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# Sudirman, M.

Si
1 1
𝑣෤ = 𝑅𝐻 −
𝑛12 𝑛22

## 𝑅𝐻 = 109 667 𝑐𝑚−1

with n1= 1 (the Lyman series), 2 (the Balmer series), and 3 (the Paschen series), and
that in each case n2= n1+ 1, n1+ 2,...The constant R is now called the Rydberg constant
for the hydrogen atom.
 Calculate the shortest wavelength line in the Paschen
series!
 Key points

 (a) The Schrödinger equation for hydrogenic atoms separates into two equations:

the solutions of one give the angular variation of the wavefunction and the
solution of the other gives its radial dependence.

 (b) Close to the nucleus the radial wavefunction is proportional to r; far from the
nucleus all wavefunctions approach zero exponentially.
Hamiltonian for Hydrogenic atoms.

## The separation of variabel

Solution
The radial wavefunctions of the
ﬁrst few states of hydrogenic
atoms of atomic number Z. Note
that the orbitals with l = 0 have a
nonzero and ﬁnite value at the
nucleus. The horizontal scales are
different in each case: orbitals
with high principal quantum
numbers are relatively distant
from the nucleus.
 The specification of orbitals
 The quantum number n is called the principal quantum number; it can take the
value n = 1, 2, 3, . . . and determines the energy of the electron:
 An electron in an orbital with quantum number l has an angular momentum of
magnitude {l(l + 1)}1/2 ħ with l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n − 1.
 An electron in an orbital with quantum number ml has a z-component of angular
momentum ml ħ, with ml = 0, ±1, ±2,..., ±l.
 Bound State Energy

𝑍 2 𝜇𝑒 4 𝜇𝐻 𝑒 4
𝐸𝑛 = ℎ𝑐𝑅𝐻 =
32𝜋 2 𝜀02 ℏ2 𝑛2 32𝜋 2 𝜀02 ℏ2

𝜇𝐻 𝑚𝑒 𝑒 4
𝑅𝐻 = 𝑅 𝑅∞ = 2 3
𝑚𝑒 ∞ 8𝜀0 ℎ 𝑐
 The ionization energy, I, of an element is the minimum energy required to remove

an electron from the ground state, the state of lowest energy, of one of its atoms in
the gas phase. (n1 --> n∞)

𝐼 = ℎ𝑐𝑅𝐻
All the orbitals of a given value of n are said to form a
single shell of the atom.

## The orbitals with the same value of n but different values

of are said to form a sub- shell of a given shell.
 A term symbol gives three pieces of information:

Multiplicity
2D
5 Total angular
momentum quantum

Total orbital
angular momentum
 When several electrons are present, it is necessary to judge how their individual
orbital angular momenta add together or oppose each other.

## The value of L (a non-negative integer) is obtained by coupling the individual

orbital angular momenta by using the Clebsch–Gordan series:

The code for converting the value of L into a letter is the same as for the s, p, d, f, ...
designation of orbitals, but uses upper-case Roman letters:
 Find the terms that can arise from the conﬁgurations (a) d2 ,(b) p3
 When there are several electrons to be taken into account, we must assess their
total spin angular momentum quantum number, S (a non-negative integer or half
integer).Once again, we use the Clebsch-Gordan series in the form:
 As we have seen, the quantum number j tells us the relative orientation of the spin
and orbital angular momenta of a single electron. The total angular momentum
quantum number, J (a non-negative integer or half integer), does the same for
several electrons.

## The permitted values of J are given by the Clebsch-Gordan series

 Write the term symbols arising from the ground-state
conﬁgurations of (a) Na,(b) F
 Example: Find all of microstates and term symbol of p2 configuration!
 The term with the highest multiplicity (
microstates with highest number of
unpaired electrons) is lowest in energy.

##  For a term of given multiplicity, the greater

the value of L, the lower the energy.
 Any state of the atom, and any spectral transition, can be speciﬁed by using term
symbols.