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Nama : Nina Rosa Riana

Kelas : EK-3C

No. Absen : 17


A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switching electronic signal and

electronic power. It’s composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three
terminals for connection to an external connection. A voltage or current applied to one pair of
the transistor terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the
controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power.

Symbols of Transistor

A diagrammatic form of P-N-P and N-P-N transistor is exposed. The arrow symbols defined
the emitter current. In the N-P-N connection identify electrons flow into the emitter. For P-N-
P connections current flows into the emitter.
Types of Transistor

There are so many types of transistor depending on their material and process.

1. NPN Transistor
Is one of the two types of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). The flowing of electrons
from emitter to collector forms the current flow in the transistor through the base

2. PNP Transistor
Is one of the two types of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). The current flows from
emitter to collector.

3. FET (Field Effect Transistor)

FET have a three terminals they are Gate (G), Drain (D), and Source (S). the FET
transistor have high current gain than BJT transistor.

4. JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor)

This transistor is an earliest and simple type of FET transistor. JFET are used as
switches, amplifiers, and as switches.
Materials of Transistor

Transistor are made of semiconductor chemical elements, usually silicon, germanium, carbon.
Transistor can be also made from compunds such as gallium arsenide.

Function of Transistor

Function transistor in electric circuit as a follows:

1. As a swtich
2. As an amplifier
3. As a voltage stability regulator
4. As a holding back some of the current flowing
5. To strengthens the current in the circuit

Characteristic of Transistor

Reverse characteristics

In N-P-N common emitter configuration, it’s a graph of collector current versus voltage
between collector and emitter collector voltage for the fixed value of the base current. Base
current is kept constant. Collector emitter voltage is increased in small steps ans collector
current is recorded at every step.

Application of Transistor

Transistor as an amplifier

The common emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage change the small
current through the base of the transistor, the transistor current amplification combined with
the properties of the circuit means that small swing in voltage input produce large changes in
voltage output.