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Annotated Bibliography

University Name

Student Name

Authors’ Note


The current study critically analyses specific contextual factors that are important for decision

making in business enterprises. In doing this, five different articles that outline the contextual

factors (namely, organizational structures/governance system, different environmental forces,

business risks, business practices and functions of different business enterprises) are taken

into consideration. The current segment outlines the contextual factors illustrated in the

selected article, analyses research outcomes related to contextual factor discussed in the

selected article and presents the implications of the findings for managers in business


a) Organizational structures or governance:

Zakrzewska-Bielawska, A. (2016). Perceived mutual impact of strategy and

organizational structure: Findings from the high-technology enterprises. Journal

of Management & Organization, 22(5), 599-622. DOI:10.1017/jmo.2015.55

In an effective setting, an alignment is said to subsist between structures of business

enterprise, governance and the matter of exchange between the two. The study at hand

analytically evaluates the nature of association between strategies and business structure in

high tech firms.

The primary contextual factors that are taken into consideration are degree of impact

of organization framework on strategy and correspondingly influence of strategy on

organizational structure during two different phases namely, exploration and exploitation of


Research carried out in 61high-tech enterprises located in Poland reveals that effect of

organizational structure on business strategy is relatively stronger than influence of business

stratagem on business structure during the stage of innovation exploration. Conversely, the

influence of stratagem on business structure is relatively stronger during the phase of

innovation exploitation.

The managerial implications deciphered from the results of the study indicate that

managers of business enterprise have the need to constantly track and enhance the overall

alignment of organizational stratagems and structure. This can be carried by means of

implementation of requisite alterations in the dynamic standpoint and settle tensions

stemming between exploration as well as exploitation actions.

Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that both business stratagems

and structure in particularly high technology firms need to be ascertained from the standpoint

of both exploration as well as exploitation actions. Also, it can be said that structural

frameworks of enterprises need to have organic facets as this strongly ascertains the process

of formation of different supple resources and opportunity oriented stratagems. In the

exploitation stage of innovation, the stratagem that presents the product-market aims, after

proper utilization of available opportunities helps in ascertaining structure of the business that

might be more overbearing to ensure effective execution of activities.

b) Environmental forces:

Lee, W. L. (2014). Environmental uncertainty affects inter-organisational partner

selection: The mediating role of cost and strategy in alliance motivations among

SMEs. Journal of Management & Organization, 20(1), 38-55. DOI:


The selected article under consideration analyses the way environmental uncertainty

as well as motivation of alliance can exert an impact on partner selection of firms. The

primary contextual factors that are considered in this study include uncertainty of external

environment, alliance motivation (counting cost motivation and strategy motivation) and

selection of partner based on task and partner. In particular, the study at hand intends to

examine whether cost motivation can positively influence the association between

environment uncertainty and partner grouping based on task. Also, this paper also

analytically evaluates whether strategy motivation can exert a positive impact on association

between environment uncertainty and alliance based on partner.

The findings of the study validate the fact that environment uncertainty necessarily

exerts an impact on the criteria of partner selection in diverse distinctive manner. The article

under consideration also reveals that there exists a positive impact of environment uncertainty

on essentially costs as well as strategy based motivations for selection of partner.

The results of the study validates the conjecture that environment uncertainty that builds

up in selection of partner can enhance cost as well as strategy motivation, thereby enabling

alliance Tartners to aid one another in hours of need. Thus, environment uncertainty can be

considered as a significant accelerating facet of alliance motivation of firms. Therefore, the

managers have the need to comprehend the way corporations can learn to handle environmental

transformation. By means of cost as well as strategy objectives, managers have the need to

understand different notions of sharing costs or else risks of R&D development; avert duplicate

investment and enhance R&D potential and lessen the time required for different technological

advancements. Also, managers need to prioritise motivations and thereafter institute measuring

criteria as well as attributes for analysing partner before establishing an alliance.


It can be said that this study helps in understanding the way environment uncertainty

can exert impact on group partner selection in the assessment of criteria. Also this study also

focuses on significance of motivation of alliance and suggests the necessity for more context-

specific themes of inter-secretarial strategy coalition.

c) Risks confronting the firm:

Jiménez, A., Luis-Rico, I., & Benito-Osorio, D. (2014). The influence of political risk on

the scope of internationalization of regulated companies: Insights from a Spanish

sample. Journal of World Business, 49(3), 301–311. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2013.06.001

Perceptions of risks can be considered to be inherent part of the process of decision

making as it affects expectations of enterprises and thereby strategic initiatives. The current

section selects an article on political risks that constitutes not only a big threat for transnational

corporations but also present opportunities.

The article under consideration takes into account contextual factors that include

examination of political risks in particularly locations of FDI of transnational enterprises and

degree of impact of this risk on scope of internationalization of MNEs. The current study also

considers the context of diversity of different political risks in different locations of MNEs and

the effect of this risk on the overall possibility of internationalization of MNEs in regulated


After evaluation of the nature of influence of political risks in different

internationalization stratagem of MNEs, the study suggests that exposure as well as prior

experience in handling political risk can prove to be effective for creation of political potential.

These political capabilities can help in diverse actions, negotiations, acts of lobbying and

acquiring preferential condition in nations characterised by higher levels of political


discretionarily or else corruption. Furthermore, this paper has presented conclusive statements

regarding the way institutional environment (referring to political context) can exert impact on

the corporate stratagem and the way this kind of influence differs based on the category of

firms. Also, this study has reflected the fact that all enterprises are not equally affected by the

political risks.

This study aids managers in gaining a deep insight regarding political risks along with

political context for their enterprise. This study presents political stratagem as an opportunity

rather than a constraint suggest that enterprises might actively acquire value or guard from

government interaction.

Based on the findings of the study it can be hereby mentioned that exposure and prior

experience in managing political risk can develop political potential that can be used for

successful accomplishment of diverse actions, negotiations, acts of lobbying and acquiring

preferential condition in nations. This study suggests that the political risks do exert an

impact on internalizations, however, this influence is said to be stronger in areas where there

are greater degrees of regulation by different governing authorities.

d) Organization and business practices:

Russell, Z. A., Steffensen, D. S., Ellen, B. P., Zhang, L., Bishoff, J. D., & Ferris, G. R.

(2018). High performance work practice implementation and employee

impressions of line manager leadership. Human Resource Management Review,

28(3), 258–270. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2018.02.003

Organization and business practices refer to specific methods, procedures or rules

implemented or followed by a business enterprise in pursuit of its business objectives. The

current study utilizes themes on impression formation to illustrate the perpetual procedures

through which line managers’ execution of (High Performance Work Practices-HPWP) helps

the formation of diverse employee impressions regarding leadership styles of managers.

The primary contextual factors that are taken into consideration include formation of

high performance work practices (HPWP), implementation of HPWPs and implementation

style of different line managers towards organizational performance.

Also, this study analyses followers’ characteristics, their acknowledgment of intent

and impressions regarding leadership styles of line managers that mould individual

performance and consequently affects organizational performance.

The human resource management system and leadership are the two topics that are

heavily researched independently in the secretarial sciences. The results of the current study

indicate that there is much to be gained by means of assimilation of different micro as well as

micro domains at the time of addressing inconsistencies in high performance work practice

implementation. Essentially, this study presents arguments that certain characteristics of

employees shall influence attribution of execution intent and implementation style of line

managers affects the attribution. Consequently, these attributions stimulate impressions of

leadership depending upon complicated interdependent perpetual procedures.

The findings of the study suggest that human resource management of firms can make

line managers understand the advantages of executing the selected HPWPs. Also, the results

of the study indicate the ways in which effectual implementation can positively influence

perception of employees regarding line managers. Essentially, these impressions are often

associated to improved manager-employee associations along with higher level performance

of employees as well as group.


It can be hereby mentioned that the way HPWPs can be executed and interpreted,

founded on characteristics of employees as well as managers have important influences on

impressions of employee leadership. Consequently, this influences important individual as

well organizational outcomes of work.

e) Functions of diverse firms:

Remane, G., Hanelt, A., Nickerson, R. C., & Kolbe, L. M. (2017). Discovering digital

business models in traditional industries. Journal of Business Strategy, 38(2), 41–

51. doi:10.1108/jbs-10-2016-0127

Functions of diverse business enterprises are dependent on quality as well as speed of

decision making processes. Current advances in digital technology is said to have developed

new opportunities for development of connectivity of different products, augmentation of

new infrastructure and capabilities of diverse products and systems that in turn can be used

for decision making processes freely.

The primary contextual factor in this study is a structure that can decompose various

ingredients of digital models of business and permit recombining the same. This study

illustrates the way managers can systematically evaluate as well as discover digital models of

business that can prove to be concrete guidance for development of business practice.

Findings of the current study suggest that digital strategy need not be considered

separately from the business strategy. The study at hand highlights the fact that persistent

diffusion of advanced digital technologies can direct the way towards novel business models

in every industry by implementing new methods of value creation, capture along with


Based on the results of the study, it can be hereby mentioned that it is important for

managers to be aware of different opportunities following the implementation of advanced

digital technologies and incorporate the same in the business models. Managers from

different industries need to have specific tools as well as mechanisms that can guide them in

this process of transformation. Therefore, findings of the study suggest that managers need to

recognize existing products/services, deconstruct existing models of business and find out

effective configurations that are applicable for their enterprises in this digital era.

Analysis of the current study helps in understanding the fact that a structured

approach can help managers to incorporate digital technologies in framing business models of

firms in different industries. Incorporation of structured approach involves new mechanisms

of value creation by identifying subsisting products/services, deconstructing existing business

models and reconstructing advanced configurations as per need. Also, the study suggests that

transforming business models can consequently help in augmentation of capability of

business elements, products as well as systems to arrive at decisions automatically.


One specific contextual factor that can be considered to be one of the most significant for the

organizational performance of the CQUniversity is the organizational structure and

governance. The context of structural frames of CQUniversity that refer set of internal frames

of definite contextual factors is pertinent as the organization deals with different cultures

(students, staffs and faculties from varied ethnic and cultural background), varied political

networks that affect human resource procedures and management of people. Also, the structure

and system of governance provides an important guide to different institutional activities that

in turn have a structural influence on their overall performance.