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Repeat Situations in Cycle Chemistry of Conventional Fossil and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants AEP BRO Forum 2009.
Repeat Situations in Cycle
Chemistry of Conventional Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
AEP BRO Forum 2009. 13 th August 2009
Barry Dooley
Based on the Paper “How Repeat Situations Lead to Chemistry-Related
Damage in Conventional Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants”.
PPChem. 2008 10(10), pp564-574
R.B. Dooley, K.J. Shields and S.J. Shulder
Leading Chemistry Influenced Failure Mechanisms • Boiler Tube Failures – Corrosion Fatigue in Sub-critical Waterwall Tubes
Leading Chemistry Influenced Failure Mechanisms
Boiler Tube Failures
– Corrosion Fatigue in Sub-critical Waterwall Tubes
– Underdeposit Corrosion
– Pitting
HRSG Tube Failures
– FAC in LP Evaporators (single- and two-phase)
– Corrosion Fatigue in LP Evaporators and Economizers
– Underdeposit Corrosion
– Pitting
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Leading Chemistry Influenced Failure Mechanisms • • FAC in Conventional Fossil Feedwater Systems Steam Turbine Damage
Leading Chemistry Influenced Failure Mechanisms
FAC in Conventional Fossil Feedwater Systems
Steam Turbine Damage
– Corrosion Fatigue of Blades and Disks in the Phase
Transition Zone (PTZ) of the LP Turbine
– Stress Corrosion Cracking of Discs in the PTZ of the LP
Turbine
– Pitting
– Copper Deposition in HP Turbine
– Flow-accelerated Corrosion (FAC)
– Deposition of Salts on the PTZ Surfaces
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Cycle Chemistry Repeat Situations • Key results of analysis from over 150 power plant/failures/damage situations worldwide
Cycle Chemistry Repeat Situations
Key results of analysis from over 150 power
plant/failures/damage situations worldwide over last
15 years
Situations that were not recognized or properly
addressed in a timely manner
– Singularly and in combination
Ten “Repeat Situations” are always associated with
preventable cycle chemistry damage
Likelihood of damage increases with multiple repeat
situations
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Repeat Situations in Cycle Chemistry Control All cycle chemistry-influenced failure and damage can be related back
Repeat Situations in Cycle Chemistry Control
All cycle chemistry-influenced failure and damage can be
related back to multiples of the following repeat situations
in fossil plants:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
High levels of corrosion products
High boiler waterwall/evaporator deposition
Non-optimum chemical cleaning
Contaminant ingress (with no reaction)
Drum carryover
High level of air in-leakage
Lack of shutdown protection
Inadequate on-line alarmed instrumentation
Not challenging the status quo
No Action Plans for repeat situations
Dooley et al., PowerPlant Chemistry, 2008, 10 (10)
Cycle Chemistry Influenced Failures You are never going to solve or stop chemistry influenced problems today
Cycle Chemistry Influenced Failures
You are never going to solve or stop chemistry
influenced problems today when they occur
today.
It’s too late!!
A few examples:
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
1.
Hydrogen Damage in the Waterwalls of Sub-critical
Fossil Boilers and in HRSG HP Evaporators
2.
Deposits in the Waterwalls of Sub-critical Fossil
Boilers and in HRSG HP Evaporators
3.
Failures in the PTZ of Steam Turbines
4.
Deposits in the PTZ of Steam Turbines
5.
FAC
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
1.
Hydrogen Damage in the Waterwalls of Sub-critical
Fossil Boilers and in HRSG HP Evaporators
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Hydrogen Damage in Fossil Plants Requires deposits and contaminants. How and why are they allowed? Copyright
Hydrogen Damage in Fossil Plants
Requires deposits and contaminants. How and why are they allowed?
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Hydrogen damage in HP evaporator Ingress of chloride when evaporator has deposits. How and why are
Hydrogen damage in HP evaporator
Ingress of chloride when evaporator has deposits. How and why are they allowed?
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Typical Repeats which Lead to Hydrogen Damage All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do
Typical Repeats which Lead to Hydrogen Damage
All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you recognize any?
*
Excessive feedwater corrosion products
-
In fossil plants the levels exceed guideline values
-
In HRSGs the levels exceed SI’s “Rule of 2 and 5”
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Non-monitored feedwater corrosion products
Measuring only soluble corrosion products
Excessive deposits on ID surfaces
Delayed/postponed chemical cleaning
Repetitive contamination above Action Level
Contaminant ingress above shutdown limit
No operational support to shutdown
Lack of on-line instrumentation
High level of air in-leakage
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
2.
Deposits in the Waterwalls of Sub-critical Fossil
Boilers and in HRSG HP Evaporators
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator 2,000psi (14MPa) Optimally for protection: a thin layer of magnetite plus a thin layer
HP Evaporator 2,000psi (14MPa)
Optimally for protection: a thin layer of magnetite plus a thin layer of deposit
Deposits
Protective Indigenous Magnetite
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Boiler Tubing with Deposits On units with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems Deposited copper Deposited iron Copyright Structural
Boiler Tubing with Deposits
On units with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems
Deposited copper
Deposited iron
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Drum Waterwall Rifled Tube (87,800 hrs since chemical clean) Phosphates Copper Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.
Drum Waterwall Rifled Tube
(87,800 hrs since chemical clean)
Phosphates
Copper
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Drum Unit on AVT(O). 15 yrs since chemical clean Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Drum Unit on AVT(O). 15 yrs since chemical clean
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator Tube with Heavy Deposits Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator Tube with Heavy Deposits
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 16K hrs (AVT(O) with only ammonia, only TSP in HP Evaporator at
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 16K hrs
(AVT(O) with only ammonia, only TSP in HP Evaporator at 2-5 ppm)
An Optimum HRSG Treatment
Indigenous Magnetite
Deposits <10g/ft 2
(<11mg/ cm 2 )
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 11K hrs. (AVT(R), DEHA & MOPA, TSP/NaOH in HP Evaporator. pH 9.4-9.8)
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 11K hrs.
(AVT(R), DEHA & MOPA, TSP/NaOH in HP Evaporator. pH 9.4-9.8)
Deposits (~27g/ft 2 )
Indigenous Magnetite
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 11K hrs. (AVT(R), DEHA & MOPA, Phosphate/NaOH in HP Evaporator. pH 9.4-9.8)
HP Evaporator 1800psi (12.4MPa). 11K hrs.
(AVT(R), DEHA & MOPA, Phosphate/NaOH in HP Evaporator. pH 9.4-9.8)
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
HP Evaporator 1900 psi (13MPa). 30K hrs (Reducing Agent, Blended Amine and Phosphate Blend) A Non
HP Evaporator 1900 psi (13MPa). 30K hrs
(Reducing Agent, Blended Amine and Phosphate Blend)
A Non Optimum HRSG Treatment
Magnetite Deposits
~35g/ft 2 (~38mg/cm 2 )
Phosphates
Indigenous Magnetite
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
SI Deposition Map for HP Evaporators Based on HP Evaporator Tubes from about 40 HRSGs Worldwide
SI Deposition Map for HP Evaporators
Based on HP Evaporator Tubes from about 40 HRSGs Worldwide
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Typical Repeats which Lead to Deposits All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you
Typical Repeats which Lead to Deposits
All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you recognize any?
*
Corrosion products
-
In HRSGs the levels exceed SI’s “Rule of 2 and 5”.
-
Non-monitored feedwater corrosion products
-
Measuring only soluble corrosion products
*
Not challenging the status quo
-
In HRSGs continuing to use reducing agents, amines and blends
-
In fossil plants not using the correct feedwater AVT(O), AVT(R) or OT
-
In fossil plants not changing chemistry with age or change of materials
*
*
*
Not removing tubes for analysis
Delayed chemical cleaning
High level of air in-leakage
-
Especially in mixed-metallurgy units
*
Inadequate on-line instrumentation
-
Especially ORP in mixed-metallurgy units
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
3.
Failures in the PTZ of Steam Turbines
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Corrosion Fatigue and SCC in the PTZ Leading Steam Turbine Problem Worldwide Copyright Structural Integrity Associates,
Corrosion Fatigue and SCC in the PTZ
Leading Steam Turbine Problem Worldwide
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
PTZ Failures Initiate at Pits How and why do pits form on PTZ surfaces? Copyright Structural
PTZ Failures Initiate at Pits
How and why do pits form on PTZ surfaces?
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Recent Pits which Initiated Blade Failure Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Recent Pits which Initiated Blade Failure
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Typical Repeats which Lead to PTZ Failures All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do
Typical Repeats which Lead to PTZ Failures
All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you recognize any?
*
*
*
Repetitive contamination above Action Level
Contaminant ingress above shutdown limit
Lack of on-line instrumentation
- No steam monitoring
*
*
*
No knowledge of carryover from drum boilers
No steam turbine shutdown protection
High level of air in-leakage
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
4.
Deposits in the PTZ of Steam Turbines
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Deposits on Steam Turbine Blades Recent sulphate/chloride deposits on LP blades and NaOH deposits on IP
Deposits on Steam Turbine Blades
Recent sulphate/chloride deposits on LP blades and NaOH deposits on IP blades
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Typical Repeats which Lead to Deposits in the PTZ All have been observed in numerous case
Typical Repeats which Lead to Deposits in the PTZ
All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you recognize any?
*
Repetitive contamination above Action Level
-
Sometimes > 2x “normal” level at EI
*
*
Contaminant ingress above shutdown limit
Lack of on-line instrumentation
-
No steam monitoring
*
*
*
*
No knowledge of carryover from drum boilers
No steam turbine shutdown protection
High level of air in-leakage
No challenge of status quo
-
Changing chemistry, but keep part of the old chemistry
*
No Action Plan developed
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry Examples
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Examples of Repeat Cycle Chemistry
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Situations inin Conventional
Situations
Conventional Fossil
Conventional Fossil
Fossil
Fossil
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants
Plants
Plants
5.
FAC
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
FAC in Fossil Plant Drains Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
FAC in Fossil Plant Drains
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
FAC in HRSG LP Evaporator Tubing A B C Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
FAC in HRSG LP Evaporator Tubing
A
B
C
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Typical Repeats which Lead to FAC All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you
Typical Repeats which Lead to FAC
All have been observed in numerous case studies. Do you recognize any?
*
Not challenging the status quo chemistry
HRSGs continue to use reducing agents and “low” pH
HRSGs using AVT(O) don’t have enough oxidizing power
Fossil plants continue to use reducing agents and “low” pH
No change of chemistry when feedwater materials change (Cu to SS)
*
Corrosion products
In HRSGs the levels exceed SI’s “Rule of 2 and 5”
Not using excessive feedwater corrosion products as key indicator
Non-monitored feedwater corrosion products
Measuring only soluble corrosion products
*
*
No Action Plans developed
High level of air in-leakage
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle How Can
How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle
How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle
How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle
How Can we deal with Repeat Cycle
Chemistry Situations inin
Chemistry Situations
Chemistry Situations inin
Chemistry Situations
Conventional
Conventional Fossil and Combined
Conventional Fossil and Combined
Conventional
Fossil and Combined
Fossil and Combined
Cycle/HRSG
Cycle/HRSG Plants
Cycle/HRSG Plants
Cycle/HRSG
Plants
Plants
They need to be included within the BTF/CC
Corporate Directive/Philosophy and become the
responsibility of the Plant Manager.
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
It is well established that a World Class BTF/HTF Program is one that not only addresses
It is well established that a World Class BTF/HTF
Program is one that not only addresses the
availability loss (EAL) but also:
•Identifies the active mechanism
•Identifies the possible root causes
•Develops specific programs to identify the root cause
(proactively and reactively)
•Has Action Plans for damaged tubing
•Includes an active cycle chemistry optimization which
addresses repeat situations, and
•Is confirmed by benchmarking about every six months
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Root Cause of BTF/HTF • Most organizations continue not to address the ROOT CAUSE of BTF/HTF
Root Cause of BTF/HTF
Most organizations continue not to address the
ROOT CAUSE of BTF/HTF because of the perceived
“Fix-it-quick” system requirement, and the “time/expense”
of introducing a monitoring program
Repeat Situations are the Chemistry Equivalent of Root
Cause
Characteristics of “World Class” BTF Programs”. J.P. Dimmer and R.B. Dooley.
EPRI International Conference on BTF and HTF and Inspections. November 2004.
Introducing “Repeat Situations” into the Corporate Directive • • VP/Managing Director (MD) Operations- Personal commitment Programs
Introducing “Repeat Situations” into the
Corporate Directive
VP/Managing Director (MD) Operations- Personal commitment
Programs personally driven by the Plant Managers.
Roll down of the directive to Plant specific Policies and Documents.
Target setting and benchmarking.
BTF “Repeat” failures have been redefined and will be measured.
CC “Repeat” situations have been introduced and will be
measured.
The concept of “Damage” has been introduced for BTF and CC and will
be measured.
Decisions that affect the system will be taken by the VP/MD until
stability has been achieved. E.g. permanent versus temp repair.
Near-term and longterm goals have been introduced.
Dooley et al., PowerPlant Chemistry, 2008, 10 (10)
Specific Focus Areas for Cycle Chemistry 5. Each Power Station will identify repeat cycle chemistry situations
Specific Focus Areas for Cycle Chemistry
5.
Each Power Station will identify repeat cycle chemistry
situations and develop detailed action plans to eliminate the
root cause of each of these situations.
6.
All plants will develop and track cycle chemistry technical and
cost performance indices. The technical indices will track the
amount of time that “core” parameters are within or outside
limits. Also other important parameters, such as online monitoring
equipment and QA/OC practices will be tracked.
7.
All scheduled maintenance overhaul outages will include non-
destructive testing and/or examination of areas experiencing
either corrosion damage or excessive deposit build-up. Root
cause analysis will be performed, and corrective, preventive and
control actions will be taken to inhibit forced outages due to these
mechanisms.
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Near-Term Goals in BTF/CC Program • • • • • • Corporate and Plant teams and
Near-Term Goals in BTF/CC Program
Corporate and Plant teams and monthly meetings held.
Train management, engineering, operations and maintenance
personnel.
Identify and list “Repeat” failures.
Compile procedures and guidelines.
Implement Documentation within Program.
Define, quantify and prioritize BTF and CC problems.
Each Plant will develop a listing of its repeat cycle chemistry
situations
Establish optimum cycle chemistry for each unit.
Establish cycle chemistry limits.
BTF Action plans for Mechanism Root cause and Damage
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Longterm Goals in BTF/CC Program • Incur no new repeat BTF • • Incur zero cycle-chemistry
Longterm Goals in BTF/CC Program
Incur no new repeat BTF
Incur zero cycle-chemistry influenced power generation
equipment availability loss.
Have no repeat cycle chemistry situations.
Extend chemical cleanings of boilers to 10 years or longer.
All managers including Plant Managers trained in BTFR
controllable aspects.
All system engineers trained and certified as competent to make
decisions on their systems.
Boiler inspectors trained and certified competent to carry out
inspections.
Appropriate NDE technologies applied successfully such as digital
radiography, GUL, IRIS and focussed phased array.
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Plant Repeat Situations Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Plant Repeat Situations
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009
Summary • Repeat situations relate to the basics of power plant chemistry and thus plant reliability
Summary
Repeat situations relate to the basics of power plant
chemistry and thus plant reliability
More than two or three repeat situations means the
plant has or will have a problem in the near future
Recognize the negative impact of repeat situations
and develop action plans to correct them in a timely
manner
Repeat situations should be an integral part of a
corporate chemistry directive within an overall
BTF/CC Program
Repeat situations have been incorporated into the
revised benchmarking process at more than 20
plants.
Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2009

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