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Experimental Study of Tip F. Kameier BMW Rol-Royoe Aeroengines, Escnenwe, 18827 Danowt Federal Republi of Gemany W. Neise Dest Forschungsansta fr Luft und Raunt eV, -otiung Turbloatorschung Bec Mile-Bresiay-Stabe 8, 10623 Geta, Feral Repubie Germany Clearance Losses and Noise in Axial Turbomachines and Their Reduction ‘An experimental study is described to investigate the negative effects of the tip ‘clearance gap on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of axial turbomachines. In addition to the increased broadband levels reported in the literature when the tip Clearance is enlarged, significant level increases were observed within narrow fre ‘quency bands below the blade passing frequency. Measurements of the pressure and velocity fluctuations inthe vicinity ofthe blade tips reveal thatthe tip clearance noise is associated with a rotating flow instability at the blade tip, whlch in turn ts only present under reversed flow conditions in the tip elearance gap. A turbulence genera ‘or inserted into the tip clearance gap is found to be effective in eliminating the tip clearance noise and in improving the aerodynamic performance. Introduetion ‘The present paper is concemed with the negative effects of the radial clearance between the casing wall and the blade tip ‘upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance characteristics of axial turbomachines like jet engines, axial compressors, and axial fans. I is well known that a small tip clearance is beneficial for both the aerodynamic performance and the noise characteristic of axial turbomachines. The pressure rise increases and the ‘onset of rotating stall moves to lower flow rates as the clearance is reduced; compare Hutton (1955) and Cumpsty (1989). Tip clearance noise can be 2 significant source of noise when the tp clearance exceeds a certain limit. While Marcinowski (1953), Longhouse (1978), Sttz (1988), and Fukano et al. (1986) reported increased broadband noise levels as a result of an enlarged tp clearance, Kameier etal, (1992) observed, on top. Of the higher broadband noise, drastic level increases within limited almost narrow-band frequency regions below the blade passing frequency. This narzow-band noise component was found when the dimensionless gap width became larger than 7 1D = 0,027 (D = impeller diameter) and at low rates equal ‘o or smaller than the optimum. The generation mechanism of the tip clearance noise, however, is sill widely unknown, In turbomachinery sciences, the fow around the blade tip is generally known a$ tip clearance vortex, and is schematically Shown in Fig. 1. This tip vortex corresponds to the vortex at the end of an aircraft wing. In an axial turbomachine such vortices are generated on each blade. As inthe case of aircraft wings, tho tip vortices of axial turbomachines are generated by the pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides ofthe airfoil (rotor blades). The flow field between two adjacent Diades is not affected much by the presence of the vortices attached to the blade tips, from where they are convected down- stream with the main low. In addition to he classical tip vortex, the pressure difference between the suction side and the pressure side of the impeller disk of an axial fan or compressor drives ‘2 secondary flow through the tip clearance inthe axial direction; See the flow sketch in Fig. 2. Differently from the blade tp Vortex, the reversed flow condition inthe blade tip regime ex- Continued by te Tuborsctinery Divison for pblstion ia the Juma. cop Tinsowncrneny. Anant recived ot ASME HendgunersFebary 17 thas. Asscnte Techie Ealoe NA. Campa 480 / Vol. 119, JULY 1997 tends over the entre circumference of th rotor, as wll be shown later when discussing the results of hot-wire measurements. The size of the radial gap between blade tip and casing wall is decisive forthe strength of the secondary flow, which in carn influences the mean flow field in the ip region including the flow separation processes atthe blade tips. ‘To investigate the unsteady flow processes in the blade tip region that are responsible for the aerodynamic losses a well 8 for the generation ofthe tip clearance noise, measurements are made inthis study of the pressure fluctuations at the casing ‘wall in the vicinity of the impeller, of the pressure fluctuations ‘on the impeller blades, and of the steady and unsteady velocity fluctuations around the blade tips as well asin the tip clearance gap itself. In this way, some aspects of stall inception on the bade tips could be clarified. Finally, a simple method is de- scribed to diminish the negative effect of the tip clearance gep while maintaining its nominal width, Experimental Apparatus ‘The test fan is a low-speed high-pressure axial fan with outlet guide vanes. The design is similar to an axial fan manufactured by J. M. Voith GmbH, Heidenheim, Germany (now Voith How- den GmbH) who kindly supplied the impeller blades. The im- peller diameter was Kept constant throughout all expeciments, ‘andthe tip clearance was varied by changing the easing diame” ter Four different casing segments were used to give gap widths ‘of 03, 06, 1.2, and 2.4 mmm, which correspond {o tip clearance ratios of 7 = 5/D = 0,00066, 0.0013, 0.0027, and 0.0053. The principal impeller dimensions sre summarized below: Rotor diameter D = 452.4 mm Hub-to-tip ratio e = 0.62 NACA 65 blade profile Rotor blade number Z = 24 Blade chord length at the tip ¢ = 43 mm Blade stagger angle at the tip 8 = 27 des ‘The stator row comprises V = 17 nonprofiled vanes. Figure 3 shows the experimental setup along with its major dimensions. ‘The measurement facility meets the requirements of DIN 24 163 (1985) for measurement of the aerodynamic fan perfor- ‘mance, On the inlet side there is a short duet section with a bellmouth nozzle; there are no flow straighteners nor screens inthe inlet duct. The anechoically terminated outlet dut isin ‘Transactions of the ASME a Tpsotexat te imple blade tip of nal turbomachin trom rar, 1965) accordance with the standardized in-duct method (DIN 45 635 Part 9, 1989; ISO $136, 1990). A bin. microphone equipped ‘with a turbulence screen (slit-tube) is mounted in a rotatable dluct section to measure the circumferentally averaged sound pressure level ata specified radial distance from the duct sxis, ‘The pressure fluctuations on the interior casing wall are moni- tored by using f-in, microphones (Bruel & Kjaer type 4138), Which are mounted fush with the inner wall; see Fig. 4. To ‘measure the unsteady blade pressures, four miniature pressure sensors (Kalite type LQ 47-5-SG) are mounted in small re- cesses of the impeller Blades so that the eriginal outer blade contour i retained; se the schematic in Fig. 5, The low-voltage curpat signals of the sensors are amplified within the rotating system and then transmitted into the fixed frame of reference Via a two-channel telemetry system (Datatel). ‘A special hot-wire probe (Fig. 6) is used to measure the flow field in the blade tp region as well asin the 2.4-mm-wide tip clearance gap. The probe shaft is placed in a cylindrical hole Fig.2, Schemati view of secondary flow driven bythe prasture ctr. ‘nce between suction and presaure ie Inthe ip ragon of the fan casing and can be rotated around its axis. Four prongs hhold two parallel wires at distance of 2.8 mm, which are driven bby constant-temperanure anemometers. To vary the radial mea- surement position, the prongs are moved in and out of the fan ceasing while the probe shaft maintains its position, With this arrangement a minimal distortion of the ow fleld by the pres- ence ofthe hot-wire probe is ensured. The velocity components in the axial and azimuthal directions are determined by per- forming measurements at different yaw angles betwcen the hot wires and the mean flow. At any given yaw angle, the flow Girection is detected by comparing the signals from the two wires, ic. the signal from the fist wire in he direction of the flow is lager than that from the second wire. "More details about the experimental equipment and measure- ment techniques are given by Kameier (1994), Effect of the Tip Clearance on the Aerodynamic and Acoustic Fan Performance In Fig. 7 are shown the aerodynamic and acoustic fan perfor- ‘mance curves for four tip clearance ratios in terms of the pres- Nomenclature 145 = speed of sound 5 = tip clearance gap = angular rotor speed c= flow velocity in the ¢ direction St = Strouhial number = ({D/U)(FIZ) M4 = angular velocity ofthe rotating in- average axial flow velocity = 4Q/m(Di ~ Diy) impeller diameter = 452 mm Ar= time delay rotor tip Speed = 9 D/2 V = number of stator vanes Stability component relative t the fixed frame of reference 95, = angular velocity ofthe rotating in- De casing diameter = D+ 2s Z_ = number of rotor blades stability component rlative to the f = frequency (2 = flow angle rotating frame of reference (im. At = filter bandwiats ‘coherence function = |Gual*/ peller) Gyr = power spectrum (GG) ‘r= tip clearance ratio = «/D 2 = SrOss spectrum nondimensional < coordinate = 2/ Zp = pressure level = 20 lg pipe (po = ‘Superseripts 2x 10" Pa) ‘bw = Sound power level = 10 1g. P/P) (Po= 1 pW) specific Sound power level = Lw = 20 lg Ap/Apy ~ 10 ig 0/05 M = rotor up Mach number = U/ay wavelength tion (Ae Gy Journal of Turbomachinery D (E = at blade leading edge) = hub-te-tip rao = 0.62 stagger angle = 27 deg phase angle or coordinate diroc- phase angle of the cross spectrum flow coefficient = 40/xD2U flow coefficient a the point of ‘maximum effciony angular frequency F = fixed frame of reference 2 rotating frame of reference (Gmpeller) Subscripts I= coating inability Abbreviations BEF = blade passing frequency ‘CN = clearance noise [RF = rotor shaft Frequency RI = rotating instability (RIF = rotating instability frequcacy) RS = rotating stall (RSF = rotating stall frequency) imuthal distance) JULY 1997, Vol. 119 / 461 CU SUS eens ea Ss ee esaue 4 or Test ave! sooe 200 sdf] fe TE e-mcropnone with invotatane sue secton 2580 I T |B soscnogggamaton | | 00 | Fig. 3. Experimental cotup (mension in rm sure coefficient W, efficiency n, and specific sound power level Ly, a8 functions of the flow coefficient ® (for definitions see the nomenclature). Except for the largest tp clearance, the fan performance curves are characterized by pronounced hysteresis oops with sudden drops in flow rate, fan pressure, and effi- ciency, and accompanying increases inthe specific sound power level when the fan is throttled into the stall region. The larger the hysteresis loop, the larger the drop in fan pressure and efficiency, as was demonstrated earlier by Hutton (1955). Note that the rise in specific sound power level is as much as 20 dB at small ip clearances. The smaller the tip clearance, the further the fan can be throtled before the blade flow is stalled but, on the other hand, the stronger the hysteresis type behavior, At the largest tip clearance (r = 0.0083), the hysteresis loop is re~ duced to @ very small regime, which is visible only in the Fig. Sections view ofthe fan wih pressure rnaduoers KULITE LO {77 mounted on the impeller bodes and of the pi. microphones BEK ‘7.8, mounted Hash we the mer caning wal 462 / Vol. 119, JULY 1997 ig. Schematic of pressure sensors mounted on the impel blade specific sound power level distribution, while there is onty a