in ASHRAE Fundamentals to the intersection of equivalent
diameter equal to 16” and a flow rate of 2,000 CFM.

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 0.18 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

Next calculate the total pressure loss due to the duct.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 125′ ∗ 0.18 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 0.225 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔

The pressure at the diffuser is found below:

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝐷𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑟 = 0.75 − 0.225 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟓 𝒊𝒏. 𝒘𝒈

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PROBLEM 2 – DUCT DESIGN
Background: A 26” X 12” duct is routed through a ceiling. Due to obstructions in the ceiling, the
duct must make (4) 90-degree elbow turns. The elbows are mitered and are provided with
turning vanes at 1.5” spacing (C = 0.11). If the flow rate through the duct is 3,000 CFM, then
what is the total pressure loss due to the elbows?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

(a) 0.06 in. wg

(b) 0.08 in. wg

(c) 0.10 in. wg

(d) 0.11 in. wg

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SOLUTION 2 – DUCT DESIGN
Background: A 26” X 12” duct is routed through a ceiling. Due to obstructions in the ceiling, the
duct must make (4) 90-degree elbow turns. The elbows are mitered and are provided with
turning vanes at 1.5” spacing (C = 0.11). If the flow rate through the duct is 3,000 CFM, then
what is the total pressure loss due to the elbows?

First calculate the equivalent diameter of the duct:

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625
𝐷𝑒 =
(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

1.30 ∗ (12" ∗ 26")0.625


𝐷𝑒 =
(12" + 26")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 19"

Next calculate the free area of the equivalent duct.

𝐷2
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (𝑃𝐼) ∗ = 1.96 𝑆𝐹
4
3,000 𝐶𝐹𝑀
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = 1,530 𝐹𝑃𝑀
1.96 𝑆𝐹

Next calculate the velocity pressure.

1,530 2
𝑉𝑃 = � � = 0.146 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔
4,005

Use the C coefficient to calculate the pressure loss from the elbows

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝐶 ∗ 𝑉𝑃

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = (4) ∗ 0.11 ∗ 0.146 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟒 𝒊𝒏. 𝒘𝒈

Equipment and Systems - 79 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 3 – DIFFUSERS
Background: A new diffuser is selected with the following performance criteria. At what
perpendicular distance from the wall should the diffuser be located so that the velocity at the
wall is 50 feet per minute?

Velocity [fpm] 300 400 500 600 700 800


Total Pressure [in. wg] .024 .034 .047 .061 .078 .096
Flow Rate [CFM] 100 120 140 160 180 200
Throw 150-100-50 [ft.] 1-2-3 1-2-4 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8

Assume the flow rate through the diffuser is 180 CFM.

(a) 3’

(b) 5’

(c) 7’

(d) 8’

Equipment and Systems - 80 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 3 – DIFFUSERS
Background: A new diffuser is selected with the following performance criteria. At what
perpendicular distance from the wall should the diffuser be located so that the velocity at the
wall is 50 feet per minute?

Velocity [fpm] 300 400 500 600 700 800


Total Pressure [in. wg] .024 .034 .047 .061 .078 .096
Flow Rate [CFM] 100 120 140 160 180 200
Throw 150-100-50 [ft.] 1-2-3 1-2-4 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8

Assume the flow rate through the diffuser is 180 CFM.

First find the column with 180 CFM.

Next find the throw distance corresponding to 50 feet per minute. 7’

Equipment and Systems - 81 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 4 – FANS
Background: Two fans are placed in parallel. Each fan has the following performance, 2,000
CFM at 1.5 in. wg. If the fans are combined into a single 26” X 12” duct, then what is the
resulting pressure at the end of an equivalent length of duct of 100’?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

(a) 1.21 in. wg

(b) 1.29 in. wg

(c) 1.35 in. wg

(d) 1.5 in. wg

Equipment and Systems - 82 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 4 – FANS

Background: Two fans are placed in parallel. Each fan has the following performance, 2,000
CFM at 1.5 in. wg. If the fans are combined into a single 26” X 12” duct, then what is the
resulting pressure at the end of an equivalent length of duct of 100’?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

First calculate the equivalent diameter of the duct:

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625
𝐷𝑒 =
(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

1.30 ∗ (12" ∗ 26")0.625


𝐷𝑒 =
(12" + 26")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 19"

Next recognize that the fans are in parallel, thus the resulting flow rate is 4,000 CFM. Also the
pressure at the outlet of the fan is assumed to be 1.5 in. wg.

Next use the ASHRAE Fundamentals chart to find the pressure loss.

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = .29 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

Since we are concerned with the pressure drop after 100’, then simply subtract 0.29 from the
starting pressure of 1.5.

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 1.21 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔

Equipment and Systems - 83 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 5 – FANS
Background: A fan has been selected at the design point shown on the below fan curve. What
is the minimum number of fans required to be placed in series, to achieve a flow rate of 3,000
CFM at a pressure of 4.0 in. wg?

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

Equipment and Systems - 84 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 5 – FANS
Background: A fan has been selected at the design point shown on the below fan curve. What
is the minimum number of fans required to be placed in series, to achieve a flow rate of 3,000
CFM at a pressure of 4.0 in. wg?

If fans are placed in series, then their pressures are added. (3) Fans are required to achieve a
pressure of 5.4 in. wg.

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

Equipment and Systems - 85 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 6 – COILS
Background: A new cooling coil has an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The air entering
conditions are 80 F DB, 70% Relative Humidity. If the bypass factor of the coil is 0.05, then
what is the enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

(a) 21.6 Btu/lb

(b) 22.7 Btu/lb

(c) 35.2 Btu/lb

(d) 36.4 Btu/lb

Equipment and Systems - 86 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 6 – COILS
Background: A new cooling coil has an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The air entering
conditions are 80 F DB, 70% Relative Humidity. If the bypass factor of the coil is 0.05, then
what is the enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

First determine the enthalpy of the air entering the coil.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 36.15
𝑙𝑏

Next determine the enthalpy at the apparatus dew point (ADP) of 53 F DB/53 F WB.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝐴𝐷𝑃 = 22.01
𝑙𝑏

Use the bypass factor to find the resulting coil leaving enthalpy.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 22.01 ∗ (. 95) + 36.15 ∗ (.05)
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 22.72
𝑙𝑏

Equipment and Systems - 87 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 7 – COILS
A chilled water coil is supplied with 12 GPM. Chilled water is supplied at 44 F and leaves the
coil at 54 F. 1500 CFM of air enters the coil at an enthalpy of 34 Btu/lb. What is the resulting
enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

(a) 25.1 Btu/lb

(b) 28.2 Btu/lb

(c) 29.3 Btu/lb

(d) 34.7 Btu/lb

Equipment and Systems - 88 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 7 – COILS
A chilled water coil is supplied with 12 GPM. Chilled water is supplied at 44 F and leaves the
coil at 54 F. 1500 CFM of air enters the coil at an enthalpy of 34 Btu/lb. What is the resulting
enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

First calculate the amount of heat transferred by the chilled water.

𝑄 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑄 = 500 ∗ 12 ∗ (54 − 44)

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 60,000
ℎ𝑟

Next, set up the energy balance on the air side.

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢
60,000 = 4.5 ∗ 1,500 ∗ (34 − 𝑥)
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑥 = 25.1
𝑙𝑏

Equipment and Systems - 89 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 8 – HUMIDIFIER
An evaporative humidifier, with a capacity of 5 lb of water vapor per hour, is used to humidify
500 CFM of air with entering conditions of 80 F DB, 20% Relative Humidity. What is the
resulting humidity ratio of the air leaving the humidifier?

Assume density of air is equal to 0.075 lb/ft^3

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
(a) . 0040
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
(b) . 0043
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
(c) . 0056
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
(d) . 0063
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Equipment and Systems - 90 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 8 – HUMIDIFIER
An evaporative humidifier, with a capacity of 5 lb of water vapor per hour, is used to humidify
500 CFM of air with entering conditions of 80 F DB, 20% Relative Humidity. What is the
resulting humidity ratio of the air leaving the humidifier?

Assume density of air is equal to 0.075 lb/ft^3

First use the psychrometric chart to find the humidity ratio of the air entering the humidifier.

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = .0043
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Next use the humidifying equation to calculate the leaving humidity ratio.

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
5 = 60 ∗ 0.075 ∗ 500 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − .0043)
ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = .0063
𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Equipment and Systems - 91 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 9 – ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICE
A cooling coil is used to cool 2,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB, 60% relative humidity to 55 F
DB/53 F WB. A heat pipe is provided to re-heat the leaving cold supply air with the incoming
outside air. The heat pipe is only used to transfer sensible heat. The heat pipe has a sensible
efficiency of 25%. What temperature does the heat pipe reheat the supply air, Dry Bulb F?

(a) 63℉ 𝐷𝐵

(b) 71℉ 𝐷𝐵

(c) 75℉ 𝐷𝐵

(d) 79℉ 𝐷𝐵

Equipment and Systems - 92 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 9 – ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICE
A cooling coil is used to cool 2,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB, 60% relative humidity to 55 F
DB/53 F WB. A heat pipe is provided to re-heat the leaving cold supply air with the incoming
outside air. The heat pipe is only used to transfer sensible heat. The heat pipe has a sensible
efficiency of 25%. What temperature does the heat pipe reheat the supply air, Dry Bulb F?

First calculate the maximum amount of heat transfer, the supply air is re-heated to the outside
air temperature.

𝑞𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 ∗ (87 − 55 𝐷𝐵)

Next set up the equation for the actual amount of heat that is transferred. Similar equation,
except replace the 87 (maximum temperature) with the variable “X”.

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 ∗ (𝑋 − 55 𝐷𝐵)

Next, set up the efficiency equation for the Heat Pipe.


𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =
𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥

Plug in the variables to find “x”. Where the efficiency is 25%

1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 ∗ (𝑋 − 55 𝐷𝐵)


0.25 =
1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 ∗ (87 − 55 𝐷𝐵)

𝑋 = 63℉ 𝐷𝐵

Equipment and Systems - 93 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 10 – PUMPS
A new chilled water pump supplies a flow of 240 GPM at 150 total dynamic head. What is the
pressure drop through 200 feet of 4” schedule 40 steel pipe?

(a) 3.7 ft of head

(b) 6.2 ft of head

(c) 140.1 ft of head

(d) 143.8 ft of head

Equipment and Systems - 94 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 10 – PUMPS
A new chilled water pump supplies a flow of 240 GPM at 150 total dynamic head. What is the
pressure drop through 200 feet of 4” schedule 40 steel pipe?

The quick solution is to use the ASHRAE Fundamentals Pipe Sizing Tables.

These tables show that at 240 GPM, 4” Schedule 40 steel pipe:

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 3.1 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

The question calls for the pressure drop over 200’, simply multiply the previous result by 2.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 6.2 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Equipment and Systems - 95 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 11 – STEAM PIPING
The main steam distribution piping to a building consists of an equivalent length of 200’ of 3”
schedule 40 steel pipe. Steam is provided at 30 PSIG, if the flow rate is1,000 lbs per hour, then
what will be the pressure at the end of the main distribution piping?

(a) 28 PSIG

(b) 28.5 PSIG

(c) 29 PSIG

(d) 29.5 PSIG

Equipment and Systems - 96 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 11 – PUMPS
The main steam distribution piping to a building consists of an equivalent length of 200’ of 3”
schedule 40 steel pipe. Steam is provided at 30 PSIG, if the flow rate is1,000 lbs per hour, then
what will be the pressure at the end of the main distribution piping?

Since Schedule 40 Steel pipe is being used, the Pipe Sizing Charts can be used. Navigate
ASHRAE Fundamentals to find the chart corresponding to a pressure of 30 PSIG. Find the
pressure drop as a function of 1,000 lbs per hour and 3” pipe.

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 0.26 𝑃𝑆𝐼 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

Since the distance is 200’, the total pressure loss is 0.54 PSI.

Subtracting 0.54 PSI from 30 PSIG results in 29.46 PSIG.

Equipment and Systems - 97 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 12 – FRICTION LOSS
20 GPM of water at 50 F is flown through a 2” plastic pipe (2.067” ID). The Moody friction factor
is .025. What is the pressure drop (PSI) through 50’ of pipe?

(a) 0.018 psi

(b) 0.024 psi

(c) 0.041 psi

(d) 0.052 psi

Equipment and Systems - 98 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 12 – FRICTION LOSS
20 GPM of water at 50 F is flown through a 2” plastic pipe (2.067” ID). The Moody friction factor
is .025. What is the pressure drop (PSI) through 50’ of pipe?

For this equation use the Darcy Weisbach Equation below:

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2
ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]
2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,
𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡
𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

Prepare each term to be plugged into the equation. First, find velocity. Convert 20 GPM to
velocity [ft/sec].

1 FT 3
Multiply GPM by to get .
448.83 sec

1 FT 3
20 GPM ∗ = 0.04456 .
448.83 sec

2.067 2
� �
Area = PI ∗ 12 = 0.0233 ft 2
4

04456 ft 3 /sec 𝑓𝑡
Velocity = . 2
= 1.91
0.0233 ft 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Plug in the variables to the equation.

. 025 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.912
ℎ= [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]
2.067
2∗( )32.2
12

. 025 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.912
ℎ= [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]
2.067
2∗( )32.2
12

ℎ = 0.41 [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]

Next convert to PSI

0.433 𝑝𝑠𝑖
ℎ = 0.41 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ∗ = 0.18 𝑃𝑆𝐼
1 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Equipment and Systems - 99 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 13 – FRICTION LOSS
A 3” Schedule 80 steel pipe has 100 GPM of 50 F water flowing through it. What is the
Reynolds number?

(a) 78,000

(b) 83,000

(c) 86,000

(d) 92,000

Equipment and Systems - 100 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 13 – FRICTION LOSS
A 3” Schedule 80 steel pipe has 100 GPM of 50 F water flowing through it. What is the
Reynolds number?

For this equation use the Reynolds Number equation below:

𝑓𝑡
𝑉[ ] ∗ 𝑑[𝑓𝑡]
𝑅𝑒 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑓𝑡 2
𝜈[ ]
𝑠𝑒𝑐

First find the velocity, which requires the inner diameter of Schedule 80 pipe. Refer to your
Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual (MERM) to find the inner diameter.

𝐷 = 0.2417 𝑓𝑡

Next find the inner area, which is also shown in the MERM.

𝐴 = 0.04587 𝑓𝑡 2

Next convert GPM to ft^3.

1 FT 3
100 GPM ∗ = 0.223 .
448.83 sec

Next find the velocity.

FT 3
0.223
V= sec = 4.86 𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐
0.04587 ft 2

Next find the kinematic viscosity for water at 50 F which is also found in the MERM.

𝜈 = .0000141 𝑓𝑡 2 /𝑠𝑒𝑐

Plug the values in to the equation.

0.223 ∗ 0.2417
𝑅𝑒 = = 83,343
. 0000141

Equipment and Systems - 101 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 14 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
A cooling tower is located such that the fluid level in the basin is 10 ft above the centerline for
the suction of the condenser water pump. The water is at an average temperature of 86 F. The
friction loss from the cooling tower basin to the suction of the pump is approximately 15 ft of
head. What is the net positive suction head available at the suction side of the pump with a flow
rate of 400 GPM?

(a) 12.6 ft of head

(b) 17.6 ft of head

(c) 27.6 ft of head

(d) 30.1 ft of head

Equipment and Systems - 102 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 14 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A cooling tower is located such that the fluid level in the basin is 10 ft above the centerline for
the suction of the condenser water pump. The water is at an average temperature of 86 F. The
friction loss from the cooling tower basin to the suction of the pump is approximately 15 ft of
head. What is the net positive suction head available at the suction side of the pump with a flow
rate of 400 GPM?

Assume sea level.

For this question use the Net Positive Suction Head Available equation:

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = ℎ𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 − ℎ𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 − ℎ𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

The pressure at the basin is simply atmospheric pressure.

ℎ𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑜𝑟 33.96 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

The elevation pressure is the difference in height between the top of the fluid and the centerline
of the pump.

ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 10 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

The friction loss is given.

ℎ𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 15 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Refer to your references MERM or ASHRAE for the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure was
also earlier in this section.

ℎ𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 1.4 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Find NPSHA

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = 33.96 ∓ 10 − 15 − 1.4 = 27.6 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Equipment and Systems - 103 http://www.engproguides.com


PROBLEM 15 – PUMPS
A pump is sized for 200 GPM at 150 ft of head. If the impeller diameter is decreased in size by
75%, what is the new flow of the pump? Assume the speed remains the same.

(a) 100 GPM

(b) 115 GPM

(c) 150 GPM

(d) 200 GPM

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SOLUTION 15 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A pump is sized for 200 GPM at 150 ft of head. If the impeller diameter is decreased in size by
75%, what is the new flow of the pump? Assume the speed remains the same.

Use the affinity laws.

𝑄1 𝐷1
= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑄2 𝐷2

200 𝑥
=
𝑄2 0.75𝑥

200 ∗ 0.75 ∗ 𝑥 = 𝑄2 ∗ 𝑥

𝑥 = 150 𝑔𝑝𝑚

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PROBLEM 16 – COOLING TOWERS
A cooling tower is used to cool 95 F condenser water down to 85 F. If the design wet bulb is 78
F WB, then what is the approach and range?

(a) Range = 10 F, Approach = 10 F

(b) Range = 7 F, Approach = 10 F

(c) Range = 10 F, Approach = 7 F

(d) Range = 17 F, Approach = 7 F

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SOLUTION 16 – COOLING TOWERS

A cooling tower is used to cool 95 F condenser water down to 85 F. If the design wet bulb is 78
F WB, then what is the approach and range?

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛 [℉] − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉]

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 95 − 85 = 10℉

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉] − 𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛,𝑊𝐵 [℉]

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 85 − 78 = 7℉

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PROBLEM 17 – AIR WASHER
Air at 87 F DB, 65 F WB is drawn through an air washer. The air washer has a single bank of
nozzles and has an efficiency of 60%. What is the resulting dry bulb temperature of the air
leaving the air washer?

(a) 68 F, DB

(b) 73 F, DB

(c) 77 F, DB

(d) 84 F, DB

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SOLUTION 17 – AIR WASHER

Air at 87 F DB, 65 F WB is drawn through an air washer. The air washer has a single bank of
nozzles and has an efficiency of 60%. What is the resulting dry bulb temperature of the air
leaving the air washer?

The efficiency of an air washer is found by comparing the actual reduction in dry bulb
temperature to the maximum reduction in dry bulb temperature.

(𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 )
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑤𝑒𝑡𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏

The maximum amount of reduction in dry bulb temperature occurs if the air entering leaves at its
wet bulb temperature.

(87 − 𝑥)
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =
87 − 65

0.65 ∗ (87 − 65) = 87 − 𝑥

𝑥 = 72.7 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

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SECTION 8: APPLICATIONS -
SUPPORTIVE KNOWLEDGE
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Equations/Terms ................................................................................................................ 4
3.0 Electrical............................................................................................................................. 7
3.1 Current, Voltage and Resistance .................................................................................... 7
3.2 Basic DC Circuits ............................................................................................................ 7
3.3 D/C Power .................................................................................................................... 11
3.4 A/C Power .................................................................................................................... 12
3.5 Mechanical equipment .................................................................................................. 13
4.0 Economics........................................................................................................................ 17
4.1 Interest Rate & Time value of Money ........................................................................... 17
4.2 Annual value/Annuities ................................................................................................. 18
4.3 Equipment Type Questions .......................................................................................... 20
4.3.1 Convert to Present Value ...................................................................................... 21
4.3.2 Convert to Future Value ........................................................................................ 22
4.3.3 Convert to Annualized Value ................................................................................. 23
4.3.4 Convert to Rate of Return ..................................................................................... 24
4.4 Factor Tables ................................................................................................................ 25
5.0 Recommended Codes/Standards .................................................................................... 26
5.1 ASHRAE 15 .................................................................................................................. 26
5.2 ASHRAE 34 .................................................................................................................. 26
5.3 ASHRAE 55 .................................................................................................................. 26
5.4 ASHRAE 62.1 ............................................................................................................... 27
5.5 ASHRAE 90.1 ............................................................................................................... 27
5.6 NFPA 90A ..................................................................................................................... 27
5.7 NFPA 90B ..................................................................................................................... 28
5.8 NFPA 96 ....................................................................................................................... 28
6.0 Recommended Resources ............................................................................................... 29
6.1 NCEES Mechanical Breadth and HVAC & Refrigeration Exam Specifications ............ 29
6.2 NCEES PE Mechanical: HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Questions ............................. 29
6.3 Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual ................................................................. 30
6.4 Engineering unit Conversions ....................................................................................... 30
7.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 31
Problem 1 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 31

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Solution 1 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 32
Problem 2 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 33
Solution 2 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 34
Problem 3 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 35
Solution 3 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 36
Problem 4 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 37
Solution 4 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 38
Problem 5 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 39
Solution 5 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 40
Problem 6 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 41
Solution 6 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 42
Problem 7 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 43
Solution 7 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 44
Problem 8 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 45
Solution 8 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 46
Problem 9 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 48
Solution 9 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 49
Problem 10 - Economics ......................................................................................................... 50
Solution 10 - Economics ...................................................................................................... 51
Problem 11 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 52
Solution 11 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 53
Problem 12 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 54
Solution 12 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 55
Problem 13 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 56
Solution 13 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 57
Problem 14 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 58
Solution 14 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 59
Problem 15 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 60
Solution 15 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 61

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional
engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the
state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a
credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the
qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references
and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills
of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the
Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on
the P.E. exam.

Mechanical engineering requires coordination with many different disciplines. It is important to


achieve a basic understanding of these disciplines. One of the most important coordination
items is coordinating power requirements with electrical engineers. This section will
demonstrate the basic electrical skills and concepts required for the exam.

In addition, this section provides information on engineering economics. It is important to


properly present design alternatives and the cost implications of these alternatives to the
engineer's clients.

Finally, in engineering many design issues are regulated by codes and references. These
codes govern the minimum requirements for mechanical design and the engineer must be
familiar with these codes in order to avoid making a legal mistake. Also the engineer should
keep handy a set of references to solve typically encountered problems. This section will
introduce the engineer to the must-have references for the HVAC & Refrigeration Engineer.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units
(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses USCS units. However, it is recommended that
the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use SI units

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2.0 EQUATIONS/TERMS

Ohm’s Law
𝑉
𝐼=
𝑅
𝐼 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠]
𝑉 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 [𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠]
𝑅 = 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑐𝑒 [𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠]

Resistors in series

𝑅𝑒𝑞,𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑛

Resistors in parallel
1 1 1 1 1
= + + +
𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑅𝑛

Power Equations
𝑃 =𝐼∗𝑉
𝑉2
𝑃=
𝑅
𝑃 = 𝐼2 ∗ 𝑅

Pump Water Horsepower Equations

ℎ𝑓𝑡 ∗ 𝑄𝑔𝑝𝑚 ∗ (𝑆𝐺)


𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝[𝐻𝑃] = ;
3956

𝑄 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒]


ℎ = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑]
𝑃 = 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 [ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟]
𝑆𝐺 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑝𝑝𝑠𝑖 ∗ 𝑄𝑔𝑝𝑚 ∗ (𝑆𝐺)


𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝,[𝐻𝑃] = ;
1,714
𝑝 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑝𝑠𝑖]

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Fan Mechanical Horsepower Equation

𝑄𝑐𝑓𝑚 ∗ 𝑇𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑔
𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑓𝑎𝑛[𝐻𝑃] = ;
6356
𝑄𝑐𝑓𝑚 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒]
𝑇𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑔 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒]
𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑓𝑎𝑛[𝐻𝑃] = 𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

Pump or Fan Brake Horsepower Equation

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘[𝐻𝑃]]
𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛/𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝[𝐻𝑃] = ;
𝜀𝑓𝑎𝑛/𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

Motor Horsepower Equation

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘[𝐻𝑃]]
𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = ;
𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

Electrical Power Supplied to Motor

𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟[𝐻𝑃]
𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟[𝐻𝑃] =
𝑃𝐹

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Conversion Formula Factor Value

𝐹𝑉 = 𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)𝑛
Present Value to Future Value Multiply PV by (F/P, i, n)

𝐹𝑉
𝑃𝑉 =
Future Value to Present Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 Multiply FV by (P/F, i, n)

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛
𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )
Present Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply PV by (A/P, i, n)

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛
𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
Annual Value to Present Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (P/A, i, n)

𝑖
𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )
Future Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply FV by (A/F, i, n)

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1
𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
Annual Value to Future Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (F/A, i, n)

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3.0 ELECTRICAL

Mechanical and electrical engineers work closely together and there is often a lot of
coordination between the two disciplines. Most of the equipment that a HVAC & Refrigeration
engineer designs will require power. It is important for the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer to
understand the basics of electrical engineering.

3.1 CURRENT, VOLTAGE AND RESISTANCE


There are three basic terms that mechanical engineers should understand about electrical
engineering, current, voltage and resistance.

Current is the measure of the flow of electrons and is measured in terms of amperes (A).
Current is represented by the variable (I).

Voltage is best described in mechanical terms as the pressure at which current (flow) is
supplied. Voltage is often represented by the variable (V).

Resistance is the opposition to flow. It controls the amount of flow or voltage in a circuit.
Resistance is represented by the variable (R) and is measured in ohms ( Ω).

These three terms are related by the following equation. In order to solve for another variable,
simply re-arrange the equation to solve for the desired variable. This equation is called Ohm's
Law.

𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅

3.2 BASIC DC CIRCUITS


A basic direct current circuit consists of a voltage source [battery] and a resistor. The voltage
source provides the "pressure" to drive the current (flow) through the circuit.

FIGURE 1: BASIC DC CIRCUIT

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In order to solve a basic DC circuit question, the following tools must be understood and used
properly, 1. Ohm's Law, 2. Voltage Around a Closed Loop is Equal to Zero, 3. Current into a
Node is Equal to Current Out, 4. Resistors in Series, 5. Resistors in Parallel.

1. Ohm's Law

The amount of current supplied is proportional to the ratio of the Voltage to Resistance. If the
Voltage is larger then there will be more current. Also if there is less Resistance then the
current will be higher. For example, in the below circuits, the circuit with a resistance of 6 Ω has
a current of 2 amps while, the circuit with a resistance of 2 Ω and equal voltage has a current of
6 amps.

𝑉
𝐼= ; 𝑂ℎ𝑚′ 𝑠 𝐿𝑎𝑤
𝑅

FIGURE 2: OHM'S LAW

12
𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒: 𝐼 = ; 𝐼 = 2 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠
6
12
𝑅𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒: 𝐼 = ; 𝐼 = 6 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠
2

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2. Voltage

The second thing that must be remembered is that the voltage change around a closed loop is
equal to zero. In simpler terms, any path that is returning to the same point must have a voltage
change of zero.

In the following example, there is a 12 V voltage source and two resistors of resistance 4 Ω and
2 Ω. Following the current, we see that prior to the 4 Ω resistor the voltage is 12 V, following
this resistor the voltage has dropped to 4 V. After the 2 Ω the voltage has dropped to 0 V, but
once it reaches the voltage source, the voltage is increased to 12 V.

FIGURE 3: BASIC CIRCUIT SHOWING VOLTAGE DROPS ACROSS RESISTORS IN SERIES

The next example shows the same resistors, but they are arranged in parallel. Notice that the
voltage change across each loop (inner and outer) is shown to be zero. Then use this fact and
Ohm’s law to determine the current through each resistor. These currents are shown below in
green.

FIGURE 4: BASIC CIRCUIT SHOWING VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS RESISTORS IN PARALLEL.

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3. Current

The next rule is that the current into and out of a junction must be equal. In Figure 3, it is shown
that the current is 2 amps and the current remains constant through each resistor because at
each junction there is only 1 path in and 1 path out.

In Figure 4, the total current is found to be 9 amps. When the current reaches the 1st junction,
the current can travel either through resistor 4 Ω or resistor 2 Ω. Three amps of current travels
through the 4 Ω resistor, this leaves 6 amps of current left to travel to the 2 Ω resistor. As
shown the current into the junction is 9 amps and the current leaving the junction is 3 amps + 6
amps.

4. Resistors in Series

For resistors in series, the resistors can be converted to an equivalent resistor by simply adding
the resistance values together.

𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑛

In the following example, there are two resistors in series. The equivalent resistance is found by
adding the two resistances, 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 6Ω . Once the equivalent resistance is found, then the
12𝑉
current can be found through Ohm's law. 𝐼 = = 2 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠.
6Ω

FIGURE 5: BASIC DC CIRCUIT SOLVING FOR EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE FOR RESISTORS IN SERIES

Remember that resistors are simply resistances to flow, so if the current has to pass through
two resistors then it makes sense that both full values of the resistances need to be taken into
account. For resistors in series, the current going through each resistance is equal, but the
voltage drop across each resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance value.

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5. Resistors in Parallel

When resistors are in parallel, the current has multiple paths to go through. Each path will have
a current that is inversely related to the resistance in that path. However, the voltage drop
across each resistor will remain constant. Use the following equation to find the equivalent
resistance value of multiple resistors in parallel.

1 1 1 1 1
= + + +
𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑅𝑛

In the following example, the equivalent resistance is found to be 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 1.33Ω. The current
through the equivalent resistance is then found to be 9 amps.

FIGURE 6: BASIC DC CIRCUIT FOR EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE FOR RESISTORS IN PARALLEL

3.3 D/C POWER


The next important electrical equation to remember is the DC electric power equation as shown
below. Power is typically expressed in units, Watts. Current is represented by the variable "I"
and is expressed in amperes and voltage is represented by the variable "V" and is expressed in
volts.

𝑃 = 𝐼𝑉

Variations of the equation can be shown by substituting I and V, through the use of Ohm's law.

𝑉 𝑉2
𝑃 =� �∗𝑉 =
𝑅 𝑅

𝑃 = 𝐼 ∗ 𝐼𝑅 = 𝐼 2 ∗ 𝑅

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3.4 A/C POWER
The previous electrical sections have dealt with DC power or direct current electricity. This
allows for a basic understanding of common electrical terms. However, for the P.E. exam, the
mechanical engineer should also be aware of common AC or alternating current terms and
equations.

Power Factor: When electricity is supplied to a piece of equipment, it is supplied with a certain
amount of amps (current) at a designated voltage. However, not all of the power supplied is
useful. Some of its power is lost, because the current and voltage are out of phase. [The
explanation of phase is out of the scope of this section and is more representative of the
material found in the Electrical Power P.E. Exam] The degree at which the current and voltage
are out of phase is reported as the power factor. The useful amount of power supplied is found
by multiplying the total power supplied (P = IV) by the power factor. Typical power factors are
around ~0.85.

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3.5 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
When selecting mechanical equipment, the mechanical engineer must coordinate the power
requirements with the electrical engineer. This is done through the following four steps: (1)
Determine Mechanical Horsepower, (2) Determine Fan/Pump Brake horsepower, (3) Determine
Motor Horsepower and finally (4) Determine Electrical Power.

1) Determine Mechanical Horsepower. Mechanical HP is defined as the amount of power


required to meet the needs of the system in question. For example, if the mechanical
equipment was a pump, then the mechanical HP would be the amount of power generated by a
certain GPM at a certain pressure. For a fan, the mechanical work would be the amount of
power generated by a certain amount of CFM at a certain pressure. These equations can be
found below.

𝒉𝒇𝒕 ∗ 𝑸 ∗ (𝑺𝑮)
𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌,𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑯𝑷] = ;
𝟑𝟗𝟓𝟔

ℎ = ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑄 = 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [𝑔𝑝𝑚], 𝑆𝐺 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑸𝒄𝒇𝒎 ∗ 𝑻𝑷𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒈
𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌,𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑯𝑷] = ;
𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔

𝑇𝑃 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑔], 𝑄 = 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [𝑐𝑓𝑚]

FIGURE 7: DETERMINING MECHANICAL HORSEPOWER

In the figure above, mechanical horsepower is shown on the right in red. Two equations are
shown for solving for the mechanical horsepower for a fan and pump, based on flow and
pressure.

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2) Determine Fan/Pump Horsepower. In order to blow air or pump a fluid, a pump or fan is
required. This pump/fan is not perfect and cannot supply the mechanical HP required without
losing energy due to friction and inefficiencies in the equipment design. Thus the Pump/Fan
Horsepower is found by dividing the Mechanical HP by the efficiency of the Pump/Fan. This is
the size of the pump or fan required. Often times the fan/pump horsepower is called the brake
horsepower or BHP.

𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌[𝑴𝑯𝑷]
𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷] = ;
𝜺𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑

FIGURE 8: DETERMINING PUMP/FAN HORESEPOWER

In the figure above, pump/fan horsepower is shown in the middle in red. Given the mechanical
horsepower required, the pump/fan horsepower is found by dividing the Mechanical Horsepower
by the efficiency of the Pump/Fan. Typical efficiencies for pumps and fans can range from 60%
to 90%. The efficiencies depend on the design of the equipment and the operating point.

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3) Determine Motor Horsepower. In order to power the pump/fan, a motor is required to supply
the power to the piece of equipment. The motor is not perfect, similar to the pump/fan and
some power is lost due to friction. The motor horsepower is found by dividing the Pump/Fan
horsepower by the efficiency of the motor.

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =
𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

FIGURE 9: DETERMINING MOTOR HORSEPOWER

In the figure above, the motor horsepower is shown on the left in red. The motor horsepower is
found by dividing the Pump/Fan horsepower (aka brake horsepower) by the efficiency of the
motor. Typical efficiencies of motors are around 90%.

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4) Determine Electrical Power. In order provide power to the motor, electrical wiring is
connected to the motor from a power source. This power source provides the necessary
current at the correct voltage of the motor. However, as mentioned in a previous section, the
current and voltage supplied to the equipment is not completely in phase, so not all of the power
supplied is useful. The amount of electrical power required is found through the use of the
power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷]
𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =
𝑷𝑭

In the figure above, the power supplied to the motor is shown on the left in red. The power
supplied to the motor is greater than the motor horsepower because of the power factor term.
Not all of the power supplied to the motor is useful, thus additional power must be provided.
The power supplied to the motor is found by dividing the motor horsepower by the power factor.

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4.0 ECONOMICS

As a professional engineer, you will be tasked with determining the course of action for a
design. Often times this will entail choosing one alternative instead of several other design
alternatives. Engineers need to be able to present engineering economic analysis to their
clients in order to justify why a certain alternative is more financially sound than other
alternatives. The following sub-sections will present the engineering economic concepts that
should be understood by the engineer and does not present a comprehensive look into the
study of engineering economics.

4.1 INTEREST RATE & TIME VALUE OF MONEY

Before discussing interest rate, it is important that the engineer understand that money today is
worth more than money in the future. This is the concept of the time value of money. For
example, if you were given the option to have $1,000 today or to have $1,000, 10 years from
now. Most people will choose $1,000 today, but not understand why this option is worth more.
The reason $1,000 today is worth more is because of what you could have done with that
money and in the financial world this means how much interest could you have earned with that
money. If you took $1,000 today and invested it at 4% per year, you would have $1,040 dollars
at the end of the first year.

$1,000 𝑥 (1 + .04) = $1,040

If you kept the $1,040 in the investment for another year, then you would have
$1,081.60.

$1,040 𝑥 (1 + .04) = $1,081.60

At the end of the 10 years the investment would have earned, $1,480.24.

$1,000 𝑥 (1 + .04)𝑥(1.04)𝑥(1.04) … … = $1,000 𝑥 (1.04)10 = $1,081.60

An important formula to remember is the Future Value (FV) is equal to the Present Value
(PV) multiplied by (1+interest rate), raised to the number of years.

𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)10 = 𝐹𝑉

As an example, what would be the present value of $1,000, 10 years from now, if the
interest rate is 4%.

𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + .04)10 = $1,000

𝑃𝑉 = $675.46

Thus in the previous example, receiving $1,000, 10 years from now, is only worth
$675.46 today.

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It is important to understand present value because when analyzing alternatives, cash values
will be present at many different times and the best way to make a uniform analysis is to first
convert all values to consistent terms, like present value.

For example, if you were asked if you would like $1,000 today or $1,500 in 10 years (interest
rate at 4%), then it would be a much more difficult question than the previous question. But with
an understanding of present value, the "correct" answer would be to accept $1,500, 10 years
from now, because you would only be able to get $1,480, 10 years from now, should you accept
the $1,000 today, with the current interest rate of 4%. In this example, the $1,000 today was
converted to the future value 10 years from now. Once this value was converted, it was then
compared to the future value that was given as $1,500, 10 years later.

4.2 ANNUAL VALUE/ANNUITIES


The previous section described the difference between present value and future value.
It also showed how a lump sum given at certain times are worth different amounts in present
terms. In engineering, there are often times when annual sums are given in lieu of one time
lump sums. An example would be annual energy savings due to the implementation of a more
efficient HVAC system. Thus, it is important for the engineer to be able to determine the
present/future value of future annual gains or losses.

For example, let's assume that a solar hot water project, provides an annual savings of
$200. Using the equations from the previous section, each annual savings can be converted to
either present or future value. Then these values can be summed up to determine the future
and present value of annual savings of $200 for four years at an interest rate of 4%.

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For longer terms, this method could become tedious. Luckily there is a formula that can
be used to speed up the process in converting annuities (A) to present value and future value.

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1
𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
𝑖

(1 + .04)4 − 1
𝐹𝑉 = 200 ∗ � � = $849.29
. 04

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛
𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
𝑖

1 − (1 + .04)−4
𝑃𝑉 = 200 ∗ � � = $725.98
. 04

Reverse Equations:

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛
𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )
(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

𝑖
𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )
(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

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4.3 EQUIPMENT TYPE QUESTIONS
In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, often times the engineer must develop an economic
analysis on purchasing one piece of equipment over another. In this event the engineer will use
terms like present value, annualized cost, future value, initial cost and other terms like salvage
value, equipment lifetime and rate of return.

Salvage value is the amount a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its
lifetime. Lifetime is typically given by a manufacturer as the average lifespan (years) of a piece
of equipment. Looking at the figure below, initial cost is shown as a downward arrow at year 0.
Annual gains are shown as the upward arrow and maintenance costs and other costs to run the
piece of equipment are shown as downward arrows starting at year 1 and proceeding to the end
of the lifetime. Finally, at the end of the lifetime there is an upward arrow indicating the salvage
value.

As previously stated, the most important thing in engineering economic analysis is to


convert all monetary gains and costs to like terms, whether it is present value, future value,
annual value or rate of return. Each specific conversion will be discussed in the following
sections.

Each of the sections will use the same example, in order to illustrate the difference in
converting between each of the different terms.

Example: A new chiller has an initial cost of $50,000 and a yearly maintenance cost of $1,000.
At the end of its 15 year lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage value of $5,000. It is estimated
that by installing this new chiller, there will be an energy savings of $5,000 per year. The
interest rate is 4%.

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4.3.1 CONVERT TO PRESENT VALUE
What is the Present Value (Present Worth) of this chiller?

The first term, initial cost is already in present value.

𝑃𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$50,000

The second term, maintenance cost must be converted from an annual cost to present value.
However, we can add the annual energy savings to this amount to save time.

𝐴𝑂&𝑀 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = −$1,000 + $5,000 = $4,000

1 − (1 + .04)−15
𝑃𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000 ∗ � � = $44,473.55
. 04

The third term, salvage value must be converted from future value to present value.

$5,000
𝑃𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = = $2,776.32
(1 + .04)15

Finally, summing up all the like terms.

𝑃𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝑃𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 + 𝑃𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

𝑃𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = −$50,000 + $44,473.55 + $2,776.32 = $ − 2750.13

A negative Present Value indicates that the investment does not recoup the initial
investment.

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4.3.2 CONVERT TO FUTURE VALUE
What is the Future Value (Future Worth) of this chiller at the end of its lifetime?

The first term, initial cost is in present value and must be converted to future value.

𝐹𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$50,000 ∗ (1 + .04)15 = $ − 90,047.18

The second term, maintenance cost must be converted from an annual cost to future value.
However, we can add the annual energy savings to this amount to save time.

𝐴𝑂&𝑀 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = −$1,000 + $5,000 = $4,000

(1 + .04)15 − 1
𝐹𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000 ∗ � � = $80,094.35
. 04

The third term, salvage value is already in future value.

𝐹𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $5,000

Finally, summing up all the like terms.

𝐹𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐹𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 + 𝐹𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐹𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠

𝐹𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $80,094.35 − $90,047.18 + $5,000 = $ − 4,952.83

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4.3.3 CONVERT TO ANNUALIZED VALUE
What is the Annual Value of this chiller?

The first term, initial cost is in present value and must be converted to annual value.

. 04 ∗ (1 + .04)15
𝐴𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$50,000 ∗ � � = $ − 4,497.06
(1 + .04)15 − 1

The second term, maintenance cost is already annualized. However, we can add the annual
energy savings to this amount to save time.

𝐴𝑉𝑂&𝑀 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑉𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = −$1,000 + $5,000 = $4,000

The third term, salvage value is in future value and must be annualized.

. 04
𝐴𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $5,000 � � = $249.71
(1 + .04)15 − 1

Finally, summing up all the like terms.

𝐴𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐴𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 + 𝐴𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠

𝐴𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $249.71 − $4,497.06 + $4,000 = $ − 247.35

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4.3.4 CONVERT TO RATE OF RETURN
What is the rate of return on the investment of $50,000 for the new chiller?

The rate of return is a tool used by engineers to describe how profitable or un-profitable
an investment is over the equipment’s lifetime. The calculation involves determining the
equivalent interest rate for a monetary investment and a monetary gain or loss.

In the previous example, $50,000 is invested in a new chiller and the returns on this
chiller are $4,000 a year ($5,000 energy savings minus $1,000 O&M) and a salvage value of
$5,000 at the end of the 15 years. For the calculation of rate of return (ROR) or return on
investment (ROI), the salvage value is assumed to be $0 only to simplify the problem.

The ROR is calculated as what "i" value is required in the below equation to make both
sides equal. This approach takes trial and error, unless you have a computer or financial
calculator.

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−15
$4,000 ∗ � � = $50,000
𝑖

First try, i= .04 (4%).

$44,473.55 < $50,000

Second try, i= .03 (3%).

$47,751.74 < $50,000

Third try, i= .025 (2.5%).

$49,525 < $50,000

Fourth try, i= .023 (2.3%).

$50,262 > $50,000

Correct answer is approximately, 2.4% ROR. Since, the ROR is less than the interest rate of
4%, this investment is not wise.

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4.4 FACTOR TABLES
When conducting engineering economic analyses, factor values are used in lieu of
formulas. Factor values are pre-calculated values that correspond to

(1) A specific equation (convert present value to annual, convert present value to future, etc.)

(2) An interest rate.

(3) Number of years.

Looking up these values in a table is sometimes quicker than using the equations and lessens
the possibility of calculator error. It is recommended that the engineer have the Mechanical
Engineering Reference Manual (MERM) which has tables of these factor values. A summary of
the factory values are shown below.

Conversion Formula Factor Value

𝐹𝑉 = 𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)𝑛
Present Value to Future Value Multiply PV by (F/P, i, n)

𝐹𝑉
𝑃𝑉 =
Future Value to Present Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 Multiply FV by (P/F, i, n)

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛
𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )
Present Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply PV by (A/P, i, n)

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛
𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
Annual Value to Present Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (P/A, i, n)

𝑖
𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )
Future Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply FV by (A/F, i, n)

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1
𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )
Annual Value to Future Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (F/A, i, n)

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5.0 RECOMMENDED CODES/STANDARDS

An engineer should be aware of the codes/standards that apply to their line of work. The
primary codes and standards that apply to the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer revolve around
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning (ASHRAE). The primary focus
of the ASHRAE Standards are in mechanical building equipment and systems, like cooling
towers, air handlers, boilers, chillers, air distribution, water distribution, etc.. The standards
govern minimum requirements for these systems and equipment in the areas of energy
efficiency (ASHRAE 90.1), indoor air quality (ASHRAE 62.1), thermal comfort (ASHRAE 55) and
refrigeration safety (ASHRAE 15 & ASHRAE 34).

The following sections go into more detail in the specific ASHRAE standards. It is
recommended that the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer be familiar with each of the codes and
standards listed below at a minimum. It is recommended that the engineer also have the latest
copy for the exam as a reference.

5.1 ASHRAE 15
ASHRAE 15 is titled, "Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems". Refrigerants are
dangerous and in some cases highly flammable and toxic. This standard recognizes the danger
that refrigerants pose to humans and the environment. It creates minimum safety requirements
for Refrigeration Systems and the locations of these systems. The HVAC & Refrigeration
engineer should be familiar with the ventilation requirements for evacuating a refrigerant leak.
There are also other safety requirements of a room that hold refrigerant, like a mechanical
chiller room.

5.2 ASHRAE 34
ASHRAE 34 is titled, "Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants. The HVAC
& Refrigeration engineer should be familiar with the ASHRAE designation system for
designation and how the rating system was developed. The designation system for safety
classification of refrigerants depends on multiple properties of the refrigerant, including but not
limited to toxicity and flammability.

5.3 ASHRAE 55
ASHRAE 55 is titled, "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy".
Human comfort is very subjective, since it depends on each individual and their own definitions
of comfort. However, this standard provides a level of comfort that can be scientifically
measured and achieved. In this standard, it describes the items that affect thermal comfort,
which include air velocity, air temperature, humidity, clothing and activity level.

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5.4 ASHRAE 62.1
ASHRAE 62.1 is titled, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality". CREATE THE
NEED FOR IT. In commercial/residential building designs, there has been an emphasis on
creating better indoor air quality for the occupants. People in spaces, dispel CO2 into the HVAC
system and if the system is poorly designed, the CO2 will be re-circulated back throughout the
space, creating an unsafe environment. In addition, bacteria and odors have the possibility to
be re-circulated throughout the space. ASHRAE created this standard, ASHRAE 62.1, to
establish minimum qualities of fresh air that must be distributed to different types of occupied
spaces in order to limit re-circulation of air. This standard also provides additional requirements
for air filters and exhaust requirements for special spaces like bathrooms, chemical storage
rooms, darkrooms, kitchens, etc.

5.5 ASHRAE 90.1


ASHRAE 62.1 is titled, "Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low Rise Residential
Buildings". HVAC systems account for nearly 30% to 50% of a building's energy use in most
cases and sometimes more. A HVAC engineer should be wary of the ongoing energy costs that
their design will have in the future. This standard recognizes the important role HVAC systems
play in energy costs and provides a minimum level of energy efficiency for HVAC systems and
other building systems, with the purpose of reducing the effect on energy usage, fuel usage,
which will ultimately be beneficial on the environment. The minimum energy efficiency
requirements for various HVAC & Refrigeration systems including but not limited to, Building
Envelope, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air Distribution, Pumps, etc are discussed in this standard. It
is not recommended that any of these references be memorized or studied in great detail. A
simple review of this standard is sufficient, so that the engineer is able to navigate the standard
quickly.

5.6 NFPA 90A


NFPA 90A is titled, "Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating
Systems". This standard describes the requirements for air conditioning and ventilating
equipment with respects to Fire Protection. For example, it designates that fire dampers and/or
smoke dampers be placed in duct systems accordingly, to maintain fire ratings of building
spaces. It also sets the requirements for smoke index and flame spread rating of various A/C
and Ventilating equipment. Smoke index is the measure of the smoke concentration of a
material when it is burning. Lower smoke index values indicates less smoke generated while a
higher smoke index indicates more smoke generated. Flame spread rating is an indication of
how well a material burns and spreads a fire. A lower rating indicates that the material does not
spread a fire well, while the opposite is true for a higher rating. It is recommended that the
engineer review the code and to be familiar with it, in the event that a question references the
code.

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5.7 NFPA 90B
NFPA 90B is titled, "Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-
Conditioning Systems". This standard is very similar to NFPA 90A, however it is directed to the
topic of heating and air conditioning as opposed to ventilation. It provides requirements for
ducts, heating panels, boilers, furnaces, A/C equipment, etc. The engineer should review the
code and be familiar with it so that he or she may be able to navigate the code, in the event that
a question arises on the code.

5.8 NFPA 96
NFPA 96 is titled, "Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection for Commercial
Cooking Operations. This standard is very specific and an engineer may not typically encounter
this type of problem unless they conduct work in kitchens. A quick review of the standard
should be conducted though, so that the engineer is aware of the information in the standard. If
a kitchen ventilation topic were to arise, then the engineer will have a resource available to
them.

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6.0 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES

The following is a list of the recommended resources that the aspiring professional engineer
should be familiar with and/or gather for the Mechanical PE Exam with the HVAC &
Refrigeration Afternoon session.

6.1 NCEES MECHANICAL BREADTH AND HVAC &


REFRIGERATION EXAM SPECIFICATIONS
These specifications are located on the NCEES website. The specifications provide
information on the basics of the exam, including the total number of questions (80) and the total
number of hours for the exam (8 hours). The exam is broken up into an AM and PM section.
The AM section is the Mechanical Breadth section, which will cover topics including Basic
Engineering Practice, Mechanical Systems and Materials, Hydraulics and Fluids, Energy/Power
Systems and HVAC & Refrigeration.

The PM section is selected by the engineer and can be one of the following three topics,
(1) HVAC & Refrigeration, (2) Mechanical Systems and Materials or (3) Thermal and Fluid
Systems. This exam guide focuses on the (1) HVAC & Refrigeration section. In the PM
session, the exam will cover the following topics as shown in the NCEES specifications,
Thermodynamics, Psychrometrics, Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, Compressible Flow, Energy
Balances, Equipment and Components, Systems and Supportive Knowledge. Each topic has a
percentage weight as designated by NCEES.

It is recommended that these specifications be used to guide the engineer's studying.


Ensure that only the topics that will be covered in the exam are studied, unless some additional
background information is needed. However, in most cases, only the topics on the exam
specifications need to be studied. If the engineer is stressed for time, then they should focus on
the heavily weighted items for the best chance of success, since all questions have the same
value, when determining whether or not the engineer passed or failed.

6.2 NCEES PE MECHANICAL: HVAC & REFRIGERATION


SAMPLE QUESTIONS
This resource is a must have for the Mechanical: HVAC & Refrigeration exam. It helps to
provide the engineer with a sample of the level of difficulty that will be on the NCEES exam. it
also gives a sample of the types of topics that can be covered on the exam.

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6.3 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REFERENCE MANUAL
The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual or MERM for short was written by
Michael R. Lindeburg, PE. This book provides a reference for many of the popular concepts
and formulas that are encountered by the mechanical engineer throughout his or her career. It
is important to note that the MERM provides information on a range of topics and does not go
into depth on each specific topic and all of the sub-topics within that topic. It is an excellent
starting point, when studying for the PE exam.

6.4 ENGINEERING UNIT CONVERSIONS


This book was written by Michael R. Lindeburg, PE. This book lists all the needed unit
conversions for the PE Exam. Throughout a professional engineer’s career, he or she will have
to convert a value from one unit to the next. The format of the book makes it easy to use and
gives the conversions in both directions. However, do not expect explanations on each set of
units, it is expected that the engineer understand how to use each set of units.

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7.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A 460 V, 1 phase, 60 HZ, 20 BHP pump. The motor has an efficiency of 75%.
There is a power factor of 0.85.

Problem: What is the current in amperes supplied to the motor?

(a) 29

(b) -38

(c) 44

(d) 51

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SOLUTION 1 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A 230 V, 1 phase, 60 HZ, 20 BHP pump. The motor has an efficiency of 75%.
There is a power factor of 0.85.

Problem: What is the current in amperes supplied to the motor?

Convert pump brake horsepower to motor horsepower.

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =
𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

𝟐𝟎 𝑩𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝑷
𝟎. 𝟕𝟓

Determine the amount of power supplied to the motor, use power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] 𝟐𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 = = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟒 𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝑭 𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

Find the current supplied to the motor through the below equation.

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝑰 ∗ 𝑽

Make sure to convert horsepower to watts.

𝟎. 𝟕𝟒𝟓𝟕 𝑲𝑾 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔


𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟒 𝑯𝑷 ∗ ∗ = 𝟐𝟑, 𝟑𝟗𝟓 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔
𝑯𝑷 𝑲𝑾

𝟐𝟑, 𝟑𝟗𝟓 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝑰 ∗ 𝟒𝟔𝟎 𝑽

𝟓𝟎. 𝟗 𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒔 = 𝑰

Correct Answer: D, 51 Amperes.

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PROBLEM 2 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A 10 BHP fan operates for 4000 hours in the year. The motor is 85% efficient and
the power factor is 0.85. Energy cost is $0.25 per kilowatt-hour.

Problem: How much does it cost to operate the fan in one year?

(a) $7,460

(b) $8,770

(c) $10,320

(d) $12,140

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SOLUTION 2 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A 10 BHP fan operates for 4000 hours in the year. The motor is 85% efficient and
the power factor is 0.85. Energy cost is $0.25 per kilowatt-hour.

Problem: How much does it cost to operate the fan in one year?

Convert fan brake horsepower to motor horsepower.

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =
𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

𝟏𝟎 𝑩𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷
𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

Determine the amount of power supplied to the motor, use power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] 𝟏𝟏. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 = = 𝟏𝟑. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷
𝑷𝑭 𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

Find the kilowatt-hours(kwh) consumed.

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝑰 ∗ 𝑽

𝟎. 𝟕𝟒𝟓𝟕 𝑲𝑾 𝒉𝒓𝒔
𝟏𝟑. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷 ∗ ∗ 𝟒, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟒𝟏, 𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟖 𝒌𝒘𝒉
𝑯𝑷 𝒚𝒆𝒂𝒓

Find the cost ($) with the electricity cost.

$𝟎. 𝟐𝟓
𝟒𝟏, 𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟖 𝒌𝒘𝒉 ∗ = $𝟏𝟎, 𝟑𝟏𝟕
𝒌𝒘𝒉

Correct Answer: C, $10,320

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PROBLEM 3 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A new electrical circuit has 3 resistors in series. Each resistor has a resistance of
4 Ω. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: What is the current through the circuit?

(a) 0.5 amps

(b) 1.0 amps

(c) 2.0 amps

(d) 3.0 amps

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SOLUTION 3 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A new electrical circuit has 3 resistors in series. Each resistor has a resistance of
4 Ω. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: What is the current through the circuit?

𝑅𝑒𝑞,𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12

12
𝐼= = 1 𝑎𝑚𝑝
12

Correct Answer: B, 1 amp

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PROBLEM 4 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A new electrical circuit has 2 resistors in parallel. One resistor has a resistance of
4 Ω. The resistance of the other resistor is unknown. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: If the total current through the circuit is 8 amps, what is the resistance of the 2nd
resistor?

(a) 1.2

(b) 1.6

(c) 2.0

(d) 2.4

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SOLUTION 4 - ELECTRICAL
Background: A new electrical circuit has 2 resistors in parallel. One resistor has a resistance of
4 Ω. The resistance of the other resistor is unknown. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: If the total current through the circuit is 8 amps, what is the resistance of the 2nd
resistor?

Determine the current through the 1st resistor.

12
𝐼= = 3 𝑎𝑚𝑝
4

Determine the current through the 2ndt resistor.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 1𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 2𝑛𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟

8 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠 − 3 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠 = 5 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠

Determine the resistance of the 2nd resistor.

12
𝑅= = 2.4
5

Correct Answer: B, 2.4 Ω

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PROBLEM 5 - ELECTRICAL
Background: You are sizing a fan to deliver 500 CFM at a static pressure of 2.0 in wg. The fan
efficiency is 85% and the motor efficiency is also 85%.

Problem: What is most nearly the size of the motor?

(a) ¼ HP

(b) ½ HP

(c) 1 HP

(d) 1.5 HP

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SOLUTION 5 - ELECTRICAL
Background: You are sizing a fan to deliver 500 CFM at a static pressure of 2.0 in wg. The fan
efficiency is 85% and the motor efficiency is also 85%.

Problem: What is most nearly the size of the motor?

Find fan mechanical power

𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ 𝑺𝑷 𝟓𝟎𝟎 ∗ 𝟐
𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑴𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟔 𝑴𝑯𝑷
𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔 𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔

Convert fan mechanical horsepower to fan brake horsepower.

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑴𝑯𝑷] 𝟎. 𝟏𝟔
𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑩𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟗 𝑩𝑯𝑷
𝜺𝒇𝒂𝒏 . 𝟖𝟓

Convert fan brake horsepower to motor horsepower.

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷] 𝟎. 𝟏𝟗
𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐 𝑯𝑷
𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 . 𝟖𝟓

Correct Answer: A, .25 HP

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PROBLEM 6 - ECONOMICS
Background: A client is contemplating on purchasing a new high efficiency pump and motor,
with an initial cost of $10,000. The pump has a lifetime of 15 years and is estimated to save
approximately $1,000 per year. There is an additional maintenance cost of $300 per year
associated with this new pump. The pump will have a salvage value of $0 at the end of its
lifetime. Assume the interest rate is 4%.

Problem: What is the annual value of the pump?

(a) -$499

(b) -$199

(c) $199

(d) $499

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SOLUTION 6 - ECONOMICS
Background: A client is contemplating on purchasing a new high efficiency pump and motor,
with an initial cost of $10,000. The pump has a lifetime of 15 years and is estimated to save
approximately $1,000 per year. There is an additional maintenance cost of $300 per year
associated with this new pump. The pump will have a salvage value of $0 at the end of its
lifetime. Assume the interest rate is 4%.

Problem: What is the annual value of the pump?

First convert all terms to annual values.

Maintenance cost and cost savings are already annual values.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$300

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,000

Convert initial cost (present value) to annual value.

𝐴
𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$10,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 15)
𝑃

Refer to economics tables for value.

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$10,000 ∗ (.0899)

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 + 𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 + 𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = −$300 + $1,000 − $899

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = −$199

Correct Answer: B) -$199

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PROBLEM 7 - ECONOMICS
Background: A client is contemplating between two separate chillers. Chiller 1 has a life of 25
years, an initial cost of $50,000, an ongoing maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,000 per
year. Chiller 2 has a life of 25 years, an initial cost of $35,000 and an ongoing
maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,500 per year. Assume interest rate is equal to 4%.

Problem: What is the present worth of the two chillers?

(a) Chiller 1 = -$91,646 ; Chiller 2 = -$97,469

(b) Chiller 1 = -$91,646 ; Chiller 2 = -$103,455

(c) Chiller 1 = $91,646 ; Chiller 2 = $97,469

(d) Chiller 1 = $91,646 ; Chiller 2 = $103,455

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SOLUTION 7 - ECONOMICS
Background: A client is contemplating between two separate chillers. Chiller 1 has a life of 25
years, an initial cost of $50,000, an ongoing maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,000 per
year. Chiller 2 has a life of 25 years, an initial cost of $35,000 and an ongoing
maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,500 per year. Assume interest rate is equal to 4%.

Problem: What is the present worth of the two chillers?

First convert all terms to present worth, Chiller 1.

𝑃
𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)
𝐴

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = −$50,000 − $1,000 ∗ 15.6221

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = −$65,622

Second convert all terms to present worth, Chiller 2.

𝑃
𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)
𝐴

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = −$35,000 − $1,500 ∗ 15.6221

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 =-$58,433

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PROBLEM 8 - ECONOMICS
Background: An existing A/C control system is inefficient and you are researching whether or
not to replace system. You develop a new system that will cost $30,000 and require an ongoing
maintenance of $1,000 per year, but it will save $4,000 per year in energy savings. The new
A/C control system will have a lifetime of 30 years.

Problem: If the minimum rate of return is 8%, what will be the annual cost of the new system?
Economically, should the new system be installed?

(a) -665, Yes, it provides a negative annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

(b) -335, No it provides a negative annual cost at the minimum rate of return

(c) 335, Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

(d) 665, No, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

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SOLUTION 8 - ECONOMICS
Background: An existing A/C control system is inefficient and you are researching whether or
not to replace system. You develop a new system that will cost $30,000 and require an ongoing
maintenance of $1,000 per year, but it will save $4,000 per year in energy savings. The new
A/C control system will have a lifetime of 30 years.

Problem: If the minimum rate of return is 8%, what will be the annual cost of the new system?
Economically, should the new system be installed?

First convert all terms to annual values.

Maintenance cost and energy savings are already annual values.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$1,000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000

Convert initial cost (present value) to annual value.

𝐴
𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$30,000 ∗ ( , 8%, 30)
𝑃

Refer to economics tables for value.

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$30,000 ∗ (.08883)

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 + 𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 + 𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $4,000 − $1,000 − $2,664.90

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $335

Correct Answer: B) $335; Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

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PROBLEM 9 - ECONOMICS
Background: A new high efficiency chiller with a lifetime is planned on being purchased. It has
an initial cost of $200,000 and an ongoing maintenance cost of $2,000. However, this chiller will
provide an energy savings of $10,000 per year. The chiller has a lifetime of 25 years and the
minimum attractive rate of return is 4%. At the end of its lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage
value of $25,000.

Problem: What is the annual cost of the chiller at the minimum attractive rate of return? What is
the simple payback?

(a) -$8,210, 25 years

(b) -$4,202, 25 years

(c) -$4,202, 20 years

(d) -$2,820, 20 years

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SOLUTION 9 - ECONOMICS
Background: A new high efficiency chiller with a lifetime is planned on being purchased. It has
an initial cost of $200,000 and an ongoing maintenance cost of $2,000. However, this chiller will
provide an energy savings of $10,000 per year. The chiller has a lifetime of 25 years and the
minimum attractive rate of return is 4%. At the end of its lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage
value of $25,000.

Problem: What is the annual cost of the chiller at the minimum attractive rate of return? What is
the simple payback?

First convert all terms to annual values.

Maintenance cost and energy savings are already annual values.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$2,000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $10,000

Convert initial cost/ (present value) and salvage value (future) to annual value.

𝐴
𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$200,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)
𝑃

Refer to economics tables for value.

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$200,000 ∗ (.06401)

𝐴
𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $25,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)
𝐹

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $25,000 ∗ (.02401)

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 + 𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 + 𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 + 𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = −$2,000 + $10,0000 + 600.25 − $12,802

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $ − 4,202

𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 $200,000


𝑆𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑃𝑎𝑦 𝐵𝑎𝑐𝑘 = = = 25 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠
𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 $10,000 − $2,000

Correct Answer: B) $335; Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

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PROBLEM 10 - ECONOMICS
Background: A new boiler is planned on being purchased. It has an initial cost of $10,000 and
an ongoing maintenance cost of $500 per year. This new boiler is much more efficient than the
existing boiler and will have a yearly energy savings of a$1,500 per year. The boiler has a
lifetime of 15 years and the minimum attractive rate of return is 5%. At the end of its lifetime,
the boiler will have a salvage value of $1,000.

Problem: What is the present value of the boiler at the minimum attractive rate of return?

(a) -$860

(b) -$380

(c) $380

(d) $860

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SOLUTION 10 - ECONOMICS
Background: A new boiler is planned on being purchased. It has an initial cost of $10,000 and
an ongoing maintenance cost of $500 per year. This new boiler is much more efficient than the
existing boiler and will have a yearly energy savings of a $1,500 per year. The boiler has a
lifetime of 15 years and the minimum attractive rate of return is 5%. At the end of its lifetime,
the boiler will have a salvage value of $1,000.

Problem: What is the present value of the boiler at the minimum attractive rate of return?

First convert all terms to present value.

Maintenance cost and energy savings can be combined and converted to present value.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$5000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,500

𝑃
𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,000 ∗ ( , 5%, 15)
𝐴

𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,000 ∗ (10.3797) = $10,380

Convert salvage value (future value) to present value.

𝑃
𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $1,000 ∗ ( , 5%, 15)
𝐹

𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $1,000 ∗ (0.4810) = $481

𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$10,000

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 + 𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 + 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $10,380 + 481 − $10,000

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $861

Correct Answer: D) 860

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PROBLEM 11 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: A new chiller is being installed in a mechanical room. The chiller has two
separate refrigerant circuits. One refrigerant circuit has 100 lbs of R-134a and the second
circuit has 200 lbs of R-134a.

Problem: What value is most nearly the minimum refrigerant exhaust system capacity in CFM?

(a) 750 CFM

(b) 1,000 CFM

(c) 1,400 CFM

(d) 1,700 CFM

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SOLUTION 11 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: A new chiller is being installed in a mechanical room. The chiller has two
separate refrigerant circuits. One refrigerant circuit has 100 lbs of R-134a and the second
circuit has 200 lbs of R-134a.

Problem: What value is most nearly the minimum refrigerant exhaust system capacity in CFM?

Take the largest refrigerant circuit (LBS) and use the following formula.

𝑄 = 100 ∗ 𝐺 0.5

𝐺 = 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 (𝑙𝑏𝑠)𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑖𝑡

𝑄 = 100 ∗ 2000.5 = 1,414 𝐶𝐹𝑀

Correct Answer: C, 1,400 CFM

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PROBLEM 12 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: In the topic of thermal comfort, there are many factors that an HVAC engineer
must take into account.

Problem: Thermal comfort is a function of all of the following variables except for:

(a) Fresh air

(b) Relative humidity

(c) Air velocity

(d) Clothing

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SOLUTION 12 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: In the topic of thermal comfort, there are many factors that an HVAC engineer
must take into account.

Problem: Thermal comfort is a function of all of the following variables except for:

According to ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environment Conditions for Human Comfort, thermal
comfort is a function of many variables, including the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity,
clothing level of the occupants, the air velocity of the conditioned air and the activity level of the
occupants.

ASHRAE 55, does not make mention of fresh air as a requirement for thermal comfort.
However, it is important in creating a better indoor environmental air quality.

Correct Answer: A, Fresh Air

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PROBLEM 13 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: Air conditioned buildings serving occupants are required to have fresh air in
accordance with the appropriate standards and codes.

Problem: Which of the following is most likely not a result of providing conditioned fresh air to a
building in a hot and humid climate as opposed to not providing fresh air?

(a) Increased energy costs.

(b) Lower CO2 levels.

(c) Cooler temperatures

(d) Lower concentration of air contaminants.

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SOLUTION 13 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: Air conditioned buildings serving occupants are required to have fresh air in
accordance with the appropriate standards and codes.

Problem: Which of the following is most likely not a result of providing conditioned fresh air to a
building in a hot and humid climate as opposed to not providing fresh air?

ASHRAE 62.1 is a standard that establishes criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air
quality. As part of this standard, certain amounts of fresh air are required for each occupant of
various occupant types (office, reception, auditorium, etc.).

The standard requires fresh air to be regularly distributed to an occupied space in order to
reduce the concentration of CO2 expelled by the occupants and also other contaminants that
might be in the air.

In a hot and humid climate, the fresh air needs to be first cooled down appropriately, in order to
reduce the amount of water content that is distributed to the space. This amount of cooling will
increase energy costs.

The standard for fresh air quality does not affect the level of thermal comfort, which is governed
by ASHRAE 55. The cooling requirements of a space can be met without fresh air, thus
providing fresh air to a space does not necessary create cooler temperatures.

Correct Answer: C, Cooler temperatures

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PROBLEM 14 - REFERENCES/CODES
Problem: Which of the following is true?

(a) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a maximum
smoke developed index of 50.

(b) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 50 and a maximum
smoke developed index of 50.

(c) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a maximum
smoke developed index of 25.

(d) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 50 and a maximum
smoke developed index of 25.

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SOLUTION 14 - REFERENCES/CODES
NFPA 90A provides the standard for fire protection requirements for air conditioning and
ventilating systems. It provides the maximum smoke developed index and flame spread index
for mechanical equipment, including insulation.

Correct Answer: A, Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a
maximum smoke developed index of 50.

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PROBLEM 15 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: A new public toilet room is planned for a new theater. The toilet room will have 10
new toilets, 5 for women and 5 for men.

Problem: What is the minimum size of the exhaust system in accordance with ASHRAE 62.1.

(a) 350 CFM

(b) 500 CFM

(c) 700 CFM

(d) 1000 CFM

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SOLUTION 15 - REFERENCES/CODES
Background: A new public toilet room is planned for a new theater. The toilet room will have 10
new toilets, 5 for women and 5 for men.

Problem: What is the minimum size of the exhaust system in accordance with ASHRAE 62.1.

In accordance with ASHRAE 62.1, 70 CFM per unit (toilet or urinal) is required for a heavy
occupied public type space, like a theater.

Correct answer: C, 700 CFM

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SECTION 9: EXAM PREPARATION
CHECKLISTS
Thermodynamics - Refrigeration Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Knowledgeable

Need More
Confident

Work
Refrigeration Basic Terms
1. Temperature & Pressure What is the relationship between
temperature and pressure? How does the boiling temperature of a liquid
relate to pressure?
2. Enthalpy What is enthalpy? What are the units of enthalpy? What is the
enthalpy of liquid? Enthalpy of vapor? Enthalpy of evaporation?
3. Entropy What is entropy? What are the units of entropy?
4. Specific Volume What is specific volume? What are its units? How
does it relate to density?
5. Quality What is quality? What is the quality at the saturated liquid curve?
What is the quality at the saturated vapor curve?
6. Super-Heat What is super heat? How does it relate to the saturated
vapor point.
7. Sub-Cooling What is sub-cooling? How does it relate to the saturated
liquid point?
8. Types of Refrigerants Can you indicate the types of refrigerants?
Which types of refrigerants are allowed and which ones have been phased
out?
9. ODP What does ODP stand for? Which refrigerants have 0 ODP?
10. GWP What does GWP stand for? Which refrigerants have low GWP?
11. Evaporator What is an evaporator? What function does it serve in the
refrigeration cycle? What pressure does it operate at, low or high?
12. Compressor What is a compressor? What function does it serve in the
refrigeration cycle?
13. Condenser What is a condenser? What function does it serve in the
refrigeration cycle? What pressure does it operate at, low or high?

14. Expansion Device What is an expansion device? What function does it


serve in the refrigeration cycle?

Checklists -1 http://www.engproguides.com
Navigating the Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram & Charts
1. Saturation Curve Where is the saturation curve located? What does it
represent? How does it distinguish between sub-cooled liquid, super-heat
and the mixed region?

2. Discharge/Suction Pressure Can you plot discharge and suction


pressures on a P-H diagram?
3. Locating a Point In the sub-cooled region, can you locate a point given
the pressure and sub-cooled temperature? In the super-heat region, can
you locate a point given the pressure and super-heat temperature? In the
mixed region, can you locate a point given the pressure and enthalpy?
3. Refrigeration Cycle Can you plot the refrigeration cycle on a P-H
diagram? Can you indicate the evaporator, compressor, condenser and
expansion device movement?
4. Constant Entropy Can you find lines of constant entropy? Can you
indicate movement on the constant entropy line for a compressor?
5. Constant Enthalpy Can you find lines of constant enthalpy? Can you
indicate movement on the constant enthalpy line for a expansion device?
6. Super-Heat/Sub-Cool Can you find the point indicated by a certain
degrees of super-heat or sub-cooling given a pressure?
7. Net Refrigeration Effect What is the net refrigeration effect? Can you
find this amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary
information? What information is necessary to determine the net
refrigeration effect?
8. Net Condenser Effect What is the net condenser effect? Can you find
this amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary
information? What information is necessary to determine the net
condenser effect?
9. Compressor Work What is the compressor work? Can you find this
amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary information?
What information is necessary to determine the compressor work?
10. COP What is the COP? Can you calculate the COP?
11. Resources Do you have quick access to Refrigeration Diagrams for
typical refrigerants and to Refrigerant tables?

Applicable Codes/References
1. ASHRAE 15 Do you have ASHRAE 15? Are you familiar with the code?
2. Montreal Protocol Do you know the major decisions of the Montreal
Protocol and how it relates to refrigerants?

Checklists -2 http://www.engproguides.com
Thermodynamics - Steam Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Knowledgeable

Need More
Confident

Work
Steam Basic Terms
1. Temperature & Pressure What is the relationship between
temperature and pressure? How does the boiling temperature of a liquid
relate to pressure?
2. Enthalpy What is enthalpy? What are the units of enthalpy? What is the
enthalpy of liquid? Enthalpy of vapor? Enthalpy of evaporation?
3. Entropy What is entropy? What are the units of entropy?
4. Specific Volume What is specific volume? What are its units? How
does it relate to density?
5. Quality What is quality? What is the quality at the saturated liquid curve?
What is the quality at the saturated vapor curve?
6. Super-Heat What is super heat? How does it relate to the saturated
vapor point.
7. Boiler What is a boiler? How do you determine the capacity of a boiler?
How do you determine the efficiency of a boiler?
8. Feed Water What is feed water? How do you determine its enthalpy?

9. Isobaric What does isobaric mean? What processes typically are


isobaric?
10. Isentropic What does isentropic mean? What processes typically are
isentropic?
11. Throttling What does throttling mean? What processes involve throttling?
What typically remains constant in a throttling process?

Navigating the Steam Diagram & Charts


1. Saturation Curve Where is the saturation curve located? What does it
represent? How does it distinguish between sub-cooled watered, super-
heat water vapor and the mixed region?

Checklists -3 http://www.engproguides.com
2. Steam Quality Can you identify the steam quality lines on a P-H
diagram? Can you determine the steam quality given the mixed region
enthalpy or entropy?
3. Locating a Point In the sub-cooled region, can you locate a point given
the pressure and sub-cooled temperature? In the super-heat region, can
you locate a point given the pressure and super-heat temperature? In the
mixed region, can you locate a point given the pressure and enthalpy or
the pressure and steam quality?
4. Constant Entropy Can you find lines of constant entropy? Can you
indicate movement on the constant entropy line?
5. Constant Enthalpy Can you find lines of constant enthalpy? Can you
indicate movement on the constant enthalpy line for a expansion device?
6. Super-Heat/Sub-Cool Can you find the point indicated by a certain
degrees of super-heat or sub-cooling given a pressure?
7. COP What is the COP? Can you calculate the COP?
8. Resources Do you have quick access to the steam tables and the P-H
Diagram for Steam?

Mollier Diagram
1. Pressure Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to lines of constant
pressure?
2. Mix Versus Super-Heat Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to the
different regions of Mixed Region Steam and Super-Heated Steam.
3. Temperature Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to the constant
temperature lines and the super heat temperature lines?
4. Resources Do you have quick access to the Mollier Diagram

Steam Equipment
1. Boiler What is a boiler? How do you determine the capacity of a boiler?
How do you determine the efficiency of a boiler?
2. Steam Coils Can you conduct an energy balance on a steam-to-water
or a steam-to-air coil?
2. Steam Piping Can you calculate the pressure drop through steam
piping? Do you have quick access to steam pipe sizing equations and
steel piping tables?
2. Steam Traps What is a steam trap and what is its purpose? What are
the different types of steam traps?

Checklists -4 http://www.engproguides.com
Psychrometric Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Need More Work


Knowledgeable
Confident
Psychrometric Terms
1. Dry Bulb/Wet Bulb. Do you understand the difference between Dry
Bulb and Wet Bulb temperatures? How are the two different temperatures
measured? What does each temperature indicate?
2. Relative Humidity/Specific Humidity/Humidity Ratio. Do you
understand the difference between Relative and Specific Humidity?
Relative humidity is in comparison to what reference point? What is the
difference between Specific Humidity and Humidity ratio? What does it
mean when relative humidity is equal to 100%(relation to dry bulb/wet bulb
temperatures)? What does relative humidity equal for dry air?
3. Specific Volume. What are the units of specific volume? How is
specific volume related to density? What is the standard specific volume
and density used in typical problems?
4. Sensible Heat. What values are needed to calculate sensible heat?
What does sensible heat indicate? What is the formula for calculating
sensible heat (quick and easy version)? Sensible heat gain/loss is
indicated by what movement on the psychrometric chart. What HVAC
equipment affects Sensible Heat only?

5. Latent Heat. What values are needed to calculate latent heat? What
does latent heat indicate? What is the formula for calculating latent heat
(quick and easy version)? Latent heat gain/loss is indicated by what
movement on the psychrometric chart. . What HVAC equipment affects
Latent Heat only?
6. Enthalpy. What is the formula for calculating enthalpy (quick and easy
version)? How is enthalpy related to sensible and latent heat? What is
the
7. Dew Point. What is the difference between dew point and wet bulb
temperature? When does the dew point of an air mixture equal the wet
bulb temperature?
8. Saturation Curve. What is the saturation curve? What is relative
humidity equal to at the saturation curve?
9. Sensible Heat Ratio. What is the sensible heat ratio? What does the
sensible heat ratio compare?

Checklists -5 http://www.engproguides.com
10. Constants. What is the latent heat of vaporization of water[US units]?
What is the specific heat capacity of air[US units]?

Navigating the Psychrometric Chart


1. Different Psychrometric Charts. What value is held constant for
each psychrometric chart? Do you have a psychrometric chart handy?
2. Finding Points on the Chart Given two values (DB/WB/Rel
Hum./Hum. Ratio/Enthalpy/Specific Volume,/Dew Point), can you find the
other 5 values?

3. Movement - Sensible Given two points on a psychrometric chart and


the CFM, can you find the sensible heat gain/loss? Given a single point,
CFM and the sensible heat gain/loss, can you find the final point?

Movement - Latent Given two points on a psychrometric chart and the


CFM, can you find the latent heat gain/loss? Given a single point, CFM
and the latent heat gain/loss, can you find the final point?

4. Movement - Enthalpy Given two points on a psychrometric chart and


the CFM, can you find the enthalpy gain/loss? Given a single point, CFM,
sensible heat ratio and the change in enthalpy, can you find the final
point?
5. Air Mixture Can you determine the final points of two different air
mixtures?
6. Condensation Can you determine whether air at specific conditions, will
condense on a surface of a certain temperature?

7. Evaporative Cooling Can you describe evaporative cooling and


indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?
8. Cooling Coil Can you describe how a cooling coil works? Can you
indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?
9. Heating Coil Can you describe how a heating coil works? Can you
indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?
10. Humidifier Can you describe how a humidifier works? Can you indicate
the movement on a psychrometric chart?
11. Dehumidifier Can you describe how a dehumidifier works? Can you
indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?

Checklists -6 http://www.engproguides.com
Heat Transfer Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Need More Work


Knowledgeable
Confident
Heat Transfer Terms
1. Conduction. Do you understand conduction and the equations
governing conduction? Can you distinguish between the three modes of
heat transfer?
2. Convection. Do you understand convection and the equations
governing convection? Can you distinguish between the three modes of
heat transfer?
3. Radiation. Do you understand radiation and the equations governing
radiation? Can you distinguish between the three modes of heat transfer?
4. U-Factor. What is the U-Factor? What are the units of the U-factor?
Can you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?
5. R-Value. What is the R-value? What are the units of the R-Value? Can
you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?
6. k-Value. What is the k-value? What are the units of the k-value? Can
you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?
7. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. What is the overall heat transfer
coefficient? Can you determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of a
wall or roof assembly?
8. Resources. Do you have quick access to roof and wall materials
properties?

Cooling Load Calculations


1. Walls. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a wall? Can you
calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for a wall? Can you use the
CLTD term to find the heat transfer through a wall?
2. Roofs. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a roof? Can you
calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for a roof? Can you use the
CLTD term to find the heat transfer through a roof?
3. Windows/Skylights. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a
window or skylight? Can you use the SC and SCL term to find the heat
transfer through a wall?
4. People. Can you calculate the heat gain from people? Sensible and
latent? Do you have quick access to heat gains from people at different
activity levels?

Checklists -7 http://www.engproguides.com
5. Lighting. Can you calculate the heat gain from lights? Do you have
quick access to heat gains from different types of light installation?
6. Equipment. Can you calculate the heat gain from miscellaneous
equipment? Do you have quick access to heat gains from different types of
equipment and motor installations? Do you also have access to typical
heat gains from typical equipment?
7. Infiltration. What is infiltration? Can you determine the amount of
infiltration based on the construction tightness? Can you calculate the
heat gain from infiltration?
8. Ventilation. Can you determine the required ventilation in accordance
with the applicable code? Do you have quick access to ASHRAE 62.1?
Can you determine the heat gain from ventilation?

Heat Exchangers
1. LMTD. Can you calculate the LMTD given the conditions of the fluids?
2. Types of Heat Exchangers. Can you identify the difference between
counter current and parallel flow heat exchangers? Can you calculate the
LMTD of both types?
3. Energy Balance. Can you create an energy balance to describe a heat
exchanger?

Checklists -8 http://www.engproguides.com
Fluids Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Need More Work


Knowledgeable
Confident
Fluids Terms
1. Temperature. Can you convert between Fahrenheit and Rankine?
2. Pressure. Can you convert between gauge pressure and absolute
pressure?
3. Viscosity. What are the units of viscosity? Do you understand the
difference between absolute and kinematic viscosities? Do you have
quick access to values of viscosity of water?

4. Reynolds Number. What are the various equations for Reynolds


number?
5. Density & Specific Volume. What are the units density and specific
volume? Do you have quick access to the values of density and specific
volume of water at different temperatures and pressures?

6. Specific Gravity. What are the units of specific gravity? Do you have
access to the values of specific gravity of typical fluids?

Checklists -9 http://www.engproguides.com
Mechanical Equipment & Systems Checklist
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Need More Work


Knowledgeable
Confident
Air Distribution Systems
1. Ducts. How do you size ducts? Can you quickly determine the velocity
and pressure drop in a duct?
2. Dampers. What is the purpose of an air damper?
3. Diffusers. How are diffusers selected and sized? What is throw?
4. Registers and Grilles. What is the difference between a register and a
grille?
5. Types of Fans. What are the different types of fans?
6. Fan Sizing. How are fans sized? Can you determine the total pressure
drop in a duct run?
7. Air Coils. Can you conduct an energy balance on an air coil to
determine the heat transferred from the cooling or heating medium to the
air?
8. Variable Air Volume Terminal Units. What are variable air volume
terminal units? How are they controlled?
9. Enthalpy Wheel. What is an enthalpy wheel? What is the equation for
effectiveness?
10. Heat Pipe. What is a heat pipe? What is the equation for
effectiveness?
11. Fan Curves. Can you read a fan curve? What occurs when fans are
placed in parallel or series? What is the system curve?
12. Air-Side Economizer. What is an air-side economizer? How does it
save energy?
Water Distribution Systems
1. Pipes. How do you size pipes? Can you quickly determine the velocity
and pressure drop in a pipe?
2. Control Valves. What is the purpose of a control valve? How are they
controlled? How are they sized?
3. Pumps. What are the different types of pumps?
4. Total Dynamic Head. Can you determine the total dynamic head for a
piping system? Can you calculate friction loss in a pipe or in a pipe fitting?
Do you have quick access to pipe inner diameter data, roughness factors,
Moody Diagram, etc.

Checklists -10 http://www.engproguides.com


5. Net Positive Suction Head. What is net positive suction head
available and required? Can you calculate NPSHa?
6. Pump Sizing. How are pumps sized? Can you determine the total
pressure drop in a pipe run?
7. Pump Curves. Can you read a pump curve? What occurs when pump
are placed in parallel or series? What is the system curve?
8. Affinity Laws. Can you use the affinity laws to determine the resulting
power, pressure and flow rate, if the impeller diameter or pump speed is
changed.
Insulation
1. Pipe and Duct Insulation. Can you determine the heat transfer
through a pipe/duct and its insulation and to the surroundings? Can you
determine the resulting surface temperature of a material?
Cooling Towers
1. Types of Cooling Towers. What are the different types of cooling
towers and how are they characterized?
2. Cooling Tower Performance. Can you calculate the range,
approach and effectiveness of a cooling tower?
3. Cooling Tower Water Side. Can you determine the amount of heat
removed from the water? Can you determine the make-up water
required? Can you determine the amount of water lost due to
evaporation?
Furnaces
1. Types of Furnaces. What are the different types of furnaces and how
are they characterized?
2. Furnace Performance. How are furnaces rated? What is AFUE?
What are the typical AFUE values for different types of furnaces?

Checklists -11 http://www.engproguides.com


Supportive Knowledge
For the PE Exam

Test Date: Name: __________________________________


_____________

Need More Work


Knowledgeable
Confident
Electrical Terms
1. Current. What is current? Do you understand the basic equations for
electric DC circuits?
2. Voltage. What is voltage? Do you understand the basic equations for
electric DC circuits?
3. Resistance. What is resistance? Do you understand the basic
equations for electric DC circuits? How do you calculate equivalent
resistance for resistors in series and in parallel?
4. Power Factor. What is power factor? When is it used?
5. Power What are the equations for power? How do you calculate
mechanical horsepower for a fan and pump? How do you determine the
motor horsepower and electricity usage?
6.

Economics
1. Present Value What is the present value? Can you convert annualized
values and future values to a present value?
2. Future Value What is the future value? Can you convert annualized
values and present values to a future value?
3. Annualized Value What is the annualized value? Can you convert
future values and present values to an annualized value?
4. Rate of Return What is the rate of return? Can you calculate
5. Resources Do you have quick access to engineering economics tables?
6.

Acoustics
1. NC Ratings What is the NC rating?
2. Sound Level at a Distance from a source How do you determine
the decibel level at a distance away from a point source? How does the
equation change based on the surroundings?
3. Equipment Ratings How are sound levels reported for various pieces
of equipment like silencers and chillers?
Resources

Checklists -12 http://www.engproguides.com


1. ASHRAE 15 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
2. ASHRAE 34 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
3. ASHRAE 55 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
4. ASHRAE 62.1 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
5. ASHRAE 90.1 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
6. NFPA 90A/90B Are you familiar with the resources contents and the
purpose of the resource?
7. NFPA 96 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the purpose
of the resource?
8. NCEES HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Question Have you
completed the NCEES HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Exam? Do you
understand how to complete each problem?
9. MERM Do you have quick access to the MERM during the test? Are you
familiar with its contents? Do you have the most commonly used areas
notated and tabbed?
10. Engineering Unit Conversions Do you have quick access to the
Engineering unit conversions book? Are you familiar with its contents and
how to use the book?

Checklists -13 http://www.engproguides.com


SECTION 10: SAMPLE EXAM
SAMPLE EXAM

ENGINEERING PRO GUIDES, LLC

© 2012
QUESTION 1

An air handler supplies 5,000 CFM at a temperature of 55 °F. The air handler was designed for
1,000 CFM of outside air at 87 °F DB and 78 °F WB. The remaining return air from the space is
at 77 °F DB and 55% relative humidity. What are the entering conditions of the air into the coil,
in DB and WB?

(A) 79 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 68.3 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

(B) 79 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 59.6 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

(C) 85 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 74.3 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

(D) 85 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 75.7 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

QUESTION 2

A classroom of 25 people has the following heat gains:

People: 250 Btu/h per person (Sensible); 200 Btu/h per person (Latent)

Lighting: 4,000 Btu/h

Computers: 8,000 Btu/h

Walls, Roofs, Windows: 22,000 Btu/h

Ventilation: 7,500 Btu/h (Sensible); 7,500 Btu/h (Latent)

The air handler serving the classroom has a supply air temperature of 55 °F and the space is to
be maintained at 75 °F DB and 50% Relative humidity. What CFM is required?

(A) 2,210 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(B) 2,675 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(C) 2,790 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(D) 3,865 𝐶𝐹𝑀

Sample Exam -2 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 3

A dedicated outside air unit is used to pre-cool 2,500 CFM of outside air at 88 °F DB and 85%
relative humidity to 60 °F DB, 58 °F WB. What is the quantity of water removed by the coil in
GPM?

(A) 0.29 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 0.33 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(C) 2.9 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(D) 2.4 𝐺𝑃𝑀

QUESTION 4

An air handling unit cools 2,000 CFM of outside air (90 F DB/80% RH) and 6,000 CFM of return
air (77 °F DB, 50% RH) to 52 °F DB, 51 °F WB. If chilled water enters the coil at 44 °F and
leaves at 56 °F, what is the required GPM?

(A) 42 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 80 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(C) 105 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(D) 126 𝐺𝑃𝑀

Sample Exam -3 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 5

A cooling coil has a surface temperature of 55 °F. If 5,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 80 °F
DB, 65% RH, then what is the bypass factor that produces exiting air at 60 °F DB? Assume that
there are no minor heat gains or losses across the coil and that the coils temperature is
maintained at 55 °F.

(A) 0.03

(B) 0.10

(C) 0.15

(D) 0.20

QUESTION 6

A chilled water pump is used to pump 200 GPM of chilled water through a water cooled chiller,
with a 10 °F temperature difference. The condenser water circuit of the chiller operates on a 15
°F temperature difference and the compressor produces 250,000 Btu/hr. What GPM is required
by the condenser water pump? Assume no minor heat gains or losses in the chilled/condenser
water circuits and negligible bypass factors.

(A) 106 GPM

(B) 133 GPM

(C) 167 GPM

(D) 200 GPM

Sample Exam -4 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 7

A pump is required to supply 200 GPM of water to (2) outlets at a pier. The first outlet is 500
feet from the pump, the second outlet along the same path of travel is 500 feet from the first
outlet. The first length of pipe is 6" STD Steel, the second length of pipe is 4" STD Steel pipe.
What is the total pressure drop in FT of Head? Assume all minor losses are negligible.

(A) 12 feet

(B) 16 feet

(C) 18 feet

(D) 21 feet

QUESTION 8

A new pump is required to pump 350 GPM from a well up to a holding tank that is 200 FT above
the pump. Assume a total friction loss of 20 FT of head from piping and fittings. The pump is
required to pump 8 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. The pump is 85% efficient
and the motor is 95% efficient. Electricity costs are $0.25 per kWh. What are the yearly cost
savings if a new location for the holding tank is found at an elevation of 100 FT above the
pump? Assume the same efficiencies and friction losses between the two scenarios.

(A) $1,720 per year

(B) $2,090 per year

(C) $4,170 per year

(D) $5,970 per year

Sample Exam -5 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 9

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 80 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The
refrigerant undergoes 15 °F of superheat and 0 °F of sub-cooling. What is the COP Of the
chiller? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

(A) 4.9

(B) 5.7

(C) 7.7

(D) 10.2

QUESTION 10

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge
pressure of 200 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling. What is the required refrigerant flow rate
in (lb/min) in order to produce 20 tons of cooling?

(A) 1,470 lbs/hr

(B) 1,870 lbs/hr

(C) 2,570 lbs/hr

(D) 2,890 lbs/hr

Sample Exam -6 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 11

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The
refrigerant undergoes 15 °F of superheat and 0 °F of sub-cooling. What is the quality of the
refrigerant entering the evaporator? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

(A) 0.15

(B) 0.22

(C) 0.32

(D) 0.42

QUESTION 12

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 150 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge
pressure of 400 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling and a refrigerant flow rate of 20 lb/min.
What is the condenser leaving temperature of the refrigerant?

(A) 90 ℉

(B) 99 ℉

(C) 114 ℉

(D) 129 ℉

Sample Exam -7 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 13

The unit "clo" is used to describe the thermal insulation provided by which of the blow?

(A) Wall insulation

(B) Roof insulation

(C) Garment insulation

(D) Heating equipment insulation

QUESTION 14

20 lb/hr of 15 PSIA steam is delivered to a heating coil. 2,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 60
°F DB and 90% relative humidity. What is the exiting dry bulb temperature of the air, assume no
super heat or sub-cooling. Bypass factor and minor heat gains/losses are negligible.

(A) 69℉

(B) 73℉

(C) 75℉

(D) 79℉

Sample Exam -8 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 15

A humidifier evaporates 2 GPM of water into an incoming air stream. Entering air conditions are
85 F DB, 70% relative humidity. What is the required flow rate (CFM) of the fan? Assume the
air leaving the spray humidifier is at 85 F DB, 90% relative humidity.

A) 230 CFM

(B) 400 CFM

(C) 510 CFM

(D) 640 CFM

QUESTION 16

A cooling tower has 150 GPM of water at entering and leaving temperatures of 100 F and 85 F.
If the outside air conditions are 82 F DB/75% relative humidity. What is the effectiveness of the
cooling tower?

(A) 62%

(B) 68%

(C) 74%

(D) 79%

Sample Exam -9 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 17

A 100 GPM condenser water pump is supplied with water by a cooling tower basin that is 10 ft
above the centerline of the pump. The suction line of the pump consists of 40 ft of 3" Schedule
40 steel pipe and 3 elbows. Condenser water pump serves a cooling tower with entering and
leaving conditions of 95 F and 85 F. What is the net positive suction head available at the
condenser water pump?

(A) 7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(B) 34 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(C) 41 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(D) 48 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

QUESTION 18

A new air handler with a VFD at 60 HZ provides 2,000 CFM of conditioned air to multiple
classrooms. 500 CFM of the 2,000 CFM is outside air that is constantly provided to maintain
acceptable indoor air quality. If during low load conditions the VFD is ramped down to 45 HZ,
then what is the percentage of outside air compared to the total air supplied?

(A) 25%

(B) 33%

(C) 44%

(D) 67%

Sample Exam -10 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 19

A 100% outside air handler serving a theater supplies 10,000 CFM of OAIR at 55 F DB/54 F WB
to maintain space conditions at 75 F DB and 50% Relative Humidity. Outside air conditions are
at 85 F DB and 80% Relative Humidity. How many tons of cooling can be saved if a total
enthalpy wheel is provided with 75% effectiveness? Assume negligible bypass factor and no
minor heat gains/losses.

(A) 25 tons

(B) 30 tons

(C) 32 tons

(D) 60 tons

QUESTION 20

An existing chiller is served by a chilled water pump (150 GPM, 75 TDH), 65% efficient pump,
90% efficient motor. A recent study was conducted and it was found that the pump was
oversized and should be replaced with a new higher efficiency pump at 150 GPM, 50 TDH, 80%
efficient pump and 95% premium efficiency motor. If the pump runs 8 hours a day, 5 days a
week, 52 weeks a year, how many kWh per year will be saved by switching to the new pump?

(A) 3,640 kWh

(B) 3,990 kWh

(C) 4,150 kWh

(D) 7,250 kWh

Sample Exam -11 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 21

A 10 BHP supply fan is provided with both the motor and the fan in the air conditioned space.
The motor efficiency is 95%. What is the total heat gain from the fan and motor to the space?

(A) 22,680 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(B) 24,230 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(C) 25,460 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(D) 26,800 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

QUESTION 22

A north facing wall is 20’ long by 10’ high. There are (2) 2’ X 4’ windows with 1/8” clear glass.
ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉ ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
The wall consists of 8” Concrete (2.1 ), 2” Insulation (8.2 ) and 5/8” Gypsum
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
(1.5 ). The CLTD of the wall is found to equal 40 F. The windows have a SC of 0.6 and
𝐵𝑡𝑢
a SCL of 20 F. What is the total heat transferred through the wall and windows, Btu/h? Do not
subtract the area of the window from the wall.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Sample Exam -12 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 23

A pump is sized for 250 GPM at 100’ TDH. What is the total flow produced by two of these
pumps in series?

(A) 100 GPM

(B) 200 GPM

(C) 250 GPM

(D) 500 GPM

QUESTION 24

Which of the following codes are least likely to be required to be checked with regards to the
installation of a commercial gas furnace?

(A) NFPA 54

(B) ASHRAE 90.1

(C) NFPA 70

(D) International Fuel Gas Code

Sample Exam -13 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 25

An air side economizer should operate when which of the following is absolutely true?

(A) When the dry-bulb of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(B) When the humidity of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(C) When the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(D) When the humidity ratio of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

QUESTION 26

A new diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room. For the given CFM, the diffuser has
values of T 150 of 5’, T 1o0 of 10’ and T 50 of 15’. At what distance from the nearest wall will the
velocity of the air be 100 feet per minute?

(A) 5’

(B) 10’

(C) 15’

(D) 20’

Sample Exam -14 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 27

An existing 500 ton chiller with a COP of 4.5, runs for an equivalent of 3 full load hours a day,
365 days a year. The chiller is being replaced with a new 500 ton chiller with an efficiency of
0.6 kW/ton for a total cost of $750,000. If the interest rate is 4% and the lifetime of the new
chiller is 25 years, then what is the annual value of replacing the existing chiller with a new
chiller? Assume no annual maintenance costs; include annual electricity cost savings with unit
cost of $0.25 per kWh.

(A) $23,090

(B) $24,910

(C) $36,000

(D)$48,000

QUESTION 28

A refrigeration unit is required to store 1,000 lbs of salmon (Heat Capacity Above Freezing: 0.88
Btu/lbm*F, Heat Capacity Below Freezing: 0.51 Btu/lbm*F, Latent heat of Fusion: 110 Btu/lbm,
Initial Freezing Point: 28 F). If the salmon arrives to the unit at 70 F and must be cooled to 10 F
in 2 hours, then what is the required size of the air conditioning system, in Btu/hr.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(A) 18,230

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) 37,210

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(C) 78,070

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(D) 110,000

Sample Exam -15 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 29

What is the required flame spread index of gypsum board air ducts, in accordance with NFPA
90A?

(A) 0

(B) 25

(C) 50

(D) 100

QUESTION 30

A new cooling coil provides sensible cooling of 250,000 Btu/hr. The entering air conditions into
the coil are 80 F DB. Leaving conditions from the coil at 55 F DB. If the coil is at an elevation of
5,000 FT, then what is the air flow rate in CFM? Assume negligible bypass factor and
miscellaneous heat gains/losses.

Density = 0.062 lb/ft^3; Heat Capacity = 0.24 Btu/lb*F

(A) 5,125

(B) 6,065

(C) 9,565

(D) 11,200

Sample Exam -16 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 31

A sensible heat recovery device is used to preheat entering outdoor air 3,500 CFM, (40 F, 60%
RH) with 4,000 CFM exhaust air (77 F, 55% RH). The sensible effectiveness of the device is
60%. What is the leaving supply air dry bulb temperature? Assume zero leakage.

(A) 49.3 ℉

(B) 67.8 ℉

(C) 71.7 ℉

(D) 74.2 ℉

QUESTION 32

A 22" X 10" galvanized steel duct is used to convey 2,000 CFM of industrial exhaust. What is
the pressure drop in units of IN. WG per 100 ft.

Density = 0.075 lb/ft^3; roughness factor = 0.0003 ft.

(A) 0.07 in. WG per 100 ft

(B) 0.10 in. WG per 100 ft

(C) 0.14 in. WG per 100 ft

(D) 0.19 in. WG per 100 ft

Sample Exam -17 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 33

A new steam boiler provides 100 lb/hr of steam at 30 PSIA, 0 degrees super heat to various hot
water heaters. If the hot water heaters are designed to provide a 40 degree delta to incoming
water at 80 F, then what is the total GPM of hot water that the boiler can support?

(A) 4.73 GPM

(B) 10.2 GPM

(C) 15.7 GPM

(D) 21.9 GPM

QUESTION 34

A new building with dimensions of 200' (L) X 150' (W) X 10' (H) is classified as having average
construction tightness, which relates to 0.3 air changes per hour of infiltration. If outside air is at
88 F DB/80% RH and the indoor design conditions are 75 F DB/50% RH, then what is the total
cooling load in tons added by infiltrated air? Use standard air conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(A) 89,560

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) 104,600

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(C) 124,400

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(D) 159,400

Sample Exam -18 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 35

Which of the following filters provides greater than 99% arrestance?

(A) MERV 1

(B) MERV 7

(C) MERV 13

(D) MERV 18

QUESTION 36

A new dedicated outside air handling unit is used to cool 5,000 CFM of OAIR (88 F DB, 70%
RH) to 55 F DB/54 F WB. The outside air handling unit is equipped with a wrap around heat
pipe. The heat pipe pre-cools the outside air by 10 degrees F. What is the total reduction in
tons of cooling by installing a heat pipe? Assume density = 0.075 lb/ft^3, elevation = sea level.

(A) 4.5 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(B) 6.2 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(C) 7.9 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(D) 10 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

Sample Exam -19 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 37

A new classroom is designed for 25 people and has a total area of 500 square feet. What is the
required CFM of ventilation?

(A) 60 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(B 250 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(C) 310 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(D) 520 𝐶𝐹𝑀

QUESTION 38

A new counter-current heat exchanger is designed for incoming cold water at 43 F and leaving
water at 52 F. If the entering/exiting hot water of 60 F and 50 F, then what will be the LMTD?

(A) 7.5℉

(B) 8.5℉

(C) 10.0℉

(D) 11.5℉

Sample Exam -20 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 39

Which of the following is not a type of fan?

(A) Airfoil

(B) Backward inclined

(C) Vertical Inline

(D) Propeller

QUESTION 40

An evaporative air cooler is used to cool air at 90 F, 30% relative humidity. Water is supplied to
the evaporative air cooler at 70 F. What is the dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the
evaporative cooler, if the evaporative cooler is 80% effective.

(A) 67.2 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(B) 70.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(C) 71.8 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(D) 75.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

Sample Exam -21 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTIONS

Sample Exam -22 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 1

An air handler supplies 5,000 CFM at a temperature of 55 F. The air handler was designed for
1,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB and 78 F WB. The remaining return air from the space is
at 77 F DB and 55% relative humidity. What are the entering conditions of the air into the coil,
in DB and WB?

This problem involves finding the mixed air condition of two airstreams. Remember that only
the dry bulb temperature, humidity ratio and enthalpy are linearly related.

First, find the mixed dry bulb temperature, using the lever rule.

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 + 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑇𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 [𝐷𝐵]

5,000 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 1,000 ∗ 87℉ + 4,000 ∗ 77℉ [𝐷𝐵]

𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 79℉ [𝐷𝐵]

Next we are going to use the same equation, but with enthalpies.
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
From the psychrometric chart, ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 30.45 ; ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 41.47
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 ∗ ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 + 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟

5,000 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 1,000 ∗ 41.47 + 4,000 ∗ 30.45

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 32.65
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
The mixed air condition is 79℉ [𝐷𝐵], ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 32.65
𝑙𝑏

Finally, use the psychrometric chart to find the Wet Bulb condition.

Correct answer is A.

(A) 𝟕𝟗 ℉ 𝑫𝑩, 𝟔𝟖. 𝟑 ℉ 𝑾𝑩

(B) 79 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 59.6 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

(C) 85 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 74.3 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

(D) 85 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 75.7 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

Sample Exam -23 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 2

The air handler serving the classroom has a supply air temperature of 55 F and the space is to
be maintained at 75 F DB and 50% Relative humidity. What CFM is required?

First calculate the total loads.

Category Sensible (Btu/h) Total (Btu/h)


People 6,250 11,250
Lighting 4,000 4,000
Computers 8,000 8,000
External 22,000 22,000
Ventilation 7,500 15,000
Total 47,750 60,250

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
47,750 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (75 − 55℉)
ℎ𝑟

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 2,210

Correct answer is A.

(A) 𝟐, 𝟐𝟏𝟎 𝑪𝑭𝑴

(B) 2,675 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(C) 2,790 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(D) 3,865 𝐶𝐹𝑀

In order to calculate the final condition of the air leaving the coil, use the total heat equation to
determine the final enthalpy.

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢
60,250 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (ℎ𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 )
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
60,250 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (28.14 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 )
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 22.08
𝑙𝑏

Air conditions leaving coil are as follows:

Sample Exam -24 http://www.engproguides.com


𝑇𝑑𝑏 = 55 𝐹

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 22.08
𝑙𝑏

from psychrometric chart

𝑇𝑤𝑏 = 53.1 𝐹

Sample Exam -25 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 3

A dedicated outside air unit is used to pre-cool 2,500 CFM of outside air at 88 F DB and 85%
relative humidity to 60 F DB, 58 F WB. What is the quantity of water removed by the coil in
GPM?

First find the humidity ratios of the entering and leaving air, through the use of the psychrometric
chart.
𝑔𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
Entering Air: 88 DB, 85% RH: 172.46 𝑜𝑟 0.0246
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑔𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
Leaving Air: 60 DB, 58 WB: 68.89 𝑜𝑟 0.0098
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Next, find the amount of water removed.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 − 𝑊𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = .0246 − .0098 [ ]
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0148
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 . 075 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


. 0148 ∗ 2,500 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3
= 28
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 1 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 𝑓𝑡 3 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠


2.8 ∗ ∗ 3
= 0.33
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 62.4 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 1 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Correct answer is B.

(A) 0.29 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 𝟎. 𝟑𝟑 𝑮𝑷𝑴

(C) 2.9 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(D) 2.4 𝐺𝑃𝑀

Sample Exam -26 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 4

An air handling unit cools 2,000 CFM of outside air (90 F DB/80% RH) and 6,000 CFM of return
air (77 F DB, 50% RH) to 52 F DB, 51 F WB. If chilled water enters the coil at 44 F and leaves
at 56 F, what is the required GPM?

The first part of this solution involves finding the conditions of the air entering the coil, through
the mixed air equation.

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 + 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 𝑇𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 [𝐷𝐵]

8,000 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 2,000 ∗ 90℉ + 6,000 ∗ 77℉ [𝐷𝐵]

𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 80.25℉ [𝐷𝐵]

Next if we connect the return air and the outside air points on the psychrometric chart, then we
know that the mixed air must lie on this line and the intersection of the mixed dry bulb
temperature of 80.25 F.
𝐵𝑡𝑢
From the psychrometric chart we find that ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 34.21 .
𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢
Next we find the leaving enthalpy from the psychrometric chart ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 20.85 .
𝑙𝑏

Next find the heat transferred by the coil using the entering and leaving enthalpies of the air.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 8000 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (34.21 − 20.85) = 480,960

Finally, assume all the heat transferred to the coil is from the chilled water.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
480,960 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (56 − 44 ℉)
ℎ𝑟

𝐺𝑃𝑀 = 80.2

Correct Answer is B

(A) 42 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 80 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(C) 105 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(D) 126 𝐺𝑃𝑀

Sample Exam -27 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 5

A cooling coil has a surface temperature of 55 °F. If 5,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 80 °F
DB, 65% RH, then what is the bypass factor that produces exiting air at 60 °F DB? Assume that
there are no minor heat gains or losses across the coil and that the coils temperature is
maintained at 55 °F.

In this question, (1-x) % of the air entering the coil leaves at 55 °F DB. While (x) % of the air is
bypassed the coil and leaves at the same entering condition of 80 °F DB.

Use the mixed air equation to find the amount of CFM that will produce a 60 °F leaving mixed air
temperature.

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 ∗ 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑏𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠𝑠 ∗ 𝑇𝑏𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠𝑠 + 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 ∗ 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 [𝐷𝐵]

5,000 ∗ 60 = 5,000 ∗ (𝑥) ∗ 80℉ + 5,000 ∗ (1 − 𝑥) ∗ 55℉ [𝐷𝐵]

Cancel the 5,000 CFM

60 = 80𝑥 + 55 − 25𝑥

5 = 25𝑥

𝑥 = 0.2

Bypass Factor = 0.33

Correct answer is D

(A) 0.03

(B) 0.10

(C) 0.15

(D) 0.20

Sample Exam -28 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 6

A chilled water pump is used to pump 200 GPM of chilled water through a water cooled chiller,
with a 10 F temperature difference. The condenser water circuit of the chiller operates on a 15
F temperature difference and the compressor produces 250,000 Btu/hr. What GPM is required
by the condenser water pump? Assume no minor heat gains or losses in the chilled/condenser
water circuits and negligible bypass factors.

The condenser needs to be sized to release the heat from the chilled water circuit and the
compressor.

First find the total heat released by the chilled water.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (∆𝑇 ℉)
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 500 ∗ 200 ∗ (10 ℉)
ℎ𝑟
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑐ℎ𝑤 = 1,000,000
ℎ𝑟

Find the total heat into the condenser water.

𝑄𝑐𝑑𝑤 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝 + 𝑄𝑐ℎ𝑤

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑐𝑑𝑤 = 250,000 + 100,000 = 1,250,000
ℎ𝑟

Next find the GPM of the condenser water.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
1,250,000 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (15 ℉)
ℎ𝑟

𝐺𝑃𝑀 = 167

Correct answer is C.

(A) 106 GPM

(B) 133 GPM

(C) 167 GPM

(D) 200 GPM

Sample Exam -29 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 7

A pump is required to supply 200 GPM of water to (2) outlets at a pier. The first outlet is 500
feet from the pump, the second outlet along the same path of travel is 500 feet from the first
outlet. The first length of pipe is 6" STD Steel, the second length of pipe is 4" STD Steel pipe.
What is the total pressure drop in FT of Head? Assume all minor losses are negligible.

The quickest way to solve this problem is to use your resources, specifically ASHRAE
Fundamentals.

Navigate to the Pipe Sizing chapter and find the graph that plots Head Loss as a function of flow
rate and pipe size. Use the graph for standard Schedule 40 pipe.
𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
Find 400 GPM and 6" pipe, Pressure loss ≈ 1.1
1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
Multiply by total length of 6" pipe 1.1 ∗ 500 𝑓𝑡 = 5.5 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
Find 200 GPM and 4" pipe, Pressure loss ≈ 2.4
1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
Multiply by total length of 4" pipe 2.4 ∗ 500 𝑓𝑡 = 12.0 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

Total pressure drop = 5.5 + 12.0 = 17.5 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Correct Answer is C

(A) 12 feet

(B) 16 feet

(C) 18 feet

(D) 21 feet

Sample Exam -30 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 8

A new pump is required to pump 350 GPM from a well up to a holding tank that is 200 FT above
the pump. Assume a total friction loss of 20 FT of head from piping and fittings. The pump is
required to pump 8 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. The pump is 85% efficient
and the motor is 95% efficient. Electricity costs are $0.25 per kWh. What are the yearly cost
savings if a new location for the holding tank is found at an elevation of 100 FT above the
pump? Assume the same efficiencies and friction losses between the two scenarios.

In this question you must first calculate the pump horsepower, in order to determine the
electricity usage.

Pump 1: Total Dynamic Head = 200′ + 20′ = 220′

Use the pump horsepower equation

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺
𝑃ℎ𝑝 = ; 𝑆𝐺 = 1.0 [𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]
3960 ∗ 𝜀𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

350 ∗ 220 ∗ 1.0


𝑃ℎ𝑝,1 =
3960 ∗ 0.85

𝑃ℎ𝑝,1 = 22.9 𝐻𝑃

Next calculate energy used by the motor which powers the pump, by dividing by the efficiency of
the motor.

22.9 𝐻𝑃
𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟,1 = = 24.1 𝐻𝑃 𝑜𝑟 18 𝐾𝑊; 1 𝐻𝑃 = 0.746 𝐾𝑊
0.95
8 ℎ𝑟𝑠 7 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 52 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠
18 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 52,416 𝑘𝑊ℎ;
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
$0.25
Total Yearly cost for the 1st scenario is: 52,416 𝑘𝑊ℎ ∗ = $13,104 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
𝑘𝑊ℎ

Repeat the process with the new TDH of = 100′ + 20′ = 120′

350 ∗ 120 ∗ 1.0


𝑃ℎ𝑝 =
3960 ∗ 0.85
350 ∗ 120 ∗ 1.0 1 0.746 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑘𝑊,1 = ∗� �∗
3960 ∗ 0.85 0.95 1 𝐻𝑃

𝑃𝑘𝑊,2 = 9.8 𝐾𝑊

8 ℎ𝑟𝑠 7 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 52 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠 $0.25


9.8 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ = $7,134 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑘𝑊ℎ

Sample Exam -31 http://www.engproguides.com


Total Yearly cost for the 2nd scenario is: $7,134 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

The savings of scenario 2 over scenario 1 is approximately:

$13,104 − $7,134 = $5,970 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

The correct answer is D

(A) $1,720 per year

(B) $2,090 per year

(C) $4,170 per year

(D) $5,970 per year

Sample Exam -32 http://www.engproguides.com


QUESTION 9

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 80 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The
refrigerant undergoes 15 F of superheat and 0 F of sub-cooling. What is the COP Of the
chiller? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

This problem involves the use of your Pressure Enthalpy diagram which can be found in the
ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

Calculating the COP of the chiller you must find the net refrigeration effect and the compressor
work.

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

Find the enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is equal to the enthalpy of the
refrigerant leaving the condenser. This point is located at the intersection of (1) the discharge
pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the saturated liquid curve [0 degree sub-cooling].

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 54.3
𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator is found at the intersection of (1) the
suction pressure 80 PSIA and (2) 15 F super-heating [15 F past the saturated vapor line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 116
𝑙𝑏

The compressor work is found through the below equation:

𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

The enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the compressor is equal to the refrigerant leaving the
evaporator.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 116
𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the compressor is found by following the constant
entropy line from the point leaving the evaporator up to the intersection of the discharge
pressure line.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 124
𝑙𝑏

Sample Exam -33 http://www.engproguides.com


Now plug in all values to the COP equation.

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑚̇ ∗ (116 − 54.3)


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (124 − 116)

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑚̇ ∗ (116 − 54.3)


𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =
𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (124 − 116)

The correct answer is C, 7.7

(A) 4.9

(B) 5.7

(C) 7.7

(D) 10.2

Sample Exam -34 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 10

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA with 20 F super-heat and a discharge
pressure of 200 PSIA. Assume 15 F of sub-cooling. What is the required refrigerant flow rate in
(lb/min) in order to produce 20 tons of cooling?

This problem involves finding the net refrigeration effect through the following equation.

𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

Use the ASHRAE fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-physical Properties of
Refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-410A.

Find the enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is equal to the enthalpy of the
refrigerant leaving the condenser. This point is located at the intersection of (1) the discharge
pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the 15 degree sub-cooling [15 F towards the liquid region past the
saturated liquid line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 31.7
𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator is found at the intersection of (1) the
suction pressure 100 PSIA and (2) 15 F super-heating [15 F past the saturated vapor line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 125
𝑙𝑏

Next plug the numbers into the net refrigeration equation.

12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
20 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ = 𝑚̇ ∗ (125 − 31.7)
1 𝑡𝑜𝑛
𝑙𝑏𝑠
2,572 = 𝑚̇
ℎ𝑟

Correct answer is C.

(A) 1,470 lbs/hr

(B) 1,870 lbs/hr

(C) 2,570 lbs/hr

(D) 2,890 lbs/hr

Sample Exam -35 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 11

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The
refrigerant undergoes 15 F of superheat and 0 F of sub-cooling. What is the quality of the
refrigerant entering the evaporator? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

This question involves finding the properties of refrigerant prior to entering the evaporator.

Use the ASHRAE fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-physical Properties of
Refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-134A.

Find the location of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is the point located at the
intersection of (1) the suction pressure of 100 PSIA and (2) the constant enthalpy line from the
point where the refrigerant leaves the condenser. The point at which the refrigerant leaves the
condenser is found at the intersection of the discharge pressure line and the saturated liquid
curve, since there is no sub-cooling.

Condenser Leaving Point: 200 PSIA, x = 0% quality (saturated liquid, no sub-cooling),

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 54.3 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

Evaporator Entering Point: 100 PSIA,

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 54.3 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

From the P-H Diagram, find the intersection and read the quality:

𝑥𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 0.216

Correct answer is B.

(A) 0.15

(B) 0.22

(C) 0.32

(D) 0.42

Sample Exam -36 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 12

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 150 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge
pressure of 400 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling and a refrigerant flow rate of 20 lb/min.
What is the condenser leaving temperature of the refrigerant?

This question involves finding the properties of the refrigerant as it leaves the condenser.

Use the ASHRAE Fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-Physical properties of
refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-410A.

The point at which the refrigerant leaves the condenser is at the intersection of (1) the discharge
pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the 15 degree sub-cooling

Intersection of discharge pressure of 400 PSIA and saturated liquid line is at a temperature of
114 ℉.

But the condenser provides 15 more degrees of sub-cooling, thus the temperature leaving the
condenser is 99 ℉

Correct answer is B.

(A) 90 ℉

(B) 𝟗𝟗 ℉

(C) 114 ℉

(D) 129 ℉

Sample Exam -37 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 13

The unit "clo" is used to describe the thermal insulation provided by which of the blow?

This question involves knowledge of ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for
Human Comfort. It is used to describe the insulation provided by clothing and garments.

Walls, Roofs and Equipment insulation are typically described by R-Values, U-Factors or k-
factors.

The correct answer is C.

(A) Wall insulation

(B) Roof insulation

(C) Garment insulation

(D) Heating equipment insulation

Sample Exam -38 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 14

20 lb/hr of 15 PSIA steam is delivered to a heating coil. 2,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 60 F
DB and 90% relative humidity. What is the exiting dry bulb temperature of the air, assume no
super heat or sub-cooling. Bypass factor and minor heat gains/losses are negligible.

This question is an energy balance equation. The heat lost by condensing the steam (latent
heat) is gained by the air passing through the coil.

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (∆𝑇)

First, go to your steam tables as a function of pressure, since Pressure is given and find the
enthalpy of evaporation.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 969.5
𝑙𝑏

Then plug in the enthalpy of evaporation and the other variables into the energy balance
equation.

𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢
20 ∗ 969.5 = 1.08 ∗ 2,000 ∗ (∆𝑇)
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

∆𝑇 = 9.0 ℉

The final dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the coil will be 60 + 9.0 = 69℉

(A) 𝟔𝟗℉

(B) 73℉

(C) 75℉

(D) 79℉

Sample Exam -39 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 15

A humidifier evaporates 2 GPM of water into an incoming air stream. Entering air conditions are
85 F DB, 70% relative humidity. What is the required flow rate (CFM) of the fan? Assume the
air leaving the spray humidifier is at 85 F DB, 90% relative humidity.

In this question, 2 GPM is evaporated into the air, thereby raising the moisture content of the air.
Since the entering and exiting conditions of the air are known, the total CFM can be found
through the following equation:

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝑋 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3
= 𝐸𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 . 075 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 (𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟)

Find the humidity ratio of the entering and exiting conditions from the Psychrometric chart.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = 𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 = .0237 − .0183 [ ]
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20
∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0054
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Next convert GPM to lbs per minute.

𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 1 𝑓𝑡 3 62.4 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


2 ∗ ∗ 3
= 16.7
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Plug in the values into the first equation.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20


. 0054 ∗ 𝑋 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3
= 16.7
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 . 075 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑋 = 232 𝐶𝐹𝑀

The correct answer is A.

(A) 230 CFM

(B) 400 CFM

(C) 510 CFM

(D) 640 CFM

Sample Exam -40 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 16

A cooling tower has 150 GPM of water at entering and leaving temperatures of 100 F and 85 F.
If the outside air conditions are 82 F DB/75% relative humidity. What is the effectiveness of the
cooling tower, in %?

Cooling tower effectiveness is governed by the following equation:

𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 ∆ [℉] 𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 [℉]


𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠 [%] = =
𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∆ [℉] 𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ [℉]

The range is found through the following equation:

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑖𝑛 [℉] − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉]

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 100 − 85 [℉] = 15℉

The approach is found through the following equation:

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 [℉] − 𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛,𝑊𝐵 [℉]

Find the wet bulb temperature through the psychrometric chart:

𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛,𝑊𝐵 = 75.7℉

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 85 − 76 [℉] = 9.3 ℉

15
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠 [%] = = 61.7%
15 + 9.3 [℉]

The correct answer is A.

(A) 62%

(B) 68%

(C) 74%

(D) 79%

Sample Exam -41 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 17

A 100 GPM condenser water pump is supplied with water by a cooling tower basin that is 10 ft
above the centerline of the pump. The suction line of the pump consists of 40 ft of 3" Schedule
40 steel pipe and 3 90 degree ells. Condenser water pump serves a cooling tower with entering
and leaving conditions of 95 F and 85 F. What is the net positive suction head available at the
condenser water pump?

NPSHA is found through the following equation:

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 ±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 − 𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐 − 𝑉𝑃𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 = +10′ (𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑠 10′ 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝)

The pipe friction is found through the ASHRAE Fundamentals tables for Pipe Sizing.

First find the total equivalent length which is found by adding the total length of pipes and the
total equivalent length of the elbows.

Velocity through the pipe is

𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝑓𝑡 3 1
100 ∗ ∗ ∗� � = 4.34 𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 . 05134 𝑓𝑡 2

According to ASHRAE Fundamentals, the total equivalent length for Schedule 40 Regular 90
Degree Elbow, 3" pipe with velocity of 4.34 ft/sec is equal to 8.4 ft per elbow

𝑇𝐸𝐿 = 40′ + (3 𝑒𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑤𝑠) ∗ 8.4′ = 65.2′

Second check ASHRAE Fundamentals or the MERM for the pressure drop per 100 ft, for 3"
Schedule 40 and a 100 GPM.

𝑃𝐷 = 2.6 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟 100′

Multiply the pressure drop factor per length of pipe by the total equivalent length of pipe:

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐 = 2.6 ∗ 65.2′ = 1.7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
100′

Sample Exam -42 http://www.engproguides.com


Find the vapor pressure of the water as a function of temperature use the average temperature
of 90 F.

𝑃𝑣𝑝 = 1.6 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Finally, the first term for atmospheric pressure must be added, since the basin is open to the
atmosphere and is subject to this pressure.

2.31 𝑃𝑆𝐼
𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 14.7 𝑃𝑆𝐼 ∗ = 33.9 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Plug in all the variables into the below equation.

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 ±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 − 𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐 − 𝑉𝑃𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = 33.9′ + 10′ − 1.7 − 1.6

𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = 40.6 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

The correct answer is C.

(A) 7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(B) 34 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(C) 𝟒𝟏 𝒇𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒉𝒆𝒂𝒅

(D) 48 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Sample Exam -43 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 18

A new air handler with a VFD at 60 HZ provides 2,000 CFM of conditioned air to multiple
classrooms. 500 CFM of the 2,000 CFM is outside air that is constantly provided to maintain
acceptable indoor air quality. If during low load conditions the VFD is ramped down to 45 HZ,
then what is the percentage of outside air compared to the total air supplied?

When the VFD is ramped down the total supply air will be reduced, but the amount of outside air
will remain constant, thereby increasing the percentage of outside air in the total supply air.

This question uses the fan laws. From the fan laws, Flow (CFM) increases linearly with Speed
which is related to the Frequency of the VFD.

𝐶𝐹𝑀1 𝑁1
= , 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑁 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 (𝐻𝑍)
𝐶𝐹𝑀2 𝑁2

2,000 60
=
𝐶𝐹𝑀2 45

𝐶𝐹𝑀2 = 1,500

Then find the percentage of outside air in the new total supplied air:

500
%𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = 33%
1,500

The Correct answer is B.

(A) 25%

(B) 33%

(C) 44%

(D) 67%

Sample Exam -44 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 19

A 100% outside air handler serving a theater supplies 10,000 CFM of OAIR at 55 F DB/54 F WB
to maintain space conditions at 75 F DB and 50% Relative Humidity. Outside air conditions are
at 85 F DB and 80% Relative Humidity. How many tons of cooling can be saved if a total
enthalpy wheel is provided with 75% effectiveness? Assume negligible bypass factor and no
minor heat gains/losses.

First calculate the total cooling provided without an enthalpy wheel. Find the enthalpies of the
air entering and leaving the coil, from the psychrometric chart.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙,𝑖𝑛 = 43.42 ; 85 ℉, 80% 𝑅𝐻
𝑙𝑏
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 22.6 ; 55 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 54 ℉ 𝑊𝐵
𝑙𝑏

Calculate the total tons of cooling:

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (ℎ𝑖𝑛 − ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 10,000 ∗ (43.42 − 22.6) = 936,900 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Next calculate the enthalpy exiting the enthalpy wheel.

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
= 0.75
ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑚𝑎𝑥

Where the maximum leaving enthalpy is that of the air leaving the space at 75 F/50% RH.

43.42 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
= 0.75
43.42 − 28.14
𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 31.96
𝑙𝑏

Plug in the new coil entering enthalpy into the previous equation and find the new total cooling.

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 10,000 ∗ (31.96 − 22.6) = 421,200 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Sample Exam -45 http://www.engproguides.com


Next calculate the total difference and convert to tons of cooling.

936,900 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ − 367,650 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ


= 43 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔
12,000

The correct answer is B.

(A) 25 tons

(B) 43 tons

(C) 56 tons

(D) 60 tons

Sample Exam -46 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 20

An existing chiller is served by a chilled water pump (150 GPM, 75 TDH), 65% efficient pump,
90% efficient motor. A recent study was conducted and it was found that the pump was
oversized and should be replaced with a new higher efficiency pump at 150 GPM, 50 TDH, 80%
efficient pump and 95% premium efficiency motor. If the pump runs 8 hours a day, 5 days a
week, 52 weeks a year, how many kWh per year will be saved by switching to the new pump?

First find the Pump horsepower, specific gravity (SG) of water is equal to 1.0.

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 =
3956
150 ∗ 75 ∗ 1.0
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 =
3956

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 2.84 𝐻𝑃

Then find the total electricity used by dividing the Pump Horsepower by the efficiency of the
pump and the motor and convert to KW.

1 1 0.746 𝐾𝑊
𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 2.84 𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �∗� �∗ = 3.62 𝐾𝑊
0.65 0.90 1 𝐻𝑃

Multiply by the number of hours the pump is used

8 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 5 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 52 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠


𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 3.62 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 7,530 𝑘𝑊ℎ
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

Second find the Pump horsepower of the new Pump, specific gravity (SG) of water is equal to
1.0.

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =
3956
150 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.0
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =
3956

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = 1.90 𝐻𝑃

Then find the total electricity used by dividing the Pump Horsepower by the efficiency of the
pump and the motor and convert to KW.

1 1 0.746 𝐾𝑊
𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 1.90 𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �∗� �∗ = 1.87 𝐾𝑊
0.80 0.95 1 𝐻𝑃

Multiply by the number of hours the pump is used

8 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 5 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 52 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠


𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 1.87 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 3,890 𝑘𝑊ℎ
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

Sample Exam -47 http://www.engproguides.com


The total electricity savings is found below:

7,530 𝑘𝑊ℎ − 3,890 𝑘𝑊ℎ = 3,640 𝑘𝑊ℎ

The correct answer is A.

(A) 3,640 kWh

(B) 3,990 kWh

(C) 4,150 kWh

(D) 7,250 kWh

Sample Exam -48 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 21

A 10 BHP supply fan is provided with both the motor and the fan in the air conditioned space.
The motor efficiency is 95%. What is the total heat gain from the fan and motor to the space?

The total heat gain from the fan and motor into the space is found by determining the total
electrical input. Which is found by the below equation:

1
𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 10 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )
0.95

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 10.53 𝐻𝑃

The total heat gain to the space is equal to the total electricity usage of the motor.

10 HP of heat is from the fan [since the fan is in the space]

It is important to note that 10 BHP value has already included the efficiency of the fan.

0.53 HP of heat is from the motor due to its inefficiencies [since the motor is in the space]

Next convert HP to Btu/h.

𝐵𝑡𝑢
2,546
10.53 𝐻𝑃 ∗ ℎ = 26,804 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ
1 𝐻𝑃

(A) 22,680 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(B) 24,230 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(C) 25,460 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

(D) 𝟐𝟔, 𝟖𝟎𝟎 𝑩𝒕𝒖𝒉

Sample Exam -49 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 22

A north facing wall is 20’ long by 10’ high. There are (2) 2’ X 4’ windows with 1/8” clear glass.
ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉ ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
The wall consists of 8” Concrete (2.1 ), 2” Insulation (8.2 ) and 5/8” Gypsum
𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
(1.5 ). The CLTD of the wall and window is found to equal 40 F. The windows have a
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝐵𝑡𝑢
SC of 0.6, U-factor of 0.95 and a SCL of 80. What is the total heat transferred through
ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉
the wall and windows, Btu/h? Do not subtract the area of the window from the wall.

First calculate the total equivalent heat transfer value for the entire wall assembly:

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝

Luckily all the values given in the problem are converted to the units of R-values.

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉
𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 2.1 + 8.2 + 1.5 = 11.8
𝐵𝑡𝑢

Convert to R-Value to U-factor.

1 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑈𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = = .0848
11.8 ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

Second calculate the total heat through the wall:

𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = .0848 ∗ [20′ 𝑋 10′] ∗ 40
ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 678.4

Next calculate the conduction through the window

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = .95 ∗ [2 ∗ (4 ∗ 2)] ∗ 40℉
ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 608

Sample Exam -50 http://www.engproguides.com


Next calculate the solar radiation through the window

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 80 ∗ 𝐴

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 0.6 ∗ 80 ∗ [2 ∗ (4 ∗ 2)]

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 768

Sum up all heat gains.

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 + 𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢


𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 768 + 608 + 678.4
ℎ ℎ ℎ
𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 2,054.4

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(A) 2,050

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) 2,300

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(C) 2,750

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(D) 3,330

Sample Exam -51 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 23

A pump is sized for 250 GPM at 100’ TDH. What is the total flow produced by two of these
pumps in series?

If pumps are arranged in SERIES then the pressures at each point along their pump curve are
added. Thus the point 250 GPM, 100' TDH will now be located at 250 GPM, 200' TDH.

If pumps are arranged in PARALLEL then the flows at each point along their pump curve are
added. Thus the point 250 GPM, 100' TDH will now be located at 500 GPM, 100' TDH.

The correct answer is C.

(A) 100 GPM

(B) 200 GPM

(C) 250 GPM

(D) 500 GPM

Sample Exam -52 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 24

Which of the following codes are least likely to be required to be checked with regards to the
installation of a commercial gas furnace?

A commercial gas furnace installation will need to conform to the requirements of NFPA 54, the
National Fuel Gas Code and the International Fuel Gas Code, depending on the jurisdiction.

ASHRAE 90.1 determines the energy efficiency requirements for commercial equipment
including commercial gas furnaces, depending on the jurisdiction.

The code that is least likely to be consulted is NFPA 70, the National Electric Code. This code
is primarily about the installation of electrical equipment.

(A) NFPA 54

(B) ASHRAE 90.1

(C) NFPA 70

(D) International Fuel Gas Code

Sample Exam -53 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 25

An air side economizer should operate when which of the following is absolutely true?

The primary purpose of the air side economizer is to save energy. An air-side economizer lets
in outside air to the air conditioning equipment when it is more economical to cool the outside air
rather than the re-circulated air. This occurs when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than
the re-circulated air.

Economizers are often used in cool & dry climates.

(A) When the dry-bulb of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(B) When the humidity of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(C) When the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(D) When the humidity ratio of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

Sample Exam -54 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 26

A new diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room. For the given CFM, the diffuser has
values of T 150 of 5’, T 100 of 10’ and T 50 of 15’. At what distance from the nearest wall will the
velocity of the air be 100 feet per minute?

Performance data for diffusers includes a table describing the air velocities as a function of CFM
and the distance from the diffuser. The term “ T 150 of 5’ ” indicates that at 5’ from the diffuser
the air velocity is equal to 150 feet per minute. The term “ T 100 of 10’ ” indicates that at 10’ from
the diffuser the air velocity is equal to 100 feet per minute. This point is also 10’ from the
nearest wall because the diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room.

The correct answer is B.

(A) 5’

(B) 10’

(C) 15’

(D) 20’

Sample Exam -55 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 27

An existing 500 ton chiller with a COP of 4.5, runs for an equivalent of 3 full load hours a day,
365 days a year. The chiller is being replaced with a new 500 ton chiller with an efficiency of
0.6 kW/ton for a total cost of $750,000. If the interest rate is 4% and the lifetime of the new
chiller is 25 years, then what is the annual value of replacing the existing chiller with a new
chiller? Assume no annual maintenance costs; include annual electricity cost savings with unit
cost of $0.25 per kWh.

This question involves Engineering Economics and calculating the Present Value of a design
alternative.

First calculate the yearly amount of energy savings between the old and proposed new chiller.

Convert COP to KW/Ton

12
4.5 =
(𝑋) ∗ (3.412)

𝑘𝑊
𝑥 = 0.782
𝑡𝑜𝑛
𝑘𝑊 ℎ𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠
0.782 ∗ 500 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ 3 ∗ 365 = 428,145 𝑘𝑊ℎ
𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

Calculate yearly energy costs of the old chiller.

$0.25
428,145 𝑘𝑊ℎ ∗ = $107,036
𝑘𝑊ℎ

Calculate yearly energy costs of the new chiller.

𝑘𝑊 ℎ𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 $0.25


0.6 ∗ 500 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ 3 ∗ 365 ∗ = $82,125
𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑘𝑊ℎ

The yearly energy savings of installing the new chiller is approximately:

𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $107,036 − $82,125 = $24,911

The annual owning costs of the new chiller initial cost is found by navigating to

𝐴
𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑂𝑤𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 = $750,000 ∗ � , 𝑖 = 4%, 𝑛 = 25 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠� ;
𝑃

Sample Exam -56 http://www.engproguides.com


𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑂𝑤𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 = $750,000 ∗ .0640 = $48,000

The annual value is equal to the summation of the yearly savings and yearly owning costs.

𝐴𝑉 = $48,000 − $24,91 = $23,089

(A) $23,090

(B) $24,910

(C) $36,000

(D)$48,000

Sample Exam -57 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 28

A refrigeration unit is required to store 1,000 lbs of salmon (Heat Capacity Above Freezing: 0.88
Btu/lb*°F, Heat Capacity Below Freezing: 0.51 Btu/lb*°F, Latent heat of Fusion: 110 Btu/lb,
Initial Freezing Point: 28 F). If the salmon arrives to the unit at 70 F and must be cooled to 10 F
in 2 hours, then what is the required size of the air conditioning system, in Btu/hr.

It is important to note that these values of specific heat and latent heat of fusion for salmon and
many other types of food can be found in ASHRAE Refrigeration.

Calculate the total amount of cooling to bring the salmon from 70 F to Freezing.

𝑄 = 1,000 𝑙𝑏𝑠 ∗ 0.88 ∗ (70 − 28 ℉)

𝑄 = 36,960 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Calculate the total amount of cooling to freeze the salmon.

𝑄 = 1,000 𝑙𝑏𝑠 ∗ 110

𝑄 = 110,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Calculate the total amount of cooling to bring the salmon from freezing to 10 F.

𝑄 = 1,000 𝑙𝑏𝑠 ∗ 0.51 ∗ (28 − 10)

𝑄 = 9,180 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Sum up the total cooling and divide by 2 hours in order to calculate the required size of the air
conditioning system.

36,960 + 110,000 + 9,180 𝐵𝑇𝑈 𝐵𝑡𝑢


𝑄= = 78,070
2 𝐻𝑟 ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(A) 18,230

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) 37,210

𝑩𝒕𝒖
(C) 𝟕𝟖, 𝟎𝟕𝟎
𝒉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(D) 110,000

Sample Exam -58 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 29

What is the maximum allowable flame spread index of gypsum board air ducts, in accordance
with NFPA 90A?

According to NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation
Systems, gypsum board air ducts must have a flame spread index of 25 or below.

It is also important to note that NFPA 90A also requires a smoke developed index of 50 or
below.

The correct answer is B.

(A) 0

(B) 25

(C) 50

(D) 100

Sample Exam -59 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 30

A new cooling coil provides sensible cooling of 250,000 Btu/hr. The entering air conditions into
the coil are 80 F DB. Leaving conditions from the coil at 55 F DB. If the coil is at an elevation of
5,000 FT, then what is the air flow rate in CFM? Assume negligible bypass factor and
miscellaneous heat gains/losses.

Density = 0.062 lb/ft^3; Heat Capacity = 0.24 Btu/lb*F

This problem is an energy balance uses the original sensible heat equation.

𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙

𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑓𝑡 3 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢


250,000 = 𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑥 ∗ ∗ 0.062 3 ∗ 0.24 (80 − 55 𝐹)
ℎ𝑟 min hr 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ 𝐹

𝑓𝑡 3
𝑥 = 11,200
min

(A) 5,125

(B) 6,065

(C) 9,565

(D) 11,200

Sample Exam -60 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 31

A sensible heat recovery device is used to preheat entering outdoor air 3,500 CFM, (40 F, 60%
RH) with 4,000 CFM exhaust air (77 F, 55% RH). The sensible effectiveness of the device is
60%. What is the leaving supply air dry bulb temperature? Assume zero leakage.

Use the air-to-air heat exchanger effectiveness equation.

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑂𝐴 ∗ (𝐷𝐵𝑆𝐴 − 𝐷𝐵𝑂𝐴 )


𝜀=
𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑀𝐼𝑁 ∗ (𝐷𝐵𝑅𝐴 − 𝐷𝐵𝑂𝐴 )

3,500 ∗ (𝑆𝐴𝐼𝑅 𝐷𝐵 − 40)


0.60 =
3,500 ∗ (77 − 40)

𝑆𝐴𝐼𝑅 𝐷𝐵 = 62.2 ℉

(A) 49.3 ℉

(B) 67.8 ℉

(C) 71.7 ℉

(D) 74.2 ℉

Sample Exam -61 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 32

A 22" X 10" galvanized steel duct is used to convey 2,000 CFM of industrial exhaust. What is
the pressure drop in units of IN. WG per 100 ft.

Density = 0.075 lb/ft^3; roughness factor = 0.0003 ft.

In order to calculate the pressure drop through a duct, use ASHRAE Fundamentals and
navigate to the equivalent rectangular duct table.

Find 22" X 10": The equivalent circular duct is 16" D.

Next go to the Friction Chart for Round Duct (Density = 0.075 lb/ft^3; roughness factor = 0.0003
ft.)

Navigate to 16" D and 2,000 CFM and read the friction loss.

Friction loss = 0.19 in. wg per 100 ft.

(A) 0.07 in. WG per 100 ft

(B) 0.10 in. WG per 100 ft

(C) 0.14 in. WG per 100 ft

(D) 0.19 in. WG per 100 ft

Sample Exam -62 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 33

A new steam boiler provides 100 lb/hr of steam at 30 PSIA, 0 degrees super heat to various hot
water heaters. If the hot water heaters are designed to provide a 40 degree delta to incoming
water at 80 F, then what is the total GPM of hot water that the boiler can support?

Create an energy balance equation between the steam and the hot water.

𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚̇ ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

Find ℎ𝑓𝑔 in the MERM, Steam Tables as a function of pressure, Navigate to 30 PSIA. Read the
enthalpy of evaporation.

𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 100 ∗ 945.2 = 94,520
ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 ℎ

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 94,520 = 𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 500 ∗ 𝑥 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 40 ℉

𝑥 = 4.05 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(A) 4.73 GPM

(B) 10.2 GPM

(C) 15.7 GPM

(D) 21.9 GPM

Sample Exam -63 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 34

A new building with dimensions of 200' (L) X 150' (W) X 10' (H) is classified as having average
construction tightness, which relates to 0.3 air changes per hour of infiltration. If outside air is at
88 F DB/80% RH and the indoor design conditions are 75 F DB/50% RH, then what is the total
cooling load in tons added by infiltrated air?

First find the total amount of infiltrated air by first finding the total air volume.

200′ ∗ 150′ ∗ 10′ = 300,000 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑠 1 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟


300,000 𝑓𝑡 3 ∗ 0.3 ∗ = 1,500 𝐶𝐹𝑀
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠

Find the enthalpies of the indoor and outside air in order to determine the total cooling load in
tons.

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 1,500 ∗ (46.57 − 28.14 )

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 124,403

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(A) 89,560

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(B) 104,600

𝑩𝒕𝒖
(C) 𝟏𝟐𝟒, 𝟒𝟎𝟎
𝒉

𝐵𝑡𝑢
(D) 159,400

Sample Exam -64 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 35

Which of the following filters provides greater than 99% arrestance?

Refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals, Filters section to find that the MERV 18 filter provides 99%
arrestance.

(A) MERV 1

(B) MERV 7

(C) MERV 13

(D) MERV 18

Sample Exam -65 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 36

A new dedicated outside air handling unit is used to cool 5,000 CFM of OAIR (88 F DB, 70%
RH) to 55 F DB/54 F WB. The outside air handling unit is equipped with a wrap around heat
pipe. The heat pipe pre-cools the outside air by 10 degrees F. What is the total reduction in
tons of cooling by installing a heat pipe? Assume density = 0.075 lb/ft^3, elevation = sea level.

𝑄 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑄 = 1.08 ∗ 5,000 ∗ (10 ℉)

𝐵𝑡𝑢
𝑄 = 54,000 = 4.5 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

(A) 4.5 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(B) 6.2 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(C) 7.9 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

(D) 10 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

Sample Exam -66 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 37

A new classroom is designed for 25 people and has a total area of 500 square feet. What is the
required CFM of ventilation?

This problem involves the use of ASHRAE 62.1. Refer to ASHRAE 62.1 and find the ventilation
rates required for a classroom. ASHRAE 62.1 requires 10 CFM per person and 0.12 CFM per
square feet.

𝑥 = 25 ∗ 10 + 500 ∗ 0.12 = 310 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(A) 60 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(B 250 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(C) 310 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(D) 520 𝐶𝐹𝑀

Sample Exam -67 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 38

A new counter-current heat exchanger is designed for incoming cold water at 43 F and leaving
water at 52 F. If the entering/exiting hot water of 60 F and 50 F, then what will be the LMTD?

Use the Log Mean Temperature Difference Equation

∆𝑇𝐴 − ∆𝑇𝐵
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =
∆𝑇
ln � 𝐴 �
∆𝑇𝐵

∆𝑇𝐵 = 50 − 43 = 7

∆𝑇𝐴 = 60 − 52 = 8

8−7
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = = 7.5℉
8
ln � �
7

(A) 7.5℉

(B) 8.5℉

(C) 10.0℉

(D) 11.5℉

Sample Exam -68 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 39

Which of the following is not a type of fan?

Airfoil, backward inclined and propeller are all types of fans. Vertical inline is a type of pump.

(A) Airfoil

(B) Backward inclined

(C) Vertical Inline

(D) Propeller

Sample Exam -69 http://www.engproguides.com


SOLUTION 40

An evaporative air cooler is used to cool air at 90 F, 30% relative humidity. Water is supplied to
the evaporative air cooler at 70 F. What is the enthalpy of the air leaving the evaporative cooler,
if the evaporative cooler is 80% effective.

This question involves the use of the effectiveness equation of an evaporative cooler.

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒


𝜀=
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒

90 − 𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 𝐷𝐵


𝜀=
90 − 𝑊𝑒𝑡 𝐵𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝

From the psychrometric chart find the wet bulb of the air.

90 − 𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 𝐷𝐵


0.8 =
90 − 67.2

𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 71.8 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(A) 67.2 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(B) 70.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(C) 71.8 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(D) 75.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

Sample Exam -70 http://www.engproguides.com