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industrial plants can generally be synthesized from data ob¬ 3) The Aggregate Load Model

tainable from plant engineers. A single line diagram of the plant We assume that the plant may be represented by a single
and details of major dynamic and static loads are a necessary induction motor in parallel with a static load. Eight parameters
starting point. Since it may be difficult to obtain explicit equiv¬ are required to completely define this aggregate model. Two of
alent circuit parameters, we present a method for estimating
these from commonly available name plate data. It is assumed these, G and B, describe the static load and six, Rs, X¡, Xm, Rr,
that the load may be represented by a single induction motor in s0 and f/describe the motor. All parameters except for s0 and H
can be obtained so that in the steady state the load drawn by
parallel with a static load, and the parameters are selected so the aggregate model is identical to that using the detailed plant
that both steady state and dynamic responses of the model, to
a small step change in voltage magnitude and phase, are as representation. The remaining two are selected to optimize the
close as possible to that of the original. The paper thus dis¬ step response match.
cusses the development of a detailed plant representation and The static load in the aggregate model is chosen as the sum
subsequent aggregation to a simple equivalent model. of the static loads in the plant. The stator impedance of the
single equivalent induction motor must reflect the impedance
of the network of the plant as well as the motor impedances. It
2) Detailed Representation of Industrial Plant is calculated as the impedance to the network at the interface
The plant is considered to be radially connected to the rest of bus with the machine voltages behind transient reactance
the system and is assumed to take the general form of an inter¬ {Vm') set to zero and with static loads neglected. Two induc¬
connected system with induction motor and static loads dis¬ tion motor parameters, the per unit inertia constant (H) and the
tributed within it. Large synchronous motors should be mod¬ inital slip {s0), are chosen to optimize the dynamic performance
elled in detail in any transient stability study in which plant of the model. The change in real and reactive power, owing to
a change in voltage magnitude and phase, for the aggregate is
dynamics are important and are thus not considered to be part compared to that from the detailed plant representation. A
of the aggregate load.
Because the disturbance (a change in bus voltage) to be ap¬ generalised optimization routine is used to determine H and s0
plied to the plant is assumed to be small, the detailed plant to minimize the least square error between the two responses.
equations can be linearised about the normal working point
and the response (corresponding changes in power flow to the 4) Validation by Transient Simulation
plant) obtained by linear dynamic analysis rather than from a In order to validate this technique, a number of studies were
step-by-step numerical integration. conducted on a computer model; consisting of 39 buses, 46
The transformers, static loads and interconnecting lines of
the plant are represented by an admittance matrix in which lines, 10 generators, and the plant subsystem containing five
only the connecting and motor terminal nodes remain explic¬ interconnected induction motors. The machines have been
itly. Thus chosen, deliberately, to be dissimilar and hence difficult to
model by a single machine. Adequacy of the equivalent is vali¬
dated by comparing the response of the original system and
[A/ol |>00 Von] [A Vol (1)
LA4J LYno YnnllAVj the equivalent to simulated bus voltage change, transformer
outage, and remote and local balanced faults using a transient
where /0 and V0 are the injected current and voltage at the con¬ stability program.
necting bus, 4 and Vm are the vectors of n motor currents and Discusser: T. J. Hammons
terminal voltages, etc. Each motor is represented by a series
impedance Rs+jXs', an internal node whose voltage is Vm'\
and for n machines, differential equations of the form:
r^i En2\ TAW],+ \F.i] rA/1
LrAVVl
As J ka 0 J L As J [fJ [A'sl
= (2)
U) 83SM 307-6
April 1984, pp.
pi 691-698
Equation (1 ) is rewritten with the internal motor voltages Vm'
replacing the terminal voltages Vm, and the admittances aug¬
mented by the series impedance. Thus Development and Installation of 275
rA/oi r/oo ^luí/oí(3) kV SF6 Gas-Insulated Transmission
Line
=

Using the lower part of (3), we eliminate A/s in (2) and obtain N. Memita and T. Suzuki
the following equation in state space form:
The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka, Japan
K. Itaka and H. Furukawa
Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka, Japan
The injected power at the connection node is written as K. Kikuchi and K. Ninomiya
Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan
te]-te, ¡»fó mu .
In order to put a 275 kV, 3340 A gas-insulated transmission
line (called GIL by the authors) into actual use, a test line (with
=
G,AVo + GvA<o. (6) approx. 100-m length) was installed in an aboveground tunnel
with a 20 deg incline and a 90 deg bend. Various demonstra¬
Using the upper part of (3), we can elminate A/0 in (6). Thus tion tests, such as a temperature rise test, a long-term field
test, a fault location test, and a leakage gas removal test, were

[aû°0] =
G"YQm-Vm' + [G/+ S^oolAVo (7)
performed.
The results of the tests were the following.
1 ) The current capacity at the horizontal tunnel section was
=
[Ci,0] [AJ£']+[0][AVb]. (8)
Thus (4) and (8) constitute the state equation set for the plant
over 4000 A even if the ambient air temperature was
40°C. Furthermore, the local temperature rise of the en¬
closure from air temperature inside the tunnel was so
small, only several degrees, that the GIL still had suffic¬
consistent with the initial objective. ient margin of current capacity.
IEEE Power Engineering Review, April 1984 23
2) Voltage of 250 kV was applied for 1020 hours without electric breakdown. It was numerically analyzed in success.
any trouble. This is equal to 50 or more years with
287.5/V3kV by using a voltage-life conversion equation
(a7= 1 5), and long-term performance of epoxy insulators Failure of 275 kV HPOF Cable
was confirmed to be sufficient. There were no problems
with thermomechanical characteristics of the line. 275 kV HPOF cable installed in Tokyo in 1971 failed on
After the long-term field test, lightning impulse break¬ March 1982.method The fault point was successfully localized by
Murrey loop at the semi-oil-stop joint where gas evolu¬
down tests using some units removed from the test line tion and oil contamination were also confirmed. Removed oil
were conducted. The test results were 1650 kV to 1700
kV, and it was confirmed that the units had sufficient di¬ contained much of C2H2 and H2 gases which suggest dis¬
electric strength to withstand the rated lightning impulse charge in impregnated insulation. Gas volume generated by
arc of the failure was estimated numerically based on either
voltage of 1050kV. pressure change at gas release at the joint or arc energy as¬
3) In the fault location test, an insulator whose surface re¬ suming fault path. Spreading speed of gas in oil was also ana¬
sistance was about 10 Mß was installed inside the enclo¬
sure as an artificial fault. Pulse voltage was applied at the lyzed to be fairly slow. Finally the fault point was recognized by
head of an air terminal and discharge (approx. 50 kV) was X-ray and 7-ray shots.
made to occur. Then, fault location was conducted using
the method of listening for the sound of discharge and Investigation of the Failure
that of detecting supersonic waves (propagating in en¬ The fault joint was dissected and the following facts were
closure) using sensors. The results were that it was pos¬ made clear.
sible to hear the discharge sound and determine the di¬
rection even when the fault point was 20 m away and to a) All three phases moved 290 mm compared to the original
locate the fault within about 5 m. In the case of using position.
sensors, accuracy of fault location was about 2 m, but it b) Shoulder of the stress-relief cone was pressed against
was difficult to locate the fault if an aluminum bellows or the end pipe of the joint casing.
large anchor support of the enclosure was between the c) Longitudinal dimension of the splice was widely
artificial fault and the senor. changed.
4) In the leakage gas removal test, the bottom of the in¬ d) There were two holes of breakdown on the surface.
clined section of the tunnel was filled with 18 m of SF6
gas (oxygen density: about 4 percent), then both an in¬ From these facts, it can be seen that the movement of cable
take fan and an exhaust fan were immediately turned on core is an important factor for the failure. Therefore X-ray and
to produce wind velocity of 0.5 m/s in the tunnel. Oxygen 7-ray shots were applied for all the other joints. The result tells
density was restored to about 18 percent within a few us the following interesting facts.
minutes by operating the fans. Using the result, the equa¬ a) Movement of 1 50 to 400 mm was observed over the
tions of calculating the necessary time to remove the
leakage gas from the tunnel were obtained. range of about 3 km near the fault.
b) Number of cars at the section reaches 25 000 per day.
Based on satisfactory results in all these tests, 275 kV GILs c) Direction of all movement coincides with that of traffic.
were installed in a tunnel connecting a GIS with an overhead
line and have been in commercial use since March 1981. Since longitudinal movement seems to be very much influ¬
In addition, after completion of the line, surge voltage on the enced by traffic, axial force, and vibration appearing on the
pipeline
conductor and potential rise on the enclosure, produced by passed under repair work was measured while heavy trucks
switching a circuit breaker on and off, were measured by syn¬ through. It was made clear that heavier vehicle gave
axial force on cable core, and that frequency of the force
chroscope to evaluate several grounding methods. The results larger was linear to the speed of cars. Based on the investigation at
of the tests were the following. the site, it seemed possible that the cable was moving toward
1 ) Maximum surge voltage was 2.2 times the nominal sys¬ the direction of traffic because of the bending phenomena of
tem voltage to ground ( 275 kV/V3). Switching the cir¬ road surface, pipe, and cable core due to passing vehicles.
=

cuit breaker on caused 9 10 MHz high frequency surges


~ Thus, the cause of the failure was believed to be that move¬
on the conductor. ment of cable which made the earth shield of splice irregular
2) Switching the circuit breaker on caused 9 MHz high fre¬ and which distorted the electric field leading to dielectric
quency surges on the enclosure. breakdown. Therefore, mechanical and electrical tests were
made to confirm the assumption were carried out in the labora¬
Consequently, it was decided to increase the number of tory using 275 kV 1,400 mm2 HPOF cable and splices. A
grounding points, especially near both ends of the line. splice sample was mechanically distorted as much as the fault
Discussers: S.A. Boggs and N. Fujimoto joint, and voltage was applied. Discharge and the moment of
electrical breakdown was recorded with the aid of image opti¬
cal fiber scope and video recorder. Breakdown occurred at the
same point as that of the fault joint. Based on these tests, it
was estimated that discharge might have started 190 to 640
days prior to breakdown. Possibility of dielectric breakdown
was also confirmed by electric field analysis with finite ele¬
83 SM 311-8 ment method.
April 1984, pp. 699- 706
Research of Creepage Phenomena of HPOF Cable
Creepage Phenomena of HPOF Cable Experiments were carried out to confirm whether the creep-
age phenomena of HPOF cable could be possible. The phenom¬
H. Nakagawa, T. Nakabasami, and A. Katsumata ena were already reported for telephone cable in duct by R. H.
The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Harris in 1982.
Utilizing one span of 676-m burned pipe of 12-in diameter
Tokyo,Japan for there has been constant quantity of traffic during past 10
years as 25 000 cars per day, and if all of them can contribute
This paper describes on the first failure of HPOF cable in Ja¬ to the movement of cable, then total accumulation would be
pan occurred after its 10-year operation. Investigation re¬ 540 mm, which almost coincides with the maximum mea¬
vealed that the most possible cause is creepage phenomena sured movement. Model test was also carried out in order to
due to heavy traffic, which have pushed splices so that the ascertain whether creepage phenomena can be accumulated
earth shield of stress-relief cone was distorted, resulting in by repetition of passing cars.
24 IEEE Power Engineering Review, April 1984