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Types, Components & Working

Principles of Internal Combustion


Engines
Classification of ICE
•Today, our Focus would be Reciprocating ICE
Heat Engine EC ENGINE

IC ENGINE Reciprocating Rotary

Stirling Steam Closed Cycle


Rotary Reciprocating Steam Engine
Engine Turbine Gas Turbine

Open Cycle Wankel Gasoline


Diesel Engine
Gas Turbine Engine Engine

4 Stroke 2 Stroke 4 Stroke 2 Stroke


Petrol Engine Petrol Engine Diesel Engine Diesel Engine

2
Classification of ICE
• In an Internal combustion engine (ICE), combustion takes
place within working fluid of the engine

• Internal combustion engines may be classified (with respect to


method of ignition) as :
– Spark Ignition engines.
– Compression Ignition engines
Spark ignition engine (SI engine)
• An engine in which the combustion process in each cycle is
started by use of an external spark.
Spark ignition engine (SI engine)
• SI Engine works on Otto Cycle.

Otto Cycle
Intake; Compression; Power; Exhaust
Spark ignition engine (SI engine)
• SI Engine works on Otto Cycle.
Compression Ignition engine (CI engine)

• An engine in which the combustion process starts when the


air-fuel mixture self ignites due to high temperature in the
combustion chamber caused by high compression.
Compression Ignition engine (CI engine)

• CI works on Diesel Cycle.

Diesel Cycle
Compression; Heating; Expansion; Cooling
Compression Ignition engine (CI engine)

• CI works on Diesel Cycle.


Internal combustion Engine Components
Internal Combustion Engine Components
• I.C. Engine components shown in the previous slide are defined as
follows:
• Block/Cylinder Block/Engine Block: Body of the engine containing
cylinders, coolant passages etc.
More Power from smaller
• Mechanical Stress capacity with increased specific
• Thermal Stress fuel consumption

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXVLbzI3xTE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri_LFckaT7g
Internal Combustion Engine Components

• Cylinder: The circular cylinders in the engine block in which


the pistons reciprocate back and forth
• Head: The piece which closes the end of the cylinders, usually
containing part of the clearance volume of the combustion
chamber
Internal Combustion Engine Components

• Combustion chamber: The end of the cylinder between the


head and the piston face where combustion occurs
• The size of combustion chamber continuously changes from
minimum volume when the piston is at TDC to a maximum volume
when the piston at BDC
Internal combustion Engine Components
• Crankshaft: Rotating shaft through which engine work output is
supplied to external systems.
• The crankshaft is connected to the engine block with the main bearings
• It is rotated by the reciprocating pistons through the connecting rods connected
to the crankshaft, offset from the axis of rotation. This offset is sometimes
called crank throw or crank radius
• Connecting rod: Rod connecting
the piston with the rotating
crankshaft
• Piston rings: Metal rings that fit
into circumferential grooves
around the piston and form a
sliding surface against the
cylinder walls
Internal combustion Engine Components

• Camshaft: Rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper


time in the engine cycle, either directly or through mechanical or
hydraulic linkage (push rods, rocker arms, tappets) .
• Push rods: The mechanical linkage between the camshaft and
valves on overhead valve engines with the camshaft in the
crankcase.
• Crankcase: Part of the engine block surrounding the crankshaft.
• In many engines the oil pan makes up part of the crankcase housing.
• Exhaust manifold: Piping system which carries exhaust gases
away from the engine cylinders, usually made of cast iron .
Internal combustion Engine Components
• Intake manifold: Piping system which delivers incoming air to the
cylinders.
• In most SI engines, fuel is added to the air in the intake manifold
system either by fuel injectors or with a carburetor.
• The individual pipe to a single cylinder is called runner.
• Carburetor: A device which meters the proper amount of fuel into
the air flow by means of pressure differential.
• Spark plug: Electrical device used to initiate combustion in an SI
engine by creating high voltage discharge across an electrode gap.
I.C. Engine components
(not shown in the figure)

• Exhaust System: Flow system for removing exhaust gases from the
cylinders, treating them, and exhausting them to the surroundings.
– It consists of an exhaust manifold which carries the exhaust gases away
from the engine, a thermal or catalytic converter to reduce emissions, a
muffler to reduce engine noise, and a tailpipe to carry the exhaust gases
away from the passenger compartment.
• Flywheel : Rotating mass with a large moment of inertia connected
to the crank shaft of the engine.
– The purpose of the flywheel is to store energy and furnish large angular
momentum that keeps the engine rotating between power strokes and
smoothes out engine operation.
I.C. Engine components
(not shown in the figure)

• Fuel injector : A pressurized nozzle that sprays fuel into the


incoming air (SI engines )or into the cylinder (CI engines).
• Fuel pump : Electrically or mechanically driven pump to supply
fuel from the fuel tank (reservoir) to the engine.
• Glow plug : Small electrical resistance heater mounted inside
the combustion chamber of many CI engines, used to preheat
the chamber enough so that combustion will occur when first
starting a cold engine.
– The glow plug is turn off after the engine is started.
• Starter : Several methods are used to start IC engines. Most are
started by use of an electric motor (starter) geared to the
engine flywheel. Energy is supplied from an electric battery.
I.C. Engine components
Nomenclature
• Cylinder Bore (d)
• Piston Area (A)
• Stroke (L)
• Stroke-to-Bore-Ratio
(L/d)
• Dead Center
• Displacement or Swept
Volume (Vs)
• Cubic Capacity or
Engine Capacity
• Clearance Volume (Vc)
• Compression Ratio (r)
Engine Terminology
Engine Terminology
• Top Dead Center (TDC): Position of the piston when it stops at the
furthest point away from the crankshaft.
– Top because this position is at the top of the engines (not always), and
dead because the piston stops as this point. Because in some engines
TDC is not at the top of the engines(e.g. horizontally opposed engines,
radial engines, etc.) Some sources call this position Head End Dead
Center (HEDC).
• Bottom Dead Center (BDC): Position of the piston when it stops
at the point closest to the crankshaft.
– Some sources call this Crank End Dead Center (CEDC) because it is not
always at the bottom of the engine. Some source call this point Bottom
Center (BC).
Engine Terminology
• Stroke : Distance traveled by the piston from one extreme position
to the other (TDC to BDC or BDC to TDC).
• Bore :It is defined as cylinder diameter or piston face diameter;
piston face diameter is same as cylinder diameter( minus small
clearance).
• Swept volume/Displacement volume : Volume displaced by the
piston as it travels through one stroke.
– Swept volume is defined as stroke times bore.
– Displacement can be given for one cylinder or entire engine (one cylinder
times number of cylinders).
Engine Terminology
• Clearance volume : It is the minimum volume of the cylinder
available for the charge (air or air fuel mixture) when the piston
reaches at its outermost point (top dead center or outer dead
center) during compression stroke of the cycle. (Minimum volume
of combustion chamber with piston at TDC).
• Compression ratio : The ratio of total volume to clearance volume
of the cylinder is the compression ratio of the engine.
– Typically compression ratio for SI engines varies form 8 to 12 and for
CI engines it varies from 12 to 24
Classification of ICE
• When piston moves from TDC to BDC, it is called as 1 stroke.
Stroke means movement of something in a direction. Here we
mean movement of piston.

• Internal combustion engines may be classified (with respect to


number of strokes per cycle) as :
– Four stroke cycle: It has four piston strokes over two
revolutions for each cycle.
– Two stroke cycle: It has two piston strokes over one revolution
for each cycle
Types of 4-Stroke Engine
1.Petrol engine/ gasoline engine:
-The air-fuel mixture is ignited by the spark plug. Due to the ignition
the burning process starts. The burning of the air-fuel mixture creates
a very high pressure burnt gases. This high pressure burnt gases exerts
a thrust on the top face of the piston and it starts to move downward
from TDC to BDC. This is the power stroke of the engine. In this stroke
we get power which is utilized to run the vehicle. The intake and
exhaust valve remains closed during this stroke.
2. Diesel engine:
- As the Piston approaches TDC the injection of the diesel in the
form of spray by fuel injector takes place. As the diesel sprayed by the
fuel injector come in contact with the hot compressed gases it catches
fire and burning processes starts. Due to burning high pressure hot
burnt gases originates and it puts a very high thrust on the top face of
the piston. Due the thrust impact on the piston it starts to move in
downward direction i.e. form TDC to BDC.
4-Stroke Engine
There are four stroke in a 4 stroke engine. It means piston moves 4
times to complete its one cycle of power stroke. One cycle of power stroke
includes suction, compression, power and exhaust stroke.

1 stroke: suction stroke


In this piston movement is from TDC to BDC

2 stroke: Compression stroke


In this piston movement is from BDC to TDC.

3 stroke: Power stoke


In this the piston movement is from TDC to BDC.

4 stoke: Exhaust stroke


In this the piston moves from BDC to TDC...
4-Stroke Engine
There are four stroke in a 4 stroke engine. It means piston moves 4
times to complete its one cycle of power stroke. One cycle of power stroke
includes suction, compression, power and exhaust stroke.

1 stroke: suction stroke


In this piston movement is from TDC to BDC

2 stroke: Compression stroke


In this piston movement is from BDC to TDC.

3 stroke: Power stoke


In this the piston movement is from TDC to BDC.

4 stoke: Exhaust stroke


In this the piston moves from BDC to TDC...
4-Stroke Engine
1-stroke: Suction
1. Piston moves from TDC to BDC
2. Opening of intake valve
3. Suction of the air or air fuel-mixture ( air in diesel engine and
air-fuel mixture in petrol engine)
2-stroke: Compression
1. Piston moves from BDC to TDC
2. Compression of air or air-fuel mixture (air in diesel engine
and air-fuel mixture in petrol engine)
3. Intake and Exhaust valve remains closed
3-stroke: Power/Expansion Stroke
1. Sparking and burning of the air-fuel mixture in Petrol engine.
2. Burning of diesel by the hot gases.
3. Piston moves from TDC to BDC.
4. Intake and Exhaust valve remains closed.
4-stroke: Exhaust
1. Piston moves from DBC to TDC.
2. Opening of the Exhaust Valve.
3. Escaping of the hot burnt gases through exhaust valve.
2-Stroke Engine
The two stroke engine is a reciprocating engine in which the piston does two
time movement ( i.e. TDC to BDC and BDC to TDC ) to produce a power stroke
2-Stroke Engine
• In two stroke engine the suction and exhaust strokes are
eliminated.
• There are only two remaining strokes - these are the
compression stroke and power stroke and usually called as
upward stroke and downward stroke.
• Instead of valves, the two stroke engine consists of inlet and
exhaust ports.
• The fresh charge enters into the cylinder through inlet port
and burnt gases escapes out through exhaust port.
• The burnt exhaust gases are forced out through the exhaust
port by fresh charge which enters the cylinder nearly at the
end of the working stroke through the inlet port.
1-Stroke: Upward
• During upward stroke, the piston moves from BDC to TDC and
compresses the charge (air-fuel mixture) in the combustion
chamber of the cylinder.
• Because of the upward movement of the piston a partial
vacuum is created in the crankcase and this allows the entry of
the fresh charge into the crankcase through uncovered inlet
port.
• The exhaust port and the inlet port remains covered when the
piston at the TDC.
• The ignition of the fresh charge is takes place by the spark
plug.
2-Stroke: Downward
• As soon as the combustion of the fresh charge takes place, a
large amount of the hot gases is produced which exerts a very
high pressure force on the top of the piston. Due to this high
pressure force, the piston moves downward and rotates the
crankshaft and does useful work.
• During this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and
the new charge is compressed in the crankcase.
• Further downward movement of the piston uncovers first the
exhaust port and the transfer port and the exhaust starts
through the exhaust port..
2-Stroke: Downward
• As soon as the transfer port opens, the charge through it is
forced into the cylinder
• The charge strikes the deflector on the piston crown, rises to
the top of the cylinder and pushes out most of the exhaust
gases.
• The piston is now at BDC position. The cylinder is completely
filled with the fresh charge but it is somewhat diluted with the
exhaust gases.
• Finally the cycle event is then repeated. We get two strokes
for the single revolution of the crankshaft.
Difference between 2-Stroke and 4-
Stroke Engine
Difference between 2-Stroke and 4-
Stroke Engine
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