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RELIEF VALVES

Presented By,

Shino Antony Senior Leader-Aftermarket Dresser Al-Rushaid Valve & Instrument Company Ltd.

Topics Covered

INTRODUCTION TO RELIEF

Relief System- Hazards & Case Studies

EVT Method of Testing the valves ONLINE

INTRODUCTION TO RELIEF

Objectives

Define concept of relief Describe and Discuss the relief locations, types, scenarios. Discuss the relief system in specific unit operations.

Defense against accidents

1. Inherent safety plant design consideration

2. Better process control control systems, alarms, safety shutdown systems

3. Install relief systems to relieve liquids or gases before excessive pressure are developed.

Relief systems

compose of the relief device and the

associated

downstream process

material

ejected.

equipment & safety handle the

Relief Method

The method used for safe installation of pressure relief

devices:

Relief Method The method used for safe installation of pressure relief devices:

Relief Concept

Pressure relief systems are required for the following reasons:

• to protect personnel from the dangers of overpressurizing equipment,

• to minimize chemical losses during pressure

upsets,

• to prevent damage to equipment,

• to prevent damage to adjoining property,

• to reduce insurance premiums,

• to comply with governmental regulations.

Let’s Think…

Assume that an exothermic reaction is occurring within a reactor.

If cooling is lost because of a loss of cooling water supply, failure of a valve, or other

scenario, then the reactor temperature will rise.

Let’s Think…

As the temperature rises, the reaction rate increases leading to an increase in heat production.

This self-accelerating mechanism results in a runaway reaction.

Let’s Think…

The pressure within the reactor increases because of increased vapor pressure of the liquid components and/or gaseous decomposition products resulting from the high temperature.

Let’s Think…

Reaction runaways for large commercial reactors can occur in minutes, with temperature and pressure

increases of several hundred degrees per minute and several hundred psi per minute, respectively.

What happen if the reactor has no relief system?

Figure 8-2 Pressure versus time for runaway reactions: (A) relieving vapor, (B) relieving froth (two-phase

Figure 8-2

Pressure versus time for runaway reactions:

(A) relieving vapor, (B) relieving froth (two-phase flow), and (C) closed reaction vessel.

Curve C reactor has no relief system

- P and T increases until the reactant are completely consumed.

- after the reactants are consumed, the

heat generation stop and the pressure subsequently drop. Curve B - has a relief system (two phase froth) - The pressure increase until the relief device activates Curve A has a relief system (vapor relief only)

- The pressure drop immediately when

the relief device opens

Relief System

The network of components around a relief device,

including the pipe to the relief, the relief device, discharge

pipelines, knockout drum, scrubber, flare, or other types of equipment that assist in the safe relief process.

Location of Reliefs

Pressure relief devices are installed at every point identified as potentially hazardous (potential problems that may

result in increased pressures)

Location of Reliefs

Guidelines for specifying relief positions:

1.

All vessels reactors, storage tanks, towers

and drums.

2.

Positive displacement pumps, compressors

and turbines need reliefs on the discharged

side.

3.

Blocked-in section of cool liquid-filled lines

that exposed to heat such as heat exchanger &

cooling coil

Example 8.1

Specify the location of reliefs in the simple polymerization reactor system illustrated in Figure 8-

5. The major steps in this polymerization process

include:

(1)

pumping 100 lb of initiator into reactor R-1,

(2)

heating to the reaction temperature of 240 ° F,

(3)

adding monomer for a period of 3 hr, and

(4)

stripping the residual monomer by means of a

vacuum using valve V-15.

Because the reaction is exothermic, cooling during monomer addition with cooling water is necessary.

Figure 8-5 Polymerization reactor without Safety reliefs.

Figure 8-5

Polymerization reactor without

Safety reliefs.

Figure 8-6 Polymerization reactor with safety reliefs.
Figure 8-6 Polymerization reactor with safety reliefs.
Figure 8-6 Polymerization reactor with safety reliefs.
Figure 8-6 Polymerization reactor with safety reliefs.

Figure 8-6 Polymerization reactor with safety reliefs.

Refer to Figures 8-5 and 8-6 and Table 8-1 for relief locations.

a.

Reactor (R-1): A relief is installed on this reactor

because, in general, every process vessel needs a relief. This relief is labeled PSV-1 for pressure safety valve 1.

b.

Positive displacement pump (P-1): Positive displacement pumps are overloaded, overheated, and damaged if they are dead-

headed without a pressure-relieving device

(PSV-2). This type of relief discharge is usually recycled back to the feed vessel.

c.

Heat exchanger (E-1): Heat exchanger tubes can rupture from excessive pressures when

water is blocked in (V-10 and V-11 are closed)

and the exchanger is heated (by steam, for

example). This hazard is eliminated by adding

PSV-3.

d.

Drum (D-1): Again, all process vessels need

relief valves, PSV-4.

e.

Reactor coil: This reactor coil can be pressure-

ruptured when water is blocked in (V-4, V-5,V-6, and V-7 are closed) and the coil is heated with steam or even the sun. Add PSV-5 to this coil.

Relief Types

Specific types of relief devices are chosen for specific applications:

- for liquid,

- gases,

- liquid & gases,

- solid

- corrosive materials

Relief Types

2 categories of relief devices:

a) spring-operated valves

1. conventional

2. balanced-bellows

- relief set pressure 10% above the normal operating pressure.

b) rupture discs

- Rupture discs are specially designed to rupture at a specified relief set pressure. - can be made from exotic corrosion-resistant material

- problem: once it open, it remain open lead to

complete discharge of process material.

Rupture discs are frequently installed in series to a spring-loaded relief (1) to protect an expensive spring-loaded device from a corrosive environment,

(2)

to give absolute isolation when handling

extremely toxic chemicals (spring-loaded reliefs may weep),

(3)

to give absolute isolation when handling

flammable gases,

(4)

to protect the relatively complex parts of a spring-

loaded device from reactive monomers that

(5)

could cause plugging, to relieve slurries that may plug spring-loaded devices.

3 sub-category types of spring-loaded pressure reliefs:

1. The relief valve is primarily for liquid service.

- The relief valve (liquid only) begins to open at the set pressure.

- This valve reaches full capacity when the

pressure reaches 25% overpressure.

- The valve closes as the pressure returns to the set pressure.

2. The safety valve is for gas service. - Safety valves pop open when the pressure exceeds the set pressure.

3. The safety relief valve is used for liquid and gas service.

- Safety relief valves function as relief valves

for liquids and as safety valves for gases.

****************END OF SESSSION*******************

RELIEF SYSTEM- HAZARDS &

CASE STUDIES

What is the Hazard?

Despite safety precautions …

o

Equipment failures

o

Human error, and

o

External events, can sometimes lead to …

Increase in process pressures beyond safe levels, potentially resulting in …

o OVERPRESSURE due to a RELIEF EVENT

What is a Relief System?

A relief device, and

Associated lines and process equipment to safely handle the material ejected

Why Use a Relief System?

Inherently Safe Design simply can’t eliminate every

pressure hazard

Passive designs can be exceedingly expensive and cumbersome

Relief systems work!

Pressure Terminology

MAWP Design pressure

Operating pressure

Set pressure

Overpressure

Accumulation

Blowdown

MAWP • Design pressure • Operating pressure • Set pressure • Overpressure • Accumulation • Blowdown

Pros & Cons:

Conventional Valve

Advantages Most reliable type if properly sized and operated

Versatile -- can be used in many services

Disadvantages

Relieving pressure affected by back pressure

Susceptible to chatter if built-up back pressure is too high

Pros & Cons:

Balanced Bellows Valve

Advantages

Relieving pressure not affected by back pressure

Can handle higher built-up back pressure

Protects spring from corrosion

Disadvantages

Bellows susceptible to fatigue/rupture

May release flammables/toxics to atmosphere

Requires separate venting system

Pros & Cons:

POSRV’s

Advantages Smaller package on the larger pipe sizes.

Seals more tightly as the system pressure approaches but does not reach set pressure.

Control pilot can be mounted remotely.

Disadvantages

More expensive at smaller sizes (starts to even out as

pipe size increases).

Small parts in pilot valve are sensitive to contaminant particles.

Rupture Devices

Rupture Pin

Rupture Devices • Rupture Pin • Rupture Disc

Rupture Disc

Rupture Devices • Rupture Pin • Rupture Disc

When to Use a Spring-Operated Valve

Losing entire contents is unacceptable Fluids above normal boiling point

Toxic fluids

Need to avoid failing low

Return to normal operations quickly

Withstand process pressure changes, including vacuum

When to Use Both Types

Need a positive seal (toxic material, material balance

requirements)

Protect safety valve from corrosion

System contains solids

Installation, Inspection, and Maintenance

To undermine all the good efforts of a design crew, simply

Improperly install relief devices

Fail to regularly inspect relief devices, or

Fail to perform needed/required maintenance on relief devices

Anything Wrong here? Bellows plugged in spite of sign Failed Inspection Program
Anything Wrong here?
Bellows plugged
in spite of sign
Failed
Inspection
Program
Discharges Pointing Down Anything Wrong here?
Discharges
Pointing Down
Anything Wrong here?
Reduced Inlet Piping Anything Wrong here?
Reduced
Inlet Piping
Anything Wrong here?
Will these bolts hold in a relief event? Anything Wrong here?
Will these
bolts hold
in a
relief event?
Anything Wrong here?

Summary

Pressure Relief

Very Important ACTIVE safety element

Connected intimately with Process Hazard Analysis

Requires diligence in design, equipment selection, installation, inspection and maintenance

EVT®-PRO

ELECTRONIC BEST

UNDER PRESSURE

VALVE TESTER

Exclusively Available

Through Your Local GTC®

In-Situ Testing - No Problem Manage OSHA PSM 1910 Standards

Test All Manufacturers Pressure Relief Valves

Improve Plant Uptime

Increased Revenue

Time saving & Cost effective

Technologically

Advanced Testing

The EVT-Pro device enables you to meet OSHA

requirements for periodic testing and documentation

without shutting down processes or removing valves from service.

In-situ testing without removing the valve from the

process line

True “ HOT SET PRESSURE”

Four Major Parts

Four Major Parts
Four Major Parts
Four Major Parts
Four Major Parts
Four Major Parts

See Exact Set Pressures

Colorful and clear graphics assist the end user in seeing

exact set pressures for the valve in test.

Unique acoustic sensor feature provides confirmation of set pressure on force curves delivering confidence in each test.

Unique acoustic sensor feature provides confirmation of set pressure on force curves delivering confidence in each
Unique acoustic sensor feature provides confirmation of set pressure on force curves delivering confidence in each

Features & Benefits

Feature

In Line Testing

Pre-Planning Outages

Ability to Test any Brand Portable and Lightweight

Auto Shutdown Safety Feature

Graphic Reporting

Test Gas, Liquid and Steam

ASME Qualified

Benefit

Maximize Plant Uptime

ID Problem Valves for Rapid Turn- arounds

Relief Valve One Stop Testing by GTC® Can be Placed in any Location in any Plant Quickly and Easily

Unique Safety Feature Allows for Closure of Valve Under Full-Lift Circumstances

Easy to Read and Understand

Capable of Testing all Medias

Meets ASME Code Requirements

How EVT®-Pro Works

Testing is Based on a Force Balance Analysis of the Valve

Where F3 + F2 = F1

Force of spring = F1

System inlet pressure=F2

EVT pull= F3

Balance Analysis of the Valve Where F3 + F2 = F1 • Force of spring =
Balance Analysis of the Valve Where F3 + F2 = F1 • Force of spring =

Mathematics of In Situ PRV Testing

The ability to accurately determine PRV set pressure

during in situ testing relies on three known factors:

Hydraulic force generated by test equipment;

Inlet pressure resulting from process pressure;

Effective seat area of PRV.

Equation: Set pressure = Inlet Pressure + (Hydraulic Force ÷ Effective Seat Area).

Graphical representation of results

Graphical representation of results

EQUIPMENTS/TOOLS

EVT Pro test equipment - Tool box

EQUIPMENTS/TOOLS • EVT Pro test equipment • - Tool box

Safety Precautions

Do not stand in front of the discharge side of a pressure relief

valve when testing.

Exercise extreme care when examining a pressure relief valve

for visible leakage.

Know the points of possible media exhaust or leakage for the valve being tested. Some valves exhaust media at locations other than the valve outlet.

Ensure installed pressure relief valves provide adequate

access around the valve to include overhead clearance for equipment mounting.

Use caution when testing pressure relief valves installed in flammable or toxic environments. Ensure appropriate protective

measures are being implemented.

DO NOT OPERATE THE EVT-PRO IF SAFETY IS QUESTIONABLE.

Required PRV data

The following parameters, as a minimum, must be

entered before the PRV data can be stored:

Expected set pressure;

Functional seat area; this data is derived from the Seat area calculation methods available on the EVT-Pro data

screen.

Tolerance norm, i.e. ASME Sec I, ASME Sec VIII, etc;

Process pressure.

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Certification

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