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Procedia139 (2017) 000–000
00 (2017) 710–717
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International Conference On Materials And Energy 2015, ICOME 15, 19-22 May 2015, Tetouan,
Morocco, and the International Conference On Materials And Energy 2016, ICOME 16, 17-20 May
2016, La Rochelle, France
The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
Numerical investigation and analysis of indoor air quality in a room
Assessing the
based feasibility of using
on impinging jetthe heat demand-outdoor
ventilation
temperature function
a, b, c for a long-term
b, c districta,heat
c demanda,forecast
c
Lounes Koufi , Zohir Younsi , Yassine Cherif , Hassane Naji *
a,b,c
I.Univ.
a
Andrić *, A.
Artois, EA 4515, Pinaade
Laboratoire , P. Ferrão
Génie
a b
, J. Fournier(LGCgE,
Civil et géo-Environnement ., B. Lacarrière c
, O.
EA 4515), F-62400 Correc
Le France
Béthune,
b
FUPL, Hautes Etudes d'Ingénieur (HEI), LGCgE, 13 Rue de Toul, F-59000 Lille, France
a
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and cPolicy Research
Univ. Lille, - Instituto
F-59000 Lille, Superior
LGCGE, Técnico,
France Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
b
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
c
Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
Abstract

This study presents numerical investigation and analysis of carbon dioxide transport (CO2) within an isothermal three-
Abstract
dimensional room using impinging jet ventilation (IJV). The IJV is an effective strategy for use in buildings. The study is carried
out under turbulent and transient flow regime. The URANS equations supplemented with energy and concentration equations are
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
solved using the scStream code. We are targeting primarily the efficiency of the ventilation ɛC and the index of indoor air quality
greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
(IIAQ). The ventilation flow rate is 50 m3.h-1. Here, our ultimate aim is to analyse the behaviour of the flow and repartition of CO2
sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
inside the room. The RNG k−ε model was adopted to handle the turbulence. CFD simulations were systematically checked
prolonging the investment return period.
through available experimental and/or numerical results. The obtained results indicated that the IJV ensures a homogeneous
The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand – outdoor temperature function for heat demand
concentration distribution and a velocity of the ambient air less than 0.25 m.s-1. This is in agreement with the recommendations of
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
ASHRAE Standard 55. The comparative results demonstrate that the IJV evacuates sufficiently the CO2 and ensures good air
buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
quality in an acceptable time.
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICOME 2015 and ICOME 2016.
(the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
Keywords: CFD simulation; impinging jet ventilation; indoor air quality; ventilation efficiency; turbulence.
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
Cooling.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +33-321-637-141; fax: +33-321-637-101
Keywords: Heat demand;
E-mail address: Forecast; Climate change
hassane.naji@univ-artois.fr

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICOME 2015 and ICOME 2016.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICOME 2015 and ICOME 2016
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.11.276
Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 139 (2017) 710–717 711
2 Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

1. Introduction
It is now accepted that ventilation systems, thermal comfort, and air quality within the built environment are
significant issues as they are related to both energy conservation, occupants' health, and productivity. Indeed, today,
-
Nomenclature
C Chemical species' concentration (ppm) t Time (s)
Cm Average concentration (ppm) T Temperature (K)
C0 Reference concentration (ppm) T0 Temperature reference (K)
Cin Chemical species' concentration at inlet (ppm) U Velocity modulus (m.s-1)
Cout Chemical species' concentration at outlet (ppm) ui Velocity components (m.s-1)
CTh Threshold concentration (ppm) Uin Velocity inlet (m.s-1)
Cp Specific heat (J.Kg-1.K-1) U Velocity vector (m.s-1)
2 -1
D Diffusion coefficient of chemical species (m .s ) xi Coordinates (m)
Dh Hydraulic diameter (m) Greeks symbols
IIAQ Index of Indoor air quality α Thermal diffusivity (m2.s-1)
g Gravity acceleration (m.s-2) βT Thermal expansion coefficient ( βT = T0−1 , K-1)
2 -2
k Turbulent kinetic energy (m .s ) βC Concentration expansion coefficient ( βC = C0−1 )
L Characteristic length (m) ɛ Turbulent energy dissipation (m2.s-3)
n Normal direction ɛC Ventilation effectiveness coefficient
N Buoyancy ratio ( N = βC ∆C βT ∆T ) λ Thermal conductivity (W.m-1K-1)
p Fluid pressure (Pa) µ Dynamic viscosity (kg.m-1s-1)
3 -1
Density of the mixture (kg.m-3)

Q Ventilation rate (m .h ) ρ
Re Reynolds number ( Re = ρU in Dh µ )
users spend more time inside the premises (homes, schools, offices, transports, stores, etc.) [1]. It is obvious that
proper distribution of air is an important issue for the comfort and the air quality of indoor spaces. Many pollutants
from a variety of sources may be present in this environment and sometimes at higher concentrations than outside.
For a question of energy saving, the exchanges between the outside and inside buildings were greatly reduced what
could drive a containment situation thus leading to indoor air quality (IAQ) deterioration.
To overcome the problems related to the health of occupants and to reduce energy consumption, the ventilation
has been used. It is the primary mechanism for removing contaminants from within buildings. Thereby, the
ventilation is now considered as a promising solutions to ensure a good IAQ. Its role is to renew sufficiently stale air
by fresh air unpolluted and evacuate pollutants of the occupation zones. However, this technique can result in
significant energy costs. Indeed, the introduction of fresh air causes important temperature gradients that affect the
thermal comfort of occupants. These temperature gradients can be negative or positive depending on the climate.
For this, different ventilation strategies have been adopted to ensure a good IAQ firstly, and limit energy losses on
the other hand.
Since many decades, the impinging jet ventilation (IJV) is used for ventilated rooms [2, 3]. Indeed, this system is
capable to provide a better distribution of flow parameters (velocity, temperature and concentration) and as well as
its flexibility for both cooling and heating purposes. In the IJV system, a high momentum air jet is discharged
downwards, strikes the floor and spreads over it, thus distributing the fresh air along the floor in the form of a very
thin shear layer [4]. This method allows the airflow to overcome buoyancy forces due to temperature and
concentration gradients generated by the sources. Therefore, it promotes the evacuation of stale air and ensures
better ventilation efficiency in the occupied zone [5]. However, high velocities can take place in the occupied zone.
Therefore, the flow of IJV system must be neatly sized to allow proper design ensuring better indoor environment.
Several studies have been conducted to deepen understanding of the behavior of air flow and distribution of heat
and pollutants inside the ventilated rooms using IJV. Hereinafter, we briefly describe some work on the topic
discussed here. Karimipanah and Awbi [3] are among the first to raise the IJV. They carried out a numerical and
experimental study of the performance evaluation of such an approach. They considered a three-dimensional room
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Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3

equipped with a ventilation system with impingement jet. The authors compared its performance with another
system called “displacement ventilation” (DVS). The results presented are part of an extensive research program
aimed at developing alternative and effective ventilation systems. They found that the IJV system has slightly higher
performance than the DVS. Cao et al. [6] conducted an experimental study of the IJV inside a large-scale room
upstairs. The air jet is introduced perpendicularly to the ceiling. Then, the flow is deflected to become parallel. They
considered several Reynolds numbers (Re=103, 2.103 and 4.103) to determine the jet velocity, thereby ensuring a
certain comfort inside the room. The results showed that the flow behavior is different from earlier studies in a
relatively small room. Chen and Moshfegh [7] performed a numerical study of the IJV in an office room. They
compared the performance of the standard k−ε [8], the Renormalization Group (RNG) k−ε [9], and the Realizable
k−ε [10] models, for the prediction of the mean velocity field and the temperature pattern. The validation of these
models is performed via an experimental study inside a room with dimensions of 4.2×3.6×2.5 m3. The authors
found that the three models provide favorable predictions of velocities and temperature compared to the
measurements. Also, the RNG k−ε model afforded the best performance. Chen et al. [11] presented a numerical
study of the IJV under various heat loads from 17-65 W.m-2 in an office room. They performed measurements of
velocities and temperature to validate the numerical model. They tested three turbulence models, viz. RNG k−ε, SST
k−ω [12] and v2 − f [13]. They found that these models give good agreement with the measurements. It is the
v2 − f model that has provided the best performance, especially on the overall temperature prediction. Next, the
authors used the latter model to study the effect of several parameters such as position heat sources, and number of
occupants. In terms of results, the authors found that the dynamic and thermal fields are greatly influenced by the
parameters studied here. Since the ventilation effectiveness is typically used in building, we conducted a numerical
study to predict the aero-solutal behavior inside a three-dimensional ventilated room. To achieve this, the unsteady
Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved via the scStream Code. To handle the turbulence,
the RNG k−ε model is used, due to its reliability according to references [4, 11].
The main intent of this study is to assess the IJV in terms of behavior flow, IAQ, and air exchange efficiency for
the inside of such a room.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the physical model and governing equations
supplemented by specific boundary conditions are described. In section 3, key parameters of this study are
presented. After, the Section 4 is devoted to a brief description of the numerical approach while emphasizing its
validation. In Section 5, results are presented and discussed. Finally, the major conclusions are summed up in
Section 6.
2. Problem description and formulation

Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the ventilated room.

Figure 1 shows a schematic of the physical system along with inlet and outlet conditions. It is a ventilated
chamber of dimensions 4×3×2.5 m3 (i.e. length, width and height) filled with an air-CO2 mixture. It is provided with
two openings for the supply of fresh air and the evacuation of contaminated air. The ventilation flow rate is of 50
Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 139 (2017) 710–717 713
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m3.h-1. The walls are adiabatic and impermeable. Note that inlet and outlet air are positioned in the middle plane
Y=1.5 m.
2.1. Mathematical modeling
An unsteady state 3D-model is considered to analyze the flow in the whole room. The fluid is assumed to be
Newtonian, incompressible under the Boussinesq approximation while neglecting viscous heating. Besides, the
airflow is turbulent. Note that the level of concentration of CO2 is considered low (the amount of CO2 is much lower
than air (0.02%)). Based on these assumptions, the RANS equations can be expressed as:
∂ρ ∂t + ∇.( ρU ) = 0 (1)

( )
    
( )
∂ ρU ( )
∂t + ∇. ρU ⊗ U = −∇p + ∇. µ∇U − ui'u 'j + ρ g  βT (T − T0 ) + β C ( C − C0 )  e (2)

) ( )

(
∂ ρ C pT ) (
∂t + ∇. ρ C pTU = ∇ λ∇T − ρ C p ui'T ' (3)

) ( )

(
∂ ( ρ C ) ∂t + ∇. ρ CU = ∇ ρ D∇C − ρ ui' C ' (4)

where ρ ui'u 'j , ρ ui'T ' and ρ ui'C ' are the average Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat and mass fluxes, respectively, which
are modeled as follows:
ρ ui'u 'j = −µt Sij + ( 2 3) ρ kδij ; ρ ui'T ' = −α t ∇T ; ρ ui' C ' = − Dt ∇C (5)

where k = ui'u 'j 2 is the turbulent kinetic energy, δij is the Kronecker tensor, µt is the eddy viscosity, αt and Dt are the
turbulent thermal diffusivity and turbulent mass diffusivity, respectively. The eddy viscosity µt is computed by:
µt = Cµ ρ k 2 ε (6)

where ɛ is the turbulent dissipation rate, and Cµ is a constant model.


The RNG k−ε model is employed to close the system (1)-(4). The RNG k−ε model is an example of two equation
models that use the Boussinesq conjecture. It is based on the following equations:

( ) ( )
∂ ( ρ k ) ∂t + ∇. ρ kU = ∇  µ + ( µt σ k ) ∇k  + Gs + Gt + σε
 
(7)

( )  (  ) ( )(
∂ ( ρε ) ∂t + ∇. ρε U = ∇  µ + ( µt σ ε ) ∇ε  + C1 ( Gs + Gt ) 1 + C3 R f ( ε k ) − C2 ρε 2 k ) ( ) (8)

( ) ( )
with Gs = µt Sij∇.U , Gt = gi βT ( µt Prt ) ∇T + gi βC ( µt Sct ) ∇C , R f = − Gt ( Gt + Gs ) , Sij = ∂ui ∂ x j + ∂u j ∂ xi , and σk, σɛ,
C1, C2, C3, Cµ are the model constants whose values are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Constants of the model RNG k-ε model.
σk σɛ C1 C2 C3 Cµ
0.719 0.719 C1(η) 1.680 0.000 0.085

(
with C1 (η ) = 1.42 − η (1 − η 4.38) (1 + 0.012η 3
)) , η = kS ε , η = kS / ε and S = ( Sij Sij ) .
12

2.2. Boundary conditions


The system of equations (1)-(8) are subjected to the following boundary conditions (BCs). U=0 on all solid
surfaces, U=Uin at the air inlet, ∂U ∂n = 0 at the air outlet. As for thermal BCs, the room is supposed isotherm at
292 K and its walls are adiabatic. For the CO2, we assumed that its concentration is 2000 ppm at t=0 s, while the air
enters at a concentration of 350 ppm. At the outlet, we set ∂C ∂n = 0 . Regarding the turbulent quantities, their values
are those advocated by Henkes et al. [14].
714 Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 139 (2017) 710–717
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3. Characteristic parameters
When dealing with indoor air quality via the ventilation, there are two key parameters, namely the ventilation
efficiency (ɛC) and the indoor air quality Index (IIAQ). The first allows assessing the ability of a ventilation system to
remove pollutants in a ventilated domain, and the second evaluates the IAQ with respect to a pollutant. It should be
noted that that εC>1 translates an effective ventilation, and when IIAQ<1, the indoor air quality is considered good.
Cout − Cin C − Cout
These parameters can be defined, respectively, as follows [5]: ε C = and I IAQ = m (9)
Cm − Cin CTh − Cout

4. Numerical modeling
4.1. Discretization
The computational analysis is performed using the general purpose finite-volume. A quadratic structured mesh is
used with a coefficient of geometric expansion of 1.05. The terms of advection and diffusion are discretized using
second-order central differencing scheme. The SIMPLEC algorithm [15] was used for the pressure-velocity
coupling. The resolution of the resulting algebraic system is achieved using multiple-iteration constrained conjugate
gradient.
Before the targeted simulations, we have checked the independence of the mesh with respect to results. For this,
we built four mesh grids with a time step of 0.01 s (21×26×31, 41×46×51, 61×66×71 and 81×86×91). The
obtained results indicated that the last two grids provide similar velocity and concentration profiles plotted at
different points of the area. Therefore, we chosen the grid 61×66×71 for all calculations implemented here.
Similarly, we examined the temporal evolution of velocity and concentration considering different time steps (0.5,
0.1, 0.05, 0.01 s). It was found that a time step less than 0.05 s gives satisfactory results. Normalized residuals
required for convergence has been 10-8 for the energy, and 10-5 for the remaining equations that correspond to 1% of
the default tolerance settings of stream.
4.2. Validation and verification
To check and validate our approach, different problems were considered. For not overload the text, we present
only the problem addressed by Chung and Hsu [16]. It concerns a ventilated 3D room filled with an air-CO2
mixture. At t=0 s, the CO2 concentration is at 2000 ppm and the mixture temperature is at 300 K. Fresh air is
introduced at a temperature of 300 K and CO2 concentration of 350 ppm. The ventilation flow rate is 391.7 m3.h-1.
The comparisons achieved are shown in Fig. 2 for the concentration's temporal evolution at the occupation zone
(point: 2, 2, 1.2). Based on these comparisons, it can be concluded that the current numerical approach, for the case
of this study, provides satisfactory results.

Fig. 2. Temporary evolution of the concentration at point (2, 2, 1.2); comparison with [16].
Lounes Koufi et al. / Energy Procedia 139 (2017) 710–717 715
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5. Results and discussions


In the following, we present the results of impinging jet ventilation system. We show streamlines, iso-velocity
and temporal evolution of the CO2-concentration for different measurement points at three levels (Z=0.8, 1.2 and 1.7
m). The coordinates of these points are gathered in Table 2.
Figure 3 presents the streamlines plotted when steady state is reached. We found that the jet air changes direction
at floor level, and allows the distribution of fresh air at the bottom and adjacent side walls. Then, the air tends to rise
upwards to reach the exit causing recirculation zones in the occupation area. Also, we note that the flow is
symmetrical about the middle plane (Y=1.5 m). From these results, we can state that the air is evenly distributed in
the room.

Table 2. Measurement points.


Z=0.8 m Z=1.2 m Z=1.8 m
Points Points Points
X (m) Y (m) X (m) Y (m) X (m) Y (m)
P01 3.0 1.5 P11 3.0 2.0 P21 3.0 1.5
P02 2.0 1.5 P12 3.0 1.0 P22 2.0 1.5
P03 1.0 1.5 P13 2.0 2.0 P23 1.0 1.5
P04 3.0 2.0 P14 2.0 1.0 P24 3.0 2.0
P05 3.0 1.0 P15 1.0 2.0 P25 3.0 1.0
P06 2.0 2.0 P16 1.0 1.0 P26 2.0 2.0
P07 2.0 1.0 P17 3.0 1.5 P27 1.0 1.0
P08 1.0 2.0 P18 2.0 1.5 P28 1.0 2.0
P09 1.0 1.0 P19 1.0 1.5 P29 1.0 1.0

In order to control the airflow distribution in the room, we have plotted the contours of iso-velocity with two
values 0.25 and 0.15 m.s-1. These contours are showed in Figure 4. We have found that the jet propagates in a
similar manner in the longitudinal and lateral directions. The velocity of the jet decreases as one moves away from
the air inlet diffuser. The velocity in the vicinity of the diffuser is well above 0.5 m.s-1. Note that, around the exhaust
opening, the velocity is higher than 0.5 m.s-1. It should be noted that the velocity of the airflow in the zone of
occupancy is less than 0.25 m.s-1. This is in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 55's recommendations.

Fig. 3. Streamlines: front view (left) and perspective view (right).


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Fig. 4. Contour plots of iso-velocity with 0.25 m.s-1 (left) and 0.15 m.s-1 (right).

Figure 5 depicts the temporal evolution of the concentration of CO2 of each measuring points. It is found that the
concentration at the local center is almost homogeneous. It decreases with time. This indicates that the ventilation
removes progressively the contaminant. At t = 100 min, the CO2-concentration level is very low with a value of only
410 ppm. Also, we observe that, for a given time, the concentration is almost constant regardless of sampling level.
Figure 6 shows the temporal evolution of ɛC (left) and IIAQ (right). We note that the IJV presents good efficiency
that is close to unity. This indicates that this process sufficiently evacuates the contaminant. Regarding the index of
indoor air quality, we get an IIAQ<1 after only 33 min. This period corresponds to the time where the concentration
of CO2 falls below 1000 ppm. Such a value corresponds to the limited risks value fixed by French regulations. We
find that the IJV puts only 33 min to avoid dangerous exposure. We believe this time is widely appreciated.
Following these results, it is clear that the IJV provides better comfort environment ventilation, i.e. good
ventilation effectiveness to remove pollutant ( ε C ≅ 1 ), good air quality (IIAQ<1) in an acceptable time (33 min only),
and favorable airflow distribution inside the room (0.25 ms-1). Otherwise, the IJV ensures a perfect homogeneity
inside the room.

Fig. 5. Temporal evolution of the concentration (ppm) at different Z (Z=0.8 m (left), Z=1.2 m (middle), Z=1.7 m (right)).

Fig. 6. Temporal evolution of ɛC (left) and IIAQ (right).


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6. Concluding remarks
This study deals with the numerical simulation of a turbulent contaminated flow in a 3D room. The emphasis has
been on the influence of ventilation on the behavior flow and indoor air quality in a ventilated room. Computations
have been performed with Re of 5. 103. In URANS framework, the RNG k−ε turbulence model has been used. The
remarks summarizing the present study are:
• According to the results of the behavior of the airflow, the IJV ensures good distribution of fresh air inside the
room. The air is spreading in a similar manner in longitudinal and lateral directions. In the zone of occupancy, the
flow velocity is less than 0.25 m.s-1. This is in line with ASHRAE Standard 55.
• Regarding the ventilation effectiveness to remove CO2, the IJV provides favorable efficiency ( ε C ≅ 1 ). This
indicates that the air-CO2 mixture is greatly diluted. The concentration at the outlet air is substantially equal to
the average concentration of the room. This proves that the air-CO2 mixture is homogeneous inside the room.
• Finally, the IJV ensures good air quality after 33 min. Such a delay is acceptable to minimize CO2 exposure to
concentration greater than 1000 ppm.

Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to the financial support from “Hautes études d'ingénieur (HEI)” and the “Hauts de
France” region, which enabled this work to be carried out.

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