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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol.

14(3):391-403
Copyright © Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Print ISSN: 1596-2490, Electronic ISSN: 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PRIMARY SEWAGE IN VERTICAL FLOW


CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

O. E. Ewemoje* and A.Y. Sangodoyin


Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
* Corresponding author’s e-mail address: seyiajayi2@yahoo.com

Abstract
The study examined the performance of pilot scale vertical flow constructed wetland in phytoremediation
of primary sewage lagoon effluent generated from a tertiary institution. The experimental layout consists
of four units, with each unit composed of three cells connected in series. Three of the units were vegetated
while non-vegetated units serve as control. The cells are rectangular plastic beds of 1.2m x, 0.9m x 0.4m.
Treatment areas were packed with gravel of 40, 10 - 25 and 2-10mm diameter respectively. Three cells
were each planted with Rhynchospora corymbosa (RC) and, Coix lacryma-jobi (CL) while the third cell
contains a mixture of the two plants. The fourth cell was left unplanted and serves as a control. All the
cells were operated at hydraulic retention times of 4, 7, and 10 days. High reduction of COD, NH3, NH3-
N and NH4 were observed in all the units. The unit with the lowest removal efficiency for these
parameters was the control thus demonstrating the effectiveness of phytoremediation. Removal efficiency
for the parameters considered range from 40 to 50% for RC and 50 - 53% for Coix. A TSS influent
concentration of 6800 mg/1 was reduced by 86.1% to 268 mg/1 for HRT of 7 days and a further reduction
of 96.3% for HRT of 10 days. Treatment efficiency as high as 76 to 100% was observed with increase in
HRT from 4 to 10 days, for particulate phosphorus, PO4, NH4-N, NH4 and COD. The removal rate for
most parameters increased with longer HRT. Results indicate that the combination of the two plants in the
same reactor was not as effective as single plant in individual cells. Rhynchospora corymbosa and Coix
lacryma-jobi plants reduced the pollutants in sewage, hence these could be effectively used in wetlands
for the treatment of primary sewage.

Keywords: Removal Efficiency, wastewater, hydraulic retention times, indigenous plants, Reactors.

1. Introduction
It is pertinent to treat wastewater because it causes major damage to the environment and to
human health. In developing countries proportion of the wastewater produced by sewered
communities is treated before use or disposal (WHO, 2012). The pan American Health
Organization (2000) also reported that less than 15% of the wastewater collected in sewered
cities and towns in Latin America was treated prior to discharge. There are reports of cities in
developing countries with difficulties in managing sewage treatment facilities. The few
centralized sewage treatment methods used in developing countries include waste stabilization
pond, septic tanks, activated sludges, trickling filters, anaerobic lagoon and land application
(Kivaisi, 2001). If they are well designed, the removal efficiency could be as high as 75-90; 30-
50; 20-60 and 60-99% for Biochemical oxygen demand BOD, Nitrogen N, Phosphorous P, and
indicator bacteria respectively. (Shuval et al., 1986; Von and Marcos, 1996; Kivaisi 2001).
Experience with design and operation of wastewater treatment facility in most developing
countries suggest the need to improve on current practices especially effluent quality prior to
discharge. Constructed Wetlands (CW) systems have been shown to be effective in the removal
of BOD, pathogens and nutrients in wastewater prior to final release into the water bodies
(Dennis et al., 2009).

391
Ewemoje and Sangodoyin: Development and Performance Evaluation of a Poultry Waste Management
Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
www.azojete.com.ng

Ewemoje and Sangodoyin (2009) showed that the anaerobic lagoon system used to treat
wastewater from a student hall of residence did not meet the regulatory discharge standard. In
France, more than 1,000 vertical flow systems are used to treat raw sewage (Vymazal and
Kropfelova, 2008). The special feature of this treatment is that it accepts raw sewage directly
onto the first stage allowing for sludge management in comparison to dealing with primary
sludge from an imhoff tank (Molle et al., 2005). Vertical flow CW has been reported to require
less area of land (1-3 m2/ PE) compared to the horizontal flow system (5-10 m2/ PE), (Kadlec
and Wallace, 2009). Classification of constructed wetlands according to Vymazal (2001), there
are two major types of constructed wetlands: viz surface and subsurface flow.
For the subsurface flow, there is no free water level that is visible. They are further divided into
horizontal and vertical flow depending on the direction of flow in the porous media. The free
water surface wetlands are not used as much as the Horizontal flow or Vertical flow systems in
spite of being one of the oldest designs in Europe (Brix, 1994b; Vymazal et al., 1998; Vymazal,
2001).

1.1 A Brief Description of the Plant Used in Study


Rhynchospora corymbosa (Cyperaceae)
Rhynchospora corymbosa is from the family of Cyperaceae, while the botanical name is
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L) Britton. The common name is Matamat, the local name in Yoruba
is (Labelabe). The stem usually attains a height of about 1.5m but flowers and fruits when
smaller. Its leaf blades are about 70-150 by 1-2.5cm base sheathing. It is a perennial and
common plant growing in and along streams on the shores of lakes, pools and rivers. It is often
found in shallow water in swamps and rice fields. It is tolerant of light shade (Cook, 1996).

Coix lacryma-jobi L. (Graminae)


Coix lacryma-jobi L., also called Job's tears while the local name in Yoruba is (Ekun arugbo or
Mudemude), is a broad-leaved, branched grass, grain-bearing tropical plant of the family
Poaceae. It is native to China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia and Nigeria inclusive. It
is considered a nutritious health food in Asian countries. The seeds of Job's tears are tear-shaped
and come in several colors including yellow, brown, white, and purple. The seeds are sometimes
used as ornamental beads. The root and seed of the plant are sometimes used as a medicine. It
has been reported by Henty (1969) that people take Job’s tears to treat hay fever, high
cholesterol, cancer, warts, arthritis, obesity and respiratory tract infections. These plants are not
grazed by animal, they are listed as endangered species that might likely go into extinction if not
handle well, it would be of interest if found useful in wastewater treatment.
1.2 A review of Constructed Wetlands in Nigeria
In Nigeria, Badejo et al. (2011) reported the study of Vetiveria nigritana and Phragmites karka
in constructed wetlands for the treatment of organic and inorganic pollutants in tertiary hospital
wastewater. The results showed that the dilution of wastewater has profound effect on the growth
rate of V. nigritana with a high tolerant rate at elevated levels of nutrients. Similar observation
made by Ralph and Truong (2004) showed that 1: 3 mix of wastewater to normal clear water
proved to be the best mix. Aluko and Shridhar (2014) reported on the treatment of landfill
leachate using various combinations of treatments including Ipomoea aquatica constructed
wetlands to achieve high treatability. Effluents analysis from the CW showed substantial
reductions in the physico-chemical parameters and further reductions were recorded when

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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol. 14(3):391-
403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

leachate effluents were passed twice through the wetlands. It was concluded by Aluko and
Shridhar that Ipomoea Aquatica has tendency to reduce pollutants present in sanitary landfill
leachates.
Despite the recognition of the CW technology as an excellent alternative to conventional
wastewater treatment systems, its rate of adoption has been slow. There are only a few published
works on the applicability of CW technology at local, and national level in Nigeria (Badejo et al.,
2011, Aluko and Shridhar, 2014). This study is aimed at development and performance
evaluation of a pilot scale vertical subsurface flow CW system for treatment of wastewater that
has been subjected to some treatment in a lagoon. The study involves an evaluation of the CW
using two indigenous aquatic tropical plant viz; Rhynchospora Corymbosa and Coix, lacryma-
jobi in wastewater purification process.

2 Materials and Methods


2.1 Experimental Design
The study was conducted at the Experimental field of Department of Agricultural and
Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan. The site was selected based on its proximity
to the Environmental Engineering laboratory. The treatment areas were packed with coarse,
medium and fine gravel and has an average porosity of 0.37. The cells have a bottom slope of
0.5-1.0% to facilitate hydraulic head measurement. A diagrammatic representation of cells and
experimental layout is shown in Fig 1. The first units contain Rhynchospora corymbosa (RC),
the second Coix lacrima-jobi (CL), while the third was mixture of RC and CL and unplanted cell
(the control) was the last. The retention time was calculated using equation (1), according to
Reed et al.,(1995) with the level of treatment taken every day.

V Ayp
t  (1)
Q Q
Where: t = Hydraulic retention time ( HRT) in (days), V = the system volume (m3), Q = design
flow rate (L d -1) A = Mean surface area of the system (m2), y = The flow depth (m) and p =
porosity.
Determination of Hydraulic Loading Rate

HRT  Fr (2)
A
Where:
HRT = Hydraulic Loading Rate (m/day)
Fr = Flow rate (m3/s)
A = Surface area of the wet basin (m2)
T = Time of flow (secs)
This was monitored for three weeks after which hydraulic retention time of 4, 7 and 10 days
were considered.

2.2 Operational Procedure and Laboratory Analysis


A Surge tank of 1000L capacity was connected to two settling tanks of 500L to receive
wastewater influents. From the two settling tanks, pipes were connected to four treatment units
and the wastewater flows by gravity. The arrangement of inlet and outlet pipes and distribution
of wastewater within the cell was similar to previous studies (Dennis et al, 2009; Ghosh and

393
Ewemoje and Sangodoyin: Development and Performance Evaluation of a Poultry Waste Management
Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
www.azojete.com.ng

Gopal, 2010). Each tank has 25.4mm diameter pipe connected to its base and has a valve to
control wastewater inflow and outflow. Drains were also provided to contol water level. Flow
meters were attached to the cells to regulate the flow rate at 47 m3 /day. The young sprouts of the
plants were planted at 20cm interval in all treatment cells. A 5.5Hp pump was used to pump
wastewater to a wastewater carrier. The plants were allowed to grow and multiply until dense
stand was formed in each cell over a 4 month period. There was periodic application of
wastewater to supply nutrient for the plants. Thereafter, varied inflow rates of wastewater were
introduced.

Figure1: Experimental Layout of the Constructed Wetland.

The CW was monitored; sample collection and analysis were done every day for the first three
weeks. The second phase of the investigation covered additional three weeks with hydraulic
retention times of 4, 7 and 10 days under consideration. All the parameters were determined in
the laboratory except for temperature that was measured insitu. After collection, the water
samples were kept under a low temperature below 4 oC to reduce the rate of deterioration and
biological reaction in the sample. The samples were immediately taken to the Soil and Water
Laboratory in Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan,
Ibadan.
The wastewater quality parameters were measured with the use of Hanna HI 83099 COD and
multi-parameter Bench photometer. The physico-chemical properties such as Total solids, Total
Dissolved Solids, Suspended Solids, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen
Demand, Total Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, Ammonia, pH, and Colour parameters were
measured with the multi-paramter bench photometer.
Statistical Analysis of Results: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the
treatment among the retention times, and the hydraulic loading rate. Analysis was done for each
parameter tested in the treated effluent.

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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol. 14(3):391-
403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1 Physico-chemical Properties of Wastewater Effluent
The physico-chemical properties of wastewater influents and percentage removal are presented
in Table 1. High removal efficiency was observed for COD, NH3, NH3-N and NH4 in all units.
The unit with the lowest removal efficiency for these parameters was the control. The cells with
RC and Coix recorded removal efficiency ranging from 40 – 50% and 50 – 53% respectively.
This trend was consistent throughout the trial test.
The RC, Coix, Mixture and Control cells show an appreciable reduction in pollutant level of
COD, NH3, NH3-N and NH4, at 7, 6 and 5, days HRT. Reduction removal for RC under 7, 6 and
5 days HRT were 95, 89, and 83%, while 91, 83, 74% were recorded for Coix, mixture were 92,
85, 77% respectively. The results found from the control units followed same trend with 79, 67,
and 62% pollutant reduction levels respectively, when they were subjected to various retention
times and at single loading rate. The system was effective in the treatment of pre-treated
domestic wastewater. The results are summarized in Tables 1 – 6.

3.2 The Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on Pollutant Removal


Tables 1 – 6 show the mean concentration and removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater for
all the units, i.e. RC, Coix, Mixture and Control. In general there were reductions in pollutant
concentration in all units. The TDS and TSS removal rate were low when compared to other
pollutants. The treatment for TDS and TSS appear not to be effective for the first 3 weeks of the
trial test. This can be attributed to the short hydraulic retention times of 2-3 days used. The
percentage removal of pollutants increased at higher hydraulic retention times.

Table 1: Mean of influent concentrations and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture
and Control unit for 3 weeks at 2 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
30.6 - - - -
Temperature (oC)
Colour (PCU) 500 64.7 47.1 57.5 57.2
pH change 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 *36.6 *12.6 *46.3 *100.0
Phosphorus 18.6 88.8 92.3 88.6 39.2
Ammonia(NH3) 37.4 97.8 94.3 91.3 57.2
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 98.5 96.3 96.3 70.8
(NH4-N)
Ammonium(NH4) 273.9 95 93.8 90.8 91
Conductivity (µs) 1971 68.7 72.5 69.4 67.8
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 18.8 31.6 22.4 18.9
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 9.5 5.3 3.3 2.0
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 55.2 40.9 42.6 25.1
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content
Mixture = Coix lacryma jobi and Rhynchospora corymbosa
RC = Rhynchospora corymbosa
Coix = Coix lacryma jobi

395
Ewemoje and Sangodoyin: Development and Performance Evaluation of a Poultry Waste Management
Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
www.azojete.com.ng

Table 2: Mean of influent concentrations and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 week at 3 days HRT.
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 30.6 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 500 59.5 55.2 59.6 63.9
pH change 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 *343.9 *217.1 *143.9 *283.9
Phosphorus 18.6 86.5 87.1 83.4 48.3
Ammonia(NH3) 37.4 94.6 94.9 91.5 58
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 91.3 93.4 89.2 56.7
(NH4-N)
Ammonium(NH4) 273.9 78.8 93.2 89 84.8
Conductivity (µs) 1971 19.3 13.9 7.5 76.4
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 26.6 34 19.9 19.1
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 66 62.5 64.4 50.6
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 64.9 57.2 58.4 42.9
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated
*Indicates increase in content

Table 3: Mean of influent concentrations and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture
and Control unit for 3 weeks at 4 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 30.6 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 500 74.1 48.9 65.1 64
pH change 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 7.3 17.1 *14.6 *107.3
Phosphorus 18.6 95.9 87.9 88.4 69.5
Ammonia(NH3) 37.4 98.3 90.6 91.9 61.4
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 97 88.2 90.3 62.3
(NH4-N)
Ammonium(NH4) 273.9 80.6 78.4 84 80.1
Conductivity (µs) 1971 67.6 75.1 69.6 70
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 23 39.5 25.2 24
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 34.1 35.6 34 17.2
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 71.7 64.6 70.5 54.8
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated
*Indicates increase in content

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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol. 14(3):391-
403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

Table 4: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 5 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 30.6 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 500 67.9 56.6 60.7 60.6
pH 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 2.4 29.3 *24.4 *112.2
Phosphorus 18.6 95.1 91.5 89.4 40.2
Ammonia(NH3) 37.4 98 96.6 96.1 58
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 98 96 96.1 53.6
(NH4-N)
Ammonium(NH4) 273.9 95.3 93.2 93.6 91.4
Conductivity (µs) 1971 69.8 75.9 71.2 70.8
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 21.7 40.4 26.1 25.7
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 54.1 52 55.4 29.9
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 83.3 74.2 77.9 62.3
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

Table 5: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 6 days Hydraulic Retention Time HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 30.6 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 500 67.9 54.4 62.5 50.9
pH 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 *4.9 2.4 *39.0 *134.2
Phosphorus 18.6 95.8 92.4 92.6 61.4
Ammonia (NH3) 37.4 98.1 96.6 97.7 73.1
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 98.1 96.2 97.5 70.6
(NH4-N)
Ammonium (NH4) 273.9 94.9 94.2 93 91.3
Conductivity (µs) 1971 69.9 75.2 71.3 72.3
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 20 37.7 22.6 16.8
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 64.5 65.9 61.5 47.4
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 88.9 83.3 84.9 67.4
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

397
Ewemoje and Sangodoyin: Development and Performance Evaluation of a Poultry Waste Management
Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
www.azojete.com.ng

Table 6: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 7 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 30.6 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 500 67.3 42.3 60.1 61.5
pH 7.3 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.4 *36.6 *2.4 *29.3 *114.6
Phosphorus 18.6 94.6 91.4 91.7 68.3
Ammonia (NH3) 37.4 98 96.1 97.9 79.2
Ammonium Nitrogen
35.2 97.9 96.1 97,8 77.1
(NH4-N)
Ammonium (NH4) 273.9 94.8 94.5 90.8 91
Conductivity (µs) 1971 67.1 75.2 68.4 72
Total Dissolved Solid
345.7 2.0 23.1 4.2 15.5
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
1757 73.5 71.1 71.2 58.7
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
3924.3 94.9 90.5 92.4 78.9
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

The TDS removal efficiency of 36.5, 66.3 and 74.5% for day 4, 7 and 10 respectively as shown
in Tables 7- 9 indicates increased rate of pollutant removal with increase in Hydraulic retention
time. A TSS influent concentration of 646.5 mg/1 was reduced by 89.4% on day 7 with further
reduction of 96% on day 10 , this was applicable to the control. It has been reported that TSS
removal in constructed wetlands depend on a number of factors linked to different operational
regimes. This includes the flow mode, inlet organic loading, size of the wetlands, bed media and
loading of inert material. The removal of TSS is primarily through the mechanisms of filtration,
sedimentation and interception, vertical flow wetlands are highly effective in TSS removal
provided they are managed in a way to avoid clogging problems. (Kadlec and Wallence (2009)
The result from the study is in line with what was recorded by Katayon et al. (2008); and Kadlec
and Wallence (2009), with data from 31 vertical flow wetlands (intermittent down flow beds),
whose median inlet and median outlet concentration were 90 and 12 mg/l respectively showing
87% concentration reduction.
On the contrary, the level of pollutant removal in the control unit was not effective when
compared to RC, Coix and Mixture vegetated cells especially for Phosphorous, PO4, TDS and
TSS for day 4 from week 1-3 as shown in Table 7. This could be trace to submission of Kadlec
and Knight, (1996), Phosphorus- is mainly removed by plant and adsorption on the porous
media. It has been reported by Xu et al. (2006) that the addition of organic matter helps in
phosphorous sorption capacity too.
The increase in DO confirms a high level of pollutant removal. The pH values range from 6.0 to
8.0 this conform to FEPA discharge standard, although the optimum range of 6.5-8.0 is
recommended. There were established trends of pollutant reduction as a result of increase in
retention time from week three to week six as shown in Tables 7- 9. The pH values for week 6
show that the water prior to treatment was slightly alkaline, but changed slightly to acidic nature
after treatment with values varying from 6.8 ± 0.1 in day 4 to 6.9 ± 0.1 in day 10. This result is

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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol. 14(3):391-
403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

consistent with the behavior of pH in other treatment wetlands. (Katayon et.al 2008). It was
reported by Jampeetong (2013) that pH plays a significant role in nutrient removal or uptake.
The species of plant operate at different pH in nutrients uptake. Coix Lacryma-jobi has been
reported to operate best in terms of N removal at pH range of 6.5-8.5 by a study carried out to
monitor the interactive effects of nitrogen form and pH on growth, morphology, N uptake and
mineral contents of Coix lacryma-jobi L, by Jampeetong (2013).
However, better treatment efficiency as high as 76 - 100% was observed with increase in HRT
from 4 - 10 days, for particulate phosphorus, PO4, NH4-N, NH4 and COD particularly between
week 4 and week 6. Removal rate by Coix for phosphorus was 90.7% on day 4 and due to further
treatment increased to 91.6% on day 6 and 96.7% on day 10. This is attributed to phosphorus
partial removal by sedimentation and by reaction with porous media minerals. The high removal
rate of NH3-N and NH4 by the vegetated cells could be explained by Nitrogen removal requiring
longer retention time for it to be much effective. Particulate phosphorus, PO4, NH4-N, NH4, NH3
and COD was effectively removed in week 4-6 in RC, Coix and Mixture units as compared to
week 1-3. (Tables 4 – 9). This could be as a result of the longer Hydraulic retention time,
because it has been reported that the longer the hydraulic retention time, the better the treating
efficiency.
The DO values recorded increased by 213, 550, 730% for 4, 7 and 10 days HRT respectively.
This shows that the treatment process is effective with increase in HRT. The higher- the DO in
the effluent the better the treatment. Both of the plants have deep penetrating root system though
Coix is deeper this allows the wastewater to have maximum contact with the plants which
favours all macrophte in wastewater (Brix, 1997; Dallas et.al., 2004).

Table 7: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 4 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 29.5 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 1896.0 95.5 95.6 93.7 91.3
pH 7.7
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.0 *131.0 *96.6 *72.4 *103.5
Phosphorus 18.3 90.9 90.7 85.1 76
Ammonia (NH3) 97.1 94.4 92.7 91.1 66.4
Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4-N) 79.9 94.4 92.7 91.1 66.6
Ammonium (NH4) 103.0 94.4 92.7 91.2 66.6
Conductivity (µs) 1560.0 38.9 42.5 38.4 33.8
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) 1247.7 36.5 44.9 38.6 33.9
Total Suspended Solid (TSS) 6466.7 89.4 69.4 60.3 66.4
Chemical Oxygen Demand
705.3 84 84.6 82 78.4
(COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

399
Ewemoje and Sangodoyin: Development and Performance Evaluation of a Poultry Waste Management
Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
www.azojete.com.ng

Table 8: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 7 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 29.5 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 1896.0 95.2 92 95.8 93.2
pH 7.7 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.0 *137.9 *110.3 *120.7 *203.5
Phosphorus 18.3 90.7 91.6 92.4 79.8
Ammonia (NH3) 97.1 97.5 96.7 95.7 77.4
Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4-N) 79.9 97.5 96.7 95.7 77
Ammonium (NH4) 103.0 96.4 96.7 95.7 77.2
Conductivity (µs) 1560.0 66.3 69.8 54.8 63.2
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) 1247.7 66.3 69.7 62.8 63.1
Total Suspended Solid (TSS) 6466.7 86.1 83.7 85 81.8
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 705.3 93.1 90.4 92.2 94.3
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

Table 9: Mean of influent concentration and removal efficiencies in RC, Coix, Mixture and
Control unit for 3 weeks at 10 days HRT
Influent RC Coix Mixture Control
Parameters
Concentration Removal Removal Removal Removal
Temperature (°C) 29.5 - - - -
Colour (PCU) 1896.0 97.5 96.5 96.4 98.4
pH 7.7 - - - -
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 1.0 *82.8 *117.2 *141.4 *179.3
Phosphorus 18.3 97.8 96.7 93.6 85.4
Ammonia (NH3) 97.1 99.6 99.3 97.8 86.9
Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4-N) 79.9 99.5 99.2 96.8 83.2
Ammonium(NH4) 103.0 99.5 99.3 97.8 86.8
Conductivity (µs) 1560.0 85 82.8 84.4 85.3
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) 1247.7 74.5 78.5 73.7 78.9
Total Suspended Solid (TSS) 6466.7 96.3 94.9 95.7 95.2
Chemical Oxygen Demand
705.3 99.3 100 96.9 97.1
(COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated *Indicates increase in content

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Table 10 : Mean ± S.D of influent and effluent concentrations in RC, Coix, Mixture and Control
unit for 3 weeks at 10 days Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
Influent
Parameters Effluent Concentration
Concentration

RC Coix Mixture Control


Temperature 29.5±3.6 28.4±1.6 28.3±1.5 28.1±1.6 29.1±1.8
Colour (PCU) 1229.3±1146.3 47.7±18.5 66.7±48.5 68.0±2.6 31.0±19.3
pH 7.7±0.6 6.9±0.2 6.7±0.2 6.9±0.2 7.1±0.3
Dissolved Oxygen
1.5±0.6 1.8±0.4 2.1±1.1 2.3±0.6 2.7±1.3
(DO)
Phosphorus 18.3±15.9 0.4±0.3 0.6±0.6 1.2±1.0 2.7±2.0
Ammonia(NH3) 44.3±40.6 0.43±0.4 1.3±0.3 3.3±2.4 2.7±0.7
Ammonium Nitrogen
63.1.±60.1 0.41±0.3 0.77±0.5 2.77±1.9 2.6±0.17
(NH4-N)
Ammonium(NH4) 77±49.0 0.5±0.4 1.2±0.6 3. 95±2.2 2. 91±0.5
Conductivity (µs) 1560.0±456.1 490±254.3 506±189.2 473.3±194.2 376±60
Total Dissolved Solid
1247.7±365.4 52231±171.7 458.6±119.0 512±87.6 380.3±184.7
(TDS)
Total Suspended Solid
6800±4966.1 238.0±207.9 327.5±300.5 247.6±163.3 311.0±159.8
(TSS)
Chemical Oxygen
772±457.4 9.7±4. 0 0 35.6±26.1 20.±15.7
Demand (COD)
All concentration in mg/l except where stated.
Mixture = Coix lacryma jobi and Rhynchospora corymbosa
RC = Rhynchospora corymbosa
Coix = Coix lacryma jobi

Figures 2 through 4 show the performance of the plants at different hydraulic retention times.
The highest level of pollutant removal was recorded at 10 days HRT.
The results show that there was no significant difference between RC, Coix and a mixture of the
two plants, for nearly all the parameters considered at 95% degree of confidence (P > 0.05). The
P-value for TSS, COD, NH4+ and NH3 are 0.59, 0.74, 0.40, and 0.37 respectively.

4. Conclusion
Based on the results of the study, it is established that plants Rhynchospora Corymbosa and Coix
lacryma- jobi can be used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater. The combination of
the two plants in the same reactor was not effective as compared to single plant in individual
cells. The result of the study show that there was no significant difference in Rhnychospora
cormybosa, Coix lacryma-jobi and mixture of the two plants, for almost all the parameters under
consideration at 95% degree of confidence (P > 0.05). The P-value for TSS, COD, NH4+ and
NH3 are 0.59, 0.74, 0.40, and 0.37 respectively, there was no significant difference between
individual plant and combination of plants. This form the basis for the conclusion that the
combination of the Coix and Rhynchospora might not make much difference in wastewater
treatment because there is tendency of one plant dominating the other.
It was also established from the study that the higher the HRT, the higher the treating efficiency,
as earlier confirmed by previous studies of Ewemoje (2016). However, 10 days HR was best for
the study.

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Technique Using Gravity Sand Filter. AZOJETE, 14(3):391-403. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818,
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