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JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

School of Distance Education & Learning


Internal Assignment No. 1

Master of Business Administration / DM

Paper Code: MBA/DM– 111


Paper Title: FUNDAMENTAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Last date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note : Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students.
It carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

Q. 1. Answer all the questions:


(i) Differentiate between mini computers and mainframe computers. Give suitable examples.
Ans. Main frame computers are large scale general purpose computers systems.The word main
frame has its origin in early computers which were big in size and required large frame work in
house. Main frame computers have large storage capacities in several million words. Secondary
storage devicesare directly accessible by these computers. These computers systems have more
than one CPU and can support a large number of terminals.These computers are fast in
operations and accept all types of high level languages.Mini computers are general purpose
computer system with reduced storage capacity and performance as compare to main frame
computers.These computers operate a CPU speed of few million instructions per second. These
computers accept all types of high level languages and word length in these computers is 16 or
32 bits. These computers can support more than 20 terminals.
(ii) How RAM is different from RAM?
Ans. There is one major difference between a read-only memory (ROM) and a random-access
memory (RAM) chip: ROM can hold data without power and RAM cannot. Essentially, ROM is
meant for permanent storage, and RAM is for temporary storage.
(iii) What are the characteristics of good programming language?
Ans. The language must allow the programmer to write simple, clear and concise programs.The
language must be simple to use so that a programmer can learn it without any explicit
training.The language must be platform independent. That is, the program developed using the
programming language can run on any computer system.The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of
the language must be attractive, user-friendly, and self-explanatory.The function library used in
the language should be well documented so that the necessary information about a function can
be obtained while developing application.Several programming constructs supported by the
language must match well with the application area it is being used for.The programs developed
in the language must make efficient use of memory as well as other computer resources.The
language must provide necessary tools for development, testing, debugging, and maintenance of
a program. All these tools must be incorporated into a single environment known as Integrated
Development Environment (IDE), which enables the programmer to use them easily.The
language must be consistent in terms of both syntax and semantics.

(iv)What do you understand by Protocols? Give examples.


Ans. When computers communicate with each other, there needs to be a common set of rules and
instructions that each computer follows. A specific set of communication rules is called a
protocol. Because of the many ways computers can communicate with each other, there are many
different protocols -- too many for the average person to remember. Some examples of these
different protocols include PPP, TCP/IP, SLIP, HTTP, and FTP. Can you guess what the last "P"
in each acronym stands for? If you guessed "protocol," send yourself a congratulations e-mail.
(v) What are Digital Signatures?

Ans. A digital signature is basically a way to ensure that an electronic document (e-mail,
spreadsheet, text file, etc.) is authentic. Authentic means that you know who created the
document and you know that it has not been altered in any way since that person created it.
Digital signatures rely on certain types of encryption to ensure authentication. Encryption is the
process of taking all the data that one computer is sending to another and encoding it into a form
that only the other computer will be able to decode. Authentication is the process of verifying
that information is coming from a trusted source. These two processes work hand in hand for
digital signatures.

Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q. 2. What are Topologies? Discuss five types of topologies with suitable diagrams.

Ans. Computers in a network are connected in some logical manner, referred to


as network topology or network architecture. Learn about the different types of
network architecture.

Network Topology
Computers in a network have to be connected in some logical manner. The layout
pattern of the interconnections between computers in a network is
called network topology. You can think of topology as the virtual shape or
structure of the network. Network topology is also referred to as 'network
architecture.'

Devices on the network are referred to as 'nodes.' The most common nodes are
computers and peripheral devices. Network topology is illustrated by showing
these nodes and their connections using cables. There are a number of different
types of network topologies, including point-to-point, bus, star, ring, mesh, tree
and hybrid. Let's review these main types.

Point-to-Point
Point-to-point topology is the simplest of all the network topologies. The network
consists of a direct link between two computers. This is faster and more reliable
than other types of connections since there is a direct connection. The
disadvantage is that it can only be used for small areas where computers are in
close proximity.

Bus
Bus topology uses one main cable to which all nodes are directly connected. The
main cable acts as a backbone for the network. One of the computers in the
network typically acts as the computer server. The first advantage of bus
topology is that it is easy to connect a computer or peripheral device. The
second advantage is that the cable requirements are relatively small, resulting in
lower cost.

One of the disadvantages is that if the main cable breaks, the entire network
goes down. This type of network is also difficult to troubleshoot. For these
reasons, this type of topology is not used for large networks, such as those
covering an entire building.

Star
In star topology, each computer is connected to a central hub using a point-to-
point connection. The central hub can be a computer server that manages the
network, or it can be a much simpler device that only makes the connections
between computers over the network possible.

Star topology is very popular because the startup costs are low. It is also easy to
add new nodes to the network. The network is robust in the sense that if one
connection between a computer and the hub fails, the other connections remain
intact. If the central hub fails, however, the entire network goes down. It also
requires more cable than bus topology and is, therefore, more expensive.
Ring
In ring topology, the computers in the network are connected in a circular
fashion, and the data travels in one direction. Each computer is directly
connected to the next computer, forming a single pathway for signals through the
network. This type of network is easy to install and manage.

MESH Topology
It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All the network nodes are
connected to each other. Mesh has n(n-1)/2 physical channels to link n devices.
There are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology, they are :

1. Routing
2. Flooding

Q. 3. What is the use of Encryption? Discuss public and private key encryption methods.
Ans. Encryption is the process of taking a readable plain text document or image
and scrambling that document or image to an extent that it is no longer readable.
The intent of encryption is hide and protect the contents of that file from
improper disclosure.

What is Encryption?

Basically, encryption is making sure that you're keeping a secret, well, a 'secret'!
Shhh...

More to the point, encryption is the process of hiding information that is readable
into a format that can't be read. Encryption can be used for many different
things, but you're probably most familiar with its function of transferring
information securely. However, in this lesson, we'll go over all the big
stuff: symmetric and asymmetric encryption, digital signature,
and hashing encryption methods.

In computing, encryption is the method by which plaintext or any other type of data is converted
from a readable form to an encoded version that can only be decoded by another entity if they
have access to a decryption key. Encryption is one of the most important methods for providing
data security, especially for end-to-end protection of data transmitted across networks.
Encryption is widely used on the internet to protect user information being sent between a
browser and a server, including passwords, payment information and other personal information
that should be considered private. Organizations and individuals also commonly use encryption
to protect sensitive data stored on computers, servers and mobile devices like phones or tablets.
How encryption works
Unencrypted data, often referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm and
an encryption key. This process generates ciphertext that can only be viewed in its original form
if decrypted with the correct key. Decryption is simply the inverse of encryption, following the
same steps but reversing the order in which the keys are applied. Today's most widely used
encryption algorithms fall into two categories: symmetric and asymmetric.

What is Public Key Encryption?


Public key encryption is a form of encryption that uses two keys. A public key,
which everyone knows, and a private key, which only you know. To encrypt, the
public key is applied to the target information, using a predefined operation
(several times), to produce a pseudo-random number. To decrypt, the private key
is applied to the pseudo-random number, using a different predefined operation
(several times), to get the target information back. The algorithm relies on the
fact that encryption is easy, and decryption is hard, making decryption
impractical without the key. It was the first system to allow secure information
transfer, without a shared key.

What is It Used for?


Public key encryption is used commonly today for securing communications
between web browsers, and e-commerce websites. In this scenario, the
connection makes use of a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) certificate, which is
created from the public and private keys mentioned above. The resulting pseudo-
random number forms the basis for the certificate. The most common algorithm
used for this encryption process is RSA, named after the researchers that
initially proposed it (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman). It is also the best understood
algorithm, as it has been studied for years by a variety of researchers.

Q. 4. ‘Internet is widely used in business and reseach’.Justify the statement with suitable
examples.
JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
School of Distance Education & Learning
Internal Assignment No. 2

Master of Business Administration / DM

Paper Code: MBA/DM– 111


Paper Title: FUNDAMENTAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Last date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note : Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students.
It carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

Q. 1. Answer all the questions:


(i) Mention the characteristics of Secondary storage devices.
(ii) What is data transmission mode?
(iii) What do you understand by computer network? Give examples of peripheral devices.
(iv) What is multiplexing?
(v) What do you understand by data backup?

Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q. 2. Write a short note on desktop publishing softwares.
Q. 3. Discuss in detail the difference between system software and application software.
Q. 4. What are the basic functions of an operating system? Describe various types of operating
systems.