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# Comparative Design of Biaxial R.C.

## Columns to BS 8110 and EC2

by Ubani Obinna Ranks on August 09, 2017 in Column, Eurocode 2, Reinforced Concrete Design

A reinforced concrete column fixed at both ends is subjected to the following loading conditions as given
below. We are required to obtain the appropriate longitudinal reinforcement for the column using BS 8110-
1:1997 and Eurocode 2.

The column is carrying longitudinal and transverse beams of depth 600mm and width 300mm. It is also
supported by beams of the same dimension. The centre to centre height of the column is 3500mm. The plan
view of the arrangement of the beams and column is as shown below.
DESIGN ACCORDING TO BS 8110-1:1997
N = 716.88 KN;
TOP: Mx-x = 175.87 KNm; My-y = 35.52 KNm
BOTTOM: Mx-x = -85.832 KNm; My-y = -25.269 KNm
Yield Strength of reinforcement = 460 N/mm2
Concrete cover = 40mm
Lo = 3.5m, Le = 0.75 × (3500 - 600) = 2175 mm;
Size of column = 400 x 300mm;
Slenderness = 2175/300 = 7.25 < 15. Thus column is short.

## Effective depth about X-X axis

h' = (400 - 40 - 12.5 - 10) = 337.5 mm

## Effective depth about Y-Y axis

b' = (300 - 40 - 12.5 - 10) = 237.5 mm

## Mx/ h' = 521.109 KN; My/ b' = 149.558 KN

Nratio = (N × 1000) / (Fcu × b × h) = (716.88 × 1000) / (30 × 400 × 300) = 0.1991

## From Table 3.22 of BS 8110-1:1997, for Nratio = 0.1991

Therefore, β = 1 – 1.1644(0.1991) = 0.7681

## As Mx/h' exceeds My/b'

Mx' = Mx + β h'/b'My
Mx' = 175.87 + [0.7681 × (0.3375)/(0.2375 ) × 35.52]

## Mimimum Eccentricity in Columns

According to clause 3.8.2.4, at no section in a column should the design moment be taken as less than that
produced by considering the design ultimate axial load as acting at a minimum eccentricity, emin equal to 0.05
times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20 mm.
Where biaxial bending is considered, it is only necessary to ensure that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum
about one axis at a time.

In the x-x direction = emin = 0.05 × 400 = 20mm, therefore adopt 20mm, Mx = 716.88 × 0.02 = 14.3376 KNm
< 214.64 KNm

In the y-y direction = emin = 0.05 × 300 = 15mm, therefore adopt 15mm, My = 716.88 × 0.015 = 10.7532 KNm
< 214.64 KNm

## Section design ratios for chart entry

Axial load ratio Nratio = (N × 1000)/(Fcu × b × h) = (716.88 × 1000)/(30 × 400 × 300) = 0.1991

## With d'/h = 337.5/400 = 0.84375

From chart, (ρ × Fy)/(Fcu) = 0.286 Therefore, ρ = (0.286 × 30) / 460 = 0.01865

## DESIGN ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 2

Clause 5.8.9(2) of EC2 permits us to perform separate design in each principal direction, disregarding biaxial
bending, as a first step. Imperfections need to be taken into account only in the direction where they will have
the most unfavorable effect. However in this example, we have carried out imperfection analysis in both
directions.
NEd = 716.88 KN

Elastic Moments
Y - direction: M01 = 175.87 KNm; M02 = -85.832 KNm
Z – direction: M01 = 35.52KNm; M02 = -25.269 KNm

## Calculation of the effective height of the column (Lo)

Let us first of all calculate the relative stiffness of the members in the planes of bending.

In the y-direction;
Second moment of area of beam 1 (I1) = bh3/12 = 0.3 × 0.63/12 = 0.0054 m4
Stiffness of beam 1 (since E is constant) = 4I1/L = (4 × 0.0054) / 6 = 0.0036

## Second moment of area of beam (I2) = bh3/12 = 0.3 × 0.63/12 = 0.0054 m4

Stiffness of beam 2 (since E is constant) = 4I2/L = (4 × 0.0054) / 3.5 = 0.00617

## Second moment of area of column (Ic) = bh3/12 = 0.0016 m4

Stiffness of column = 4Ic/L = (4 × 0.0016) / 3.5 = 0.001828

For compression members in regular braced frames, the slenderness criterion should be checked with an
effective length l0 determined in the following way:

## Lo = 0.5L √[(1 + k1)/(0.45 + k1)) × (1 + k2)/(0.45 + k2))]

Where;
k1, k2 are the relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1 and 2 respectively
L is the clear height of the column between the end restraints

k = 0 is the theoretical limit for rigid rotational restraint, and k = ∞ represents the limit for no restraint atall.
Since fully rigid restraint is rare in practise, a minimum value of 0.1 is recommended for k1 and k2.
In the above equations, k1 and k2 are the relative flexibilities of rotational restraint at nodes I and 2
respectively. If the stiffness of adjacent columns does not vary significantly (say, difference not exceeding
15% of the higher value), the relative flexibility may be taken as the stiffness of the column under
consideration divided by the sum of the stiffness of the beams (or, for an end column, the stiffness of the
beam) attached to the column in the appropriate plane of bending.

Remember that we will have to reduce the stiffness of the beams by half to account for cracking;

## Compare with BS 8110’s 0.75L = 0.75 × 2900 = 2175 mm

In the z-direction;
Second moment of area of beam 3 (I3) = bh3/12 = 0.3 × 0.63/12 = 0.0054 m4
Stiffness of beam 3 (since E is constant) = 4I1/L = (4 × 0.0054) / 3.5 = 0.00617

## Second moment of area of column (Ic) = bh3/12 = 0.0009 m4

Stiffness of column = 4Ic/L = (4 × 0.0009) / 3.5 = 0.00102857

k1 = k2 = 0.00102857/(0.003085) = 0.3334

lo = 0.5 × 2900 √[(1 + 0.3334) / (0.45 + 0.3334) × (1 + 0.3334) / (0.45 + 0.3334)] = 2675.293 mm

## ix = h/√12 = 400/√12 = 115.47

iz = b/√12 = 300/√12 = 86.602

## Slenderness in the x-direction (λx) = 2647.77/115.47 = 22.930

Slenderness in the z-direction (λz) = 2675.293/86.602 = 30.892
Critical Slenderness for the y-direction
λlim = (20.A.B.C)/√n
A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 - M01/M02 = 1.7 - [(-85.832)/175.87] = 2.188
n = NEd / (Ac fcd)
NEd = 716.88 × 103 N
Ac = 400 × 300 = 120000 mm2
fcd = (αcc fck)/1.5 = (0.85 × 30)/1.5 = 17 N/mm2
n = (716.88 × 103) / (120000 × 17) = 0.3514
λlim = (20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.188 )/√0.3514 = 56.842

22.930 < 56.842, second order effects need not to be considered in the y-direction

## Critical Slenderness for the z-direction

A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 - M01/M02 = 1.7 - [(-25.269)/35.52] = 2.411
n = NEd / (Ac fcd)
NEd = 716.88 × 103 N
Ac = 400 × 300 = 120000 mm2
fcd = (αcc fck)/1.5 = (0.85 × 30)/1.5 = 17 N/mm2

## λlim = (20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.411 )/√0.3514 = 62.634

30.892 < 62.634, second order effects need not to be considered in the z - direction

## Y - direction: M01 = 175.87 KNm; M02 = -85.832 KNm

e1 is the geometric imperfection = (θi l0/2) = (1/200) × (2647.77/2) = 6.619 mm

Minimum eccentricity e0 = h/30 = 400/30 = 13.333 mm. Since this is less than 20mm, take minimum
eccentricity = 20mm (clause 6.1(4) EC2).

## Longitudinal Steel Area

d2 = Cnom + ϕ/2 + ϕlinks = 40 + 12.5 + 10 = 62.5 mm

## NEd/(fck bh) = (716.88 × 103) / (30 × 300 × 400) = 0.199

From the chart, (As Fyk)/(bhfck) = 0.23

Area of longitudinal steel required (As) = (0.23 × 30 × 400 × 300)/460 = 1800 mm2

As,min = 0.10 NEd/fyd = (0.1 × 716.88)/400 = 0.179 mm2 < 0.002 × 400 × 300 = 240 mm2
As,max = 0.04bh = 4800 mm2

## Design Moments (z-direction)

Z - direction: M01 = 35.52 KNm; M02 = -25.269 KNm

## e1 is the geometric imperfection = (θi l0/2) = (1/200) × (2675.293/2) = 6.688 mm

Minimum eccentricity e0 = h/30 = 400/30 = 13.333 mm. Since this is less than 20mm, take minimum
eccentricity = 20mm (clause 6.1(4) EC2)

## Longitudinal Steel Area

d2 = Cnom + ϕ/2 + ϕlinks = 40 + 12.5 + 10 = 62.5 mm
d2/h = 62.5/400 = 0.156

## Reading from chart No 1; d2/h = 0.156;

MEd/(fck bh2) = (40.314 × 106)/(30 × 300 × 4002) = 0.0279
NEd/(fck bh) = (716.88 × 103) / (30 × 300 × 400) = 0.199

Biaxial Effects

## Furthermore, let us also check;

(ey/heq) / (ez/beq) ≤ 0.2 or (ez / beq) / (ey / heq) ≤ 0.2

## The definition of eccentricity is given in Figure 5.8 of EC2

ey = MEd,y/NEd = (180.624 × 106) / (716.88 × 103) = 251.958 mm
ez = MEd,z/NEd = (40.314 × 106) / (716.88 × 103) = 56.235 mm

## heq = iz.√12 = 300 mm

beq = iy.√12 = 400 mm

## NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd

NRd = [(300 × 400 × 17) + (1964 × 400)] × 10-3 = 2825.6KN
NEd/NRd = 716.88 / 2825.6 = 0.2537
To evaluate the value of a, let us look at the table below as given in Clause 5.8.9(4) of EC2

By linear interpolation, a = 1.0 + [(0.2537 – 0.1 )/(0.7 – 0.1)] × (1.5 - 1.0) = 1.128

## (ME,dz/MR,dz )a + (MEd,y/MRd,y )a ≤ 1.0

(40.314/187.2)1.128 + (180.624/187.2)1.128 = 0.1769 + 0.9606 = 1.1375 > 1.0. This is not ok, and this shows that
4Y25 is inadequate for the biaxial action on the column.

## Let us check again;

(As Fyk)/(bhfck) = (2964 × 460) / (30 × 300 × 400) = 0.3787
Therefore from the chart; MRd/(fckbh2) = 0.175
MRd = (0.175 × 30 × 300 × 4002) × 10-6 = 252 KNm

## NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd

NRd = [(300 × 400 × 17) + (2964 × 400)] × 10-3 = 3225.6 KN

## NEd/NRd = 716.88 / 3225.6 = 0.222

By linear interpolation, a = 1.0 + [(0.222 – 0.1 )/(0.7 – 0.1)] × (1.5 - 1.0) = 1.102

## (40.314/252)1.102 + (180.624/252)1.102 = 0.132 + 0.6928 = 0.825 > 1.0.

This shows that 6Y25mm is adequate for the column, and shows some agreement with result from BS 8110-
1:1997.