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Rejection Applications

Yunlong Cai and Rodrigo C. de Lamare

Abstract—In this work, we propose a low-complexity variable to compute a predetermined value for the forgetting factor.

arXiv:1302.5960v1 [cs.IT] 24 Feb 2013

forgetting factor (VFF) mechanism for recursive least square Therefore, the RLS algorithm needs to be modified in order to

(RLS) algorithms in interference suppression applications. The yield satisfactory performance in time-varying environments.

proposed VFF mechanism employs an updated component re-

lated to the time average of the error correlation to automatically In this regard, one promising technique that has been con-

adjust the forgetting factor in order to ensure fast convergence sidered is to employ variable forgetting factor (VFF) mecha-

and good tracking of the interference and the channel. Con- nisms to adjust the forgetting factor automatically [21]-[27].

vergence and tracking analyses are carried out and analyti- The classic VFF mechanism is the gradient-based variable

cal expressions for predicting the mean squared error of the forgetting factor (GVFF) algorithm which has been proposed

proposed adaptation technique are obtained. Simulation results

for a direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) in [21]. The work in [21], besides the recursive expressions

system are presented in nonstationary environments and show to adapt the receive vector, uses another SG recursion to

that the proposed VFF mechanism achieves superior performance control the forgetting factor where the gradient with respect

to previously reported methods at a reduced complexity. to the forgetting factor is obtained based on the instantaneous

Index Terms— Interference suppression, adaptive receivers, squared error cost function. In [25], the authors proposed a

recursive least squares algorithm, variable forgetting factor

mechanism, time-varying channels modified variable forgetting factor mechanism using the error

criterion with noise variance weighting for frequency selective

fading channel estimation. A VFF mechanism based on the

I. I NTRODUCTION Gauss Newton approach was proposed in [24] to improve

Wireless communication channels are dynamic by nature the fast time-varying parameter estimation. In [26], [27], a

and present significant challenges to the design of receivers modified GVFF mechanism based on the gradient of the mean

[1], [2]. In particular, the estimation of the parameters of squared error (MSE) rather than on the gradient of the instan-

the channels and the receive filters of wireless receivers has taneous squared error was investigated. Another approach is to

received significant attention in the past years and is key perturb the covariance matrix whenever the change is detected

to the performance of wireless systems [3]. In such nonsta- [23], however, the algorithm becomes sensitive to disturbance

tionary environments, specifically for the slow time-varying and noise. The existing VFF mechanisms are mostly derived

channels, adaptive techniques are of fundamental importance from the architecture of the classic GVFF algorithm [21], and

and encounter applications in many wireless transmission the computational complexity of which is proportional to the

schemes such as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) [4]-[7], receive filter length.

orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) [8] and In this work, we propose a low-complexity VFF mechanism

spread spectrum systems [10]-[18]. for adaptive RLS algorithms applied to linear interference

The most common adaptive estimation techniques are the suppression in direct-sequence code-division multiple access

stochastic gradient (SG) and recursive least squares (RLS) (DS-CDMA) systems. The proposed VFF mechanism employs

algorithms [21]. The works in [3], [21] have considered an updated component related to the time average of the error

standard SG algorithms with fixed step sizes to implement the correlation to automatically adjust the forgetting factor in order

receiver. The authors in [22], [28] have proposed some variable to ensure good tracking of the interference and the channel. We

step-size schemes to accelerate the convergence speed of the refer to the proposed VFF scheme as correlated time-averaged

SG based adaptive filters. The RLS algorithm is considered variable forgetting factor (CTVFF) mechanism. Convergence

as one of the fastest and most effective methods for adaptive and tracking analyses are carried out and analytical expres-

implementation [21]. In nonstationary wireless environments sions for predicting the mean squared error of the proposed

in which users often enter and exit the system, it is impractical adaptation technique are obtained. It should be noted that the

proposed scheme is general and can be applied to any wireless

Y. Cai is with Department of Information Science and Electronic systems with the RLS algorithm. Therefore, the scheme can

Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China (e-mail: yl-

cai@zju.edu.cn). be very useful in parameter estimation applications to multi-

R. C. de Lamare is with the Communications Research Group, Depart- antenna and OFDM systems.

ment of Electronics, University of York, YO10 5DD York, U.K. (e-mail: The paper is structured as follows. Section II briefly de-

rcdl500@ohm.york.ac.uk).

This work is supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central scribes the DS-CDMA system model and the design of lin-

Universities and the NSF of China under grant 61101103. ear receivers. The adaptive RLS algorithm and the existing

2

gradient-based VFF mechanisms are reviewed in Section III. vector h(i) with the multipath components are described by

The proposed CTVFF mechanism is described in Section IV.

ak (1) 0

Convergence and tracking analyses of the resulting algorithm .. ..

h0 (i)

and the analytical formulas to predict the steady-state MSE . . ak (1)

Ck = ..

, h(i) = ,

and the steady-state mean value of the proposed CTVFF .. .

ak (N ) .

mechanism are developed in Section V. The simulation results hLp −1 (i)

..

are presented in Section VI. Finally, Section VII draws the 0 . ak (N )

conclusions. (2)

where the M ×1 vector Ck h(i) denotes the effective spreading

code. The vector η k (i) denotes the intersymbol interference

(ISI) for user k, here we express the ISI vector in a general

II. DS-CDMA S YSTEM M ODEL AND D ESIGN OF L INEAR form that is given by η k (i) = Ak bk (i − 1)Hp pk + Ak bk (i +

MMSE R ECEIVERS 1)Hs pk , where the M × N matrices Hp and Hs account for

the ISI from previous and subsequent symbols, respectively,

and can be given as follows

Detecting a desired signal in DS-CDMA systems requires

0 . . . hLp −1 (i − 1) . . . h1 (i − 1)

processing the received signal in order to mitigate the inter- .. ..

ference and the noise at the receiver. The major source of 0

. .

interference in DS-CDMA systems is multiuser interference p ..

H = . ,

hLp −1 (i − 1)

(MUI), which arises due to the fact that users communicate

..

through the same physical channel with nonorthogonal signals. 0 .

Multiuser detection has been proposed as a means to suppress 0 0 ... 0 0

MUI, increasing the capacity and the performance of CDMA

0 0 ... 0 0

systems [9]-[18]. The linear minimum mean squared error ..

(MMSE) receiver implemented with an adaptive algorithm is

. 0

one of the most prominent techniques since it only requires Hs = h0 (i + 1)

.. . (3)

the timing of the desired user and a training sequence. In this .

.. ..

work, we focus on adaptive linear receivers as extensions to . . 0

other receivers are straightforward. hLp −2 (i + 1) . . . h0 (i + 1) . . . 0

Let us consider the downlink of an uncoded synchronous The linear MMSE receiver design is equivalent to deter-

binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA system with mining a finite impulse response (FIR) filter wk (i) with M

K users, N chips per symbol and Lp propagation paths. A coefficients that provide an estimate of the desired symbol as

synchronous model is assumed for simplicity since it captures follows

most of the features of more realistic asynchronous models zk (i) = wkH (i)r(i), (4)

with small to moderate delay spreads. Let us assume that the

signal has been demodulated at the mobile user, the channel where the detected symbol is given by b̂k (i) =

is constant during each symbol and the receiver is perfectly sign{ℜ[wkH (i)r(i)]}, where the operator ℜ[.] retains the

synchronized with the main channel path. The received signal real part of the argument and sign{.} is the signum function.

after filtering by a chip-pulse matched filter and sampled at The design of the receive filter wk (i) is based on the

chip rate yields an M -dimensional received vector at time i optimization of the MSE cost function

h i

J¯MSE (wk (i)) = E |bk (i) − wkH (i)r(i)|2 . (5)

K

By minimizing (5), the MMSE receive filter is given by [9]

X

r(i) = Ak bk (i)Ck h(i) + η k (i) + n(i), (1)

k=1 w0 = R̄−1 s, (6)

K

where R̄ = E[r(i)rH (i)] = k′ =1 A2k′ Ck′ h(i)hH (i)CH

P

k′

+

where M = N + Lp − 1, n(i) = [n1 (i) . . . nM (i)]T PK

′ A2

H p

p ′ p H

H pH

+

PK

′ A 2

H s

p ′ p H

H sH

+σ 2

I

k =1 k′ k k′ k =1 k′ k k′

is the complex Gaussian noise vector with zero mean and and s = E[b∗k (i)r(i)] = Ak Ck h(i). The minimum value of

E[n(i)nH (i)] = σ 2 I whose components are independent and the mean squared error is given by

identically distributed, where (.)T and (.)H denote transpose

and Hermitian transpose, respectively, and E[.] stands for ξmin = 1 − A2k hH (i)CH

k R̄

−1

Ck h(i). (7)

expected value. The user symbols are denoted by bk (i), where

we assume that the symbols are independent and identically III. ADAPTIVE RLS ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM

distributed random variables with equal probability from the STATEMENT

set {±1}. The amplitude of user k is Ak , and the signature In this section, we first describe the adaptive RLS algorithm

of user k is represented by pk = [ak (1) . . . ak (N )]T . The to estimate the parameters of the linear MMSE receiver for

M × Lp constraint matrix Ck that contains one-chip shifted multipath channels using a least-squares (LS) approach. Then,

versions of the signature sequence for user k and the Lp × 1 the existing gradient-based VFF mechanisms are introduced.

3

Let us consider the time-averaged cost function the proposed low-complexity variable forgetting factor mech-

anism.

i

X

JLS (i) = λi−n |bk (n) − wkH (i)r(n)|2 (8)

n=1

r(i)

where λ denotes the forgetting factor. By taking the gradient

of (8) with respect to wk∗ (i) and setting it to zero, after Receiver Re(.)

further mathematical manipulations we have the adaptive RLS

algorithm as follows [21]

wk (i) = wk (i − 1) + k(i)e∗ (i), (9) Adaptive

RLS

where Algorithm b(i)

R−1 (i − 1)r(i)

k(i) = (10)

λ + rH (i)R−1 (i − 1)r(i)

and VFF

Mechanism

e(i) = bk (i) − wkH (i − 1)r(i), (11)

and the estimate R−1 (i) is updated by

Fig. 1. Structure of the adaptive receiver with the variable forgetting factor

R−1 (i) = λ−1 R−1 (i − 1) − λ−1 k(i)rH (i)R−1 (i − 1). (12) mechanism

The adaptive algorithm is implemented by using (9)-(12) with

appropriate initial values R−1 (0) and wk (0). The algorithm

has been devised to start its operation in the training (TR) IV. P ROPOSED VARIABLE F ORGETTING FACTOR

mode, and then to switch to the decision-directed (DD) mode. M ECHANISM

The problem we are interested in solving is how to devise a In this section, we first introduce the proposed low-

cost-effective mechanism to adjust λ, which is a key factor complexity CTVFF mechanism that adjusts the forgetting

affecting the performance of RLS-based algorithms and the factor of the RLS algorithm that equips the adaptive receiver.

receivers. Then, we present the computational complexity analysis for

the proposed CTVFF mechanism and the existing gradient-

B. Gradient-based Mechanisms based mechanisms.

In order to adjust the forgetting factor automatically, the

adaptive rule for the classic GVFF mechanism is derived by A. Adaptive CTVFF Mechanism

taking the gradient of the instantaneous cost function |bk (i) − Based on the variable step-size mechanism for least mean

wkH (i)r(i)|2 with respect to the variable forgetting factor λ(i) square (LMS) algorithms in [28], the motivation for the

[21]. The adaptive expressions are given by proposed CTVFF mechanism is that for large estimation errors

the adaptive algorithm will employ smaller forgetting factors

h ∂wkH (i − 1) iλ+ whereas small estimation errors will result in an increase of the

λ(i) = λ(i − 1) + µℜ r(i)e∗ (i) , (13)

∂λ λ− forgetting factor in order to yield smaller misadjustment. Thus,

the CTVFF mechanism employs an exponential weighting

∂wk (i) ∂wk (i − 1) ∂R−1 (i) parameter that controls the quality of the estimation error, and

= I − k(i)rH (i) + r(i)e∗ (i), we have devised the following time-averaged expression

∂λ ∂λ ∂λ

(14)

γ(i) = δ1 γ(i − 1) + δ2 ρ2 (i), (16)

∂R−1 (i) H

∂R−1 (i − 1) H

H

−1

= λ (i) I − k(i)r (i) + λ 0(i)k(i)k

I − r(i)k (i)where −1 < δ1 < (i)

1 and

− λ δ2 (i)R

−1 > 0, and

−1

(i), δ1 is close to 1 and

∂λ ∂λ δ is set to be a small value. The quantity ρ(i) denotes the

(15) 2

time average estimate related to the correlation of |bk (i − 1) −

+

where [.]λλ− denotes the truncation to the limits of the range wkH (i − 1)r(i − 1)| and |bk (i) − wkH (i)r(i)|, which is given

+

[λ , λ ], µ denotes a step-size. The adaptive receiver with the by

−

ρ(i) = δ3 ρ(i − 1) + (1 − δ3 )|bk (i − 1) − wkH (i − 1)r(i − 1)||bk (i) − wkH

suitable initial values. By using the error criterion with noise

(17)

variance weighting and the MSE rather than the instantaneous

squared error, two modified GVFF mechanisms were recently where 0 < δ3 < 1, and δ3 controls the time average estimate.

proposed in [25] and [27]. We refer to them as weighting We set δ3 to be a quantity close to 1.

GVFF (WGVFF) mechanism and mean squared error GVFF The updated component ρ(i) is a small value, and it changes

(MGVFF) mechanism, respectively. Fig. 1 illustrates the block rapidly as the instantaneous value of the correlation between

diagram of the adaptive receiver with a variable forgetting |bk (i − 1) − wkH (i − 1)r(i − 1)| and |bk (i) − wkH (i)r(i)|. The

4

use of γ(i) has the potential to provide a suitable indication A. Convergence of the Mean Weight Vector

of the evolution of the error correlation. Thus, unlike the

We show the convergence of the mean weight vector of the

conventional GVFF mechanism we aim to design a simpler

proposed algorithm. Firstly, we give two expressions which

mechanism that adjusts the forgetting factor automatically

will be used for the following derivation:

based on γ(i). Note that the forgetting factor should vary

in an inversely proportional way to the value of the error k(i) = R−1 (i)r(i) (19)

correlation. We have studied a number of rules and the

following expression is a result of several attempts to devise and

a simple and yet effective mechanism

lim R−1 (i) ≈ 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 . (20)

λ+ i→∞

1

λ(i) = . (18) The proof of (19) and (20) are shown in the appendix. The

1 + γ(i) λ−

relevant description is given in [29]-[31].

Indeed, the CTVFF mechanism is simple to implement and Let us recall (9) and assume

a detailed analysis of the algorithm is possible under a few

assumptions commonly made in the literature. The proposed bk (i) = w0H r(i) + ξ0 (i), (21)

low-complexity CTVFF mechanism is given by (16), (17) and

(18). The value of variable forgetting factor λ(i) is close to 1, where ξ0 (i) denotes the independent measurement error with

and it is controlled by the parameters δ1 , δ2 and δ3 . We will zero mean and variance σ02 , where σ02 = 1 − Ak w0H Ck h −

investigate the sensitivity of the parameters in Section VI. A Ak hH CH H

k w0 + w0 R̄w0 , which is computed by (21). By

large prediction error will cause the updated component γ(i) defining ǫ(i) = wk (i) − w0 and using (9) we have

to increase, which simultaneously reduces the forgetting factor

λ(i) and provides a faster tracking. While a small prediction ǫ(i) = wk (i) − w0 = wk (i − 1) − w0 + k(i)e∗ (i), (22)

error will result in a decrease in the updated component γ(i),

based on (19) we have

thereby the forgetting factor λ(i) is increased to yield a smaller

ǫ(i) = ǫ(i − 1) + R−1 (i)r(i) b∗k (i) − rH (i)wk (i − 1)

misadjustment.

= ǫ(i − 1) + R−1 (i)r(i) ξ0∗ (i) − rH (i)ǫ(i − 1)

B. Computational Complexity

= I − R−1 (i)r(i)rH (i) ǫ(i − 1) + R−1 (i)r(i)ξ0∗ (i).

We describe the computational complexity of the proposed

CTVFF and the adaptive GVFF, WGVFF and MGVFF mech- (23)

anisms [21], [25], [27]. Table I shows the additional computa- When i → ∞, by substituting (20) into (23) we obtain

tional complexity of the algorithms for multipath channels. We

ǫ(i) = I − 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 r(i)rH (i) ǫ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−

estimate the number of arithmetic operations by considering

the number of complex additions and multiplications required (24)

by the mechanisms. The CTVFF and MGVFF mechanisms

have constant computational complexity for each received We note that 1 − E[λ(∞)] is a small value. According to

symbol while the adaptive GVFF and WGVFF techniques the direct averaging method described in [21], the solution

have additional complexity proportional to the length M of of the stochastic difference equation (24), operating under the

the receive filter. An important advantage of the proposed condition of a small parameter 1 − E[λ(∞)], is close to the

adaptation rule is that it requires only ten operations. solution of another linear stochastic difference equation that

is obtained by replacing the matrix (1 − E[λ(∞)])r(i)rH (i)

TABLE I

A DDITIONAL C OMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY. with its ensemble average (1 − E[λ(∞)])R̄. We may write the

new expression as follows

Number of operations per symbol

Algorithm Multiplications Additions ǫ(i) ≈ I − 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 R̄ ǫ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 r(i)ξ0∗ (

= E[λ(∞)]ǫ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 r(i)ξ0∗ (i).

CTVFF 7 3

GVFF [21] 7M 2 + 4M + 2 7M 2 + M (25)

WGVFF [25] 7M 2 + 4M + 9 7M 2 + M + 1

MGVFF [27] 29 18 By taking the expectation of (25), when i → ∞, we have

V. ANALYSES OF THE PROPOSED ALGORITHMS Since 0 < E[λ(∞)] < 1, the expected weight error converges

In this section, we first show the convergence of the mean to zero.

weight vector and derive the steady-state MSE expression for

the adaptive receiver with the proposed CTVFF mechanism

B. Convergence of MSE

in the case of invariant channels. Then, we give the tracking

analysis of the proposed scheme for the scenario of time- Then, we show the convergence of MSE for the proposed

varying channels. Finally, the expression for the steady-state algorithm and give an analytical expression to predict the

mean value of the CTVFF mechanism is derived. steady-state MSE.

5

Based on (25) we have By redefining ǫ(i) = wk (i) − w0 (i) and following the

aforementioned approach, we have

Θ(i) = E[ǫ(i)ǫH (i)]

ǫ(i) = wk (i) − w0 (i)

≈ E 2 [λ(∞)]E[ǫ(i − 1)ǫH (i − 1)]

2 = wk (i − 1) − w0 (i − 1) − q(i) + k(i)e∗ (i)

+ 1 − E[λ(∞)] E[R̄−1 r(i)ξ0∗ (i)ξ0 (i)rH (i)R̄−1 ]

= ǫ(i − 1) − q(i) + R−1 (i)r(i) rH (i)w0 (i − 1) + ξ0∗ (i) − rH (i)wk

+ E[λ(∞)] 1 − E[λ(∞)] E[R̄−1 r(i)ξ0∗ (i)]E[ǫH (i − 1)]

= I − R−1 (i)r(i)rH (i) ǫ(i − 1) + R−1 (i)r(i)ξ0∗ (i) − q(i).

H

−1

+ E[λ(∞)] 1 − E[λ(∞)] E[ǫ(i − 1)]E[ξ0 (i)r (i)R̄ ]. (34)

(27)

Using (20) when i becomes large, we obtain

Note that when i → ∞, E[ǫ(i − 1)] ≈ 0, we have

ǫ(i) ≈ (I − (1 − E[λ(∞)])R̄−1 r(i)rH (i))ǫ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1

2 (35)

Θ(i) ≈ E 2 [λ(∞)]Θ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 σ02 . (28)

Since 1 − E[λ(∞)] is a small value, we may solve (35) for

Since 0 < E 2 [λ(∞)] < 1, we obtain the weight error vector ǫ(i) by employing the direct averaging

1 − E[λ(∞)] method [21], which was mentioned previously. We obtain the

Θ(∞) ≈ R̄−1 σ02 . (29) following expression

1 + E[λ(∞)]

ǫ(i) ≈ E[λ(∞)]ǫ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 r(i)ξ0∗ (i) − q(i).

Note that the steady-state MSE is given by (36)

lim ξ(i) = lim E[|bk (i) − wkH (i − 1)r(i)|2 ] Note that the vector q(i) is an independent zero mean vector,

i→∞ i→∞

we have

= lim (Ξ(i) + 1 − Ak w0H Ck h − Ak hH CH

k w0 ),

i→∞ Θ(i) = E[ǫ(i)ǫH (i)]

(30) 2

≈ E 2 [λ(∞)]Θ(i − 1) + 1 − E[λ(∞)] R̄−1 σ02 + E[q(i)qH (i)],

and (37)

Ξ(i) = E[(ǫH (i − 1) + w0H )r(i)rH (i)(ǫ(i − 1) + w0 )] and when i becomes large, the MSE in a time-varying envi-

= w0H R̄w0 + tr[R̄Θ(i − 1)] + E[ǫH (i − 1)]E[r(i)r (i)wronment

H

0]

is given by

+ E[w0H r(i)rH (i)]E[ǫ(i − 1)]. ξ(i) = E[|bk (i) − wkH (i − 1)r(i)|2 ]

(31) = w0H (i − 1)R̄w0 (i − 1) + tr[R̄Θ(i)] + 1 − Ak w0H (i − 1)Ck h − A

(38)

When i → ∞, we have Ξ(∞) = w0H R̄w0 + tr[R̄Θ(∞)].

Multiplying (29) by R̄ we have By using (37), when i becomes large, we have

tr R̄E[q(i)qH (i)]

1 − E[λ(∞)]

1 − E[λ(∞)] 2

tr[R̄Θ(∞)] ≈ σ 2 M. (32) tr[R̄Θ(i)] ≈ σ M+ .

1 + E[λ(∞)] 0 1 + E[λ(∞)] 0 1 − E 2 [λ(∞)]

(39)

Therefore, the steady-state MSE in (30) can be approximated The MSE for a situation in which the adaptive receiver

by the following expression is tracking a channel can be computed by the following

expression

1 − E[λ(∞)]

2

ξ(∞) ≈ ξmin + σ M, (33) tr R̄E[q(i)qH (i)]

1 − E[λ(∞)]

1 + E[λ(∞)] 0 ξ(∞) ≈ ξmin + σ02 M + .

1 + E[λ(∞)] 1 − E 2 [λ(∞)]

where ξmin = 1 − A2k hH (i)CH −1 (40)

k R̄ Ck h(i).

Note that we need to compute the quantities E[λ(∞)] and

E[q(i)qH (i)] to calculate the above expression.

C. Tracking Analysis

In a nonstationary scenario, the optimum solution takes D. Steady-State Mean Value of the CTVFF Mechanism

on a time-varying form. It brings a new task to track the In order to derive the expression for the steady-state mean

minimum point of the error-performance surface, which is no value of the CTVFF mechanism, we first show the conver-

longer fixed. We investigate the convergence properties of the gence and derive the expression for the steady-state statistical

proposed algorithm in this case. In time-varying channels, the property of the updated component γ(i).

optimum filter coefficients are considered to vary according By recalling (17), the estimate of ρ(i) can be alternatively

to the model w0 (i) = w0 (i − 1) + q(i), where q(i) denotes written as

a random perturbation [21]. We assume that q(i) is an in- i−1

X

dependently generated sequence with zero mean and positive ρ(i) = (1 − δ3 ) δ3l |bk (i − l − 1) − wkH (i − l − 1)r(i − l − 1)||bk (i −

definite autocorrelation matrix E[q(i)qH (i)]. This is typical in l=0

the context of tracking analyses of adaptive filters [32], [33]. (41)

6

and by squaring (41) we have where αf (i) is computed according to the Jakes’ model [2].

i−1 Xi−1 For the initial values, we set R−1 (0) = I, wk (0) = 0.01 × 1,

−1

∂wk (0)

= 0 and ∂R∂λ (0) = I, where 1 denotes an all-one

X j

ρ2 (i) = (1 − δ3 )2 δ3l δ3 |bk (i − l − 1) − wkH (i − l − 1)r(i −∂λl − 1)|

l=0 j=0 vector. The parameters of the MGVFF and WGVFF mecha-

× |bk (i − j − 1) − wk (i − j − 1)r(i − j − 1)||bk (i − l)nisms

H

− wkHare (i −setl)r(i

as [27],

− l)|[25]. The simulations are averaged 2

over

10000 runs. We set the power of the desired user |A 1 | = 1.

× |bk (i − j) − wkH (i − j)r(i − j)|.

(42)

A. Effects of δ1 , δ2 and δ3

H

When i → ∞, we assume that |bk (i−l)−wk (i−l)r(i−l)| and Fig. 2 shows the effect of δ3 on the proposed CTVFF mech-

|bk (i − j) − wkH (i − j)r(i − j)| are uncorrelated, thus, we have anism. We show the received steady-state signal to interference

E[|bk (i−l)−wkH (i−l)r(i−l)||bk (i−j)−wkH (i−j)r(i−j)|] = plus noise ratio (SINR) versus δ3 for different values of δ1 and

E[|bk (i − l)− wkH (i − l)r(i − l)|]E[|bk (i − j)− wkH (i − j)r(i − δ2 under different scenarios. For the first scenario, we consider

j)|] ≈ 0, where ∀j 6= l. Hence, the expectation of ρ2 (i) is that the system has six users including two users operating at a

given by power level 3dB above and one user operating at a power level

i−1

X 6dB above the desired user’s power level. The channel fading

δ3 E[|bk (i − l − 1) − wk (i − l − 1)r(i − l − f1)| d T2 ]E[|b

= 1 k×(i10

2 2 2l −5

E[ρ (i)] = (1 − δ3 ) H rate is − l) .−The

wkHchannel − l)|2profile

(i − l)r(ipower ]. is given

l=0 by p 0 = 0dB, p 1 = −6dB and p 2 = −10dB. For the second

(43) scenario, the system has ten users which have the same power

level. In this case, we consider a static channel, the channel

Note that 0 < δ3 < 1, by using limi→∞ E[|bk (i) −

parameters of which are given by h0 = 0dB, h1 = −3dB and

wkH (i)r(i)|2 ] = ξmin , we obtain

h2 = −6dB. In Fig. 2, we can see that the performance does

2 not change too much as the value of δ3 varies for different

(1 − δ 3 )ξ

E[ρ2 (i)] = min

. (44) values of δ and δ . We set γ − = 0.98 and γ + = 0.99998,

(1 + δ3 ) 1 2

and use 15dB for the input signal to noise ratio (SNR). We

Note that 0 < δ1 < 1, based on (16) we obtain the steady-state

tuned δ3 = 0.99 for the following simulations.

mean for γ(i),

2

δ2 (1 − δ3 )ξmin N=15, SNR=15dB

E[γ(∞)] = . (45) 14

(1 − δ1 )(1 + δ3 )

From (16) and (17), we can see that the quantity γ(i) is a

12

small value, and γ(i) varies slowly around its mean value.

Thus, when i → ∞, by using (18) and (45) we assume that

fading channel fdT=0.00001, K=6

the steady-state mean value of the variable forgetting factor 10

1 8

SINR (dB)

E[λ(∞)] ≈

1 + E[γ(∞)]

(46)

(1 − δ1 )(1 + δ3 ) 6

= 2 . static channel, K=10

(1 − δ1 )(1 + δ3 ) + δ2 (1 − δ3 )ξmin δ =0.96, δ =0.005, K=6

1 2

δ1=0.9879, δ2=0.001, K=6

The above value can be substituted in (33) and (40) to predict 4

δ =0.9819, δ =0.001, K=10, static

the MSE. 1 2

δ =0.9819, δ =0.0005, K=10, static

1 2

2 δ1=0.93, δ2=0.0005, K=10, static

VI. S IMULATIONS δ =0.9759, δ =0.001, K=6

1 2

0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

conduct several experiments in order to verify the effectiveness δ

3

of the proposed CTVFF mechanism in RLS algorithms applied

to interference suppression problems with DS-CDMA systems.

Then, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed analytical Fig. 2. Steady-state SINR versus δ3 for different values of δ1 and δ2 .

SN R = 15 dB.

expressions in (33), (40) and (46) to predict the performance

of the adaptive linear receivers in several situations. The DS- We investigate the effects of δ1 and δ2 on the CTVFF

CDMA system employs Gold sequences as the spreading mechanism, we show the received steady-state SINR versus

codes, and the spreading gain is N = 15. The sequence δ1 for δ2 = 0.015, 0.005, 0.001, 0.0005, 0.0001 under different

of channel coefficients for each path is given by hf (i) = scenarios, where we tuned δ3 = 0.99. We use 15dB for

pf αf (i)(f = 0, 1, 2). All channels are normalized so that the input SNR, and set γ − = 0.98 and γ + = 0.99998 for

Lp −1

X the CTVFF mechanism to guarantee the stability. The results

p2f = 1, (47) shown in Fig. 3 (a) and (b) are based on a static state channel.

f =0 The time-invariant channel parameters are given by h0 = 0dB,

7

h1 = −3dB and h2 = −6dB. In Fig. 3 (a), the system specific operating point, and stored at the receiver.

has six users with the same power level. In Fig. 3 (b), the

system has ten users with the same power level. It is observed (a) N=15, K=6, δ =0.99, f T=0.00001

3 d

(b) N=15, K=10, δ =0.99, f T=0.00001

3 d

that, firstly, the optimum choice of the pair (δ1 , δ2 ) is not 14 8

the best performance. Secondly, with the increasing of δ2 the 12

7

increases to 0.005, the performance becomes insensitive to 6

10

δ1 . From the results, we can obtain that δ1 = 0.9819 and

δ2 = 0.005 are one of the best choices for the scenario in Fig. 5

SINR (dB)

8

SINR (dB)

choices for both scenarios, which shows that it is possible for 4 δ =0.015

δ2=0.015 2

us to find a pair (δ1 , δ2 ) that works well for different scenarios. 6 δ =0.005 δ2=0.005

2

δ =0.001 3 δ2=0.001

2

(a) N=15, K=6, δ =0.99 (b) N=15, K=10 ,δ =0.99 δ2=0.0005

3 3 δ =0.0005

2

14 9 4

δ =0.0001

2 2 δ2=0.0001

8

2

12 1

0 0

10 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

δ δ

6 1 1

8

SINR (dB)

5

SINR (dB)

δ =0.015

with

δ =0.015 two 3dB and one 6dB high power level interferers, (b) K = 10, with four

2 4 2

6

δ2

3dB and two 6dB high power level interferers. fd T = 0.00001, δ3 = 0.99.

δ2=0.005 =0.005

δ2=0.001 δ2=0.001

3

δ =0.0005 δ2=0.0005

4 2

δ2=0.0001 δ =0.0001

B. Performance of the Proposed Algorithm

2

2

2

1 index to evaluate the convergence performance in nonsta-

tionary scenarios. In this simulation, we assess the SINR

0

0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

0

0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9

performance

0.95 1

of the proposed CTVFF mechanism, the adaptive

δ δ GVFF mechanism, the MGVFF mechanism, the WGVFF

1 1

adaptive SG receiver. The results shown in Fig. 5 illustrate that

Fig. 3. Steady-state SINR versus δ1 for different values of δ2 . (a) K = the performance in terms of SINR of the analyzed algorithms

6, with equal power level interferers, (b) K = 10, with equal power level

interferers. δ3 = 0.99, static channel. in a nonstationary scenario. The channel has a power profile

given by p0 = 0dB, p1 = −6dB and p2 = −10dB. The

The results in Fig. 4 (a) and (b) show the steady-state SINR system starts with six users including two users operating at a

versus δ1 for different values of δ2 based on the channel with power level 3 dB above and one user operating at a power level

fd T = 0.00001. The channel has a power profile given by 6 dB above the desired user’s power level. At 1000 symbols,

p0 = 0dB, p1 = −6dB and p2 = −10dB. We tuned δ3 = four interferers including two users operating at a power level

0.99. In Fig. 4 (a), the system includes six users including 3 dB above and one user operating at a power level 6 dB

two users operating at a power level 3dB above and one user above the desired user’s power level enter the system. The

operating at a power level 6dB above the desired user’s power normalized Doppler frequency is fd T = 1 × 10−5 . From Fig.

level. In Fig. 4 (b), the system has ten users including four 5, we can see that the proposed CTVFF mechanism with the

users operating at a power level 3dB above and two users adaptive receiver achieves the best performance, followed by

operating at a power level 6dB above the desired user’s power the WGVFF mechanism with the RLS receiver and the GVFF

level. We can see that the previous findings on effects of δ1 mechanism with the RLS receiver. The MGVFF mechanism

and δ2 still hold for the experiments. In particular, in Fig. does not work well in the nonstationary scenario of multipath

4 (a), when δ2 increases to 0.015, the performance becomes fading channels. The algorithms process 250 symbols in the

insensitive to δ1 . In this case, we found that δ1 = 0.934 and TR mode. For the simulation, we tuned the forgetting factor

δ2 = 0.005 are one of the best choices for both scenarios. λ = 0.997 for the fixed forgetting factor scheme. For the

In the following experiments, for a given scenario we first GVFF mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.992, λ+ = 0.99998,

choose the optimum parameters, and then fix them through λ(0) = 0.998 and µ = 0.0025. For the proposed CTVFF

the simulations. In practice, these optimized values should be mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.98, λ+ = 0.99998, δ1 = 0.934,

obtained by experimentation for a given range of values or a δ2 = 0.005, δ3 = 0.99, γ(0) = 0 and ρ(0) = 0.

8

d has a power profile given by p0 = 0dB, p1 = −3dB

12

RLS fixed and p2 = −6dB. The normalized Doppler frequency is

11

RLS GVFF fd T = 1 × 10−4 . The system starts with eight users including

RLS WGVFF

RLS CTVFF three users operating at a power level 3dB above and one

10 MMSE−SG user operating at a power level 6dB above the desired user’s

RLS MGVFF

9 power level. At 1000 symbols, four interferers including two

users operating at a power level 3dB above the desired user’s

8

power level enter the system. From the results, we can see

SINR (dB)

7

that the adaptive receiver with the CTVFF mechanism works

well and still outperforms the conventional techniques. For the

6 proposed CTVFF mechanism, we maintained the parameters

5

in the simulation of Fig. 5. We tuned the forgetting factor

λ = 0.995 for the fixed forgetting factor scheme. For the

4 GVFF mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.992, λ+ = 0.99998 and

µ = 0.0035.

3

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 d

number of received symbols 9

RLS fixed

RLS GVFF

8

RLS WGVFF

Fig. 5. SINR performance in nonstationary environment of multipath fading RLS CTVFF

channels. SNR= 15dB. fd T = 0.00001. 7 MMSE−SG

RLS MGVFF

6

The result shown in Fig. 6 illustrates the variation of the SINR (dB)

5

forgetting factor value of the proposed CTVFF mechanism

versus number of received symbols in the experiment of Fig. 4

at the first several iterations due to the large prediction error

and it increases gradually until the system converges. At 2

1000 symbols, when the new interferers enter the system, the

1

forgetting factor will be recomputed.

0

N=15, SNR=15dB −1

1.001 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

number of received symbols

1

Fig. 7. SINR performance in nonstationary environment of multipath fading

channels. SNR= 15dB. fd T = 0.0001.

0.999

forgetting factor values

0.998

We examine the SINR performance of the CTVFF mech-

anism in a static environment. We compare the CTVFF

0.997

mechanism with the adaptive GVFF mechanism, the MGVFF

mechanism, the WGVFF mechanism, the fixed forgetting fac-

tor mechanism and the adaptive SG receiver. Fig. 8 illustrates

0.996

the SINR performance versus the number of received symbols

for a static environment, where the time-invariant channel

0.995

parameters are given by h0 = 0dB, h1 = −3dB and h2 =

−6dB. The system includes six users which have equal power

0.994

level. The results show that the proposed CTVFF mechanism

works well in a static environment, and it outperforms the

0.993 other

0 500 1000 1500 2000 conventional schemes. For the simulation, we tuned the

number of received symbols forgetting factor λ = 0.9995 for the fixed forgetting factor

scheme. For the GVFF mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.992,

Fig. 6. Forgetting factor variation of the proposed CTVFF scheme in

λ+ = 0.99998, λ(0) = 0.998 and µ = 0.006. For the proposed

nonstationary scenarios. SNR= 15dB, fd T = 1 × 10−5 . CTVFF mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.98, λ+ = 0.99998,

δ1 = 0.9879, δ2 = 0.001 and δ3 = 0.99.

In Fig. 7, we depict the SINR performance of the analyzed We show the bit error rate (BER) performance of the

algorithms in a different nonstationary scenario. The channel following algorithms as the fading rate of the channel varies,

9

0

13 10

12

11

−1

10 10

SINR (dB)

RLS fixed

9 RLS GVFF

BER

RLS WGVFF

RLS CTVFF

8

MMSE−SG

RLS MGVFF −2

10 RLS fixed

7 RLS GVFF

RLS WGVFF

RLS CTVFF

6

SG

5

0 500 1000 1500

number of received symbols −3

10 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2

10 10 10 10 10

f T

d

Fig. 8. SINR performance in a static environment. SNR= 15dB. K = 6.

Fig. 9. BER performance versus the (cycles/symbol) in multipath

fading channels. We use SNR= 15dB, K= 5, 1500 symbols are

i.e., the RLS receiver with the proposed CTVFF mechanism, transmitted and 250 symbols in TR.

the RLS receiver with the GVFF mechanism, the RLS receiver

with the WGVFF mechanism, the RLS receiver with the fixed N=15, K=6, f T=0.0001 N=15, SNR=15 dB, f T=0.0001

d d

forgetting factor mechanism and the adaptive SG receiver. In 10

0

10

0

this experiment, the values of the forgetting factors for the al- RLS fixed

gorithms which employ fixed forgetting factors are optimized, RLS fixed

RLS GVFF

RLS GVFF

RLS WGVFF

and we tuned suitable forgetting factors for each value of RLS CTVFF

RLS WGVFF

RLS CTVFF

fd T . The channel has a power profile given by p0 = 0dB, SG

SG

Rake receiver

p1 = −6dB and p2 = −10dB. In Fig. 9, we can see Rake receiver

that, as the fading rate increases, the performance gets worse, 10

−1

10

−1

schemes, which shows the ability of the RLS receiver with the

BER

BER

CTVFF mechanism to deal with channel uncertainties. For the

GVFF mechanism, we tuned λ− = 0.993, λ+ = 0.99998 and

µ = 0.003. For the proposed CTVFF mechanism, we tuned

λ− = 0.98, λ+ = 0.99998, δ1 = 0.988, δ2 = 0.001 and 10

−2

10

−2

δ3 = 0.99.

Fig. 10 (a) and (b) illustrate the BER performance of the

desired user versus SNR and number of users K, respectively,

where we set fd T = 1×10−4. We can see that the best perfor-

mance is achieved by the adaptive receiver with the CTVFF

mechanism, followed by the RLS receiver with the WGVFF 10

−3

10

−3

0 4 8 12 16 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

mechanism, the RLS receiver with the GVFF mechanism, the (a) SNR(dB) (b) number of users (K)

RLS receiver with the fixed forgetting factor mechanism, the

adaptive SG receiver and the conventional Rake receiver. In

particular, the adaptive receiver with the CTVFF mechanism Fig. 10. SINR performance versus (a) SNR and (b) the number of users

(K) in multipath time varying channels, fd T = 0.0001.

can save up to over 4dB and support up to two more users in

comparison with the receiver with the WGVFF mechanism, at

the BER level of 10−2 . 1500 symbols are transmitted and 250

symbols are used in TR. symbol obtained through simulation is compared with the

steady-state MSE computed via the expressions derived in

Section V. We verify the analytical results (33) and (46) to

C. Convergence and Tracking Analyses predict the steady-state MSE in time-invariant channels and the

Then, we examine the convergence and tracking analyses analytical results (40) and (46) to predict the steady-state MSE

of the proposed CTVFF mechanism with the RLS receiver. in time-varying fading channels. In this simulation, we assume

The steady-state MSE between the desired and the estimated that four users having the same power level operate in the

10

N=15, K=4

p1 = −6dB and p2 = −10dB. We employ δ1 = 0.99, δ2 = 10

predicted (time−varying channel)

0.35 × 10−2 and δ3 = 0.995 for the case of invariant channels, predicted (invariant channel)

and employ δ1 = 0.99, δ2 = 0.4 × 10−3 and δ3 = 0.99 for the simulated (time−varying channel)

case of time-varying fading channels, where fd T = 1 × 10−5. simulated (invariant channel)

250 symbols are used in TR. The quantity of E[q(i)qH (i)] is

estimated by usingP the average over10000 independent exper-

Ne H

iments, namely, i=1 q(i)q (i) /Ne , where Ne = 10000

and q(i) = w0 (i) − w0 (i − 1). By comparing the curves

MSE

in Fig. 11, it can be seen that as the number of received 10

−1

the analytical results, showing the usefulness of our analyses

and assumptions.

1

10

simulated

predicted

−2

10

5 10 15 20

SNR(dB)

0

10 Fig. 12. Analytical steady-state MSE versus simulated performance

for the proposed CTVFF scheme in time-invariant and time-varying

fading channels. 1500 symbols are transmitted, 250 symbols in TR.

MSE

−1

10 existing algorithms and supports systems with higher loads.

We remark that our proposed algorithm also can be extended

to take into account other types of applications.

invariant channel

A PPENDIX

−2

10

0 500 1000 A. Proof

1500 of (19)

number of received symbols

By multiplying r(i) on both sides of (12) we have

Fig. 11. Analytical MSE versus simulated performance for conver- R−1 (i)r(i) = λ−1 (i)R−1 (i − 1)r(i) − λ−1 (i)k(i)rH (i)R−1 (i − 1)r(i).

gence and tracking analyses of the proposed CTVFF scheme. 250 (48)

symbols in TR.

Rewrite (10) as

Fig. 12 shows the effect that the desired user’s SNR has on

the MSE, and a comparison between the steady-state analysis k(i) = λ−1 (i)R−1

k (i − 1)r(i) − λ

−1

(i)k(i)rH (i)R−1 (i − 1)r(i).

and simulation results. We assume that four users operate (49)

with the same power level in the system. We can see that

Based on (48) and (49) we have (19).

the simulation and analysis results agree well with each other.

1500 symbols are transmitted and 250 symbols are used in TR.

For the time-varying fading channel, we use fd T = 1 × 10−5. B. Derivation of (20)

We note that

VII. C ONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity variable forget- R(i) = λ(i)R(i − 1) + r(i)rH (i)

ting factor mechanism for estimating the parameters of CDMA = r(i)rH (i) + λ(i)r(i − 1)rH (i − 1) + λ(i)λ(i − 1)r(i − 2)rH (i −

multiuser detector that operate with RLS algorithms. We com- + · · · + λ(i)λ(i − 1) · · · λ(2)r(1)rH (1) + λ(i)λ(i − 1) · · · λ(2)λ(1

pared the computational complexity of the new algorithm with (50)

the existing gradient-based methods and further investigated

the convergence and tracking analyses of the proposed CTVFF For large i, based on (16), (17) and (18), we assume that there

scheme. We also derived expressions to predict the steady- exists a number Ni > 0, when i ≥ Ni , for which we have that

state MSE of the adaptive RLS algorithm with the CTVFF the forgetting factor λ(i) varies slowly around its mean value

mechanism. The simulation results verify the analytical results and E[λ(Ni )] ≈ E[λ(Ni + 1)] ≈ · · · ≈ E[λ(i)] ≈ E[λ(∞)].

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