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Dr.

Sarimah Ismail
OTHER TERMS USED TODAY

• Education-for-work
• Occupational Education
• Workforce Education
• Workforce and Human Resource Education
• Vocational and Technical Education
•Vocational and Technical Education and Training
• Technical and Vocational Education and Training
• Career/Technical Education
Types of Education

• Academic or College Preparation


- A high school curriculum designed to prepare
students for college

• General
- A high school curriculum designed to provide
students with a broad education

• Vocational
- A high school curriculum designed to prepare
students to enter the world of work (or more
recently – to also go to college)
TYPES OF EDUCATION

• Technical Preparation
- A high school curriculum designed to
prepare students for community college

• Technical Education
- A term used during the 1960’s to
differentiate between what was taught in
community colleges and high school
vocational programs.
WHAT IS TVET?
• An education and training which has specific vocational
focus, but excluding general education undertaken in
secondary school or higher education institutions. The
terms VTET and TVET are equivalent. (Alto, et. al., 2000)

• Organised educational programme offering a sequence of


courses directly to the preparation of individuals in paid
and unpaid employment in current or emerging
occupations requiring other than baccalaureate or
advanced degree. (Carl D. Perkins Vocational and
Technical Education Amendments of 1998)
GOALS OF TVET
• Meeting the needs of employers and industry for trained
semi and skilled workers, including responding to
changing workforce requirements.

• Providing training for those who will become self- employed or


who will work in the small business sector or
in family businesses.
• Providing TVET opportunities for young people who are
not proceeding directly to higher education, and for new
entrants to the workforce generally.
• Providing opportunities for existing workers to upgrade or
diversify their skills.
GOALS OF TVET… cont’d

• Providing retraining of workers whose skills have become


irrelevant or redundant as a result of technological change.
• Providing training or refresher courses for adults seeking to
re-enter the workforce after a long absence, for example,
mothers and the long-term unemployed.
• Through training, improving the workforce prospects of the
disabled and disadvantaged and those who involved in
marginal economic activities.
• Providing initial or pre-vocational training for those who have
not previously participated in TVET programmes.
• Ensuring that skills are transferable and recognised, and
that quality is assured, through proper articulation,
accreditation and certification arrangements.
TVET MODELS AND SYSTEMS
Three main models for delivering TVET:
1. The school-based model which provides a wide range of
general, technical and vocational courses generally on a
full time basis in vocational schools.
2. The dual model which encompasses all kinds of
apprenticeship programmes offering initial vocational
training under the formal school system and part-time
training in industry.
3. The mixed model which resembles the dual model but
places greater emphasis on training in the non-formal
sector. Found in countries where the school model is the
dominant form. A combination of distance education and
face-to-face study in classes, tutorials, practical sessions
or workshops.
VTET Models And Systems…cont’d

Debate on appropriate and efficient training modes on:


1. Future role of school-based training
2. Increasing role of non-formal training
3. Expansion of dual or enterprise-based training
Improving Non-formal Training

• Increase the level of information.


• Improve match between training and industry
requirements.
• Ensure increased recognition of non-formal training by
government agencies and employers.
• Develop a code of practice to include publication of
prospectus, employ suitably qualified instructors,
establish close liaison and consultation with industry and
labor unions, and provide adequate training facilities.
Non-formal Training Institutions
Should be given strong support and encouraged to develop
and expand by:

• Creating a favorable policy environment.


• Improving traditional apprenticeship programme.
• Promoting management training and increase flexibility of
staff programmes.
• Increasing flexibility of training duration and modes of
instruction.
• Securing support of industry and formal education
institutions in management training, course design,
trainee evaluation, staff training and use of facilities.
What is Career Technical Education
(CTE)?

Education for work

• A type of education whose chief


purpose is to fit individuals for useful
employment and/or further education
Career & Technical Education
In its broadest sense:
all education is vocational
(or Career & Technical Education)
Characteristics of CTE

1. Prepares for employment and/or further education


2. Develops physical and mental abilities
3. Provides for learning by doing
Benefits of CTE
1. Keeps youth in school longer
2. Increases national income
3. Provides goods and services more efficiently
4. Tends to raise the general standard of living
5. Retrains workers
6. Emphasizes the dignity of labor
7. Essential to the national welfare
Who Provides CTE?
1. Comprehensive High Schools
2. Area Vocational Centers
3. Private Vocational Schools
4. Diesel mechanics
5. Cosmetology
6. Community Colleges
7. Department of Labor – Apprenticeships
8. Business and Industry
9. Military
Why is CTE Needed?
Facts:
1. Of 100 student in 5th grade only
23 will graduate from college
2. 77% of high school students are
3. enrolled in a college prep or general
4. curriculum
5. Only 8% of the jobs require a 4
year college degree
Why CTE….
• The world is full of people with 4
year college degrees who can’t get a
job because they don’t know how to
do anything!!!

• Many students at Community


Colleges learning a trade have 4
year college degrees.
CTE Fields of Study
Historically, seven major areas of study in Career &
Technical Education

1. Agricultural Education
2. Business Education
3. Family and Consumer Sciences (Home Economics
Education)
4. Health Occupations Education
5. Marketing Education
6. Technology Education
7. Trade & Industrial Education
Food for Thought
"The society that scorns excellence in
plumbing because plumbing is a
humble activity, and tolerates
shoddiness in philosophy because it is
an exalted activity, will have neither
good plumbing nor good
philosophy. Neither its pipes nor its
theories will hold water.“
John Gardner
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