2 views

Uploaded by Muhammad Zulhelmi

Nnhnunu

- Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.
- Transportation Statistics: entire
- shifts
- 9709_s09_qp_7
- Basic Statistics
- 2 - Statistics Review
- Headache Yesterday
- Lab 1 217 With Solution
- Getting Started With Qualitek-4 (Help).pdf
- AudCHAP9.Htm
- Abe Germansderfer
- Wilson Et Al
- Critical Appraisal Teaching
- ch 3 assignment sheet 2019
- ASTM E 1155 Procedure Floor Flatness
- Retail Sales July 2012
- Chapter 8
- Chapter 3 Kelompok 1
- Tutorial 5(4)
- Butterfly

You are on page 1of 15

Ch 4. Statistics

: sound knowledge of chemistry

: possibility of interferences

WHY do we need to use STATISTICS in Anal. Chem. ?

if not, from how will we disregard the data ?

by statistical treatment

4.2

* mean :x : or average

x i

x i

n

4.3

how closely the data are clustered

around the mean

s

(x i x )2

n 1

x (mean) (mu, popular mean)

s (sigma, popular standard deviation)

or 2 : var iance

4.4

4.5

1 ( x )2

Gaussian curve y exp( )

2 2 2

of Gaussian curve

in a gaussian curve

area under 1 = 68.3 %

2 = 95.5 %

3 = 99.7 %

4.6

3) std.dev. of mean

more measurements more confident on average

1 (nearly the true value)

uncertainty decreases by : n = number of meas.

n

s

standard deviation of mean = : s = std.dev.

n

s

* relative standard deviation = (RSD)

x

or into percentage = s 100 = C.V.

x

x

precision of mean =

n

average deviation of mean = d ( d xx )

n n

4.7

1) confidence interval : an expression stating that true mean, ,

is likely to lie within a certain distance

our measurements , s (instead of , )

x

True mean () is likely to lie within a certain range from

Confidence intervals

s

x t

n

4.8

sugars attached to it) is determined to be 12.6, 11.9, 13.0, 12.7, and

12.5 g per 100 g of protein in replicated analysis. Find the 50% and

90% confidence intervals for the carbohydrate content.

4.9

(from different measurements)

interval for comparing results

from other experimental tech.

: Two results do not differ from

each other IF there is 95%

chance that our conclusion is

correct.

4.10

we want to see if it agrees to a known value.

ex) Ni content; known value : 0.0319% (from std. Material)

measured value : 0.0329, 0.0322, 0.0330, 0.0323 %

The 95% confidence interval ?

0.0004

x 3.182 0.0326 0.0006

4

this interval doesn't cover 0.0319,

thus, measured value are different from known val.

(it implies there exists systematic errors)

4.11

1. <t-test> You are developing a procedure for determining traces of copper in

biological materials using a wet digestion followed by measurements by atomic

absorption spectrophotometry. In order to test the validity of the method, you

obtain a NIST orchard leaves standard reference material and analyze this

material. Five replicas are sampled and analyzed, and the mean of the results is

found to be 10.08 ppm with a standard deviation of 0.7ppm. The listed value is

11.7ppm. Does your method gives a statistically correct value at the 95%

confidence level ?

4.12

(test of two sets of measurements)

: test the two techniques are statistically the SAME or NOT

for two sets of data, n1, n2 measurements

x1 x 2 n1n2

t

S pooled n1 n2

S pooled

(x i x1 )2 ( x j x 2 )2

s12 (n1 1) s22 (n2 1)

n1 n2 2 n1 n2 2

this difference is significant

(out of random error range)

there exists systematic error

4.13

Ex) The average mass of nitrogen from air in Table 4-3 is =2.31011 g, with

a standard deviation of s1=0.00014, (for n1=7 measurements). The average

mass from chemical sources is =2.29947 g, with a standard deviation of

s2=0.00138 (for n2=8 measurements)

4.14

2. <t-test> A new gravimetric method is developed for iron (II) in which the iron

is precipitated in crystalline form with an organocarbon "cage" compound. The

accuracy of the method is checked by analyzing the iron in an ore sample and

comparing with the results using the standard precipitation with ammonia and

weighing of Fe2O3. The results, reported as % Fe for each analysis, were as

follows.

Test method Reference Method

20.10% 18.89%

20.50 19.20

18.65 19.00

19.25 19.70

19.40 19.40

19.99 19.40

=19.65% =19.24%

Is there a difference between the two methods ?

4.15

Cholesterol content (g/L)

sample

1 1.46 1.42 0.04

2 2.22 2.38 -0.16

3 2.84 2.67 0.17

4 1.97 1.80 0.17

5 1.13 1.09 0.04

6 2.35 2.25 0.10

=+0.06

d

t cal

d

n sd

(d i d )2

Sd n 1

4.16

: 5.1, 5.3, 4.8, 5.4, and 5.2x106 cells/L x =5.16 s=0.23

Today’s value = 5.6x106 cells/L

t cal n 5 4.28

Sd 0.23

See table 4.2: at 4 degrees of freedom, 4.28 lies between 98 & 99%

There is less than a 2% probability of observing a count of

5.6x106 cells/L on normal days.

4.17

F test ---- check two std.devs are significantly different each other.

S12

Fcalc 2 If Fcalc > Ftable then significant

S2

4.18

during measurements of mass lost of zinc,

we need to discard some questionable data

10.2, 10.8, 11.6, 9.9, 9.4, 7.8, 10.0, 9.2,

11.3, 9.5, 10.6, 11.6

4.19

1. Finding the BEST STRAIGHT LINE

y = mx + b

m: slope, b: y-intercept

vertical deviation

= di = yi - y

= yi - (mxi + b)

4.20

-- direct summation of each di ? no good

: Assume a gaussian distribution with std.dev. i.

for the observations about the actual value y(xi) at x=xi

1 1 y y 2

the probability Pi Pi exp i

i 2

i

2

minimize the sum in the exponential…

4.21

2

d

i

2

di2 = (yi - y)2 = (yi - mxi -b)2

i

minimizing (assume )

2

2

m

2

b

n ( x i y i ) x i y i

METHOD OF m

LEAST SQUARES n ( xi2 ) ( xi )2

b ( xi2 ) yi ( xiyi ) xi

n ( xi2 ) ( xi )2

Anal. Chem. by Prof. Myeong Hee Moon

4.22

estimate UNCERTAINTY in slope & intercept

std. dev. of y

y sy (di )2

deg rees of freedom ( n - 2)

2yn

m

2

n ( xi2 ) ( xi )2

2y ( xi2 )

b2

n ( xi2 ) ( xi )2

4.23

How to build calibration ?

1. prepare a series of std. Solutions (varying conc.)

measure absorbance.

4.24

then do least squares.

4.25

Uncertainty Propagation in Calibration curve

m : slope

Lowest error data from the center of calibration

4.26

Homework

4.27

1. The following replicate calcium determinations on a blood sample using AAS

and a new colorimetric method were reported. Is there a significant difference in

the precision of the two methods ?

AAS (mg/dL) 10.9, 10.1, 10.6, 11.2, 9.7, 10.0

Colorimetric (mg/dL) 9.2, 10.5,9.7, 11.5,11.6, 9.3, 10.1, 11.2

difference between indicators 1 and 2 significant at the 95%

confidence level ? Answer the same question for indicator 2 and 3.

Indicator Mean HCl concentration Number of

(M) (+std.dev.) Measurements

1. Bromothymol blue 0.09565 + 0.00225 28

2. Methyl red 0.08686 + 0.00098 18

3. Bromocresol green 0.08641 + 0.00113 29

4.29

contaminant in soil. Your analysis gives values of 98.6, 98.4, 97.2, 94.6, and

96.2 ppm. Do your results differ from the expected results at the 95%

confidence level ? If you made one more measurement and found 94.5, would

your conclusion change ?

- Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.Uploaded byzombiecorp
- Transportation Statistics: entireUploaded byBTS
- shiftsUploaded byViet Quoc Hoang
- 9709_s09_qp_7Uploaded byMehreen Al Li Yah
- Basic StatisticsUploaded byPooja Nanda
- 2 - Statistics ReviewUploaded bymangal_dhruv
- Headache YesterdayUploaded byaahmad87
- Lab 1 217 With SolutionUploaded byieltstutor
- Getting Started With Qualitek-4 (Help).pdfUploaded byAnne Smith
- AudCHAP9.HtmUploaded bydaking
- Abe GermansderferUploaded byAndy Rojas
- Wilson Et AlUploaded byapi-3828346
- Critical Appraisal TeachingUploaded byAtika Musfirah
- ch 3 assignment sheet 2019Uploaded byapi-417965670
- ASTM E 1155 Procedure Floor FlatnessUploaded byshrinivast
- Retail Sales July 2012Uploaded byCoy Davidson
- Chapter 8Uploaded byJohn Wong
- Chapter 3 Kelompok 1Uploaded byFelliciaIkko
- Tutorial 5(4)Uploaded byRUHDRA
- ButterflyUploaded bymasterrk
- math 1040 skittles term projectUploaded byapi-302981024
- Cultural Engagement and Incident Depression in Older Adults Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of AgeingUploaded byHesti hasan
- Ppt-12.pptUploaded bymayankpec
- Business Statistics -A First Course, 6th Edition by LevineUploaded bytestbankmarket
- HuhuhUploaded bybayu
- Boots TrappingUploaded byyavuz772
- Ch12 ExercisesUploaded byamisha2562585
- Coprod2Uploaded bySofyan Darmawan
- 10-5-1--132-142Uploaded bynlucaroni
- Retail Sales November 2011Uploaded byCoy Davidson

- BiologiP2SPM2010PahangUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- CHAPTER 2 (new) (1)Uploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Berapa LamaUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Calculate the Number of Oxygen Atoms in 29Uploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- juhuhUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Tokoh Maal HijragUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- EssayUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- BiologiP2SPM2010Pahang tajuk samaUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- MEMNG MENYUSAH KAN SCRIBDUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- baru nk masukUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- sejsetsoalan dri SMKSRI TANJUNGUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- sisi lainUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Tokoh Maal HijragUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Understood ScribdUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- hanya kepadamu YA ALLAHUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- kata kataUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- jjangao dahUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Sunan NasaiUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- jangan sesiapa bacaUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- aaaaaaaaaaaaUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- Nama Mmerepk AngahUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- ALLAH MAHA KUASAUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- PAI byk jenisvUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- PSI Sejarah Perkembangan Ilmu KalamUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- x sama kan sebelumUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- MAksud AlfatihahUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- hanya kepadamu YA ALLAHUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- hanya kepadamu YA ALLAHUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi
- asnyasijlUploaded byMuhammad Zulhelmi

- SPSS MANUAL STATISTICS.pdfUploaded byRuben Smith
- Statistics BasicsUploaded byajayikayode
- Mineral Exploration Undercover Near Broken HillUploaded byAlvaro Madrid
- 3-ESTimation of ParametersUploaded bySenthilnathan Nagarajan
- Nej Mo a 1610384Uploaded byaditya7
- Retrospective and Prospective Statistical Sampling in Legal DiscoveryUploaded byChuck Rothman
- math 1040 skittles project hayden christensenUploaded byapi-388376823
- Epidemiology - CHEAT SHEETUploaded byEthica
- BD solutions.pdfUploaded byLoya Yang
- 2732806Uploaded byNirav patel
- Seat Belt Use in 2015—Overall ResultsUploaded byLJ's infoDOCKET
- Uji Normalitas Dan Uji T Tidak Berpasangan Kadar Hb Cacingan Dan Tidak CacinganUploaded byervina
- TUploaded byKashif Shah
- IR System EvaluationUploaded bylr.indrayanti7330
- Holistic ThinkingUploaded bysatya kaushal
- Julia Rink Class NotesUploaded byMihad Ahmed Salim
- Intro to Stats BookUploaded byAndrea Muñoz Villarreal
- SATRACKUploaded bySuryakanta Rout
- tmpF209.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- Detailed MBA CourseStructureUploaded byanchals_20
- Practical Intepretation Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve ClassificationUploaded byFreedom Responsibility
- JURNAL STATISTIK.pdfUploaded byAni Yunita Sari
- Grey Campus LSS Cheat SheetUploaded byspongebob11
- [Ogunnaike] Random PhenomenaUploaded byquantummechanician
- D 2915 – 03 ;RDI5MTU_Uploaded byCarlos L. Oyuela
- Hersheys Kiss ActivityUploaded bySean Malloy
- Sas_webUploaded byr4aden
- EstimationUploaded byKen Ditchon
- reflection math 1040 projectUploaded byapi-260891512
- chapter2 Business Research MethodsUploaded byZubair1326