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Assessing Intercultural Competence at School

Trainer: Martyn Barrett

Workshop held at the European Federation for Intercultural Learning (EFIL) Volunteer Summer Summit 2016 San Servolo, Venice July 30 th -August 4 th 2016

Handout for workshop participants

Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Bennett (1986, 1993)

The ethnocentric stages

Stage 1: Denial At this stage, the individual is either unaware of or denies the existence of cultural differences in the world:

The person’s own culture is experienced as the only one which exists

Individuals at this stage are completely uninterested in cultural difference

Older individuals at this stage avoid other cultures by isolating themselves in homogeneous groups away from people of other cultures

However, they may act aggressively to try and eliminate a cultural difference if they do become aware of it

Stage 2: Defence At this stage, cultural differences are recognised and acknowledged but one’s own culture is regarded as being the only good or right one:

The world is organized into “us vs. them”, with strong ingroup favouritism occurring

Individuals at this stage feel threatened by cultural difference

Individuals at this stage are highly critical of other cultures as a psychological defence

High levels of negative stereotyping occur as a psychological defence

Stage 3: Minimisation At this stage, cultural differences are recognised and acknowledged but only at a superficial level while maintaining that all human beings are essentially the same:

There is an attempt to avoid stereotypes and even appreciate differences in culture

However, there is a tendency to universalise elements of one’s own culture to all human beings

Individuals at this stage look for, and expect there to be, similarities between all cultures

Cultural differences are minimised

The ethnorelative stages

Stage 4: Acceptance At this stage, one’s own culture is experienced as just one among many equally complex worldviews and cultures:

Individuals at this stage are curious about and respectful toward cultural differences

A respect for cultural differences in behaviour usually emerges first, followed by a deeper respect for cultural differences in values.

Individuals at this stage begin to interpret phenomena from the standpoint of other cultures

They may also start to make cultural comparisons and contrasts

Some other cultures may still be judged negatively, but these judgments are no longer based on ethnocentric reasoning

Stage 5: Adaptation At this stage, individuals are able to experience other cultures from their own perspective:

The individual perceives and behaves in a way which is appropriate to the other culture (i.e., the individual becomes bicultural/pluricultural)

Intercultural empathy and perspective-taking emerge

The individual’s own worldview is expanded to include aspects of other cultural worldviews

Individuals at this stage are able to adapt their behaviour to communicate more effectively in the other culture

Cognitive adaptation tends to occur first (the values and norms of the other culture are appreciated) followed by behavioural adaptation (the behaviours which are appropriate to the values and norms of the other culture are produced)

Stage 6: Integration At this stage, experience of the self is expanded to include movement in and out of different cultural worldviews:

Individuals in this stage value a variety of cultures

They are adept at evaluating situations from multiple frames of reference

They are also constantly defining their own identity and evaluating their own values and behaviour in relationship to a multitude of cultures

Individuals at this stage have to deal with issues concerning their own “cultural marginality”

They may see themselves as a process rather than as a fixed entity, or they may construct a novel identity which is not based on any one culture

This stage tends to be displayed among non-dominant minority groups, long-term expatriates, and cosmopolitan nomads

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The components of intercultural competence identified by Byram (2008, Byram et al., 2009)

1. Attitudes: Respect for otherness

Intercultural competence (IC) requires a willingness to suspend your own values, beliefs and behaviours, not to assume that they are the only possible and naturally correct ones.

IC also requires a willingness to accept that people from other cultures have different sets of values, beliefs and behaviours from ones own.

IC therefore requires an attitude of respect for otherness.

This respect is exhibited in a readiness to suspend belief about the ‘naturalness’ of your own culture and a readiness to accept that the members of other cultures may view their own culture as ‘natural’.

Respect for otherness is also exhibited in being interested in and curious about people from other cultures.

2. Attitudes: Empathy

IC also involves understanding other people’s perspectives, and being able to project yourself imaginatively into the beliefs, values, thoughts and feelings of people from other cultures in other words, IC involves empathy.

Success in understanding people from other cultures depends on:

being able to ‘decentre’ from our own cultural presuppositions, that is, becoming aware of what is usually unconscious

being able to adopt other people’s perspective, and accepting that their ways also seem ‘natural’ to them

3. Attitudes: Acknowledgement of identities

A further important aspect of IC, linked to empathy, is the ability to acknowledge the identities which people from other cultures ascribe to themselves, and to acknowledge the meanings which they themselves associate with those identities.

4. Attitudes: Multiperspectivity and tolerance of ambiguity

Because people who belong to different cultures have different beliefs, different values and different behaviours, IC also involves recognising that there can be multiple perspectives on, and interpretations of, any given situation.

Hence, IC requires multiperspectivity, that is, the ability and willingness to take others’ perspectives on events, practices, products and documents into account, in addition to our own.

This means that IC also involves the willingness to tolerate ambiguity.

5. Knowledge: Specific and general knowledge about cultures and culture

In order to understand the perspective of a person from another culture, we need to have some knowledge about the specific culture of that person and of its practices and products.

In addition, if we wish to engage in dialogue with a person from another culture, we also need to have more general knowledge of communication and interaction processes and of how these processes are shaped by cultural factors.

6. Skills of discovery and interaction

IC also involves being able to find out new knowledge about another culture, either by asking other people who are more knowledgeable than ourselves about the other culture, or by consulting authoritative documentary sources.

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In addition, we also need to know how to ask people from other cultures about their beliefs, values and behaviours, so that we can learn about their culture directly from them.

7. Behavioural flexibility

Because new cultural knowledge may be acquired during the course of interacting with a person from another culture, IC requires behavioural flexibility, that is, the ability to adjust and adapt ones behaviour as new knowledge about another culture is acquired.

Alternatively, if new cultural knowledge is acquired from documentary sources, this new knowledge may also require us to adjust our behaviour on the next occasion we encounter somebody from that other culture.

8. Communicative awareness

Problems in intercultural communication often occur because the communication partners follow different linguistic conventions for this reason, successful intercultural communication entails communicative awareness.

Communicative awareness is the ability to recognise:

different linguistic conventions

different non-verbal communicative conventions

the effects of these different conventions on discourse processes

the ability to negotiate rules appropriate for intercultural communication under these conditions

9. Skills of interpreting and relating (seeing similarities and differences)

Interpretation and explanation of the perspectives, practices and products of another culture require specific knowledge of the other culture

However, interpretation and explanation also involve relating and comparing the perspectives, practices and products of the other culture to corresponding things in one’s own culture, and the ability to see the similarities and the differences between them.

10. Critical cultural awareness

Critical cultural awareness is the ability to evaluate perspectives, practices and products

both in one’s own culture and in other cultures, using explicit criteria in order to do so.

It involves:

becoming aware of your own preconceptions, stereotypes and prejudices

identifying the assumptions and values underlying the perspectives, practices and products of your own culture

identifying the assumptions and values underlying the perspectives, practices and products of other cultures

making an evaluative analysis of the perspectives, practices and products of all of these cultures (including your own culture), using an explicit set of criteria in order to do so

Critical cultural awareness therefore involves critical awareness of yourself and of your own cultural situation and values (not only those of the cultural other), and using the awareness of cultural otherness to re-evaluate your own everyday patterns of perception, thought, feeling and behaviour, leading to greater self-knowledge and self-understanding.

11. Action orientation

Action orientation is a willingness to undertake action, either alone or with other people,

with the aim of making a contribution to the common good.

Action orientation therefore links IC and intercultural citizenship.

The CQ model of Ang et al. (2007)

CQ (cultural intelligence) is defined as “an individual’s capability to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings”. CQ is conceptualised as comprising of four dimensions, the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioural dimensions which have specific relevance to functioning in culturally diverse settings.

Metacognitive CQ reflects mental processes that individuals use to acquire and understand cultural knowledge, including knowledge of and control over individual thought processes relating to culture. Relevant capabilities include planning, monitoring and revising mental models of cultural norms for countries or groups of people. Those with high metacognitive CQ are consciously aware of others’ cultural preferences before and during interactions. They also question cultural assumptions and adjust their mental models during and after interactions.

Cognitive CQ is knowledge of the norms, practices and conventions in different cultures acquired from education and personal experiences. This includes knowledge of the economic, legal and social systems of different cultures and subcultures and knowledge of basic frameworks of cultural values. Those with high cognitive CQ understand similarities and differences across cultures

Motivational CQ reflects the capability to direct attention and energy toward learning about and functioning in situations characterized by cultural differences. Those with high motivational CQ direct attention and energy toward cross-cultural situations based on intrinsic interest and confidence in their own cross-cultural effectiveness.

Behavioural CQ reflects the capability to exhibit appropriate verbal and nonverbal actions when interacting with people from different cultures. This requires having a wide and flexible repertoire of behaviours. Those with high behavioural CQ exhibit situationally appropriate behaviours based on their broad range of verbal and nonverbal capabilities, such as exhibiting culturally appropriate words, tone, gestures and facial expressions.

These four dimensions of CQ are conceptualised as qualitatively different facets of an overall capability to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings. Or, to put it another way, metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ and behavioural CQ are different capabilities that together form overall CQ. CQ is hypothesised to be culture-free, not specific to a particular culture, and relevant to all situations characterized by cultural diversity.

Chen and Starostas (1996, 2000) Intercultural Communication Model

Intercultural communication competence is comprised of three dimensions: intercultural awareness, intercultural sensitivity, and intercultural adroitness. Each of these dimensions contains a set of components.

Intercultural awareness is the cognitive dimension of intercultural communication competence. It refers to a persons ability to understand similarities and differences of others

cultures, and entails understanding the cultural conventions that affect how we think and behave.

Intercultural sensitivity is the affective dimension of intercultural communication competence. It refers to the emotional desire of a person to acknowledge, appreciate, and accept cultural differences, and entails a persons active desire to motivate themselves and to

understand, appreciate, and accept differences among cultures.

Intercultural adroitness is the behavioural dimension of intercultural communication competence. It refers to an individuals ability to reach communication goals while interacting with people from other cultures, and entails the ability to attain communication

goals in intercultural interactions.

Awareness consists of two components (self-awareness and cultural awareness), while adroitness consists of four components (message skills, appropriate self-disclosure, behavioural flexibility, and interaction management).

Intercultural sensitivity consists of five components, which are measured by the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS):

Interaction engagement: an individuals attitude towards participating in intercultural

communications

Respect for cultural differences: how an individual orientates towards or tolerates the cultures and opinions of other people

Interaction confidence: how confident an individual is in intercultural settings

Interaction enjoyment: how much an individual enjoys communicating with people

from other cultures

Interaction attentiveness: the effort that an individual makes to understand what is going on in intercultural interactions

INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE MODEL

From “The Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of Internationalization at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States”

by Dr. Darla K. Deardorff in Journal of Studies in International Education, Fall 2006, 10, p. 241-266 and in The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, 2009 (Thousand Oaks: Sage).

Pyramid Model of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff, 2006. 2009):

DESIRED EXTERNAL OUTCOME:

Behaving and communicating effectively and appropriately (based on one’s intercultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes) to achieve one’s goals to some degree

DESIRED INTERNAL OUTCOME:

Informed frame of reference/filter shift:

Adaptability (to different communication styles & behaviors; adjustment to new cultural environments); Flexibility (selecting and using appropriate communication styles and behaviors; cognitive flexibility); Ethnorelative view; Empathy

cognitive flexibility); Ethnorelative view; Empathy Knowledge & Comprehension: Cultural self-awareness; Deep

Knowledge & Comprehension:

Cultural self-awareness; Deep understanding and knowledge of culture (including contexts, role and impact of culture & others’ world views); Culture-specific information; Sociolinguistic awareness

Skills:

To listen, observe, and interpret To analyze, evaluate, and relate

Requisite Attitudes:

Respect (valuing other cultures, cultural diversity) Openness (to intercultural learning and to people from other cultures, withholding judgment) Curiosity and discovery (tolerating ambiguity and uncertainty)

NOTES:

Move from personal level (attitude) to interpersonal/interactive level (outcomes)

Degree of intercultural competence depends on acquired degree of underlying elements

Copyright 2006 by D.K. Deardorff

INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE MODEL

From “The Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of Internationalization at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States”

by Dr. Darla K. Deardorff Deardorff in Journal of Studies in International Education, Fall 2006, 10, p. 241-266 and in The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, 2009 (Thousand Oaks:

Sage)

Process Model of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff, 2006, 2009):

Model of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff, 2006, 2009): Attitudes: Respect (valuing other cultures); Openness
Model of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff, 2006, 2009): Attitudes: Respect (valuing other cultures); Openness

Attitudes:

Respect (valuing other cultures); Openness (withholding judgment); Curiosity & discovery (tolerating ambiguity)

Knowledge &

Comprehension:

Cultural self-awareness, deep cultural knowledge, sociolinguistic awareness

SKILLS: To listen, observe & evaluate; To analyze, interpret & relate

observe & evaluate; To analyze, interpret & relate Desired External Outcome: Effective and appropriate
observe & evaluate; To analyze, interpret & relate Desired External Outcome: Effective and appropriate
observe & evaluate; To analyze, interpret & relate Desired External Outcome: Effective and appropriate

Desired External

Outcome:

Effective and appropriate communication & behavior in an intercultural situation

Desired Internal

Outcome:

Informed Frame of Reference Shift (adaptability, flexibility, ethnorelative view, empathy)

(adaptability, flexibility, ethnorelative view, empathy) Notes: Begin with attitudes; Move from individual level
(adaptability, flexibility, ethnorelative view, empathy) Notes: Begin with attitudes; Move from individual level

Notes:

Begin with attitudes; Move from individual level (attitudes) to interaction level (outcomes)

Degree of intercultural competence depends on acquired degree of attitudes,

knowledge/comprehension, and skills

Copyright 2006 by D.K. Deardorff

The 20-item four factor CQS (the CQ Scale)

CQ-Strategy:

MC1

I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with

MC2

people with different cultural backgrounds. I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture

MC3

that is unfamiliar to me. I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural

MC4

interactions. I check the accuracy of my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from different cultures.

Strongly

Strongly

DISAGREE

AGREE

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CQ-Knowledge:

COG1

I know the legal and economic systems of other cultures.

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COG2

I know the rules (e.g., vocabulary, grammar) of other languages.

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COG3

I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures.

1 2

COG4

I know the marriage systems of other cultures.

1 2

COG5

I know the arts and crafts of other cultures.

1 2

COG6

I know the rules for expressing non-verbal behaviors in other cultures.

1 2

CQ-Motivation:

MOT1

I enjoy interacting with people from different cultures.

1 2

MOT2

I am confident that I can socialize with locals in a culture that is unfamiliar

to me

1 2

MOT3

I am sure I can deal with the stresses of adjusting to a culture that is

new to me.

1 2

MOT4

I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me.

1 2

MOT5

I am confident that I can get used to the shopping conditions in a

different culture.

1 2

CQ-Behavior:

BEH1

BEH2

BEH3

BEH4

BEH5

I change my verbal behavior (e.g., accent, tone) when a cross-cultural interaction requires it. I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross-cultural situations. I vary the rate of my speaking when a cross-cultural situation requires it. 1 I change my non-verbal behavior when a cross-cultural situation requires it. I alter my facial expressions when a cross-cultural interaction requires it.

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Copyright © Cultural Intelligence Center2005. Used by permission of the Cultural Intelligence Center. All rights reserved.

Note: Use of this scale is granted to academic researchers for research purposes only. For information on using the scale for purposes other than academic research (e.g., consultants and non-academic organizations), please send an email to cquery@culturalq.com.

For additional information see Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C.K.S., Ng, K.Y., Templer, K.J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N.A. (in press). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation, and task performance. Management and Organization Review.

Intercultural Communication Studies XI: 2 2002

Appendix A. Intercultural Sensitivity Scale

Fritz, Möllenberg & Chen-Sensitivity

Below is a series of statements concerning intercultural communication. There are no right or wrong answers. Please work quickly and record your first impression by indicating the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statement. Thank you for your cooperation.

5 = strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = uncertain, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree (Please put the number corresponding to your answer in the blank before the statement)

1. I enjoy interacting with people from different cultures. 2. I think people from other cultures are narrow-minded. 3. I am pretty sure of myself in interacting with people from different cultures.

4. I find it very hard to talk in front of people from different cultures. 5. I always know what to say when interacting with people from different cultures. 6. I can be as sociable as I want to be when interacting with people from different cultures. 7. I don't like to be with people from different cultures. 8. I respect the values of people from different cultures. 9. I get upset easily when interacting with people from different cultures.

10. I feel confident when interacting with people from different cultures.

11. I tend to wait before forming an impression of culturally-distinct counterparts.

12. I often get discouraged when I am with people from different cultures.

13. I am open-minded to people from different cultures.

14. I am very observant when interacting with people from different cultures.

15. I often feel useless when interacting with people from different cultures.

16. I respect the ways people from different cultures behave.

17. I try to obtain as much information as I can when interacting with people from different cultures.

18. I would not accept the opinions of people from different cultures.

19. I am sensitive to my culturally-distinct counterpart's subtle meanings during our interaction.

20. I think my culture is better than other cultures.

21. I often give positive responses to my culturally-different counterpart during our interaction.

22. I avoid those situations where I will have to deal with culturally-distinct persons.

23. I often show my culturally-distinct counterpart my understanding through verbal or nonverbal cues.

24. I have a feeling of enjoyment towards differences between my culturally-distinct counterpart and me.

(Items 2, 4, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 20, and 22 are reverse-coded before summing the 24 items. Interaction Engagement items are 1, 11, 13, 21, 22, 23, and 24, Respect for Cultural Differences items are 2, 7, 8, 16, 18, and 20, Interaction Confidence items are 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10, Interaction Enjoyment items are 9, 12, and 15, and Interaction Attentiveness items are 14, 17, and 19.)

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INTERCULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCE VALUE RUBRIC

for more information, please contact value@aacu.org

R UBRIC for more information, please contact value@aacu.org The VALUE rubrics were developed by teams of

The VALUE rubrics were developed by teams of faculty experts representing colleges and universities across the United States through a process that examined many existing campus rubrics and related documents for each learning outcome and incorporated additional feedback from faculty. The rubrics articulate fundamental criteria for each learning outcome, with performance descriptors demonstrating progressively more sophisticated levels of attainment. The rubrics are intended for institutional-level use in evaluating and discussing student learning, not for grading. The core expectations articulated in all 15 of the VALUE rubrics can and should be translated into the language of individual campuses, disciplines, and even courses. The utility of the VALUE rubrics is to position learning at all undergraduate levels within a basic framework of expectations such that evidence of learning can by shared nationally through a common dialog and understanding of student success.

Definition Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is "a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills and characteristics that support effective and appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural contexts.” (Bennett, J. M. 2008. Transformative training: Designing programs for culture learning. I n Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Understanding and utilizing cultural diversity to build successful organizations, ed. M. A. Moodian, 95-110. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.)

Framing Language The call to integrate intercultural knowledge and competence into the heart of education is an imperative born of seeing ourselves as members of a world community, knowing that we shar e the future with others. Beyond mere exposure to culturally different others, the campus community requires the capacity to: meaningfully engage those others, place social justice in historical and political context, and put culture at the core of transformative learning. The intercultural knowledge and competence rubric suggests a systematic way to measure our capacity to identify our own cultural patterns, compare and contrast them with others, and adapt empathically and flexibly to unfamiliar ways of being. The levels of this rubric are informed in part by M. Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Bennett, M.J. 1993. Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitity. In Education for the intercultural experience, ed. R. M. Paige, 22-71. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press). In addition, the criteria in this rubric are informed in part by D.K. Deardorff's intercultural framework which is the first research-based consensus model of intercultural competence (Deardorff, D.K. 2006. The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education 10(3): 241-266). It is also important to understand that intercultural knowledge and competence is more complex than what is reflected in this rubric. This rubric identifies six of the key components of intercultural knowledge and competence, but there are other components as identified in the Deardorff model and in other research.

Glossary The definitions that follow were developed to clarify terms and concepts used in this rubric only.

Culture: All knowledge and values shared by a group.

Cultural rules and biases: Boundaries within which an individual operates in order to feel a sense of belonging to a society or group, based on the values shared by that society or group.

Empathy: "Empathy is the imaginary participation in another person’s experience, including emotional and intellectual dimensions, by imagining his or her perspective (not by assuming the person’s position)". Bennett, J. 1998. Transition shock: Putting culture shock in perspective. In Basic concepts of intercultural communication, ed. M. Bennett, 215-224. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Intercultural experience: The experience of an interaction with an individual or groups of people whose culture is different from your own.

Intercultural/cultural differences: The differences in rules, behaviors, communication and biases, based on cultural values that are different from one's own culture.

Suspends judgment in valuing their interactions with culturally different others: Postpones assessment or evaluation (positive or negative) of interactions with people culturally different from one self. Disconnecting from the process of automatic judgment and taking time to reflect on possibly multiple meanings.

Worldview: Worldview is the cognitive and affective lens through which people construe their experiences and make sense of the world around them.

INTERCULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCE VALUE RUBRIC

for more information, please contact value@aacu.org

R UBRIC for more information, please contact value@aacu.org Definition Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is "a

Definition Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is "a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills and characteristics that support effective and appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural contexts.” (Bennett, J. M. 2008. Transformative training: Designing programs for culture learning. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Understanding and utilizing cultural diversity to build successful organizations, ed. M. A. Moodian, 95-110. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.)

Evaluators are encouraged to assign a zero to any work sample or collection of work that does not meet benchmark (cell one) level performance.

 

Capstone

 

Milestones

 

Benchmark

4

3

2

1

Knowledge Cultural self- awareness

Articulates insights into own cultural rules and biases (e.g. seeking complexity; aware of how her/his experiences have shaped these rules, and how to recognize and respond to cultural biases, resulting in a shift in self-description.)

Recognizes new perspectives about own cultural rules and biases (e.g. not looking for sameness; comfortable with the complexities that new perspectives offer.)

Identifies own cultural rules and biases (e.g. with a strong preference for those rules shared with own cultural group and seeks the same in others.)

Shows minimal awareness of own cultural rules and biases (even those shared with own cultural group(s)) (e.g. uncomfortable with identifying possible cultural differences with others.)

Knowledge Knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks

Demonstrates sophisticated understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Demonstrates adequate understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Demonstrates partial understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Demonstrates surface understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Skills

Interprets intercultural experience from the perspectives of own and more than one worldview and demonstrates ability to act in a supportive manner that recognizes the feelings of another cultural group.

Recognizes intellectual and emotional dimensions of more than one worldview and sometimes uses more than one worldview in interactions.

Identifies components of other cultural perspectives but responds in all situations with own worldview.

Views the experience of others but does so through own cultural worldview.

Empathy

Skills Verbal and nonverbal communication

Articulates a complex understanding of cultural differences in verbal and nonverbal communication (e.g., demonstrates understanding of the degree to which people use physical contact while communicating in different cultures or use direct/indirect and explicit/implicit meanings) and is able to skillfully negotiate a shared understanding based on those differences.

Recognizes and participates in cultural differences in verbal and nonverbal communication and begins to negotiate a shared understanding based on those differences.

Identifies some cultural differences in verbal and nonverbal communication and is aware that misunderstandings can occur based on those differences but is still unable to negotiate a shared understanding.

Has a minimal level of understanding of cultural differences in verbal and nonverbal communication; is unable to negotiate a shared understanding.

Attitudes

Asks complex questions about other cultures, seeks out and articulates answers to these questions that reflect multiple cultural perspectives.

Asks deeper questions about other cultures and seeks out answers to these questions.

 

Asks simple or surface questions about other cultures.

States minimal interest in learning more about other cultures.

Curiosity

Attitudes

Initiates and develops interactions with culturally different others. Suspends judgment in valuing her/his interactions with culturally different others.

Begins to initiate and develop interactions with culturally different others. Begins to suspend judgment in valuing her/his interactions with culturally different others.

 

Expresses openness to most, if not all, interactions

Receptive to interacting with culturally different others. Has difficulty suspending any judgment in her/his interactions with culturally different others, but is unaware of own judgment.

Openness

with culturally different others.

Has difficulty

suspending any judgment in her/his interactions with culturally different others, and is aware of own judgment and expresses a willingness to change.

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters
Autobiography
of Intercultural
Encounters
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters Language Policy Division

Language Policy Division

graphic design : Anne Habermacher

graphic design : Anne Habermacher The Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters is a concrete response to the
graphic design : Anne Habermacher The Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters is a concrete response to the

The Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters is a concrete response to the recommendations of the Council of Europe’s White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue “Living together as equals in dignity” (http://www.coe.int/dialogue), Section 5.3 “Learning and teaching intercultural competences”, paragraph 152:

“Complementary tools should be developed to encourage students to exercise independent critical faculties including to reflect critically on their own responses and attitudes to experiences of other cultures.”

The Council of Europe is a political intergovernmental organisation founded in 1949 with its permanent headquarters in Strasbourg, France. Its mission is to guarantee democracy, human rights and justice in Europe. Today it serves 800 million people in 47 states. The Council of Europe aims to build a greater Europe based on shared values, including tolerance and respect for cultural and linguistic diversity.

The Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters and supporting documents were developed for the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe by:

Michael Byram, Martyn Barrett, Julia Ipgrave, Robert Jackson, María del Carmen Méndez García

with contributions from:

Eithne Buchanan-Barrow, Leah Davcheva, Peter Krapf, Jean-Michel Leclercq

For further acknowledgements, please see the Introduction.

The views expressed in the Autobiography and supporting documents are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Council of Europe.

Copyright of this publication is held by the Council of Europe, March 2009.

Reproduction of material from this publication is authorised for non-commercial education purposes only and on condition that the source is properly quoted.

No parts of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes in any form or by any means, electronic (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.) or mechanical including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the permission in writing from the Publishing Division (publishing@coe.int), Directorate of Communication, of the Council of Europe.

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Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters What is the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters? This Autobiography has
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters What is the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters? This Autobiography has

What is the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters?

This Autobiography has been designed to help you analyse a specific intercultural encounter which you have experienced. You do this by answering a sequence of questions about various aspects of that encounter.

An intercultural encounter can be an experience you had with someone from a different country, but it can also be an experience with someone from another cultural background in your country. It might be, for example, someone you met from another region, someone who speaks a different language, someone from a different religion or from a different ethnic group.

This focus is on ONE event or experience which you have had with someone different from yourself. For example, avoid talking in general terms about a holiday which you have had, and instead choose just one specific encounter or meeting which you have had with a particular person from another country or culture. It may be somebody you already know and have known for some time.

The event could be a visit to that person’s house. It could be a meeting with someone from a foreign country or another region of your own country. It could be something that happened whilst on a trip abroad, and so on.

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters … Here are some examples from other people: • An English teenager

Here are some examples from other people:

Encounters … Here are some examples from other people: • An English teenager met a foreigner

• An English teenager met a foreigner for the first time in Turkey. She and her mother talked to him because they got lost in the town.

• A ten-year old girl went for a holiday to Egypt. There she got acquainted with a local girl of 11. They met on the beach and first communicated with the help of gestures. She learned that her parents worked at the hotel where her family was staying.

• A German boy went to stay at his friend’s house. His parents came to this country from Japan but he was born here.

• A young Bulgarian woman got to know a Hungarian and a Turkish guy at an

international airport in the US. She was intrigued by the different ways they

responded to critically delayed flights.

• A university student arriving in France, frightened and tired, and being amazed at how friendly and caring the bus driver could be.

• A Bulgarian boy congratulating his Armenian friend on Christmas day and

realising and feeling embarrassed that Armenian Christmas was on a different day.

Notice that the encounters can be in your own country, in your own neighbourhood, in your own home, in a foreign country or on a journey – in other words anywhere you happen to be.

Choose an experience which was important for you - it made you think, it surprised you, you enjoyed it, you found it difficult, etc., and give the experience a name or title, e.g. “My Turkish experience”, “My first conversation in a foreign language”, “Staying with a Japanese friend”, “Delays at the airport”, “Arrival in France”, “The wrong day for Christmas”…

This Autobiography helps you to think about the experience by asking you questions about it. Try to answer the questions as honestly as possible. It does not matter if the experience is positive or negative.

All experiences are important.

         
     

Who I am

   

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

(Optional)

   
   

How would you define yourself? Think about things that are especially important to you in how you think about yourself and how you like others to see you.*

   
   

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Today’s date

     
     

Encounter title and / or number

 

*Here are some elements you may wish to include if you find them to be an important part of your identity: your name, age, gender, nationality, ethnic group, country, region or community where you live or come from, religion, languages, etc. Or you could include being a son/daughter, brother / sister, school student, member of a sports team, member of any other type of club, etc.

   

Name

       
           
     

1

 
     

The encounter

 
   

Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters

Title

     
   

Give the encounter a name which says something about it…

     
   

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