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NAVWEPS 01-45HHD- l .

.NATOPS FLIGHT MANUAL

NAVY MODEL
F-8D, F-8E
AIRCRAFT


THIS PUBLICATION SUPERSEDES NAVWEPS 01 ·45HHD· 1 DATED


1 APRIL 1964,CHANGED 1 SEPTEMBER 1964, WHICH SHOULD BE •
REMOVED FROM THE FIL E S AND DESTROYED .


ISSUED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CH IIiF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS
AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU
OF NAVAL WEAPONS

PERFORM
DATA , 11
~
-C THESE ARE SUPERSEDING OR SUPPLEMENTARY

"( ~ I\.G , j;J PAGES TO SAME PUBIJCATION OF

C'J:" ~~ ...\ 0
PREVIOUS DATE
l' \ C. t. Insert these pages into basic publication
\"""""" ' Destroy superseded pages

'~-------------------
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1

NATOPS FLIGHT MANUAL

NAVY MODEL
F-SD, F-SE
AIRCRAFT

ISSUED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS


AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF COMMANDER,
NA\/AL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND

1 November 1964 PERFORM


DATA 11
Changed 15 January 1967
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l

Reproduction for nonmilitary use of the information or illustrations contained


in this publication is not permitted without specific approval of the issuing
service (NASC or AMC). The policy for use of Classified Publications is
established for the Air Force in AFR 205-1 and for the Navy in Navy Regula-
tions, Article 1509.
r-- - - - - - - - - - - - LlST OF CHANGED PAGES ISSUED ------------~
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

NOTE: The portion of the text affected by the current change is indicated by a venica l li ne in (h e outer
margins o f the page.

Page Date of Latest Page Date of Latest


No. Change No. Change
*B. . . 15 Jan 1967 55 . · 15 J ui 1966
*C . .15 Jan 1967 64. · 15 Jui 1966
*i · 15 J an 1967 75. · 15 Jui 1965
ii. · 15 Jul 1966 78. · 15 Jui 1966
iii. · 15 Jul 1966 82. · 15 Jul 1965
iv. · 15 Jul 1966 91. · 15 Jul 1965
v • · 15 Jul 1966 92 . · 15 Jul 1966
*vi. . 15 Jan 1967 93 . · 15 Jui 1965
vii · 15 Jul 1966 94. · 15 J ul 1966
viii . · 15 Jul 1966 99. · 15 Jul 1966
ix Deleted · 15 Jul 1966 101 · 15 Jul 1966
x1 _Deleted · 15 Jul 1966 102 · 15 Jul 1966
· 15 Jul 1965 103 .15 J ul 1966
2 · 15 Jul 1966 104 · 15 Jul 1966
3 · 15 J ul 1965 104A 1 Dec 1966
6 1 Dec 1966 104B 1 Dec 1966
7 • 15 Jul 1966 104C 1 Dec 1966
8 · 15 Jul 1966 1040 1 Dec 1966
*10. . 15 Jan 1967 105 • · 15 Jul 1965
11. · J5 Jul 1965 107 • · 15 Jul 1965
14. · 15 Jul 1966 112 . · 15 Jul 1966
18_ · 15 Jul 1966 113 . • 15 Jui 1966
19. · 15 Jul 1966 115 • · 15 Jul 1966
21. · 15 Jul 1966 116 . • 15 Jul 1966
22. · 15 Jul 1966 117. · 15 Jul 1966
23_ • 15 Jul 1966 118 • · 15 Jul 1966
24 . • 15 Jul 1966 119 . · 15 Jul 1965
25. · 15 Jul 1966 120 . · 15 Jul 1965
26. · 15 Jul 1966 121 . · 15 Jul 1966
32. · 15 Jul 1965 122 . · 15 Jul 1966
33. · 15 Jul 1966 124 . . 15 Jul 1966
35. · 15 Jul 1966 125 . · 15 Jul 1966
36. · 15 Jul 1966 128 • · 15 Jul 1966
*42. .15 Jan 1967 129 . · 15 Jul 1966
47 . · 15 Jul 1965 130 . · 15 Jul 1965
48. .15 Jul 1966 131 . · 15 Jul 1965
48A. · 15 Jul 1966 132 . · 15 Jul 1966
48B . · 15 Jul 1966 132A .15 Jul 1966
49. · 15 Jui 1966 132B · 15 Jul 1966
50. • 15 Jul 1966 133 · 15 Jui 1966
*54. .15 Jan 1967 135 · 15 Jul 1966
136 . · 15 Jul 1966

· The asterisk indicates pages changed , added, or deleted by [he current change.

ADD ITIO NAL COPIES OF THIS PU BLIC ATION MAY BE OBTAINED AS FOLLOWS: NASC
USAF ACTIVITIES- In accordance with Technical Order No. 00·5 ·2.
NAVY ACTIVITIES--Usc DO FORM I34'S and submit in accordance with the instructions contained in NAVSUP
PUBLICATION 437-Navy Stand ard Requisitioning and Issue Procedurc.
For in fo rmation o n o ther avai lablc material and detai ls of distribution, refer to NAVSUP PUBLICATION 2002,
SECTION VIII and NAVA IR OO· SOOA.
A Changed 15 January 1967
NAVAIR 01·45HHD·l

Reproduction for nonmilitary use of the information or illustrations contained


in this publication is not permitted without specific approval of the issuing
service (NASC or AM C) . The policy for use of Classified Publications is
established for the Air Force in AFR 205·1 and for the Navy in Navy Regula.
tions, Article 1509.
LIST OF CHANGED PAGES ISSUED
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTRO Y SUPERSEDED PAGES.

NOTE, The portion of the tex t affected by the current change is indicated by a vertical l ine in the outer
marg ins of dH! page.

Page Date of Late st P age Date of Latest


No. Ch<Juge No . Change

137 · 15 Jul 1966 220A · 15 Jul 1966


138 · 15 Jul 1965 220B · 15 Jul 1966
141 · 15 Jul 1965 220C · 15 Ju] 1966
143 · 15 Jul 1966 220D · 15 Jul 1966
148A • 15 Jul 1966 220E · 15 Jul 1966
148B · 15 Jul 1965 220F · 15 Jul 1966
149 · 15 Jul 1966 220G · 15 Jul 1966
153 .15 Jul 1965 220H . 15 Jul 1966
157 · 15 Jul 1965 220J · 15 Jul 1966
165 · 15 Jul 1966 220K · 15 Jul 1966
168 · 15 Jul 1966 *221 . 15 Jan 1967
170 · 15 Jul 1965 * 222 .15 Jan 1967
172 · 15 Ju] 1966 *223 . 15 Jan 1967
172A · 15 Jul 1966 *224
· .15 Jan 1967
172B
173
.15 Jul
· 15 Jul
1966
1966
*225
*226 · .15 Jan
. 15 Jan
1967
1967
176 · 15 Jul 1965 *227 .15 Jan 1967
177
178 ·· • 15 Jul
· 15 Jul
1966
1966
*228
*229
.15 Jan
.15 Jan
1967
1967
179 · 15 Jul 1966 *230 .15 Jan 1967
180 · 15 Jul 1966 *231 .15 Jan 1967
181 · 15 Jul 1965 *232 . .15 Jan 1967
183
184
· 15 Ju l
· 15 Jul
1966
1966
*233
*234
· .15 Jan
.15 Jan
1967
1967
185 · 15 Jul 1965 *235 .15 Jan 1967
190 · 15 Jul 1966 *236 · 15 Jan 1967
192 · 15 Jul 1966 *237 .15 Jan 1967
193
194
1 Dec
1 Dec
1966
1966
*238
*239 · .15 Jan
.15 Jan
196,
1967
195
196 · · 15 Ju]
· 15 Jul
1966
1966
*240
*240A Deleted.
. 15 Jan
. 15 Jan
1967
1967
197 . 15 Jul 1966 *240B Deleted . . 15 Jan 1967
199 · 15 Jul 1966 *240C De leted. .15 Jan 1967
200 · 15 J ul 1966 *240D De leted . . 15 Jan 1967
201 · 15 Ju] 1966 * 241 . 15 Jan 1967
202 · 15 Jul 1966 *242 . .15 Jan 1967
206 · 15 Ju] 1966 *242A Delete d. .15 Jan 1967
207 · 15 Jul 196f *242B Deleted . . 15 Jan 1967
208 • 15 Jul 1966 *243 .15 Jan 1967
209 · 15 Jul 1966 *244 · 15 Jan 1967
213 · 15 Jul 1966 *245 · 15 Jan 1967
217 .15 Jul 1966 *246 . .15 Jan 1967
220 · 15 Jul 1966 *246A · 15 Jan 1967

*The asteri sk indicates pages changed, added , or deleted by the current change.

ADD ITIONAL COPIES OF TH IS PUBLICAT IO N MAY BE OBTAINED AS FOllOWS: NASC


USAF ACTIVITIES- In accordance w ith Technical Orde r No. 00·5 -2 .
N AVY ACTIVITIES-Use DD FORJ\.1 1348 and submit in accordance w ith the instructi ons contained in N AVSU P
PUBLICATION 437-Navy Standard Requisitioning and Issue Proced ure.
Fo r info rmation on other ava il abl e material and details of distributio n, refer ro NAVSU P PUBLICATION 2002,
SECTION VIII and NAVAIR OO· SOOA.
Changed 15 January 1967 B
NAVAIR 01-45HHD- l

Reproducrion for nonmilirary use of rhe informarion or illusrrarions conrained


in rhis publicarion is nor permirred wirhour specific approval of rhe issuing
service (NASC or AMC). The policy for use of Classified Publicarions is
esrablished for rhe Air Force in AFR 205-1 and for rhe Navy in Navy Regula-
tions, Article 1509.
LIST OF CHANGED PAGES ISSUED
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

NOTE, The portion of the text affected by the current change is indicated by a vertical line in the outer
marg ins of the page.

Page Date of Latest Page Date of Latest


No. Change No. Change
*246B .15 Jan 1967 253 · 15 Jul 1966
*246C .15 Jan 1967 254 · 15 Jul 1966
*246D . 15 Jan 1967 255 · 15 Jul 1966
* 246E .15 Jan 1967 256 · 15 Jul 1966
*246F .15 Jan 1967 257 .15 Jul 1966
*246G .15 Jan 1967 258 · 15 Jul 1966
*246H .15 Jan 1967 259 · 15 Jul 1966
*246J .15 Jan 1967 260 · 15 Jul 1966
*246K .15 Jan 1967 261 · 15 Jul 1966
*246L .15 Jan 1967 262 · 15 Jul 1966
*246M . 15 Jan 1967 263 · 15 Jul 1966
*246N .15 Jan 1967 264 · 15 Jul 1966
*246P .15 Jan 1967 265 · 15 Jul 1966
*246Q .15 Jan 1967 266 · 15 Jul 1966
*246R . 15 Jan 1967 267 .15 Jul 1966
*2468 .15 Jan 1967 268 .15 Jul 1966
*246T . 15 Jan 1967 269 · 15 Jul 1966
*246U .15 Jan 1967 270 .15 Jul 1966
*246V .15 Jan 1967 271 · 15 Jul 1966
*246W .15 Jan 1967 272 · 15 Jul 1966
*246X · 15 Jan 1967 *273 · 15 Jan 1967
* 246Y .15 Jan 1967 *274 · 15 Jan 19 67
249 • 15 Jul 1966 *275 .15 Jan 1967
250 · 15 Jul 1966 *276 .15 Jan 1967
251 · 15 Jul 1966 *277 . 15 Jan 1967
252 · 15 Jul 1966 *278 · 15 Jan 1967

*The asterisk indicates pages changed, added. o r deleted by the current change.

ADDITIONAL COPIES Of THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE OBTAINED AS FOLLOWS:


NASC

U SAF ACTJVITIES---In accordance with Technical Order No. 00·5-2.


NAVY ACTIVIT IES-U sc DO FORM l 348 and submit in accordance w ith the instructions contained in NAVSUP
PUBLlCAT10N 437-N a,'y Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedure.
For info rmation o n othe r available material and details of d istribmion, refer to NAVSUP PUBLICATION 2002,
SECTION VIJI and N AVAIR 00-500A .
C Changed 15 January 1967
NAVAIR Ol-45HHD-l

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY


OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS
WASIDNGTON, D. C. 20350

LETTER OF PROMULGATION
1. The Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures standardization
Program (NATOPS) is a positive approach towards improving combat
readiness and achieving a substantial reduction in the aircraft accident
rate. standardization, based on professional knowledge and experience,
provides the basis for development of an efficient and sound operational
procedure. The standardization program is not planned to stifle
individual initiative but rather, to aid the Commanding Officer in in-
creasing his unit's combat potential without reducing his command
prestige or responsibility. .
2. This manual standardizes ground and flight procedures but does not
include tactical doctrine. Compliance with the stipulated manual proce-
dure is mandatory except as authorized herein. In order to remain
effective, NATOPS must be dynamiC and stimulate rather than suppress
individual thinking. Since aviation is a continuing progressive profession,
it is both desirable and necessary that new ideas and new techniques be
expeditiously evaluated and incorporated if proven to be sound. To this
end Type/Fleet/Air Group/Air Wing/Squadron Commanders and subordi-
nates are obligated, authorized and directed to modify procedures contained
herein, in accordance with OPNAV Instruction 3510.9 series and applicable
directives, for the purpose of assessing new ideas, in a practical way,
prior to initiating recommendations for permanent changes. This manual
is prepared and kept current by the users in order to achieve maximum
readiness and safety in the most efficient and economical manner. Should
conflict exist between the training and operating procedures found in this
manual and those found in other publications, this manual will govern.
3. Checklists and other pertinent extracts from this publication necessary
to normal operations and training should be made and may be carried in
Naval Aircraft for use therein. It is forbidden to make copies of this
entire publication or major portions thereof without specific authority of
the Chief of Naval Operations.

o NN
Vice Admiral, USN
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air)

Chang e d 15 January 1967


NAVAIR 01-45HHD- 1

II INTERI M CHANGE SUMMARY


II
CHANGE NUMBER CHANGE DATE PAGES
AFFECTED PURPOSE

1 through 5 Previously incorporated or ca nce ll ed

6 Adds supersonic towing procedures


9-26·63 Ou{Scanding
and limits
Adds procedures for air pickup
7 5·6·64 Outstanding of dan targ ets

8, 9 Previously incorporated or ca ncelled

i; Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01·4SHHD·l

CONTENTS
Section I - AIRCRAFT......................................................................... 1
Pari 1 - Aircraft and Engine
Pari 2 - Systems
Pari 3 - Aircraft Servicing and Handling
Pari 4 - Aircraft Operating Limitations

Section II -INDOCTRINATION ........................................................ 105

- - -Section III - NORMAL PROCEDURES ............................................. 109


Pari 1 - Briefing/Debriefing
Pari 2 - Mission Planning
~_ _ _ Part 3 - Shore·Based Procedures
Part 4

Section I - FLIGHT PROCEDURES AND CHARACTERISTICS 141


Pari 1 - Flight Procedures_ • ..,:-._-
Pari 2 Flight Characteristics

Section V -EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ...................................... 165


Pari 1 - Ground Emergencies
Pari 2 - Takeoff Emergencies
Pari 3 -Inflight Emergencies
Pari 4 - Landing Emergencies

Section VI -ALL-WEATHER OPERATION .................................... 205


Pari 1 - Simulated Instrument Procedures
Pari 2 - Actual Instrument Procedures
Part 3 - Weather Procedures

Section VII - COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES ...................... 215

Section VIII- WEAPON SYSTEMS ..................................................... 221

Section IX - FLIGHT CREW COORDINATION ........................... 247

Section X -STANDARDIZATION EVALUATION ..................... 249


Pari 1 - Standardization Evaluation Program

Section XI - PERFORMANCE DATA ............................................... 265

Changed 15 July 1966 iii


NAVAIR OI-45HHD-I

-----

SCOPE ments, and operating limi ta tions. Part 1 provides a


general description of the aircraft, console a nd instru-
The NATOPS Flight Manual is published by the au-
ment board illustrat ions, and a description of the
thority of the Chief of Naval Operations and under the
engine and afterburner. Pare 2 describes a ircraft sys-
direction of the Commander, Naval Air Systems Com-
tems, excluding tacdcal sys te ms, and prese nts special-
mand, in conjunction with the Naval Air Training
ized system operating procedures. Pare 3 provides
and Operating Procedures Standardization (NATOPS)
servicing and handling information for operating from
Program. Ie combines the "user" developed operating
strange fi elds. Part 4 prov ides aircraft operating lim-
procedures with the latest information from the manu-
itations. Some additiona l limitadons applying to spe-
facturer. Read this manual carefully from cover co
cialized operations are found in sections Ill , IV, a nd
cover. It's your responsibility (Q have a complete
V, and in other pares of this section .
knowledge of its contents.

SOUND JUDGMENT Section II, INDOCTRINATION, summarizes all re-


quireme nts necessa ry for qualification in the F-B.
This ma nual provides the best avai lable operating Ground training, Right training, Right qualification,
ins[fucrions for mOSt circumstances, but no manual is and perso nnel Rying equipment requirements are in-
a substitute for so und judgment. Multiple emergencies. cluded in this section.
adve rse weather, or terrain may require modification
of the procedures contained herein. Section III, NORMAL PROCEDURES, provides rec-
ommended procedures fo r operating the aircraft under
ARRANGEMENT normal conditions. Part 1 contains briefing and de-
briefing procedures. Part 2 provides mission planning.
T he manual is divided into eleven sections as follows:
Part 3 presents complete shore-based ground a nd Right
Section I, AIRCRAFT, consists of four pares which procedures. Parr 4 presents only those procedures
describe the aircra ft , its sys tems, serv icing require- pecu liar to carrier operation.
iv Changed 1 5 July 1966
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1

Section IV, FLIGHT PROCEDURES AND CHAR- UP-DATING THE MANUAL


ACfERlSTICS, consists of two pans. Pact 1 contains
To ensure that the manual contains the latest pro-
procedures for transition and familiarization, parade
cedures and information, a review conference will be
and tactical formation, formation rendezvous, inflight
held periodically as necessary.
refueling, and flight tCSt, Part 2 provides aircraft
flight characteristics and recommended pilot tech-
YOUR RESPONSIBILITY
niques.
NATOPS Flight Manuals are kept current through an
Section V, EMERGENCY PROCEDURES, is divided
active manual change program. If you find anything
into four parts covering ground emergencies (part 1),
you don't like about the manual, if you have informa-
takeoff emergencies (part 2), inflight emergencies
tion you'd like to pass along to others, or if you find
(part 3)' and landing emergencies (part 4).
an error in the manual, submit a change recommenda-
Section VI, ALL-WEATHER OPERATION. Parts 1 tion to the Model Manager.
and 2 provide simulated and actual instrument pro-
cedures. Part 3 covers flight in ic ing conditions, rain, FLIGHT MANUAL INTERIM CHANGES (FMIC)
snow. thunderstorms and turbulence, cold weather,
hot weather and desert. Flight Manual Interim Changes (FMIC'S) are changes
or correCtions to the NATOPS Fligbt Manuals, Pocket
Section VII, COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES, Cbeck Lists, and Supplementary publications promul-
conta ins information on radio discipline and pro- gated by CNO or NAV AIR. FMIC'S may be received
cedures, and hand signals. by the individual custodian as a printed page or pages,
or by the command as a Naval Message. After the
SECTION VIII, WEAPON SYSTEMS, contains de-
completion of the action directed by a printed FMIC,
scriptions of, and normal operating procedures for,
it shall be retained in front of the flyleaf of the manual
the fire control system, guns, and other weapon systems.
unless the FMIC contains authorization to discard the
Section IX, FLIGHT CREW COORDINATION, is not page.
applicable to the single-place F-S.
INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY
Section X, STANDARDIZATION EVALUATION,
The Interim Change Summary in each manual is pro-
describes the standardization program and presents re-
vided for the purpose of maintaining a complete record
quirements for ground and inflight evaluation. The
of all FMIC'S issued to the manual. Eacb time tbe
section also provides grading. criteria, information
manual is changed or revised, the Interim Change
pertaining to records and reports, the evaluation ques-
Summary will be up-dated to indicate disposition
tion bank, and evaluation forms.
andlor incorporation of previously issued FMIC'S.
Section XI. PERFORMANCE DATA, contains cha rts When a regular change is received, the Interim Change
and other data from which aircraft performance can be Summary should be checked to ascertain that all out-
determined. standing FMIC's have been either incorporated or can-
celled . Those not incorporated should be re-entered
HOW TO GET COPIES
and noted as applicable.
To be sure of getting your manuals on time, order
them before you need them. Early ordering will assure CHANGE RECOMMENDATIONS
that enough copies are printed to cover your require-
Recommended changes to this manual or other
ments. Procurement of manuals may be effected in
NATOPS publications may be submitted by anyone
accordance with NA VSANDA Publication 2002, Sec-
in accordance with OPNAV Instruction 3510.9 series.
tion VIII, Part C. Additional information is presented
Change recommendations of an URGENT (safety of
on page A of this manual.
flight etc. ) nature should be submitted directly to tbe
NATOPS Advisory Group member in tbe Chain of
NATOPS POCKET CHECK LISTS
Command by priority message.
The NA TOPS Pocket Check Lists provide essential
Routine change recommendati')n~ are submitted to
information in abbreviated form for operation of this
tbe Model Manager on OPNA V Form 3500/ 22.
aircraft. These Check Lists may be obtained in the same
manner as the NATOPS Flight Manual. Cbanges to Address routine changes to: VF 124
them are concurrent with, and dated the same as, the Miramar NAS
NATOPS Flight Manuals. California

Changed 15 July 1966 y


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l

WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES


[ CAUTION J
The following definitions apply to "Warnings," "Cau- Operating procedures, practices, ecc., which, if DOt
tions," and "Notes," found throughout the manual. stricdy observed, will damage the equipment.
Note
An operating procedure, condition, etc., which is essen-

WARNING I tial to emphasize.


CHANGE SYMBOLS
Revised text is indicated by a black vertical line in
either margin of th~ page, like the one printed next
to this paragraph. The change symbol shows where
Operating procedures, practices, etc., which will result rhere has heen a change. The change might be material
in injury or death, if not carefully followed. added or information restated.

SERVICE CHANGE SUMMARY


Following is a lise of service changes which app ly to this manual bur which may not be incorporated in rh e air-
craft. The service change is briefly described and, where applicable, information is given for visual determination
of incorporation.
Service Chal1,ge
(Type Change and DeIcripliolJ. Visual. l detllificalio n
Change Number)

Aircraft Service
Changes
356A Insta lls AN/ ARN·52(V) TACAN system in OFF flag on face of bea ring-distance heading
place of AN/ARN-21 TACAN indicator
364 Installs inflight refueling probe illuminating Probe illuminating light on LH side of fu se-
light for in fli ght refueling at night lage
407,422 Provides for photographing radarscope dis- \Vith system in sHllled for use, by presence
plays of camera and pe ri scope mounted on the
radarscope
426 .Installs provisions for usc of an externa l Access ope ning dccaled WING TANK
pressure gage to monitOr w ing fu el tank PRESSURE GAUGE CONNECTION o n
trapped air press ure during ground re- fiR wing lower surface adjacent to fu se-
fueling operations lage
Airframe Changes
439 Improves landing gear impact: absorption
capabilities
440 Installs provisions for RF oscillatOr for use
with conventional type wing sto res
447 Provides an auxiliary track lamp next to the Auxiliary track lamp on the RH side of the
sight unit for use in the GARO (guns sight unit refl ec tor plate.
automatic ranging only) mode for radar
operation
449 Modifies fuel system to increase system
surge relief capability
451 Provides for continuous operation of the Toggle switch on throttle quadrant dcca led
aircraft engine ignitor during missile (ir- CONT IGN
ing or jet"tisoning operations
488 Provides for u se of multiple and triple MER / TER STORES position on armament
ejector racks, and for sim ultan eous re- panel select jettison switch.
lease of sing le stores from left- and right-
hand pylons
I 490 InstaUs Shoehorn C equipment

vi Changed 15 January 1967


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1

SERVICE CHANGE SUMMARY (Continued)


Service Change
(Type Change and Description Visual IJmti!icaliotl
Change Number)

Aviation Clothing Modifies MK-F5 ejection seat to provide a Orange decal on LH side of drogue para-
and Survival Equip- ground-level escape capability and re- chute container with minimum ejection
ment Bulletin 22-61 designates to MK-F5A capability and "ACSEB 22-61" printed
thereon

Aircrew Systems Incorporates visual indicator type top latch Visual indicating type top latch mechanism
Change No. 19 mechanism and visual ejection seat align- and red-painted triprods for the drogue
ment indicators for verifying security of gun and timed release mechanism
the ejection seat installation in the aircraft

Avionics Changes Adds GARO (guns automatic ranging


133,148 only) mode of radar operation
Permits emergency replies to be transmitted
170 (Interim) when a mode 3 interrogation is received
with IFF master switch in EMERGENCY

COMNAVAIRPAC Provides IFF reply impulse after releasing


General Avionics liP switch in mode 3
Bulletin No. 45-62
or COMNAV AIR-
LANT General
Avionics Bulletin
No. 46

Electronic Material Adds air-to-air ranging capability to Presence of ItAI A" ( air-to-air) pOSiUon on
Change No. 90-62 AN/ARN-21B TACAN and redesignates T ACAN master switch in aircraft without
to AN/ARN-21D AN/ARN-52(V) TACAN

I Aircrew Systems
Change No. 56
Adds indicator on bottom of drogue gun
firing mechanism for verifying that firing
mechanism is cocked.
Presence of indicator

Changed 15 July 1966 vii


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1

F-80, F-8E

- -
-- -
--.::~--:::--

Figure I- J

viii Chang ed 15 July 1966


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l

section I I
aircraft

CONTENTS
PART 1 - AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE
Aircraft ______________________________________________________ -------------------------- 3
Engine and Afterburner_______________________________________________________________ 11

PART 2 - SYSTEMS
Air-Conditioning ______________________________________________________________________ 17
Angle-of-Attack Indicating __________________________________________________________________________ 22
Antiblackout __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24
Approach Power Compensator_____________________________________________________________________________ 25
Arresting Hook _______________________________________________________________________________ 27
Automatic Pilot ________________________________________________________________________________ 28
Canopy ______________________________________________________ ------------------------------------ 33
Ejection Seat ______________________________________________________--___________________________.-------------- 33
Electrical Supply _______________________________________________________________ 40
Exterior Lights _______________________________________ ________________ 43
Fire Detector ___________________________________________________________________________________ 44
Flight Controls ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 45
Flight Instruments _______________________________________________________________________________ 46
Fuel System _ ____________________________________________________________ 47
Inflight Refueling ______________________________________________________________________________________ 51
Interior Lights --------------________________________________________---_____________________________________________ 53
Landing Gear __________________________________________________________________________ 55
MA-l Compass -____________________________________________________________________________ 57
Data Recording Camera Set___________________________________________________----- 59
Nose Gear Steering__________________________________________________________________________________________ 61
Oxygen _____________________________________________________________________________________ 63
Power Control Hydraulic Supply__________________________________________________ 65
Pneumatic Supply ___________________________________________________________________ 67
Radio Equipment --------------------------------______________________ -_________________________________________ 69
Command Radio Set ANIARC-27 A __________________________________________________________________ 70
Direction Finder (ADF) Group ANIARA-25 ________________________________________ 71
Identification Set ANIAPX-6B Coder Group ANIAP A-89______________________ 72
Radar Set (Radio Altimeter) ANIAPN-22 _____________________________________________________ 74
Radio Navigation (Tacan) AN/ARN-2lB, AN/ARN-21D, AN/ARN-52 (V)_ 75
Speed Brake ------------__________________________ 76
Trim and Stabilizatioll.._________________________ 78

Changed 15 July 1965 1


Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1

CONTENTS (Continued)

I Two-Posi tion Wing . --. _. __ .. _ .... _...... ______ .__ ._ .. -_ .. _____ ._____________ ._____________________________________
Wheel Brakes .- -.- .-.. -.- .. -.. --.. --. -.-... _... __ .___ ... ---____ , ____ ._____________ .______________________________________
Utility Hydraulic Supply .--. _.. __ ... _____ .. _... ______________________________________________________________
82
85
87
Wingfold -. .. ... --... - .. --._ ...... __ . _. __ ._______ .. ______________________________________________________________ 88
MiscelJaneous Equipment ... - -.... -. -__ ._. _____________ ._________________________________________________________ 91

PART 3 - AIRCRAFT SERVICING AND HANDLING


Servicing. -.. .-. -. -- .-.. --.-------.---. -. -----.--... ------------------.--------------------------------. - 92
Handling .' -. .. ....... -... -.. .--... --.-.... -------.----.. -.. ----------------------.--------------.--------------- 94

PART 4 - AIRCRAFT OPERATING LIMITATIONS


Introduction ............. -... ._. --. -..... -_. __ .__ .. -.. _. --- .-.--.--... ------------- ________ .______________________________ 98
Instrument Markings -.... . -.-.--.-.-..... -... --... --.. ---.-.-.-.----------------.. --____________ 98
Airspeed Limitations ... . ......... ---... _. _______ -.-.--.... --. ---.---------------------------------___________ 98
Power Control Hydraulic System ........ -.- - -' - ... -.----.---.. -.--.. ------------------------------____ 98
Trim and Stabilization System 100
Maneuvers 100
Acceleration Limitations 100
Fuel System Acceleration Limitations 100
Fuel Availability ... .. _. ............ __ .. ___ ._ .. _. ___ .____ .__ .. _.. ____________________________________ 100
Engine Limitations .. _ ... _______ ._ .. _... _______ .. _..... ____ .________________ .______________ 101
Cooling Flow Limitations .. ................. -.... _... _...... ________________ .___________ .. ______ 102
Center-of-Gravity Limitations _._. _.. _....................... ___ .. _.. __ ... __ .______________________ 103
Weight Limitations .. ....... __ ., __ .... _... _._ .... ________ .. ____ .. __ ._ .. ______ ._______________ ._103
External Stores Limitations __ .. ............. _.... _..... _........ ___ ..... _.... ___________ ._____ 103

2
Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS OI-45HHD-I Seclion I
Aircraft and Engine

PART 1- AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE I


AIRCRAFT

DESCRIPTION is raised for takeoff and landing. The wing contains


an integral fuel cell and incorporates flaps, ailerons
The F-SD and F-SE ace single-place, carrier- or land- (which also serve as flaps when the wing is raised)
based supersonic aircraft equipped with radar to pro- and a full-span leading edge droop_ The entire hori-
vide an all-weather comhat capahility_ The F-SE is zontal tail moves as a unit to provide elevator control.
equipped to carry wing StOres which further increases A single, large speed brake is mounted on the fuselage
its combat capability_ underside just forward of the main landing gear.
Figure 1-2 presents the general arrangement of the
The aircraft (figure 1-1) is identified by a long aircraft.
slender fuselage with a large air intake duct mounted
under the nose section, and two ventral fins mounted The arrangements of the F-SO and F-SE cockpit in-
on the lower aft section. A thin, swept-back, two- strument boards and consoles are illustrated in figures
position wing is mounted higb on the fuselage and 1-3 through 1-5_

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT

Wing
Span, maximu.m.. __._.__ .._____ ... __.. __________ .. _________......... _...._. ____........ _____... _... ______________________ ._._........ __ . _______ .. ____ ..... 35 ft 8 in.
Span, wings folded _____________________________________________________________ .__________________________________________________________________ 22 ft 6 in_
Chord (stream wise)
At rOOL _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 ft 10 i n_
At construction tip (theoretical extended section at tip) _..._____________ . _______._._____........ ___...... _____________ . ________......4 ft 8 in.
Mea n geo m etr ic__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 141. 4 i n_
Incidence at mean aerodynamic chord............_..._. _____........_______. _____ .... ____ ......_. ____.. _________ ... _______________ ._______ ........ __ ...... _-1 0
Sweep back of \4 ch ord line _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 42·
o ihed ral ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________-5·
Aspect rario _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ._.3.4
Tail
Horizontal
Spa n .__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ lS ft 2_4 i n_
Sweep of \4 chord Ii ne _______________________________________________ .______________________________________________________________________________ 45 •
o ihedraL ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5· 25'
Aspect ratio (incl uding enclosed fuselage area) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.5
Vertical
Sweep of \4 chord line__________________________________________ ._________________________________________________________________________ 45·
Aspect ratio ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1_5

Height (overall, static ground position; this height will not be exceeded with the wings folded). ___ 15 ft 9_1 in_
Length (overall, static ground position) _________________________________________________________________________ 55 ft 3.2 in_ (F-SO)
55 ft 11.6 in. (F-SE)
I Approximate weight (less usable fuel, ammunition, pylons and stores, and pilot) _____ __ _____ ___________ _____ ___________ ___ lS,SOO Ib

Changed 15 July 1965 3


GENERAL ARRANGEMENT- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Starboard Wing
.. !:'::€'
n _
" n
D o·
:;-~
Formation Light
UHF and c
~
Q.
Antenna
Wing Tank m
~

Upper Anticollision
'"; '
~
Tail Navigation
Light Light

Heat Exchanger and Air Scoop


Refrigeration Turbine

TACAN
Recei ver-Transmitter

Integrated Emergency
Electronics Power Package
Package z
~
Martin-Baker
Ejection Seat
Arresting Hook
...:E
m

'"o
Sight
Unit

Aft TranlS!er
Fuel Cells Port Wing
Speed IBoth Sides) Formation light
Brake

External Utility Hydraulic Wing


Forward Transfer
Power Connections Navigation
Fuel Cell ILH Wheel Well) Light

Camera Rad io Altim eter


Receiver Transmitter
and Ante nna
Fire Control External
Radar Antenna Electrical Power TACAN Inllight Refueling
Recepticle Antenna Probe 63 7 62. _ 1_ 19

Figure 1-2
NAVWEPS Ol ·4SHHD·l Section I
Aircraft and Engine

INSTRUMENT BOARD------- - - - - - - - - -
F·8D (TYPICAL) I

1. Rudder ne utral trim light 16. Bureau serial numbe rs (call numbers) 31. Main fuel quantity indicator
2. Aileron neutral trim light 17. Fuel low-l evel w arning light 32. Fuel flow indicator
3. Speed brake light 18. Engine fuel pump w arning light 33. Fuel quantity test switch
4. I"flight refueling probe light 19. Course indicator 34. Turn·and-bank indicator
5. Wing-wh ee ls-droop warning light 20. Navigation indicator 34A. Fue l boost pumps warning light
6. landing gear position indicators 21. Fuel dump switch 35 . Attitude indicator
7. Eng ine pressure ratio indicator 22. Fuel transfe r switch 36. Nose trim indicator
8. Tachomete r 23. Fuel transfer pump caution light 37. Armament pane l
9. AngIe-oF-attack indicator 24. Clock 38. Oil cooler door indicator
10. I"flight refueling probe switch 25. UHF chann el indicator 39. Oil cooler door switch
11 . Engine oil pressure indicator 26. Oxygen warning light 40. Leading edge droop indicator
12. Radio altitude indicator 27. Transfe r fuel quantity indicator 41. Altimeter
13. Fire warning light 28. Hyd raulic pressure indicators 42. Airspeed-Mach number indicator
14. Fire warning test switch 29. Engin e oil and hydraulic pressure 43. Acceleration indicator
15. Fire control radar scope warning light 44. Rate-of-climb indicator
30. Oxyg en quantity indicator 45. Exhaust temperature indicator

Figure 1-3 (Sheet 1)

5
Section I NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l
Aircraft and Engine

INSTRUMENT BOARD
I F-8E (TYPICAL)

I. Rudde r ne utral trim light 17. Fuel low-l eve l warning light 32. Fuel flow indicator
2. Aileron neutral trim light 18. Engine fu e l pump warning light 33. Fuel quantity test switch
3. Speed brake light 19. Course indicator 34. Turn-and-bank indicator
4. Inflight refueling probe light 20. Navigation ( bearing-distance- 34A. Fuel boost pumps warning light
5. Wing-wheels-droop warning light heading) indicator 35. Attitude indicator
b. landing gear position indicators 21. Fuel dump switch 3b. Nose trim indicator
(threel 22. Fuel transfer switch 37. Armament panel t
7. Engine pressure ratio indicator 23. Fuel transfer pump caution light 38. Oil cooler door indicator
8. Tachomete r 24. Clock 39. Oil cooler door switch
9. Angle-of-ottock indicator 25. UHF preset channel indicator 40. Leading edge droop indicator
10. Inflight refueling probe switch 26. Oxygen warning light 41. Altimeter
I I. Engine oil pressure indicator 27. Transfer fuel quantity indicator 42. Airspeed-Mach number
12. Radio altitude indicato r 28 . Hydraulic press ure indicators indicator
13. Fire warning light 29. Engine oil and hydraulic pres- 43. Acceleration indicator
14. Fire warn ing test switch sure warning light 44. Rate-of-cl imb indicator
15. Fire control radar scope ... 30. Liquid oxygen quantity indicator 45. Exhaust temperature indicator
16. Deleted 31. Main fuel quantity indicator

... Aircraft BuNo. 150284 and subsequent and those with ASC 395
t Aircraft BuNo. 150284 and subsequent and those with ASC 400

Figure 1-3 (Sheet 2)

6
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Secti on I
Aircraft and Engine

LEFT CONSOLE- - - - - - - - - -- - - - -
F-8D (TYPICAL) I

I-JOHI .., .
1. G valve
2. Speed brake override switch
3 . Anti-exposure coverall ventilatio n switch

-
~
Q
4. Vent ilation / oxygen panel
5. Wing down lock handle
6 . Emergency dro op and wing incidence guard
7. Wing incidence handle
8. Wing incidence release switch
9. Throttle
10. Fuel control switch
11. Manual fuel control light
12. Emergency brake handle
12A . Continuous engine ignition switch
13. Left hand switch panel
14. Engine master switch
15. Yaw stab il izati on switch
16. Emergency pitch trim handle
17. Yaw stabilization light
18. Roll stabilization light
19. Autopilot master switch
20. Autopilot heading hold disable switch
21. Emergency power handle
22. Autopilot engaged light
23. Landing gear handle
24. Emergency pitch trim channel switch
25. Roll stabilization switch
26. Throttle catapult handle
27. Throttle friction wheel
28. Rudder trim knob
29. Microphone switch
30. Speed brake switch
3DA. Approach power compensator panel
31 . Radar set control panel
32. Fire control panel
33. Deleted
34. Oxygen disconnect

Figure 1-4 (She et I)

Changed 15 JulV 1966 7


Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l
Aircraft and Engine

LEFT CONSOLE
I F·BE (TYPICAl)

1. G valve
2. Speed brake override switch
3. Anti - exposure coverall ventilation
switch
4. Ventilation/oxygen panel
5. Wing downlock handle
6. Emergency droop and
wing incidence guard
7. Wing incidence handle
8 . Wing incidence release switch
9. Throttle
10. Fuel control switch
11. Manual fuel control light
12. Emergency brake handle
12A. Continuous eng ine ignition switch
13. Left-hand switch panel
14. Engine master switch
15. Yaw stabilization switch
16. Emergency pitch trim handle
17. Yaw stabilization light
18. Roll stabilization light
19. Autopilot master switch
20. Autopilot heading hold
disable switch
21 . Emergency power handle
22 . Autopilot engaged light
23. Landing gear handle
24. Emergency pitch trim channel
25 . Roll stabilization switch
26. Throttle catapult handle
27. Throttle fr iction wheel
28 . Rudder trim knob
29. Microphone switch
30. Speed brake switch
30A . Approach power compensator
panel
31. Radar set control panel
32. Fire control panel
33 . Fuse control panel
34 . Oxygen disconnect

63762 1 29 N E

Figure 1-4 ISh eet 21


8 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS 01 -4SHHO- l Section I
Aircraft and Engine

RIGHT C O N S O L E - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
F-RO (TYPICAL)
I
DETAIL A

1.
,.hr.,,'.'
Ar resting gea r handle
2. Engine anti-icing indicator lights
3. Engine anti -icing switch
4. Pitot heat switch
5. Cockpit pressure altimeter
6. Emergency power indicator light
7 . Emergen cy generator switch
8. Air conditioning panel
9. Autopilot control panel
10. TACAN panel
11. Exterior lights control panel
11 A. Interior lights control panel
12. Armament panel dimm ing knob
13. Coc kp.it emergency air ventilation knob
14. Wingfolil controls
1S. Approach light hook bypass switch
16. Guns ight camera test switch
17. Missile synchronizer
18. IFF panel
19. Coder group panel
20. Inte rior lights dimming panel
21. Compass panel
22. UHF panel
23. Master generator switch
24. Main generator indicator

'·hl."':1
Figure 1- 5 (Sheet 1)

9
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l
A ircraft and Engine

RIGHT CONSOLE
I F-8E (TYPICAL)

1. Arresting gear handle 13. Cockpit emergency air ventilation knob


2. Engine anti-icing indicator lights 14. W ingfold controls
3. Engine anti-icing switch 15. App roach light hook bypass switch
4. Pitot heat switch 16. Gunsight camera test switch
5. Cockpit pressure altimeter 17. M iss il e synchronizer
6. Emerg ency power indicator light 18 . IFF panel
7. Emergency generator switch 19. Coder group panel
8. Air-conditioning panel 20. Interior lights dimming panel
9. Autopilot control panel 21. Compass panel
10. TACAN panel 22. UHF panel
11. Exterior lights control panel 23. Master generator switch
l1A. Interior lights control panel 24. Main generator indica tor
12. Armament panel dimming knob

Console shown before AFC 490, Parts I and II. For chonges in
arrangement after AFC 490, Part I and II, refer to section VIII.

63 7 GZ- 1-30-1 0 - 66

Figure 1-5 (Sheet 2)

10 Changed 15 January 1967


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Aircraft and Engine

DESCRIPTIO N
ENGINE AND AFTERBURNER

The ai rcraft is equipped with a Pratt and W hitney


Ice prevention is provided by hot air, bled from the
diffuser section of the engine and routed through
hollow sections in the engine inlet struts and guide
I
J57-P-20 or J57-P-20A continuous-Bow gas-turbine van es. A n engine anti-icing switch perm_its selection of
engine with an afterburner for thrust aug mentation. anti-icing system operation at the discretion of the
The a.x ial-flow compressor is split into twO mechan- pilot. To prevent an excessive decrease in performance,
ically separate rotors w hich provide greater Bexibility an automatic regulator reduces the Bow of hot air
I for sta rting and permit part load operation. Each rotor through the anti-ici ng system when compressor
is driven by a separate turbine. During starting, the exhaust temperature rises. Cockpit indicator ligh ts arc
external starter is connected to the high-pressure rotor provided to reduce the possibility of inadvertent
since it is smaller and requires less torque. W ith the operation.
high-pressure rotor turning at governed speed, the
low-pressure, low-speed rotor rotates so as to ensure
optimum ai rflow through the compressor. Flow match- Test stand static thrust ratings of the engine arC :
ing berween compressors and turbines and prevention
of surge are accomplished by interstage bleeding be- Military thrusL _________________1O,700 pounds (J 57 -P -20 )
tween the rOtors. Eng ine speed is based on high- 11,400 pounds (J57-P-20A)
pressure rOtor operatio n a nd is varied by a hydro- Maximum thrust (afterhurner) _________ 18,000 pounds
mechanical fuel control unit. (either engine)

ENGINE CONTROLS
Nomellciature FU1JcJion

Anti-icing switch ON - opens two eng ine·mounted motor·actuated valves to permit hot engine bleed
(3, figure 1-5) air to fl ow thro ugh the engi ne inlet g uide vanes for preventio n of ice formation.
Anti-icing indicato r lights ON - (LH ON or RH ON) indicates corresponding engine anci-icing valve is open.
( 2, figure 1-5)
Engine master switch ON - accomplishes the following:
(14, figure 1--4) 1. Admits aircraft fuel to engine d riven p ump by opening cng ine fuel shutoff
valve.
2. Energizes crank a nd ignite switches.
3. Energizes temperature sensing elemem of oil cooler door t emperature control
unit.
4. Energizes boost pumps.
5. Energizes fu el transfer switch.
Eogine oil p ressure indicator Indicates oil pressure in psi.
(II, figure 1-3)
Eogine o il / hydraulic p ressure On indicates low pressure in one of the following systems : engine oil. utility h ydrau·
warning light lie, or either power control hydraulic system.
(25, fig ure 1-3)
Engine pressu re ratio indicator Indicates ratio of turbine outler p ressure to eng ine inlet pressu re.
(7, figure 1- 3)
Exhaust temperature indicator Indicates average engine exhaust gas temperature in degrees centigrade.
(45, figu re 1-3)
Fuel flow indicator Indicates rate of engine ( bur not afterburn er) fuel Bow in poun ds per hour.
(32, figure 1-3)
Oil cooler door switch AUTO - normal position; system autOmarically controlled.
(39, figure 1-3 ) OPEN and C LOSE - permits positioning of oil cooler door if auto mati c con trol fails.
Oil cooler door indicator OPEN - indicates o il cooler door ope n.
(38, figu re 1-3) CLOSE - indica tes oil coo ler door closed. Barberpole indicates door in i ntermediate
position o r electrical power no t conneered.
Tachometer Indicates bigh-pressu re rotor speed by percent based 00 9.976 rpm as 1000,;6.
(8, figure 1-3 )

Changed 15 July 1965 11


Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Aircraft and Engine

ENGINE CONTROLS (CoII /;ut/ ed)

I Throt"de
Nomenclature

(9, figure 1-4)


Functio1J

OFF - shuts off fuel Bow from fuel control unit.


CRANK - momentary position, inidates engine ground cranking cycle.
IGNITE - momentary position, energizes ignition rimer for engine staning.
IDLE - adjustable Stop, prevems inadvertent retarding to OFF.
MILITARY - selects maximum thrust without afterburner.
MA.X - placed outboa rd, selects maximum thrust with a fterburn er.
Throttle friction wheel Rotate to ad just throttle friction.
(27, figure 1-4)
Fuel con tro l switch NORMAL-activa tes automatic fuel metering of fu el control unit.
(10, figu," 1-4) MAN - bypasses autOmatic fuel metering of fuel control unit, giving manual control
with throttle position.
Manual fuel comrol light Light on w hen fuel comrol unit in manual mode.
( 11 , figure 1-4)
Engine fue l pump warning light On indicates insufficiem fue l pressure from engine stage of fuel pump and engine
( 18, figu,. 1- 3) operating from afterburner stage.

I
Contin uous engine ignidon switch· ON - momentary position, initiates engine ignition and energizes continuous ignition
(I2A, figu,. 1-4) timer. Timer auto matically shuts off ign ition after 4Y.z to 5Y.z minutes o f continuous
operation. Switch is spring-loaded to off.

*Aircraft with Airframe Change No. 451.

ENGINE OPERATION overtemperature and overpressure. During rapid d ecel~


eration, a minimum fuel flow is maintained to prevent
Engine Fuel (See figure 1-6.) engine flameout.

Fuel is pumped from the main and forward main If a malfunction occurs in the automatic metering unit,
fue l cells through a motor-driven engine fu el shutoff engine operation may be co ntinued by swi tching to
valve to the engine fuel pump. The pump directs fuel ma nual fuel control. With the fuel control switch in
to the fuel control unit for automatic fuel metering. MANUAL, all automatic fuel metering functions are
Metered fue l then passes through the oil· fuel heat reduced and fuel /low is manually controlled by
exc hanger for fuel preheating and oil cooling. A pres~ throttle movement. Care should be exercised when
surizing and dump valve directs the fuel to six dual acce lerating. Compressor stalls and overtemperature
orifice fuel nozzles for ato mizat ion in each of the eight may result if throttle movement is too rapid. At
burners and provides an overboard drain for the engine normal climb airspeeds, EGT will increase with an
fue l manifolds after engine shutdown. increase in altitude. Throttle settings must be reduced
as necessary to remain within allowable EGT limits.
The engine~driven fuel pump se rves both the engine
and the afterburner. The pump consists of a centrif~ Engine Oil (See figure 1-7.)
uga l booster stage and separate gear stages for the
engine and afterburner. The pump mounts a transfer Oil is supplied from a tank by direcr gravity feed to
valve which routes afterburner fuel to an internal an engine·driven gear ~ type pump and directed to the
recirculating line when the afterburne r is nOt in use. main engine bearings a nd to the accessory drives for
I If the engine stage of th e pump fails completely, the pressure lubrication.
transfer valve automatically transfers afterburner stage
Output to the engine fuel control unit a nd reduces fuel Note
flow to the afterburner fuel control unit during high
During zero or negative g conditions, oil
I thrust conditions. Complete fai lu re of the eng ine stage pressure fluctuations may be apparent. The
w ill be indica ted by illumina tion o f the engine fuel flucruations are normal and should damp out
pu mp warning lig ht. within approximately 30 seconds after resum~
The fuel control unit provides a speed governing ing positive g conditions.
co ntrol by metering fuel to compensa te for variations
in ambient conditions, compressor inlet temperature, The oil, pumped from the engine by six gear-type
and burner pressure to maintain opti mum engine scavenge pumps, is cooled by a radi ator-type oil
operation for various throttle settings. During rapid cooler and a n oil-fuel heat exchanger, and then
acceleration, th e unit limits fuel flow to prevent surge, returned to the oil tank.

12
NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-1 Section I
Aircraft and Engine

ENGINE F U E L - - - - - - -- - -- -- - - - -
I! Jdj: i.1 )
( ( i ( ( I i)

- _ i,
Engine Fuel (Normal Flow)
Engine Fuel (Emergency Flow)
I
I
/------ - M il
Afterburner Fuel
Control Pressure
Linkage
Oil-Fuel _ ...0,-0,,-_ Wi.i n9
Heat Exchanger
I
I
I Engine Oil
Engine Fuel
Manifold --- -
I~
\ CC>
\
---
Flowmeter
Transmitter Speed-Reset
Sensing line
-
Shutoff (JS7-P-20 Engine Only)
Emergency Fuel -,
Metering Valve "- , Afterburner Fuel
Control Unit
Emergency "-
--::,.
Transfer Valve I

From Main Fuel Cell

Afterburner
Engine Me chanical
Shutoff Valve
Fuel I
Shutoff Valve
I
---

Pump
Transfer Valve

617 62. _ ' _ 1

Figure 1- 6

13
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-1
Aircraft and Engine

ENGINE OIL---- - - -- - - - - - - - - --
I ~

a:=
MuaHi,.
P,enure
Return
\

Oil
=
~
Scavenge
Fuel
Cool ••
.....u..... Wiring

- ; --.....lfttJ'lIlt\U ~ Engin. (Rof) ~ Ram Air


Oil Coolo.;'---,\ /
Engine
Inlol
"--H--":"--;-- 000.i')uaIO. ' ........ Oil Tank
Temperature
Unit
Duct (Ref) To main engine bearings From
and accessory drives
••

To engine
manifold

\
Engine Driven
Oil Pump *
Heat
Exchang er
Press ure Transm itters

Pro."u.o Rat io
Switch
.. Interna l Engine Components.
Pressure
Warning light

Figure 1-7 ,
Tota l system capacity is 7 gallons. The 7 gallons At lower speeds, door operation is returned to, the tem-
co nsis t of 5 gallons for se rvicing purposes and 2 gal- perature control unit.
lons which are trapped in the system. Oil temperature
is autom atically stabilized by a thermal-se nsi ng tem-
pe rarure control unit and a thermostatic regulator A three-position switch, in the cockpit, provides man-
valve. The temperature con rrol unit electrically con- ual control of the oil cooler door. The switch is nor-
rrols the o il cooler door a nd prevents fuel from being mally positioned in AUTO with the OPEN and CLOSE
overheated in the heat exchanger. The thermostatic positions used only if the pressure ratio switch fai ls
regu lato r va lve senses oi l temperature and permits the to position the door. Do not manually open th e oil
oi l to fl ow through or bypass the heat exchanger cooler door if a missile is installed on the upper left-
depending upon oil temperature. The oil cooler radi- hand dual-pylon stati on. Opening the door under this
ator is nOt effective unl ess the oil cooler door is ope ned. condition wi ll disrupt airflow into the left-hand after-
\Xl hen the door is opened, ram air from the engine burner cooling scoop. This could cause destruction of
i ntake passes through th e radi ator and overboard . A t he engine exhaust nozzle thro ug h overtemperature.
p ressu re ratio switch automaticall y opens the oi l cooler The oi l cooler door position w ill be indicated in
door to relieve ram-air p ressure in t he in take duct the cockpit by an oi l cooler door indicator. A low -
(un less a missile is insta lled on the uppe r left-hand pressure "«rarnin g light illuminates in the cockpit w hen
dual -pylon statio n ) in t he following speed ranges : the engine oi l pressure drops below 34 psi . The warn-
F-8D aircraft - 1.60 to 1.74 IMN ing ligh t w ill also indicate a low-pressure condition in
F·8E ai rcraft - 1.66 to 1.80 IMN the power control or utility h ydraulic systems. The
14 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·1 Section I
Aircraft and Engine

engine and hydraulic pressure indicators should be


STABILIZED ENGINE WINDMILLING SPEED
referred to when the warning light is illuminated.

Engine Operating limitations


Refer to section I, part 4 for engine operating limits.
80

70
HIGH PRESSURE ROTOR
STANDARD DAY
1-
~-~-
.I.&~-
I. I
"'~ /
#- V V
Compressor Stalls ~/'j
60 INDICATED-r---- "&
Compressor stalls result from conditions under which
Z
1&1
ALTITUDE # /V /
U
I /
engine compressor blades operate at an excessive angle
of attack in much the same way as stalling occurs on
an airplane wing. Although compressor stalls may be
ali:
1&1
A.

Q
I
50
1/
& If/ / / /
/ if ~
I

40
J~'l V '/
1&1
caused by engine damage or accessory malfunctions,
"
1&1
Do
they are more commonly associated with high-altitude
operation. Stalls may occur in either the high- or low-
'"
1&1
all 1/ / //
Z 30
pressure compressors of the engine and are accom-
panied by an eventual engine speed drop to between
(;
Z
1&1
ILLr;/ 1/Ij ~/ /

40% and 60% rpm. Some stalls do not make themselv~ 20


known by noise or surges, but result in not being able
j Ih 'l
to accelerate the engine, or loss of rpm with no move- 10
ment of the throttle. At the other extreme, stalls may
be characterited by severe vibration and a loud bang-
ing noise. It is often difficult at high altitude for the
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
pilot to determine whether a compressor stall or an
engine flameout has occurred; exhaust gas tempera.ture INDICATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS 63762-7-5

is the most positive indicator. Figure 1-8

Compressor stall recovery may be accompHshed by trol unit. The afterburner fuel control unit auto-
retarding the throttle to idle to reduce the amount of matically meters this fuel for changes in burner
fuel admitted to the engine and increasing airspeed pressure as affected by throttle movement and altitude
to admit more air into the engine. It may be necessary changes. The metered fuel is then directed to the
to sacrifice as much as 10,000 feet to obtain recovery afterburner fuel nozzles and to the afterburner igniter
below 50,000 feet and even more at higher altitudes. valve. The igniter valve directs a charge of this fuel
Exhaust gas temperature must be monitored and if it into number 3 burner can. A flame streak then passes
exceeds the limits, the engine must be shut down. through the turbine into the afterburner section and
ignites the fuel discharged by the afterburner fuel
Airstart may be accomplished as soon after shutdown nozzles. At the same time, the igniter valve sends a
as practical. However, increased airspeed and lower compressor bleed air signal to the afterburner exhaust
altitude are favored for the relight. Aircraft electrical nozzl~ control to open the exhaust nozzles. The after-
power will be available if engine windmilling speed is burner is normally ignited at MILITARY thrust; how-
high enough (at 220 KIAS the generator drops off the
I line 8 to 10 seconds after flameout); otherwise, the
emergency power package should be extended. Engine
ever, it may be ignited at any point above the after-
burner aft detent stop.

windmilling speed is presented in figure 1-8. Cockpit A speed-reset feature is incorporated in the J57-P-20

I pressurization may fluctuate as ignition occurs. engine to provide automatic retrimming of the engine
fuel control for optimum afterburner conditions. A
fuel pressure sensing line senses afterburner fuel
Acceleration stalls, or "chug stalls," are not normally
experienced in this aircraft. If unstable engine condi- control outlet pressure and causes a servomechanism in
tions persist and exhaust temperature does not return the engine fuel control unit to increase the engine
to normal following a stall, land as soon as practical. fuel flow when afterburning is initiated. Significant
Continued engine operation with unstable engine con- increases in engine pressure ratio, engine speed, and
turbine outlet temperature occur when speed-reset
ditions is dangerous.
occurs. J57-P-20A engines have no speed-reset feature,
but are uptrimmed to equal J57-P-20 performance in
AFTERBURNER OPERATION afterburner and to exceed it in military thrust setting.
Afterburner operation is initiated when the micro- Normally, no trim changes are associated with after-
switch in the throttle quadrant is actuated by placing burner ignition but an immediate increase in airspeed
~r
" .. y'"

.~
the throttle outboard in the afterburner detent. The will be evident at all altitudes. Thrust may be varied
switch energizes a solenoid in the afterburner fuel during afterburner operation by varying throttle posi-
control unit permitting fuel to How through the con- tion in the afterburner detent.
15
Section I NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l
Aircraft and Engine

~FTERBURNER EXHAUST NOZZLE


I IUaui .•
Afterburner
(iii iiiiIi Air
Igniter Valve

Fuol
00 Wiring

Air Control Pressure


Fuol

To Additional

Figure J-9

At, or above, an alti tude of approximately 40,000 feet, during afterburner operation. When afterburner is
afterburner lighroff may not be obtained on the first stopped, the exhaust nozzle control unit directs air to
attempt using JP-4 fuel. If first attempt is unsuccessful, the actuators to close the flaps and hold them closed.
place throttle in MILITARY and wait 15 seconds before If the exhaust nozzle fails to close, there will be a
reselecting afterburner. This delay is necessary because thrust loss of approximately 20% at MILITARY. In such
vaporization of JP- 4 in the fuel manifold creates a a case, throttle settings approximately 3% to 5% rpm
pressure which resists recycling of the afterburner higher will be required to maintain approach thrust.
ig niter. This delay is not necessary when using the SeleCtion of afterburner w ill restore full-thrust opera-
less volatile JP-5 fuel. A relight should be obtained tion if required for a wave-off. The exhaust nozzle
w ithin two attempts if the engine is operating nOr- flaps open automatically whenever the throttle is at the
mally. Afterburner lightoff is most reliable above 0.85 IDLE stop and close when the throttle is advanced out
IMN and below 40,000 feet. of IDLE.

Afterbu rner Exhaust Nozzle (See fic ure 1-9.) The engine is equipped with a nozzle-closed lightoff
( NCl) system. The NCl system, installed primarily
T he exhaust nozzle area is automatically increased to improve lightoff characteristics at high altitudes,
\v hen an air signal from the afterburner igniter valve prevents momentary loss of thrust during afterburner
positions the exhaust nozzle actuator control to direct lightoff at all altitudes by delaying exhaust nozzle
engine compressor bleed air to the eight exhaust nozzle opening until lightoff has occurred. This feature is
flap actuators. The actuators are mechanically linked particularly advantageous when afterburner is selected
to the exhaust nozzle flaps and hold the flaps open in raking a wave-off.

16
NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l Section I
Systems

PART 2 - SYSTEMS
AIR-CONDITIONING I
DESCRIPTION pressure, resulting in loss of all air-conditioning and
pressurization functions.
The air-conditioning system provides the follow.ing
services:
The temperature of the air entering the cockpit is
Cockpit temperature control and pressurizatio n. controlled by mi x ing hot air from the temperature
I •
Ventilation for the anti-exposure coverall.
Windshield defogging and rain removal.
control bypass valve with cold air from the turbine.
When automatic control is selected, the cockpit tem-
• Aucornaric pressurization and cooling of rhe inte- perature controller automatically regulates operation
grated electronic package. of the bypass valve to maintain the temperature
I • Automatic cooling of the unpress urized electronic
compartment.
selected by the pilot. With manual control selected, the
pilot controls the bypass valve directly by adjusting the
• AutOmatic pressurization of the fuselage fuel cells cockpit temperawre knob for each change in flight
and wing rank. conditions.
• Automatic pressurizat ion and cooling of the rad ar
The cockpit air pressure regulator autom atically regu-
set.
lates pressurization of the cockpit at altitudes above
Hot bleed air from the engine compressor section is 8,000 feet by limiting outflow of air into the nose
directed through the air-conditioning unit which cools cone. (See figure 1-10 for cockpit pressurization
this air' by means of a heat exchanger and an expan- schedule. )
sion-turbine refrigeration unit. The heat exchanger
The cool air that passes through the cockpit air pres-
reduces the temperature of the engine bleed air by
sure regulator is ve nted overboard through vents in
transferring heat through coils to ram ai r from the
the nose cone. Negative cockpit pressure is automati-
engine intake duct. The refrigeration unit furth er
cally limited to 0.25 psi maxim um, and posi tive pres-
cools SOme o f the warm air from the heat exchanger
sure is auto matica ll y limited to 5.5 psi maximum by
by expansion through the turbine.
the cockpit air safety valve. This valve also opens to
Air flow to the air-conditioning unit is shut off by the depressurize the cockpit when the pilot elects to dump
bleed air shutOff valve when the pilot dumps cockpit cockpit pressure.

COCKPIT PRESSURIZATION---------------

30

• ""
r..
0
0
Shaded area shows operating range.
Cockpit is unpressurized below
8,000 feet.
-
0

20
"
'0
oS
;::
<
~

~
u
10
0
(,)

Airplane Altitude - 1.000 Feet


)

Figure 1-10
17
Section I NAVAIR 01-4SHHO-1
Systems

Compressor bleed air is directed to the integrated surize the fuselage fuel cells and wing tank. (Refer to

I electronics package for pressurization. Air circulation


(internal cooling) within the package is provided by
an internal fan. External cooling is provided by ram
air circulated around the outside of the package. If
pressurization is lost due to engine flameout or a system
FUEL eELL PRESSURIZATION AND VENTING,
this section.)
Ram air up to 60 0 e (140°F) is directed to cool the
integrated electronics package (externally), the unpres-
surized electronic compartment and the radar unit.
malfunction, a check valve traps the pressure in the
Above 60 0 e (140°F), ram air valves, .receiving their
package.
signal from the ram air temperature transmitter, shut
off the flow of ram air to these units. A radar cold air
Warm air flows directly from the heat exchanger
valve opens to allow cool air from the air-conditioning
through the rain removal valve and is discharged at
unit to flow to the radar.
high velocity on the exterior of the windshield or
the left-hand side panel for rain removal. Fog is External air for ground cooling of both the radar and
removed from the inside of the win~shield by directing the anti-exposure coverall is connected to a ground
hot air from the heat exchanger through the defogger cooling socket in the radio compartment. Aircraft be-
valve and mixing this air with cool air from the air- fore BuNo. 150672 without ASe 417 also have an
conditioning unit. This air is then discharged on the external air inlet on the left-hand console (14, figure
windshield side panels through the windshield mani- 1-12) for ground ventilation of the anti-exposure
folds. Air from the heat exchanger is also llsed to pres- coverall. A system schematic is presented in figure 1-11.

AIR-CONDITIONING CONTROLS
N omellctatllre Function

Cockpit pressure switch CABIN PRESS - provides pressurization for cockpit, integrated electronic package.
( 7, figure 1-12) radar. and air pressure for wing fuel uansfer.
CABIN DUMP - dumps cockpit pressure and shuts off engine bleed air to air-condi-
tioning unit. thus stopping all airflow from air-conditioning unit.
Defogger switch DEFOG - directs hot airflow to windshield and side panels through windshield mani-
(5, figure 1-12) folds. -
Rain removal switch RAIN REMOVE - directs high velocity stream of warm air across windshield or left-
(6, figure 1-12) hand side panel to deBect rain.
Rain removal selector switch SIDE - directs high velocity stream of warm air across the left-hand side panel to
(2. figure 1-12) defleCt rain.
CTR - directs high velocity warm air over center windshield panel to deflect rain.

Temperature knob COLD to HOT range selects temperature of conditioned air entering cockpit and anti-
(8. figure 1-12) exposure coverall.
Cockpit pressure altimeter Indicates cockpit pressure altitude.
(3. figure 1-12)
Cockpit emergency ventilation knob Pulled and rotated to control volume of ram airBow into cockpit for emergency
(4. figure 1-12) ventilation.
Manual override switch AUTO - permits cockpit inlet air temperature to be automatically controlled to the
(9. figure 1-12) controller knob setting.
MAN - permits cockpit inlet air temperature to be manually controlled by the pilot.

Antiexposure coverall ventilation NORM CABIN PRESS - directs temperature controlled air to both antiexposure
switch (decaled SUIT VENT CON- coverall and cockpit.
TROL - llA, figure 1-12) COOL - shuts off temperature conuolled air to cockpit and directs air to anti-
exposure coverall.
Antiexposure coverall vent valve* LOW to HI, regulates the volume of ventilating air Bowing from- the air-conditioning
(decaled PRESS SUIT VENT - 1, system into the antiexposure coverall.
figure 1-12) EXT - permits ground ventilation of the antiexposure coverall with an external
air supply.
OFF - stops the flow of ventilating air.

Antiexposure coverall vent valvet OFF to HIGH range - regulates the volume of ventilating air flowing into the anti-
(decaled PRESS SUIT VENT AIR) exposure coverall from the air-conditioning system or from an external air supply.
OFF - stops the flow of ventilating air.

*Aircraft before BuNo. 150672 without ASC 417.


tAircraft BuNo. 150672 and subsequent, and those with ASC 417.

J8 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR OI·45HHD·1 Sectio n I
Sys te ms

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Anti . Ex posure Cove rall
V e ntilation Switch
De fogger
~ Defog Air I
Rain Remo .... al
Selector Switch ---
o::=l

QTIII)
~
CillID
Ram Air
High Te mp Air
Re duced Tem p Air
Temp Controlled Air

-
Refrig erat ed Air
Control Pressure
Wiring

Rain Remova l
Sel Valve
De fogger
Temp e rature
Transmitt e r
Cockpit Air
Press ure
Regula to r

To Anti·E xp')5u,re
Cockpit Air Coverall Radar d
Saf ety Valv e Air Shu toff
Valve
To Manifold Temperat ure
Pressure Val ve Control
Bypass Val ve
Compressor
Bl ee d Air

Co ckp it
'y~-- T e mp e rature
Controll e r
• eNI Pressure 1" . ,
Reaulator

Ram Air

eNI Ram
Air Volve t

______~_I~Air

* Aircraft before BuNo. 150672 Witho ut ASC 4 17 have on


exte rnal inlet connection for th e anti-expo s ure covera ll and a cj)
diffe re nt anti-exposure coverall ve nt va lve on thi !> control p a ne l. Compressor
t Controli ed b y ram a ir temperature . Bl eed Air
'.''''.~- '-.INt

Figure 1-11

Ch anged 15 Jul y 1966 19


NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l

20
NAVAIR 01 -45HHD- 1 Section I
Systems

AIR CONDITIONING CONTROLS (TYPICAl)


I

•• •
1. Anti-exposure coverall

vent valve • •• •••
Idecaled PRESS SUIT VENTI ••
•• ••
••
2. Rain removal selector swit ch
3. Cockpit altimeter ••
4. Cockpit emergency ventil a tion knob
•• ••
••
5. •• ••
Defogger switch
6. Rain removal switch ••
7. Cockpit pressure switch ••
8. Temperature knob •
9. Manual override switch
10. G-valve
11. G-valve button
llA. Anti-exposure coverall ventilation switch
12. Anti-exposure cov erall ventilating a ir conn ection
13. Anti-g connection
14. External air inlet connection *


••
••
0--- ••• •
•• ••
• •
•• ••

••

••

~
@ -

* Aircraft before BuNo . 150672 without ASC 417 63762- 4 - 18 NE

Figure 1-12
Changed 15 July 1966 21
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Systems
NORMAL OPERATION cruise above 30,000 feet. If fogging occurs, proceed

I as follows:

,
Air-Conditioning and Pressurization
(See figure 1-12.) 1. Defogger switch - DEPOG
• During negative g operation, long periods of
To operate the air-conditioning and pressurization cruise, or at supersonic speeds, oil vapor or
system, position controls as follows: smoke may be emitted from the air-condition-
1. Cockpit pressure switch - CABIN PRESS ing system when the defogger switch is turned I

on.
2. G Valve - AS DESIRED
3. Antiexposure coverall ventilation switch- 2. Temperature knob - HOT
NORM CABIN PRESS 3. Throttle - 90% RPM MINIMUM
• Place the switch in NORM CABIN PRESS unless • After fog clears, reduce throttle to desired
there is a requirement for ground cooling of position and adjust cockpit temperature as
the antiexposure coverall. If this requirement desired.
exists, place the switch in COOL until ready for
takeoff, then return it to NORM CABIN PRESS. Rain Removal
Only in NORM CABIN PRESS can full cockpit
pressurization be obtained. Operate the rain removal system as required during
takeoff and landing.
4. Manual override switch - AUTO 1. Rain removal selector switch - SIDE or CTR
5. Temperature knob - AS DESIRED
2. Rain removal switch - RAIN REMOVE
If it is desired to repressurize the cockpit at any alti-
tude: • Do not operate the rain removal system above
200 KIAS or the windshield and air-condition-
1. Throttle - IDLE ing cooling turbine may be overheated. Over-
2. Cockpit emergency ventilation - OPEN heating may cause the windshield to crack.
3. Cockpit pressure switch - CABIN PRESS • If left on after takeoff, a considerable reduction
4. Throttle - CRUISE RPM in cockpit pressurization will occur as altitude
5. Cockpit emergency ventilation - CLOSE is gained.
• If the rain removal system has not been oper-
Defogging ated for several flights, oil accumulation in the
The defogging system may be operated continuously system may result in oil being blown on the
to provide additional cockpit heat during loiter or windscreen when the system is first activated.

ANGLE-Of-ATTACK INDICATING

DESCRIPTION The angle-of-attack transducer, located on the right-


hand side of the fuselage, transmits to the indicator
The angle-of-attack indicating system and the approach a signal representing the relative angle of the fuselage
lights provide the pilot and the landing signal officer to the airstream. This information is presented to the
with visual indications of aircraft angle of attack. pilot as the position of the indicator pointer over a
Indications are presented on the angle-of-attack indi- scale reading from 0 to 30. Each unit on the indicator
cator (9, figure 1-3) under all flight conditions and dial is equal to 1.5° of indicated angle of attack or
may be used for such purposes as stall warning and approximately 5 knots indicated airspeed in the region
for establishing maximum endurance flight attitudes. of the optimum approach angle of attack. On aircraft
For convenience in controlling airspeed in landing
equipped with the approach power compensator sys-
approaches, indicator readings are supplemented by
tem, the transducer also supplies information to the
lights on the angle-of-attack approach indexer which
system computer.. (Refer to APPROACH POWER
is mounted on the windshield frame. The approach
lights, mounted on the nose gear flipper door, provide COMPENSATOR SYSTEM this section.)
the LSO with a similar indication of angle of attack
as illustrated in figure 1-13. (Refer to EXTERIOR
LIGHTS this section, for additional information con- The angle-of-attack indicator controls operation of
cerning approach light operation.) Electrical P9..WFr the approach indexer and the approach lights to pro-
for t e-of- ttack indicatin s stem is su Ii d vide indications of high, optimum, and low angle of
, . the emergency dc but. attack in the landing condition. The indexer and
22 Changed 15 July 1966
NAV A IR 01-45HHD-l Section I
Syste m s

ANGLE·OF·A TT ACK INDICATIONS


~
TRAN SDUCER
@
INDICATOR
,~
INDE XER
~

0
00
APPROACH
LIGHTS
I
14.25 Un its Approa ch sp eed mor e than 5 knots SLOW
Angl e of attack more than 1.5 high
NOSE·DOWN corre ction nee d ed

GREEN approach
Pointer at or above light on
UPPER CHEVRON upper edg e of approach
I;ghled index mark e r

MODERATELY SLOW

--~ ,
, Approach spe ed 3 to 5 knot s SLOW
Angl e of attack 0 .5 to 1.5 high
Slight NOSE-DOWN corre ction nee d e d

AMBER approa ch
Pointe r just abo ve light on
UPPER CHEVRON ce nter of approach
end CIRCLE I;ghled index mark er

,
OPTIMUM 13 .25 Unit s
Angl e of attack and approach
sp ee d el OPTIMUM

-~, No corre ction needed

AMBER approach
light on
Pointer n e a r ce nte r
of approach inde x
CIRCLE t;ghled marker

, --
MODERATEL Y FAST
App roach s p ee d 3 to 5 knot s FAST
Angl e of cttock 0 .5 to 1.5 low
Slight NOSE · UP corre ction nee d e d

AMBER approach
Pointe r jus t b e low li g ht on
LOWER CHEVRON cente r o f approach

-, , ,
end CIRCLE /;ghled ind ex m a rk e r

12.25 Unit s

RED approa ch
Point e r a t or light on
LOWER CHEVRON low e r e dg e o f appro a ch
lighte d ind ex mark e r 'NO

Figure 1-13

Ch e nged 15 July 1966 23


Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Systems

approach lights are operated relative to pointer move- The approach indexer lights function only when the
ment abollt the reference index marker at the 3 o'clock landing gear handle is in WHLS DOWN and the
position on the indicator (figure 1-13). approach indexer dimming knob is rotated out of the
The angle-of-attack system is ground boresighted and OFF position. Indexer light brightness is controlled by
I the indicator dial is set so that an indication of 13.25 positioning the approach indexer dimming knob (3,
figure 1-28) as desired between OFF and BRT.
units, corresponding to the optimum approach angle
of attack, coincides with the center of the approach
index marker at the 3 o'clock position. If the aircraft Since the indexer will be used as the principal ref-
is flown so that the indicator pointer is held at an erence for controlling airspeed in landing approaches,
I indication of 13.25 units (centered on the approach it is advisable to check operation at the beginning of
index marker) the optimum approach speed for any the landing approach by making a slight porpoising
aircraft gross weight within the allowable limits will maneuver and observing that all of the indexer ligh:s
result. A preflight check should be made as prescribed operate in the proper sequence. Also observe the
in figure 3-1 to assure that the angle-of-attack vane or airspeed indicator to verify that the recommended
arm is not bent. angle of attack corresponds to the correct approach
airspeed.
NORMAL OPERATION
An inflight check of the angle-of-attack system may The approach is flown by coordinating throttle and
be made as follows: stick movements to establish the desired glide path at
1. Descend below 5,000 feet and maintain straight optimum angle of attack. The stick is used to bring
and level flight. angle of attack to the optimum value, as indicated by
illumination of the indexer circle (donut). As angle
2. Raise wing and lower landing gear. of -attack goes high or low, with resulting decrease
or ".increase in airspeed, the indexer upper or lower
3. Stabilize airspeed at recommended value for air-
chevron will be illuminated to point'the direction in

I
craft gross weight corresponding to 13.25 units (fig-
ure 3-12). which the nose should be moved to return to the
optimum angle of attack. The throttle is manipulated
4. Angle-of-attack indicator pointer should indicate to control rate of descent so as to establish the desired
13.25 units. glide path. The relationships of the various indications
to angle of attack and airspeed are shown in figure
1-13.

The cockpit emergency ventilation port must If the indexer lights fail, the approach may be Bown
be closed when using the angle-of-attack with reference to angle-of-attack indicator readings.
system as a Bight reference. The port, when In this case, attitude is corrected to keep the indicator
open, disturbs air flow, resulting in erroneous pointer as close as possible to the center of the 3 o'clock
angle-of-attack indications and faulty opera- reference index. Indications above and below the
tion of the approach power compensator index indicate that the approach is being made more
system. than 5 knots slow or fast.

ANTIBLACKOUT
DESCRIPTION The antiblackout connection is made at the pilot'S
Antiblackout pressure is automatically supplied by services disconnect located on the left console. The
routing engine bleed air through the G valve and into antiblackout line is routed from the G valve through
the pilot'S suit. The G valve, opened by centrifugal the base of the console to the disconnect. The anti-
force, regulates suit pressure as g-loads are applied or blackout fitting at the disconnect serves the anti-g suits
reduced. A HI and LO range may be manually selected. worn with Bight coveralls.

ANTIBLACKOUT CONTROLS

Nomenclature Function

G valve H I - supplies a pressure of 1.5 psi for each g over 1.75 g up to 10 psi.
(10, figure 1-12) LO - supplies a pressure of 1 psi for each g over 1.75 g up to 10 psi.
G valve button Depressed and released, permits inflating the suit for body massage to lessen fatigue
(11, figure 1-12) and to check operation of G valve. If valve tends to stick or fails to close, it
should be replaced.

24 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-I Section I
Systems

APPROACH POWER COMPENSATOR*


DESCRIPTION
The approach power compensator system cons ists of
a computer, an acce lerometer, a servo amplifier. a
The system wi ll not retard the throttie below approxi-
mately 75% rpm. Upo n touchdown, compression of
th e mai n landing gea r shock Strut ac tuates the dec k
I
co mpress switch to cause the system to disengage autO·
servo actuator, a pi lot's control p a ne l (3 0A , fi g ure
1-4, sheet 2) and rhe e.xisting ang le-of.a ttack detec tor.
matically, leaving the th rottle at approach power. The
system w ill also disengage if the thro ttle is ove rridd en
The computer, servo amplifier and accelero meter arc
w ith a force of 12 to 22 pounds in eit her direction, or
located in t he left-hand \vheel well. The servo actuator
if the landing gear is raised w ith the sys tem in ope ra-
is located in the engine bay ( left-hand side) . Electrica l
power for the sys tem is supplied by the secondary ac tion. T he system may disengage inadvertently if
and de buses. throttle friction is excess ive.

The system is designed for usc w hen the aircraft is


The system is normall y maintained in operation by an
in the land in g (wing-up) configuration . The aircraft
engage switch, which is mag netically held in ON
can be fiying straight and level , climbing, descending
against sp ring tension by a holdin g coil. T he switch
or turning at the time of engagement. Upon landing,
springs back to OFF anytime power is removed from
the system will dise ngage automatically.
the holding coil. T his occurs under the conditions
The system senses devi ations in normal acceleration described for disengage ment in the p receding para-
and angle of anack that would slow down or speed up graph. If the 12- to 22-pound throttle force will not
the aircraft from its best approach airspeed. These disengage th e system, the sys tem can be dise ngaged by
deviations initiate automatic corrections through the turning off the engage switch unless the engage switch
system to alter th e engine power setting. During a itself has failed or th e servo actuatOr gears are jam med.
normal approach using the APe, the system should If th e system does not disengage w hen the airp lane
maintain airspeed wit hin a range of ± 4 knots in light touches down, it can be disengaged by turning off the
to moderate turbulence. engage switch or overridin g the thro ttle.
System components operate as foll ows: The sys tem
acce lerometer and angle-o f-attack detec tOr suppl y their If certain gears in the servo actuator jam, the thronle
respective information to the sys tem computer. When wi ll be stuck un til a shear p in in th e actuator output
normal acceleration is 1 g an d the angle of an ack is shaft is sheared. Applying a force of 36 to ;3 pounds
optimum for a landing app roach, the computer sends to the th ro ttl e will shear the pin. (I t is p referable to
no corrective signal and the throttle position does not shea r this pin with a fonvard throttle force to avo id
change. When acce lera tio n and angle of attack deviate retard ing the throttle to OFF. )
from these va lues, the deviations are interpreted by
the computer as either o ffsetting each other or as If the engage switch fails in ON, normal throttle over-
requiring a change of engine power sett ing. If a powe r ride w ill not disengage th e system, and it may not be
change is required, t he computer sends an electrical possible to shear the pin. If the APC cannot be dis-
sig nal to th e servo amplifier. The amp lified signal is engaged by a ny other met hod, turn off. power to the
th en se nt to the servo actuatOr. The servo act uator system (master generator switch - OFF ) and extend
moves the engi ne fu el control cross-shaft, mec han icall y th e power package to regain emergency and primary
changing engine power and throttle position. buses.
"' Aircraft BuNo . 150672 and subseq uem , a nd those w it h ASC 4 17.
APPROACH POWER COMPENSATOR CONTROLS

Nomenclature rlmetjoTl

T emperature sw itch HOT-compensa tes fo r ambient tl:fl)peratures above 27 °C (80°F ) .


(I , figure 1- 14 )

sTD-normal posit ion wh en ambi em temperatu re is between 4 °C (40°F) and 27°C


(BO° F ) .
COLD - compensates for amb ient temperatures below 4 °C (40 0 P).

Engage sw itch ON - engages system (0 correct for deviation s to norma l acceler ation and an gle-of·
(3, fig ure 1- 14) attack during approach.

OFF - disengages system.

Engage indicacor light On, indicates system engaged .


(2, figu re 1-14 )

Chang ed 15 July 1966 25


Section I NAVAIR 01-4 5HHD-l
Syste ms

APPROACH POWER COMPENSATOR CONTROLS


I
1. Temp e ratu re switch
2 . Engage indicator light
3 . Engage switch


c l
••
T<HP
.., '/
0,
t"IAGE A •••
h -J'TO • ••• •• •
P


/1
j ~O.
Ii CO. . . ' ."
C'e;
Ii

II II 11

Figur . 1-1 4

Eve n though the system automat ically disengages with • If the emergency venti lat ion port is open, air-
weight o n rhe gea r or with the landing gear recracred. fl ow around the ang Ie-of-attack va ne will be
it ca n be p laced ineo opera ti on if the engage swiech disturbed resulting in er roneous system inputs.
is placed on a nd held there. This action is nor 5. Temperature switch - H OT, SID, or CO LD (accord-
recommended. ing to ambient air temperature).
Since e ngi ne performance varies with a mbi ent air
te mperature, the system has a three-posicio n tempera- 6. Engage switch-O N (engaged)
tu re switch (1, figure i - I tO ro compe nsa te fo r thi s '-
7. Engage indicatOr lig h t - ON
effecr. T his switch must be placed in COLD below 4°C
(40'F), in STD from 4°C (40' F ) to 27'C (SO'F), or 8. Throttle - OBSERVE MOVEMENT
in HOT above 27 ° C (BO°F). • If it is desired to disengage the system, the
engage switch can be placed in OFF or the
NORMAL OPERATION

I
throttle can be pushed or pulled to manually
Before Landing
overpower the system.

WARNING I 9. Check that optimum a ngle of attack is obtained


w hen airspeed stabi li zes at the recommended ap-
proach value.
Do not engage the system wi rh the fuel After Landing
control switch in MANUAL. Automatic
1. Throttle - Reposition as requ ired
thrott le movements associated with system
operat ion are rapid wh ich could result In • System w ill disengage at to uch down, leaving
compressor stall and engine fl ameout. thrott le at approach power.
1. Aircraft - LANDING CONFIGURATION
2. Engage indicator light - OFF
• Check that light has gone out automatically.
2. Thro ttle friction w heel - MINIMUM FRICfION
3. Engage switch - OFF
3. Fuel control switch - NO RMAL
• Check that switch has moved to OFF position
4. Cockpit emergency ventilation knob - CLOSED automatically.
26 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

ARRESTING HOOK
I
RH Console

Flu id
Accumulator
I
--:-'"1::llJ0!~L._.-J"'-; Utility
Actuating Hydraulic
Cylinder ::::;~~~;;;o ~ Pressure

Hook-down Utility
Hydrau lic
Return
Pressure
"....~..- Sequence
Valve

Over-center I ~ Pressure
linkage I iiiiiiiii» Return
I =::::::::;0 Retract
l
Down lock linkage ~ Extend
Unlocking (Accumulator Press)
Uplock Arresting Gear Hook
(closed with Cylinder
...JI.L Wiring
handle in
"HOOK UP") Linkage
Restrictor
(Arrow denotes
free flow)
83 161- 1_ 16

Figure 1- 15

ARRESTING HOOK
DESCRIPTION held extended by overcenter locking-gear linkage
The arresting hook (figure 1-15) is retracted by util- wh ich is connected to a spring-loaded linkage unlock-
ity hydraulic pressure and extended by pressure from ing cylinder. Approximately 8 seconds arc required
an accumulator. The hook is normally held retrac ted to fully extend the hook. If accumulator pressure is
by hydraulic pressure, and with loss of hydraulic lost, the hook w ill drop into position when the arrest·
pressure, by a mechanical uplock latch. The hook is ing hook handle is placed in HOOK DOWN.

ARRESTING HOOK CONTRO LS AND INDICATORS


No mtm clature Functia,J.

Arresting hook handle HOOK DOWN - re lieves hydraulic pressure, r etracts uplock latch , a nd extends hook.
(I , figure 1- 5) HOO K UP - energizes selecto r val ve, positions uplock latch, and retracts hook.
Arresting hoo k wa rning light ON - arresting hook handle and hook positions do not agree. On ai rcraft BuNo.
(i n arresting hook handle) 150335 and subsequent, l ight does not illuminate until appr oximately 1 second
after the hook handle is moved.

27
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l
Systems

I DESCRIPTION
AUTOMATIC PILOT
Heading Hold
The heading hold function of the autopilot is con-
The autopilot is operated electrically and is energized nected with the MA-l compass gyro and operates to
by the secondary ac and dc buses. Although the auto- maintain any selected heading. If the aircraft deviates
pilot and the flight stabilization systems operate inde- from the selected heading, the heading hold circuits
pendently of each other, they use common amplifiers will command a banked turn until the aircraft returns
and actuators (see figure 1-16). The autopilot con- to the heading reference maintained by the MA-l
trols the aircraft only in the roll and pitch axes, with compass directional gyro. If the compass is inoperative
the yaw stabilization system and the aileron-rudder or the gyro is precessing, the heading hold function
interconnect providing any needed yaw control.' In may be disengaged by a switch located on the auto-
the normal mode of operation, the autopilot maintains pilot panel in order to prevent the aircraft from
either the roll and pitch attitude existing when the continually seeking the selected heading. When the
autopilot is engaged or subsequently commanded by bank controller is actuated to select an angle of bank
the bank controller and pitch trim kn~b. The bank greater than 50, and the aircraft responds, the heading
controller permits the pilot to perform banked turns hold function will automatically disengage, then re-
under autopilot control. Additional modes of auto- engage when the wings are within 5° of level.
pilot operation provide for automatic altitude holding
and heading holding. Altitude Hold
The altitude hold function of the autopilot operates
to maintain the aircraft at the pressure altitude exist-
Bank Controller ing when the altitude hold mode is engaged. Before
The bank control function of the autopilot permits engagement of the altitude hold function, a barometric
the pilot to' perform banked turns, with the autopilot altitude controller follows changes in pressure alti-
engaged, at bank angles up to 70°. The autopitot tude as the aircraft climbs or dives. At engagement,
automatically maintains the roll attitude selected by the condition established by the altitude controller
the pilot with the bank control knob. The bank angle becomes the reference pressure altitude, and the con-
commanded by the autopilot will be limited to 78°. troller senses changes in altitude above and below
If bank angle exceeds 78° due to system malfunction the reference altitude and originates correction signals
or stick movement, the autopilt will disengage. that are sent to the pitch amplifier.

AUTOPILOT CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


Nomenclature Function

Altitude hold engage switch ENGAGE - engages altitude hold function of autopilot when normal mode is engaged.
(9, figure 1-17) OFF - disengages altitude hold function.
Altitude hold engage light On, indicates that altitude hold function is engaged.
(8, figure 1-17)
Autopilot master switch C;>N - energizes autopilot system for engagement with engage-disengage switch.
(1, figure 1-17) OFF - deenergizes autopilot system.
Autopilot engage light On, indicates that the autopilot is engaged.
(3, figure 1-17)
Bank control knob Rotated left or right, with autopilot engaged, controls roll attitude (bank angle)
(7, figure 1-17) within autopilot limits in proportion to amount of rotation. With autopilot dis-
engaged, knob follows roll motions of aircraft.
Engage-disengage switch Pushed once, engages autopilot in normal mode. Pushed a second time, disengages
(6, figure 1-17) autopilot.
Heading hold disable switch ON (guarded position) - heading hold function is engaged when autopilot is
(2, figure 1-17) engaged.
OFF - disengages heading hold function.

Pitch trim knob (on control Controls pitch reference attitude when autopilot is engaged.
stick grip)
Roll trim knob (on control Provides vernier control of roll reference attitude when autopilot is engaged with
stick grip) the heading hold disengaged.

28
AUTOPILOT OPERATION
PITCH CONTROL

Senses rate of pitch


I TRIM AND STABILIZATION
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
oscillation s, signals amplifie r

~
~
Pitch Trim Knob

-1··1
DISENGAGE
@ATEtOdampO' dliat;on (selects 'desired
~ ~ GYRO ••••••••••••••••••••~-- • • • • • • • • • • • • • reference attitude}
ENGAGE
.•
:

~
• DI SENGAGE •

\-"'.. ij~ SYN;~~~HNIZER ••••••• ~:A~~ . ~I==B=LE=E=D=O=F=F=:I·+.::: PITCH


AMPLIFIER

- -- -
,
~
J :: _____ - -~_

_~--:. _--_~_,i'--..L Sense amount and direction of


deviation from reference pitch attitude,

:. Permits slow return to


basic trim setting
I •••••

.
' -_ _ _-;:._ _ _ _ J

/ .:-~
signal amplifier to make correction
••
e.
whe n normal mode is
disengaged I Pitch Actuator

.. ~·~~;;tl,-_BL_E_ED_O_F_F--,
• OFF

t -~~
~\~-~·~~':i-;-~~:~~~::~:~:;:-;--:~??~:-
-~~;~-:.== :~l~r~~~:
Senses d eviations from e ngagement Pe rmits slow return to pitch
I To horizontal
ta il power control
package
reference altitude, signals amplifier
to make cwe<';on
attitude hold when altitude
hold ;, d;,engaged I
ROLL CONTROL TRIM AND STABILIZATION
SYSTEM COMPONENTS

HEADING
SYNCHRONIZER
......................... ••.....T II ~--

ENGAGE
Roll Trim Knob
(selects roll
o •••••• reference attitude
Sense d eviations from engagement
•• • • • • • + . with heading hold
reference direction, signal amplifier
to make corrections

DIS- ROLL
••••


• ENGA:E f I~ di sabled)

PLACEMENT
GYRO
SYNCHRONIZER
••• •••
•• •
•• ROLL
~ __________- J
• AMPLIFIER

Pilot's Bonk Control Knob •
Sense a mount and direction of d eviation
• (permits pilot to select • •
from reference roll attitude and signal
• desired bank angle for turns) • •
amplifier to make correction •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •• •••••
• Roll Actuator
~
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
•• ••
To aileron


Disengage autopilot when excessive power control
bank angles are attained package

Figure 1-16
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Systems

AUTOPILOT CONTROLS
I

............... ..........
••
·•
·••
•• •• ••
•• •• ••
•••

1. Autopilot master switch 6 . En9age~disengage switch


2. Heading hold disable switch 7. Bank control knob
3. Autopilot engage light 8. Altitude hold engage light
4. Pitch trim knob 9. Altitude hold engoge switch
5. Roll tri;n knob

Figure 1-17

30
NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l Section I

NORMAL OPERATION
Refer to figure 1-17 for autopilot controls.
Systems

Altitude hold may he engaged at any roll attitude up


to 70° right Or left and at rates of climb or dive up
to 2,000 feet per minute.
I
To operate the automatic pilot, the flight stabilization
system must be operating, and the aircraft must be Heading hold is engaged any time normal mode is
in the clean condition (wing down) operating on selected and wing position is within 5° of level, unless
normal electrical power. The aircraft must be in trim~ the heading hold switch has been placed in OFF .
med flight at the time the autopilot is engaged or
the exact conditions of engagement will not he held.
Refer to section IV, part 2 for additional information TRIMMING LIMITATIONS
concerning flight characteristics with the autopilot Pitch trim may be used while in normal mode to
engaged, and to figure 1-18 for typical mission illus- make small changes in pitch attitude, but is nOt recom-
tration. When the aircraft is safely airborne, proceed mended as a method of changing altitude. To change
as follows: altitude, turn altitude hold function off, fly the air-
1. Autopilot master switch - ON craft on normal control to the new alti tude, then
reengage the altitude hold function. The autopilot
2. Autopilot engage-disengage switch - DEPRESS will disengage if emergency pitch trim is used.
• AttaiD climb speed schedule and trim the air-
craft for a climh, then depress the engage-dis-
engage switch to engage the autopilot. USE OF STICK
After reaching the desired altitude: With the autopilot engaged in the normal mode, the
1. Autopilot engage-disengage switch - DEPRESS
application of stick force will change pitch or roll
attitude without affecting the pitch or roll attitude
• Depressing the switch will disengage the auto- reference maintained in the autopilot. Upon release
pilot. ot" the stick force, the aircraft w ill abru.ptly return to
2. Trim the aircraft for straight and level flight on the atd tude at which the automatic pilot was engaged.
the desired heading. The use of stick force, therefore, is not recommended
as a method of changing attitude or altitude (wi th
3. Autopilot engage-disengage switch - DEPRESS altitude hold disengaged). Disengaging the autOpilot,
• Depressing the switch will engage the auto- maneuvering as desired, and then reengaging the autO-
pilot. pilot at the new altitude or attitude will result in
• The heading hold function is automatically smoother operation. Should the aircraft be flown off
placed into operation when the autopilot is heading or altitude (altitude hold ON) with stick
engaged, unless the heading hold disable switch force, it will immediately return to the engagement
has been intentionally turned off. Use the bank heading and/or altitude when stick force is relaxed.
controller to make heading corrections.
• If bank angle exceeds 78°, the autopilot will
disengage automatically. DISENGAGEMENT

4. Altitude hold switch - AS DESIRED When disengaging the autopilot at flight conditions
nearly equal to those that existed at engagement, no
• Below an altitude of 25,000 feet, do not per·
transients will occur. On the other hand, if flight con-
form transonic decelerations on altitude hold
ditions have changed so that there is disagreement
at rates faster than those produced with mili·
between pitch trim wheel setting and the position of
tary thrust.
the horizontal tail as commanded by the autopilot,.
the tail will move smoothly to agree with the pitch
ATTITUDE LIMITATIONS
trim wheel. This aCtion will appear to the pilot as a
The attitude limitations for engagement of the auto- slow trim change to be corrected in the usual manner.
pilot are as follows: If large changes in flight conditions have occurred
prior to disengagement, allow at least 30 seconds
Normal mode may be engaged at any pitch attitude before reengaging the autopilot. This will allow for
from + 15 0 nose up to _50 0 nose down if heading complete bleed off of pitch attitude or altitude errors.
hold is on; otherwise + 50 0 , and at any roll attitude
up to 70° right or left. Depending on heading, the Either intentional or inadvertent disengagement of
aircraft may begin to wallow as pitch attitude in- the autopilot results in a retur n to preengagement
creases above 15 ° while operating on heading hold. pitch and roll trim conditions.

31
AUTOPILOT MODES -------------------~~-­
(TYPICAL MISSION)
-
CLIMB

Trim Airplane for climb


Engage Autopilot
Autopilot Master Switch On Maintain Mach No . with Pitch 'Trim
Bank Controller as required for Turns
Yaw Trim as required
LEVEL FLIGHT

Normal Mode
Altitude Hold
Bank Controller as required for Turns

z
~
DESCENT TECHNIQUES
...::E
m

Engage Normal Mode after beginning descent '"o


Use Pitch Trim to vary attitude as required
Disengage while still in descending attitude, or
Dise ngage after reaching level flight
OR
2 Engage Normal Mode before beginning descent LOITER OR HOLD
Use Pitch Trim to establish descent, varying Normal Mode
as desired Altitude Hold or Pitch Trim
DESCENT
Disengage at completion of letdown Bonk Controller as required
(See DESCENT TECHNIQUES 1 and 21
for Turns

landing Condition VECTOR


automatically disengages Normal Mode
autopilot Altitude Hold
n
:r
,a
(Q
~~ Bank Controller
as required to
m change heading
Q.

U16Z- .(- \ ZNC

Figure 1-18
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section 1
Systems

CANOPY
DESCRIPTION A cartridge-operated emergency canopy actuator pro-
vides for canopy jettisoning in landing emergencies,
ditching, ground rescue and as part of the ejection
sequence. Pulling the ejection seat face curtain han-
dle, the secondary firing handle, or the emergency
The one-piece clamshell-type canopy (figure 1-19) is canopy jettison handle while in Bight fires the canopy
attached to the aircraft by pivots or arms at the aft actuator cartric!ge. This blows o~en the canopy locks
end of the canopy. A counterbalance strut is provided and forces the canopy up into te airstream where it
to aid the pilot in raising and lowering the canopy is separated tr6m the aircraft by air loads. On the
without the aid of power devices. Cockpit pressure
sealing is provided by a striker and diaphragm
arrangement. The canopy is locked in the closed posi-
ground, pulling the emergency canopy handle or
either of the two exterior rescue handles fires the
actuator to release the locks and forcibly open the
I"
tion by four rotating hook latches that can be operated canopy. If the aircraft has little or no forward speed,
from either inside or outside the cockpit. the canopy may not leave the cockpit area.
CANOPY CONTROLS
N omenc14ture Function

Figure 1-19

Canopy lock indicator Indicates canopy locks in locked or unlocked position.


Exterior canopy release handle Open canopy - push forward end of handle, grasp aft end and pull outboard. Open
canopy manually.
Close canopy - close canopy manually and push aft end of handle inboard.
Interior canopy release handle Open canopy - extend handle, pull aft and manually open canopy.

r Emergency canopy jettison handle


Rescue handles
Close canopy - pull and hold handle aft while manually closing canopy and then
push handle fully forward. Stow handle.
Pulled out fuily, fires canopy actuator to release canopy locks, and opens canopy.
Pulled out to full length of lanyard, fires canopy actuator to release canopy locks
and open canopy.

EJECTION SEAT
DESCRIPTION occupant and to deploy the pilot'S parachute further
ensures controlled action under all ejection conditions.
The ejection system utilizes either the Martin-Baker
MK-F5 or MK-F5A ejection seat. The minimum ejec- The seat is equipped with a pilot'S restraint harness
tion altitude for the MK-F5 seat is 50 feet at an air- that accommodates standard suits with integrated har-
speed of 120 knots in level or climbing flight. The ness provisions, but employs a special Martin-Baker
MK-F5A seat has an improved ejection capability parachute packed in tthorseshoe" form and positioned
and is readily identified by an orange decal, located behind the pilot'S shoulders. This parachute position
on the left-hand side of the drogue parachute con- is used to permit positive parachute deployment at
tainer (figure 3-3), which reads as follows: the moment the pilot is released from the seat. A leg
restraint system is provided to prevent leg injuries
Martin-Baker MK-F5A Seat during ejection. The leg restraint lines, one for each
Ejection Seat Capability leg, are secured to the airframe and to the seat and
120 knots - Min on Runway are routed through the pilot'S leg restraint garters so
ACSEB 22-61 as to draw the legs back against the front of the seat
during ejection. The pilot'S legs are restrained until
The low-level escape capability of the Martin-Baker release occurs before deployment of the personnel
ejection seat (figure 1-20) is obtained through the parachute.
use of a telescoping long-stroke ejection gun to achieve
high seat velocity. The telescoping gun makes high The seat bucket accommodates a PK-2 pararaft kit
velocities possible with acceptable peak acceleration and a seat pan assembly containing the emergency
and rate of increase of acceleration. The use of drogue oxygen supply and the full pressure suit controller.
parachutes to stabilize and decelerate the seat and Seat height adjustment is provided by an electrical

Changed 15 July 1966 33


Section I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Systems

CANOPY
I

••

..
.....
··

·
••
••
....... '

....
..
..., ...
.....
....
..
'

$ {
..•

I . .......... , ...
...
.
.••
••

Figure 1-19
34
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section I
Systems
actuator that raises or lowers the bottom portion of the from the seat pan is separately connected to the oxygen
seat with respect to the upper portion. A wedge-pad receptacle on the left console. Provision is made for
mounted above the parachute pack serves as the pilot's automatic actuation of the emergency oxygen supply
headrest, and there is no headrest adjustment. An upon ejection. Communications connnection between
adjustable backpad cushion ensures proper posture for the pilot'S equipment and the aircraft is automatically
the occupant. completed when the oxygen line is connected to the
The upper housing of the seat contains the controller console fitting.
and stabilizer drogue parachutes and serves as a mount-
NORMAL OPERATION
ing for the face curtain handle and the canopy inter-
rupter release handle. The housing is peaked at the top See figure 1-21 for a description of the ejection
to ensure proper penetration of the canopy in a sequence and figure 1-22 for a list of pilot's equip-
through-the-canopy emergency ejection. The drogue ment that may be used with the Martin-Baker seat.
parachutes are deployed by the action of a drogue
gun piston that is fired automatically during ejection EMERGENCY RELEASE FROM THE SEAT
to drag the 22-inch controller drogue into the slip-
stream. The 5-foot stabilizer drogue is automatically In landing emergencies, in ditching, and in the event
drawn into the slipstream and deployed by the con- of the automatic release failing to function in ejection,
troller drogue. the pilot can release himself, his parachute, and his
survival equipment from the seat by pulling the emer-
An acceleration limiter (g-Controller) and an altitude
gency harness release handle. Pulling the handle
limiter (barostat) delay operation of the seat timed
releases the leg restraint lines and the lap and shoulder
release mechanism to control deployment of the 24-
harness, and trips the guillotine which cuts the link-
foot personnel parachute under varying ejection con-
line that connects the stabilizer drogue parachute to
ditions. The g-controller delays the parachute deploy-
the pilot's parachute withdrawal line. Separation of the
ment and harness release sequence until the seat and
pilot from the seat should break the pilot's services

I
pilot decelerate to approximately 4 g. The altitude
connections at the disconnect on the left console. Para-
limiter delays the sequence until the seat and pilot
have descended to approximately 10,000 feet pressure chute deployment under these conditions is attained
altitude. by pulling the parachute ripcord D-ring on the left
shoulder harness strap. When ditching, the pilot should
A pilot's services disconnect, mounted on the left con- release the shoulder harness fittings before pulling the
sole, holds the antiblackout line and the anti-exposure emergency harness release handle, and should manually
coverall ventilating air line in position to ensure separate the pilot's services connections to ensure
proper separation at ejection. The oxygen supply line separation.

EJECTION SEAT CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Figure 1-20
Face curtain handle Pulled down fully, jettisons canopy and ejects the seat.
Secondary firing handle Pulled upward fully, jettisons canopy and ejects seat.
Leg restraint release lever Pushed forward, releases leg restraint snubber to permit additional length of line
to be pulled out.
Pulled aft, releases leg restraint line plug in fitting from front of seat to permit
normal exit from aircraft.
Shoulder harness lock lever Pulled aft against tension, unlocks shoulder harness inertia reel so that the pilot may
lean forward.

r
Neutral position holds unlocked condition.
Pushed to forward position, locks inenia reel to prevent any forward motion of
the pilot.
Seat adjustment switch UP or DOWN raises or lowers seat pan to desired height.
Emergency harness release handle Button pressed, handle rotated sharply aft, releases integrated harness, leg restraint
lines, and parachute from seat, permitting the pilot to leave the seat with para-
chute and full survival equipment.
Canopy interrupter release handle Pulled fully forward, bypasses canopy firing and overrides interrupter, permitting
complete travel of the face curtain or secondary firing handle to eject the seat
through the canopy.

Changed 15 July 1966 35


Se ction I NAV AIR OI -4SHHD-1
Syste m s

EJECTIONSEAT- - - - - - - - - - -_ _ _ _ __

Face curtain handle _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~----Canopy int e r r upter


r ele ase hand le

Shou 1de r res t r a i nt harness "",,:::---7.,tJ~;;:l~~~~


Ma r tin - Baker parachut e - Safe ty pin ~onta illcr

L ap bel t
E mer gency harn ess
re lease handl e ____

Guillotine firing ;::-f,l\____ Shou lde r harness


me~hanis m
loc k lev e r

S eeo n cla r y fir i ng han eli e -~"",;:;::;;. o;!!i!J~>

Leg restraint r elease lever

Leg r es trai nt lines ~


A
~~ --

1. L ink- Line
2. Drogue pa r achute withdrawa l lin e
2A. Top latc h mechanism
3. Eme r gency r elease h,'llil lo ti ne
4. Drogue 6'l.l. n
5. Drogue gun I r ip rod
6. Cano py inter ru pter
7. Dr ogue shack le scissors
8. Drogue pa r achute containe r
8 A . Hancile r est r aint strap '
9. T ime d re lease mecha niblll
( includin~ ba r ostat and g -contro ll e r)

10. Seat cat.lpult sf'conctary charges


11. T ime d re lease t r ip r od
· With BACSEB 9- 63
..
-. , .. ,- , ,
~

Fig ure 1-20

36 Chang ed 15 Jul y 1966


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

EJECTION SEQUENCE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
LOW-ALT.TUDE SEQUENCE
(BROW 10,000 FEn)
To canopy I
Forces canopy
Into slipstream

, When either the face curtain handle or the second-


ary firing handle fA) is pulled, initial t~el of
the handle pulls th~anopy firing ca~ ~ to
fire the emergency canopy actuator C , which
opens the canopy locks and jettisons e canopy.

gun

Unlocks ---"
canopy~

As the canopy separates from the aircraft, it


pulls a lanyard ~ithdraw a pin from the can-
opy interrupter ®.' permitting the interrupter
to release either ejection control (face curtain
or secondary firing handle) for further travel.
Continued motion of the ejection control with-
draws the catapult firing sear ® at the top of
the catapult to fire the seat primary cartridge.

As the seat begins to move upward, the drogue gun


firing mechanism and timed release mechanism
trip rods are pulled free and both mechanisms are
armed (F) ; the drogue gun is fired after 1-second
delay (O:5-second delay MK-F5 seat). Initial mo-
tion of the seat also causes the leg restraint lines,
which are secured to the airframe by shear pins,
to be drawn up to place the pilot's legs in the proper
position against the front face of the seat @ .
The leg restraint snubber in the bottom of the seat
holds the pilot's legs in the restrained position un-
til harness release occurs. When the seat is fired
Auxiliary cartridges
the pilot's services are automatically disconnected fire
and the IFF is automatically switched into operation®
in the emergency mode. As the seat rises, the G
auxiliary cartridges are automatically fired to in-
crease seat velocity.
I

figure 1-21 (Sheet I)

37
Sedion I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Systems

14 The drogue gun piston withdraws the controller drogue from the seat upper housing
and pulls it into the slipstream where it tilts the seat into a horizontal attitude and,
in turn, withdraws the stabilizer drogue.

In an ejection at low speeds, the timed release mechanism, which is armed by initial
seat movement, releases the drogue shackle scissors and permits the drogues to with-
draw and deploy the pilot's parachute after an interval of 1.75 seconds (1.5 seconds
MK- F5 seat). At higher speeds, operation of the timed release mechanism in inter-
rupted by the g-controller to permit the seat and pilot to decelerate to safe speed before
the parachute is deployed. The timed release mechanism also actuates the integrated
harness release devices to allow the pilot to be separated from the seat by the drag of
the parachute.

To prevent the pilot from delaying seat separation by holding onto the face curtain
longer than is desirable, the curtain is freed from the seat when the parachute
deploys. To ensure clean separation of the pilot and seat, two friction fastenings
(sticker tabs) briefly restrain the pilot in the seat after harness release occurs.

Seat and occupant


stabilized and de-
celerated by drogues

At 1.75 seconds n.5 sec-


onds MK-F5 sea", the timed
release mechanism releases ControUer drogue
harness, permits drogues to ~ extracts stabilizer
extract pilot's parachute. (At -~:X:!""-.----.,,,.......... drogue
speeds above 300 knots,
the g-controller may delay ~-==
Parachute sequence up to an addition-
fully open 3 al 2 seconds.)
to 6 seconds
after election. Seat tumbles forward
270 0 after clearing aIr-_
plane

HIGH-ALTITUDE SEQUENCE "


(ABOVE 10,000 FEET)

Operation of the Martin-Baker seat in high-altitude ejections /


is similiar to that at low altitudes except that a barometric
altitude limiter (barostat) prevents the timed release mechanism Drogue gun fires ,
from deploying the pilot's parachute until the pilot and seat
have descended to approximately 10,000 feet pressure altitude.
During the descent the drogues stabilize and slow the seat and
the pilot is automatically supplied with oxygen from the emergency ----~:----
supply in the seat pan. At 10,000 feet, the altitude limiter
releases the timer and Qermits parachute deployment and har-
ness release to occur as in a low-altitude ejection.

Figure 1-21 (Sheet 2'


38
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

PILOT'S EQUIPMENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
FOR USE IN MARTIN-BAKER EJECTION SEAT I
Emergency Oxygen
Lanyard "green apple"
Seat Pan-to-Console
Oxygen Hose F-49321l0-9
or -17 (Firewel) Emergency Oxygen
Pressure Gage

PK-2

Lap Belt
1. Standard Bight coveralls, MS22015
torso harness, and type Z-3 and-g
suit.
or
Type Z-2 and-g coveralls and
MS22015 torso harness.
or
S-470 integrated coveralls and type
Z-3 and-g suit.
or
MK·5A and-exposure coverall and Right
type Z-4 anti-g suit. Dark (Blue
or Brown)
2. Type A 13·A face mask.
3. Type APH·5 helmet.
Left
4. Mini-Reg hose. Light
5. MK·3C flotation vest.
6. Oxygen hose P·4932010·3 or -IS
(Pirewe1)

Martin-Baker color-coded leg restraint garters.

r-
figure J-22
39
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Systems

I DESCRIPTION
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

buses during operation on either external or main


generator electrical power.
The system is illustrated in figure 1-23.
Emergency electrical power is supplied by ram-air-
In normal operation, all electrical power is supplied driven ac and dc generators in the emergency power
by a 20-kva ac generator which is engine driven package, which is extended by pneumatic system pres-
through a constant-speed drive unit. The main gen- sure. The ac generator is rated at 2.5 kva and delivers
I erator supplies a three-phase ac output at 115/200 115/200-volt, 360- to «O-cps, 3-phase ac power to the
volts, 400 cycles. Main generator output voltage and primary and emergency ac buses. The dc generator
frequency are automatically monitored by a super- is rated at 10 amperes and delivers regulated 28-volt
visory system for protection against improper operat- dc power to the emergency and primary dc buses.
ing conditions.
If a flameout occurs, engine windmilling speed may

If the system goes off the line because of a fault, the


supervisory system can be reset by the pilot. If the
not be adequate to drive the main generator to oper-
ating speed. If main generator indicator indicates
power failure (barberpole ), power from the emer-
I
fault remains, the system may be reset manually but gency generators must be used for engine ignition for
will trip off again. If the fault is cleared, normal an airstart. After an airstart, the main generator will
system operation will resume. automatically supply power to the secondary buses
(master generator switch in ON) but will not supply
DC power for all needs is obtained from a I50-ampere power to the emergency bus or the primary bus until
transformer-rectifier which supplies power to the dc the emergency generator switch is placed in OFF.

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM CONTROLS


Nomenclature

Main generator indicator ON -


Function

indicates that main ae generator is producing electrical power within proper


1 ,
(24, figure 1-5) limits.
Barberpole indicates that main ac generator is not operating properly and is not
connected to the buses.
Master generator switch ON - connects power from the main ac generator or from external power source to
(23, figure 1-5) ac buses and to transformer-rectifier (dc power to buses). In this position, transfer
from external power to aircraft power is automatic when the main generator
voltage and frequency are within the prescribed limits.
TEST - connects external ac power to the ac buses, to the transformer-rectifier (dc
power to buses), and disconnects generator power from ae and dc buses (main
generator indicator will still be operating).
OFF-RESET - disconnects main generator or external power from buses. Readies elec-
trical system for reset when placed in ON or TEST.
Emergency generator switch ON - (emergency power package extended) connects power from emergency gen-
(7. figure 1-5) erators to emergency and primary ae and dc buses.
LAND - (emergency power package extended) connects power from emergency
generators to only the emergency ac and dc buses. This decreases electrical load
on the emergency power package to improve package performance at low air-
speeds.
OFF - disconnects emergency electrical power from buses.

Emergency power handle Pulled. extends emergency power package. Package cannot be retracted in flight.
(21, figure 1-4) (Refer to POWER CONTROL HYDRAULIC SUPPLY for information on emer-
gency hydraulic pump.)
Emergency power indicator light ON - (emergency generator switch in ON) indicates that power is being supplied
(6, figure 1-5) by emergency generators and serves as a reminder to place emergency generator
switch in LAND (with engine running) prior to landing, or in OFF if makiog a
flameout landing.
Off indicates emergency generator switch is in LAND or OFF.

40
NAVWEPS 01 - 45HHD- 1 Section I
Systems

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY
M A IN G EN ERATOR
EXTERN A L POWER
RECEPTA ClE
EMERGENCY POW ER
PACKAG E
I
AC
~
M•
POWER


Engine Ram
driven Air
f rom low-
speed

ro tor .

The maste r gene rato r switch is pos itioned The emergency generator switc h is posi-
to ON to supp ly power from the main tioned to ON or lAND to supp ly p ower
generator or to TEST to supp ly power fro m from the emergency power package.
a n ex ternal powe r source.

AC USES

EMERGENCY SECONDARY

Al ti meter vibrato r Cockpit temp eratur e conlrol Aft main fue l pump (Boost)
Atti t ude in d ica to r Forw ard main f uel pump ( Boo st ) Aft tran sfer fuel pump
Eme rge ncy p i tc h t rim Integrated el ectronics package Air bottl e heaters
I nstrument tra n sforme r : ADF radio Ant i-coll isi on lights
En gine fue l flow I FF radar i dentificatio n A pproa ch power compensator system
Engine o il pressure U HF Command rad i o Auto pil ot
Hydra ul ic p ressu re MA· 1 compas s Center main fuel pump (Boost I
Na vigat ion indicator Main fuel q uanti ty Eng ine pre ssure ratio in'dic ator
Pitch trim O xyge n quantity Fir e contro l sys tem
Primary inte rio r li ghts Pitol h eal Forma tion lights
Rol l trim and sta bil ization TACA N radia Fo rwar d tra nsfer fue l pump
W ing posi ti on lights Tail posi tion light Gun interlock
Transfer fue l quanti ty Inflig h t re f ueling p robe light
Yaw trim and st ab il ization Inverted flight fue l p umps
IR dete ctor
Ma i n cell fo r ward wa ll f ue l pump
Missi le powe r
Oi l cooler door actuato r
Radar
...-........ Ex ternal AC Power
Radar altimet er
Radar reco rder
Aircraft AC Power
Seat ad iustm e n t

<== Aircraft DC Po w er
Secondary interior light s

63 76Z_ I _ Z( 1)

Figure 1-23 (Sh ee t 11

41
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD- l
Systems

ElECTRICAL SUPPLY - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I EMERGENCY GENERATOR SWITCH -

AC BUSES
ON EMERGENCY GENERATOR SWITCH -

AC BUS
LAND

AC AC

DC DC

DC BUSES Ram Air DC BUS Ram


Air

EMERGENCY SECONDARY

Angle of attack indicator and inde xer Afterbur ner fuel control Approach lights flasher
Appro ach l igh ts Emergency gen e rator warning Approach power compensator systern
Engine fue l pump warning light light Armament bus
Engine fuel shutoff valve Engine cranking control Arresting gear
Engine ignition Integrated electronics package Autopi lo t
Engine oil / hydraulic pressure ADF radio Boost pumps
warning li ght IFF radar identification Chaff dispenser system
Exterior light control UHF command radio Continuou s engine ignition
Fire detector Jettison (m issile) Electronics package fan
Flood lights MA-l compass Engine anti -icin g
Fuel control unit changeover Speedbroke
Engine cranking air valve
Manual fuel control ligh t TACAN radio
Fire control system
Jettison (sa lvo) Yo w trim and stabilization
Fuel boost pumps warning light
Jettison (selective)
Fuel low level warning light
landing gear position indicators Fueling valves
landing gear warning light Gun came ra
leading edge droop Gun vent doors
Roll trim and stab ilization Inflight refueling system
Stab il ization warning lights
IR detector
Transfer fuel pump w arning light
Wing fuel dump valves landing and taxi light
Wing pressurization landing gear down lock solenoid
Wing -whee ls-droop warning light Missile c-Ooling
Missile firing
Missile power
Neutral trim indicators
Nose gea r stee ri ng
Oil coo ler door control and in dicator
Oxygen warning light
Radar
Radar altimeter
Radar recorder
Sta tistica l accelerometer
Wing selector valve lock
631 62-1- 2 (2) -10- 6 6 Wingfold sequencing

Figure 1-23 (She et 2)


42 Changed 15 January 1967
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l Section I

DESCRIPTION
EXTERIOR LIGHTS

The exterior light system (figure 1-24) consists of


the primary ac bus. When operating on emergency
Systems

electrical power, these lights are available only when


I
fuselage- and wing-mounted low-intensity formation the emergency generator switch is in the ON position.
lights, anticollision lights, carrier landing approach
I lights, a land/taxi light, conventional position (navi-
The land/taxi light, mounted on the right main gear I
strut, is a high-intensity white light powered from the
gation) lights, and an inHight refueling probe illumi-
secondary dc bus. The light is not available when oper-
nating light.
ating on emergency electrical power.
The fuselage-mounted formation lights are amber
strip lights positioned to ensure visibility over a wide The separate red, green and amber approach lights
range of formation positions. The wing-mounted for- are mounted on the nose gear Hipper door and are
mation lights are red and green light-emitting panels powered, through the angle-of-attack indicating sys-
installed on the wing tips just aft of the normal wing tem, from the emergency dc bus. The approach lights
position lights to permit wing attitude to be observed come on automatically when the landing gear handle
from positions aft and above or below the aircraft. is placed in WHLS DOWN and weight is off the gear,
Both the wing and fuselage formation lights are regardless of the position of the exterior lights switch.
powered from the secondary ac bus and will not .be An approach light hook bypass circuit permits selec-
available when operating on emergency electrical tion of approach light operation for either carrier
power. landings or for field landings ( field mirror landing I
practice). Refer to ANGLE-OF-ATTACK INDICAT-
The anticollision lights are high-intensity red lights ING, this section, for information concerning
mounted on the top and bottom of the fuselage at the sequence of approach light op~ration. An exterior
centerline. These lights, which are powered from the light master control circuit is provided with a switch
secondary ac bus, flash off and on approximately 80 located above the throttle to permit signaling to cata-
times per minute. pult officer and for rapid turn-out of all exterior lights
in tactical operations that require blackout.
The conventional red and green wing position lights
are powered from the emergency ac bus. When operat-
ing on emergency electrical power, these lights will
burn only when DIM is selected with the wing light
Refer to INFLIGHT REFUELING for description and
operation of the inHight refueling probe illuminating
I
I switch. The white tail position light is powered from light.

EXTERIOR LIGHTS CONTROLS


N omenclatut'e Function

Anticollision light switch ON - turns on red anticollision lights.


(6, figure 1-24)
Approach light dimming switch DAY - selects bright lighting of approach lights for daylight operations.
(7, figure 1-24) NIGHT - seleCts dim lighting of approach lights for night operations, except when
on emergency power. *
Approach light hook bypass switch CARRIER - causes approach lights to Bash if arresting hook is not down when land-
(8, figure 1-24) ing gear handle is in down position and no weight is on the gear. The lights will
not Bash when operating on emergency electrical power.
I FIELD - permits approach light to burn steadily for field mirror landing practice
when arresting hook is up, landing gear handle is in down position, and weight is
not on the gear.
Exterior light switch NORM - energizes exterior master control light switch circuit to permit selection of
(2, figure 1-24) desired exterior lights.
Land/taxi light switch ON - turns on taxi light when landing gear handle is in WHLS DOWN.
(1, figure 1-24)
Strip light switch BRT - causes all formation lights to burn brightly.
(4, figure 1-24) DIM - causes all formation lights to burn dimly.
Taillight switch BRT* - causes tail navigation lights to burn brightly.
(S, figure 1-24) DIM* - causes tail navigation lights to burn dimly.
Wing light switch BRT* - causes wing navigation lights to burn brightly.
(3, figure 1-24) DIM* - causes wing navigation lights to burn dimly.

*With exterior light switch in ON.

43
Section I NAVWEPS Ol·45HHD.l
Systems

EXTERIOR LIGHT CONTROLS (TYPICAL) - - - - - - - - - -


I l. Land/taxi light switch
2. Exterior light switch ~ ' ~, 'Ii. .. ..('"'~
3. Wing light switch .:r
..I..UID
UJ
Of

,
,"1JIIII!,l..r••
UIM
":'[*":..
, ~" ..
A"

4. Strip light switch


5. Tail light switch
6. Anticollision light switch
7. Approach light dimming
.
••
switch •
8. Approach light hook bypass
.•• •••
switch .••

•••

•••
•••
••
.
••

figure 1-24

FIRE DETECTOR

DESCRIPTION assembly and heat sensing elements. Electrical power


Abnormally high temperatures in the engine or after- is provided by the emergency de bus. The system will
burner compartments is sensed by the system, resulting operate any time the master generator switch is in ON
in illumination of the fire warning light. The system is or TEST with the engine running or with external elec-
comprised of the warning light, detection control trical power connected.

FIRE DETECTOR SYSTEM CONTROLS


Nomenclature FUllcHotl-

Fire warning test switch Depressed, checks system circuit continuity and operation of fire warning light.
(14, figu re 1-3)
Fire warning light Light o n (FIRE) indicates fire or overheat condition in engine bay or afterburner
(13, figure 1-3 ) compartment area.

44
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

FLIGHT CONTROLS
DESCRIPTION

The flight control system uses the control stick (figure


1-25) and rudder pedals to operate mechanical linkage
STICK GRIP - - - - - - I
Roll Trim
to position the slider valves of hydraulic power coo- Knob
trol cylinders. In response to this movement the slider
valves" through mechanical linkage of the power Pitch Trim
control cylinders to the control surfaces (aileron, hori- Knob
zontal rail, and rudder), cause movement of the
desired surface. As this irreversible system has no Trigger
airIoad feedback to the control stick or rudder pedals, Switch
artificial "feel" is introduced into the system by feel
springs, bobweights, and viscous dampers. The amount Autopilot
of simulated feel introduced is proportional to the Engage-
amount of surface deflection. The feel springs return Disengage
the control stick or rudder pedal to neutral after the Switch
stick or pedal has been actuated and released. Move·
ment of the control surfaces is also controlled by the Nose Gear
trim and stabilization system. Operation of this system Steering
does not affect the neutral position of the control Switch
stick or the rudder pedals.
An assembly of links and levers in the horizontal tail
pllshrod system reduces control sensitivity in the Figure 1-25
vicinity of neutral stick position by changing the ratio
A wing spoiler control surface is installed flush with
of stick travel to surface movement as the stick is
the upper surface of the wing forward of each aileron
moved away from neutral. By reducing surface travel
to increase rate of roll at low altitudes and high air-
for a given stick displacement, the variable gain link-
speed. The spoilers are slaved directly to aileron con-
age eliminates high pitch corrections at high airspeeds.
trol and function in both the clean condition and
When the wing is raised to the landing position, the landing condition. When the aileron is deflected more
ailerons and flaps are automatically drooped 20° from than 2° above the aileron clean condition neutral, the
the cruise neutral position. This is accomplished by spoiler control surface is deflected an amount pro-
means of mechanical linkage from the wing to the portional to aileron deflection. Maximum spoiler de-
aileron power control hydraulic slider val ves and the flection is 49°. Mechanical linkage from the aileron
flap segment inboard of the ailerons. Aileron droop power control package positions a slider valve, allow-
and £lap action provide increased lift and stability ing PC 2 hydraulic pressure to actuate the spoiler
when the wing is raised and the wing leading edge is control surface. The spoilers will be inoperative with
extended. loss of PC 2 hydraulic system.

FLIGHT CONTROLS
NometJclalure Fu"cliotJ.

Pilot's control stick Controls aileron deflection of 15 0 up and 45 0 down in landing condition (wing
raised and ailecons drooped).
Controls aileron deflection of 15 0 up and 15 0 down in clean condition (wing
lowered and aileron cruise neutral restored). Overridable clean condition stops are
encountered at 9Vz°.
Control s ho rizontal tail deflection between 26 0 30' nose up and 6 0 45' nose down.
Rudder pedals Comrol rudder displacement between 17 0 left and right of neutral with wing raised.
Concrol rudder displacement between 6 0 left and right of neutca1 with wing down.
Rudder pedal adjustment crank Rotated right or left adjusts rudder pedal assembly fore or aft.

45
Section I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Systems

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR RATE-Of-CLIMB INDICATOR
T his indicator (35, figu re 1-3) presents a pictorial T his indicator (44, figure 1-3), operated by stacic pres-'
indication of the ai rcraft pitch and roll attitude w ith sure, provides rate-of-climb and rate-of-descent infor-
respect to the real hori zo n. The system func tions mation in feet-per-minute.
I throughout 360 0 of ro ll attitude, but is li mited to ±82°
from the hori zo n in pitch attitude. A gy ro caging
s\vitch is not p rovided because the system gravity- ALTIMETER
sensing erection circuit co rrects ind uced errors at a This instrument (41, figure 1-3), operated by staric
rate of approximately 1 0 per minute. The indicator is pressure, indicates pressure altitude based on th e baro-
operative any time the aircraft electrica l 9r:E\:Jits a re metric pressure of a g iven station previously set o n
e~etL.. The O FF flag will appea r when ac power
is removed. A pitch trim kn ob, located on the face
the baro metri c scale of the instr um ent. The altimeter I
permits readi ngs to 80,000 feet.
of the indicator, is provided for the purpose of settin g
the arti ficial hori zon to the "zero pitch" position w hen
in level fli gh t ani tude.
An instrument vibratO r is incorporated in the alti me ter I
to prevent erroneous readings ca used by sticking o f
TURN-AND-BANK INDICATOR
the indicato r. Vibrator elect ri cal power is supplied by
I The gyro of this indicator (34, figure 1-3) is operated rhe emergency ac b us. A mo mentary lag wi ll occur as I
by bleed a ir from th e engine compressor seccion. th e needle passes zero on each revolution during a de-
scent with the vibra tOr inoperati ve. This lag may be
ove rcome by a light tap on th e instrum ent face as the
ACCELERATION INDICATOR needl e approaches zero each time. After level fli g ht
is an ained, altimeter reading will become normal.
IT hiS ind icator (43, figure 1-3) is self-contained and
indicates co ntinuously the ex istin g g- load on the air-
craft d uring flig ht. lr a lso indica tes th e maximum
positive and negative loads thar were im posed on th e
ANGLE-Of-ATTACK INDICATOR
aircraft during an y pa rti cular fli g ht per iod.
The indicato r (9, figure 1-3) provides continuous
ang le-of-attack indicatio ns for use primarily as an aid
AIRSPEED - MACH NUMBER INDICATOR in conrro Uing attitude and, hence, in controlling air-
I This pitOt-st3tic pressure indicator ( 42, fi g ure 1-3) speed in landing approaches. The indicatio ns can also
p rov ides indicated airspeed readings of 80 to 850 knots be used in establishing various other flight conditions.
and indi cated Mach number read ings o f 0.4 to 2.5. T he indicatOr also controls operation of the angle-of-
An a irspeed correction ca rd p rovides calibrated ai r- attack app roach indexer and th e approac h lights. Refer
speed da ta. Conventional picot tu be ant i-icing is pro- to ANGLE-OF-A TT ACK INDICATING, this sectio n,
vided. for details o f system operati on.

46
NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD·l Section I
Systems

FUEL SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION
Refer to figure 1-26 for system illustration.
boost pumps operate when pitch attitude exceeds 1300
nose up or 100 nose down, or when roll attitude ex-
I
ceeds 90 0 • Only the forward main fuel boost pump
Fuel is supplied to the engine from the main fuel cell, operates when electrical power is being supplied by
through the engine fuel shutoff valve, by six fuel the emergency power package with the emergency
boost pumps. Four of these pumps operate at all times generator switch in ON. With the emergency genera-
when the engine master switch is on and provide tor switch in LAND, none of the boost pumps operate
proper fuel How for all upright Hight attitudes. Two and Hight operation must be restricted to avoid flame-
of the boost pumps are controlled by an attitude switch outs. Fuel from the mid fuselage cells of the main
to supply fuel at inverted attitude. The inverted fiight system flows into the main cell by gravity feed.

FUEL SYSTEM CONTROLS

Nomencl4ture Punction

Engine master switch ON - energizes fuel boost pumps, attitude switch (which controls inverted Hight
(14, figure 1--4) boost pumps) and fuel transfer switch.
Fuel selector switch Positions fuel valves during central-point fueling for selection of different types of
(left main wheel well) fuel loads or for defueling. POWER OFF is the Hight position.
Fuel transfer switch PRESS DUMP - relieves wing tank pressure and shuts off transfer fuel pumps to dis-
(22, figure 1-3) continue all fuel transfer.
ON - energizes transfer fuel pumps and provides wing tank pressure.
PUMP OFF - shuts off transfer fuel pumps but permits wing fuel transfer to continue.

Fuel quantity test switch Depressed momentarily, checks continuity of main and transfer fuel quantity indi-
(33, figure 1-3) cating circuits.
InHight refueling probe switch OUT - opens probe door, extends probe, deenergizes the transfer fuel system, and
(l0, figure 1-3) relieves wing tank pressure. Probe illuminating light will come on when probe
door opens if exterior light switch is in NORM.
IN - retracts probe, closes probe door, energizes the transfer fuel system, and repres-
surizes wing tank. Probe illuminating light will go out when probe door closes.
OFF -deenergizes probe door valve and energizes the transfer fuel system.

Inflight refueling probe out light On, indicates probe door is open.
(4, figure 1-3) Off, indicates probe door is closed.
Main fuel quantity indicator Indicates total weight of fuel in main fuel system cells.
(31, figure 1-3)
Transfer fuel quantity indicator Indicates total weight of fuel in transfer fuel system cells.
(27, figure 1-3)

I Wing tank manual fuel shutoff valve


(left main wheel well)
OPEN - allows normal operation of fuel syS\em. Engine cannot be ground-startetl
nor fuel transferretl from or to wing tank unless 1Jal1Je is in this position.
CLOSE - prevents leakage of fuel from wing to main cell while aircraft is secured;
also, aids defueling of main system after wing is empty by stopping airfiow from
wing.
Wing tank visual quantity indicator Appearance of red spherical Hoat indicates wing tank is full
(left wing leading edge)
Fuel dump switch DUMP - jettisons fuel from wing tank.
(21, figure 1-3)
Fuel low level warning light LOW LEVEL - on when fuel level in main cell drops to approximately 1,000 pounds
(17, figure 1-3) (JP-5) in level Hight.
Fuel boost pumps warning light FUEL BOOST PUMPS - on when fuel boost pressure drops to 4 psi.
(34A, figure 1-3)
Transfer fuel pump caution light TURN PUMP OFF - steady light with fuel transfer switch on, over 3,500 pounds trans-
(23, figure 1-3) fer fuel remaining and aircraft in normal Hight attitude indicates transfer fuel
pump failure.
Intermittent lighting progressing to steady indicates aft fuselage transfer fuel pressure
drop induced by maneuvers or low fuel level in aft fuselage transfer cells.

Changed 15 July 1965 47


Sedion 1 NAVAIR OI-45HHD-1
Systems

I AIRCRAFT FUEL--- - - - -__- - - - - - -From


Pressure Reli ef Wing Pressure Restrictor Ope ns

( • • • ( , Press urization
And
-Engin
-e
Regulator For Increa sed
Dumping Pressure
,AjlQ, -Y
Compressor
Bleed

C==::J)!I Fuel Dump lines ----r----....,, ~ To

. ~~;;~:gli;~~ti _"",.l~~ ~
;;;;;;;;;1). Engine Fuel Flow Fuse
.orjtf:::::>, i\.~ Ce ll slog e

= ;;;
(I j II [ !J

I
One-Way Pressure Transfer
Pressure Fueling and Tronsfer
Check valve (opened eledri-
Ram Air
Dump Valve

Fue l Quantity
::::::~~!-.( _~ _~~ Exte rnal Air

cally to permit reverse flow Probe (Typ)


*'
for refueling) .
00 Wiring
~ Check valve (arrow indi-
___ cates free flow )
Fuel Boost
Wing Fu eling and
Transfe r Manifold Manual Fuel
I""~r:;;-- Shutoff Valve

Fuel

Forw ard
Transfer
Cells

Aft
Transfer
T'MM'•• ,
Pump

' - From Inflight


Refueling
Probe

Forward Transfer
Cell
*' Solenoid-operated valves between ma in and mid-
Engine Master Switch fuselage cells replac ed by acceleration ch eck valves
•.Jr.. : - ' on some aircraft. Refer to Fu el Quantities, th is section .

Figure 1-26

48 Changed 15 Jul y 1966


NAVAIR Ol-45HHD-l Section I

The transfer fuel system, composed of forward and


aft fuselage fuel cells and the wing tank, semiauto-
matically sequences flow of transfer fuel to the main
Any desired fuel load can be attained by selecting
Systems

REFUEL TOTAL, fueling to full load, then defueling to


the desired quantity.
I
cell. Optimum center-of-gravity conditions are main-
tained provided the transfer switch is in the proper FUEL CELL PRESSURIZATION AND VENTING
position. Float valves in the main cell open to admit
fuel from the transfer system when the main cell Pressurization and venting maintain a constant pres-
fuel level drops to a predetermined point. Forward sure in the fuel cells and cell cavities during climbs,
and aft fuselage fuel is transferred under pump pres- dives, fueling, defueling, and fuel transfer. Air pres-
sure. Wing fuel is transferred by air pressure supplied sure is used to transfer wing tank fuel. Pressure in
by the air-conditioning system. The transfer fuel all the cells prevents excessive fuel loss due to boiling
pumps automatically shut off when the inverted flight at high altitude.
boost pumps are operating. Pressurized air is bled from the engine compress{'r
section and cooled by the air-conditioning system. The
FUEL QUANTITIES air passes through a check valve to the combined wing
tank pressure regulator and relief valve and to the
Fuel load indications will vary depending upon tem- fuselage cells pressure regulator. The regulators admit
perature and type of fuel used. Under extreme tempera- the air to the fuel cells and wing tank as required.
ture changes, gage readings can vary as much as 10% A check valve is installed in each pressure line to pre-
(6% gage tolerance and 4% fuel density change) of vent fuel transfer between the cells and to keep
the average quantities. fuel from entering the regulators. For all flight con-
ditions except negative g, an emergency airscoop auto-
With partial refueling selected (fuel selector switch
matically admits ram air to pressurize the fuselage
in REFUEL PARTIAL), the main system cells will be
cells if the pressure regulator fails in the dosed posi-
fueled to the transfer level and the transfer system
tion, or the air-conditioning system is shut off. An
will be completely refueled for a total fuel load of
emergency ram-air scoop prevents negative pressures
1,255 gallons. With only main cell refueling selected
in the wing tank.
(fuel selector switch in REFUEL MAIN CELL), the main
cell will be completely refueled (425 gallons). On The wing tank pressure regulator is electrically con-
some aircraft, the solenoid-operated check valves be- trolled to permit selection of fuel transfer conditions
tween the main fuel cell and the mid fuselage cells are by the pilot. When the fuel transfer switch is placed
being replaced with acceleration check valves. On in ON or PUMP OFF, the pressure regulator admits air
these aircraft, placing the refueling selector swi tch in to the wing tank at sufficient pressure to cause wing
REFUEL MAIN CELL will refuel the midfuselage cells fuel to flow to the main cell when the condition of
in addition to the main cell for a total fuel load of main cell fuel level and aft transfer fuel boost pres-
513 gallons. sure permit. Placing the fuel transfer switch in PRESS

FUEL WEIGHTS

Pounds- Pounds- US
Fuel Cell JP-4 Gallons
JP-'

Main Fuel System

Main 2,762.5 2,890.0 425


Left-hand mid fuselage 286.0 299.2 44
Right-hand mid fuselage 286.0 299.2 44
MAIN SYSTEM TOTAL 3,334.5 3.488.4 513
Transfer Fuel System

r Left-hand fwd transfer


(aft fuselage)
Right-hand fwd transfer
(aft fuselage)
Left-hand aft transfer
292.5

292.5

266.5
306.0

306.0

278.8
45

45

41
Right-hand aft transfer 266.5 278.8 41

r' Wing tank


Forward fuselage
3,718.0
591.5
3,889.6
618.8
572
91
TRANSFER SYSTEM TOTAL 5,427.5 5,678.0 835
TOTAL AIRCRAFT FUEL 8,762.0 9,166.4 1,348

Changed 15 July 1966 48A


Section I NAVAIR 01·45HHD·l

48 B Changed'15 July 1966


• f

/' ,r.I~: AAU


'U,,~,,~ _'I. :1
(/WV i.gU- )J4VVU
NAVAIR 01·45HHD·I -p~ 'J""v Section I
Systems
DUMP shuts off the Bow of air to the wing tank and
vents the existing pressure to discontinue transfer of
wing fuel. Slight positive pressure is maintained at
all times to prevent boiling. Upon loss of normal wing
Failure of the aft transfer pumps (or loss of main
sJectrical power) will result in as 'much as 1.200

~~r:.::;;r;::;~~_~er!e:e
I
tank pressurization (air-conditioning system failure or ~!Ln_,..g;J!...gPQn lQ..ss of pOWl;,.!lr..,p'JWP failure Wing
shutdown or cockpit pressure switch placed in CABIN tank fuel tQUlSMr will-mD.twL'edg su~~
f
DUMP), wing tank fuel transfer is negligible.

The fuselage fuel cells are vented overboard through


interconnected lines to a vent mast on the fuselage
left-hand midsection. The common vent line is con- In level crUJslDg flight, intermittent illumination
nected to a pressure relief valve which relieves cell progressing to steady illumination of the transfer
pressure above 1.0 (-+-0.25) psi to prevent excessive pump caution light provides usable indication that
pressures if the fuselage cells pressure regulator fails the fuselage transfer fuel cells are empty. When the
in the open position. A float valve in the main cell transfer cells are empty, there will be from 1,500
prevents main cell fuel from being vented overboard pounds to 3,000 pounds of wing tank fuel remaining,
during maneuvering Bight by shutting off fuel trans- depending upon when the transfer pumps are turned
fer when the vent outlet is covered. Check valves are on. When the transfer pump caution light comes on
installed in the other cell vent lines to prevent fuel under these conditions, turn the pumps and light off
from entering the vent lines during maneuvering or by placing the fuel transfer switch in PUMP OFF. For
inverted Bight. operational convenience, the transfer fuel quantity
indicator is marked with an orange reference mark at
2,000 pounds fuel remaining (the nominal transfer
quantity at which the fuselage transfer cells empty).
This is a reminder to turn the transfer pumps off.
FUEL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

For takeoff, the fuel transfer switch is placed in ON


which energizes the forward and aft transfer pumps
and pressurizes the wing tank. Flow of transfer fuel
to the main fuel cell is then automatically sequenced When the transfer pumps are turned off, wing fuel
until all transfer fuel is consumed. Sequencing is ob- transfer will continue until the wing tank is empty.
tained through variations in fuel line sizes and pres- In some cases, because of slight inaccuracies in fuel
sures to maintain aircraft center-of-gravity within gaging, wing fuel transfer will continue for a short
limits at all times. The forward transfer cell empties period even after the transfer fuel quantity indicator
first, the aft transfer cells empty second, and the wing reads zero. To prevent wing tank air from entering
tank empties last. The aircraft then consumes main cell the fuel lines, twO pressure shutoff valves in the wing
fuel until landing. During transfer from the aft cells, fueling manifold are automatically closed when the
there will be a noticeable transfer from the wing tank. wing tank is empty or a fuel outlet is uncovered.

r
Changed 15 July 1966 49
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Systems

If the fuselage pumps are turned off too soon (as the transfer fuel from the fuselage depleted, there will

I might be the case if turned off because of the caution


light flickering during maneuvering flight), a small
amount of fuel may be trapped in the aft cells. If this
occurs, there will be an indication of transfer fuel
remaining late in the flight when all fuel transfer
be negligible transfer from the wing in nose-down
attitudes. Normal wing transfer will be regained with
a return to normal flight attitude. The main system
quantity may indicate between 2,200 to 3,100 pounds
depending upon the flight profile.
would normally have been completed. This fuel can
be pumped out by placing the fuel transfer switch in
ON for a brief period. Maintaining a nose-up attitude
will aid in pumping out the aft cells.

Note

I WARNING I During afterburner operation at high Mach


numbers, the transfer fuel system may not
supply sufficient fuel to the main cell to hold
the fuel level in the main cell at the transfer
Aircraft loss from main fuel depletion can level. Upon termination of afterburning, the
result from fuel transfer failure in conjunc- transfer system will refill the main cell to the
tion with either misread quantity indications transfer level or until the transfer system is
or failure to monitor main fuel quantity. empty. The transfer rates are sufficient to
Main fuel quantity must be regularly checked prevent the main cell from being run dry
for proper indication except during maneu- while there is still transfer fuel available.
vering flight. Do not mistake transfer quantity With continuous maximum engine demand
gage (500-pound graduations) as main fuel the main system will contain approximately
quantity gage (IOO-pound graduations). 898 pounds when the transfer system empties.

Excluding afterburner operation at high Mach num-


bers (see note), the main fuel quantity indicator dur-
ing flight at normal cruise attitude should read 2,400
to 2,700 pounds until the transfer fuel system is empty.
The main system quantity indicator may read below The main fuel quantity indicating system will indicate
2,400 pounds during prolonged nose-down attitudes accurately only in steady wing-level flight between
and when there are approximately 1,500 pounds re- 20° nose-up and 10° nose-down. The transfer fuel
maining in the transfer system in certain other flight quantity indicating system, a capacitance system de-
profiles. But in no case shall it read below 2,200 pounds signed for use in cruise control, will be accurate only
before the transfer system is completely emptied. With between 10° nose-up and 4° nose-down.

50 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I

The fuel low-level warning light will be on when the


fuel in the main cell is at approximately 1,000 pounds.
The light w ill indicate accurately at aircraft attitudes
dumped overboard . Placing the fuel dump switch in
DUMP fully opens tbe restrictor and opens the dump
valves. After fuel bas been dumped, the fuel dump
Systems

I
I between 25° nose·up and 25° nose-down. switch should be placed in OFF.
The fuel Row indicator, which indicates engine fuel
flow in pounds per hour, may momentarily indicate Note
zero flow when the throtrle is retarded to IDLE from
a high power setting. Shou ld the indicatOr continue A nose-up attitude must be maintained to
to reflect zero flow at a sustai ned IDLE power setting, obtain the maximum rate of fue l dumping.
advancing the throttle momentarily to obtain a higher Engine power setting is also critical during
fuel Bow rate may rescore proper indications. the dump cycle and 87% rpm or above will
always ensure a maximum rate of fuel dump-
WING TANK FUEL DUMPING ing. A power setti ng of 80% or less with a
nose-down attitude may Stop fuel dumping
An electrically operated variable orifice resrcicror, completely.
installed upstream of the wing tank pressure regula-
tor, controls '''ing tank air flow for pressurization or
provides a high fuel dump rate hy allowing a greater When the cockpit pressure switch is placed in CABIN
air Bow to the wing tank during fuel dumping. Two DUMP, wing tank fuel dumping may be accomplished
electrically operated dump valves, one in each out- at a reduced rate under pressure supplied by the wing
board corner of the wing tank, permit fuel to be tank emergency ram-air scoop.

IN FLIGHT REFUELING

DESCRIPTION Big ht refue ling probe switch in OUT deenergizes the


transfer pump, depressurizes the wing tank, positions
Note the fuel valves to accept fuel, opens the probe fairing
The inflight refueling system should be door, and extends the probe. The inflight refueling
ground checked for leaks before a flight on probe out light on the instrument board w ill also be
which firing of guns is anticipated follow- illuminated when the fairing door opens. With [he
ing inSig ht refueling. probe engaged in the tanker's drogue, fuel is admitted
into the aircraft fuel system. If desired, partial refu el"l·
A retractable probe (figure 1-27), mounted in a we ll ing of the main cell up to the transfer level can be
on the left side of the fuselage, is extended and re- performed with [he inflight refueling probe switch
tracted by utility hydraulic pressure. Placing the in- in OFF. Total time for refueling depends upon fuel

INFLIGHT REFUELING CONTROLS

Norne,~clalu re Function

Inftight refueling probe sw itch OUT - opens probe door, extends probe, dee nergizes th e tran sfer fuel 5}'Stem "nd

I (10, figure 1-3) r elieves wing lank pressure. Probe illuminating light will come on when probe
doo r opens if exterior light switch is in NORM.

IN - retracts pro be, closes probe door, energizes th e tran sfer fuel system and repres-
I suri zes wing tank. Probe illuminating light will go out when probe door closes.
OFF - dee nergizes probe door valve and energizes the transfer fue l system.

I Infligbt refueling probe ou t li ght On, indica tes probe door is ope n.
(4, figure 1-3) Off, indicates probe door is closed.

51
Section I NAVWEPS 01·45HHO·l
Systems

PROBE CONTROL------------------=To-:-Ex-.e'~;o'~L~;g':"'"h.-:S~w;~.ch-
I Probe Out
o
Ugh. Prob e Illuminating light·

Microswi.ch
Door Cylinder

Restrictor
(Open)

Microswitch
(Door Actuated)

Check Probe
Extension
Door ... /
/'

Closing
Sequen ce
Valve
UtiH.y
Hydraulic
Pressure
Seledor Flow
Valve Regulator
(Arrow denotes
regulated flow)

Probe (Extended )

Pressure
Return
I ... ii I Open (door) and Extend (probe)
iii ijii ) Retract (probe) and Close (door) • F-8E aircraft 1491S1 and subse-
• 9 Wiring quent. F-SE aircraft 149134
through 1491S0 and F-SO aircraft
6 J76 l _ ~ _ 17
with ASC 364.
Figure 1-27

on board when fueling commences and type of tanker failure reqUiring extension of the emergency power
supplying fuel. \,{{hen the desired amount of fuel has package, inflight refueling can not be accomplished.
been taken aboard, as indicated by the fuel quantity
indicators, a slight reduction in a irspeed will disen- A probe illuminating li g ht is installed on aircraft
gage the probe. Holdi ng the inflight refueling probe BuNo. 14918\ and subsequent and those with ASC
switch in the IN position will reenergize the transfer 364. Th is light, flu sh mo unted on the left-hand side
system and reposition the fuel valves for normal opera- of the fuselage JUSt below the windshield side panel ,
tion, retract the probe, and close the fairing door. serves to illuminate the refueling probe tip and the

IHold the swi tch IN for 5 seconds after the probe Out
light goes off befo re releasing to OFF . Releasing the
switch to OFF will deenergize the door selectOr valve.
tanker drogue during night operations. The light
comes on when the probe fairing door is opened with
the exterior light switch in NORM .

T he inflight refueling system is powered from the Refer to section IV, part 1, for inflight refueling tech-
secondary dc bus. In the event of an electrical system niques and procedures.

52
'-
NAVWEPS OI -45HHD-I Section I
Systems

DESCRIPTION
INTERIOR LIGHTS

Primary ughJs (Contiuued)


I
Altimeter Navigation indicator
The interior lig hting system provides optimum ilium· Anitude indicator Radar altitude indicator
ination of all indicators, panels and panel nomen cia· Chart board l.ights Rate of climb indicator
ture for night or foul-weather flying. Glare-free Course indicator Tachometer
Conso le emergency Turn and bank indicator
i llumination of panel nomenclature is provided o n the flood lights
instrument board and on mOSt of the console-mounted
panels through use of edge-lighting. Separate dimming
Note
controls (figure 1-28 ) are provided for the console
lights and for t he instrument lights to ensure flexibi l- Only the primary lighti ng is avai lab le when
ity in selection of lighting intensity. Separate dimming operating on emergency electrical power .
controls arC also provided for the chartboard lights,
the approach indexer and for the armament panel. Two
Secondary Lights
instrument light circuits are provided, the first for
primary flight instruments and the second for sec- Accelerometer lnfiight refueling panel
Angle-of-attack indicator Landing and takeoff checklists
ondary flight instruments and position indicators. Landing gear panel and posi·
Armament panel
Emergency floodlights are provided for both consoles Clock tion indicators
and the instrument board. The interior lighting is Cockpit pressure altimeter Leading edge droop indicatOr
divided into p rimary light.ing, powered from tbe Console panel ligh tS (a ll ) Oxygen quantity indicator
emergency ac bus, and secondary ligh ting, powered Engine oil pressure indicatOr Main fue l quantity indicator
Exhaust temperature Missile release indicatOr
from tbe secondary ac bus, as follows: indicator Oil cooler door indicator
Fire test panel Pressure ratio indicator
Pri71UJry lights
Fuel flow indicator Standby compass
Airspeed-Mach number Instrument board emergency Fuel panel Transfer fue l ind icator
indicator floodlights Hydraulic system panel

INTERIOR LIGHT CONTROLS


Nome-tJclalUre Function

Approach in dexer dimming knob Rotated between OFF and BRT, turns on and co ntrols intensity of angle-of-attack a~
(3, figure 1-28) proach indexer lights.
Ar mament p anel d imming knob Rotated between DIM and BRT, comrols intensicy of lighting on edge-lighted arma-
(7, figure 1-28) ment panel when console lights arc on.
Chartboard light dimming knob Rotated between OFF and BRT, turns on and controls intensity of chartboard flood·
(I, figure 1-28) lig hts.
Console light dimming knob Rotated bctwcen OFF and BRT, rurns on and controls intensity of the follow ing lights:
(6, fig ure 1-28) All console-mounted panels
Armamcnc panel
Exterior light control panel
Gyro cagi ng switch p anel
. Hook bypass switch panel
Landing checklist
Takeoff checklist
Also turns on console floodlights but does not control their intensity.
Flight instrument light d imming DA Y - selects light intensity of all warning and indicator lights, rurns off primary
knob (4 , figure 1-28) instrument lights.
Rotated between OFF and BRT, switches warning and indicator lights to low intensity
and controls intensity of primary instrument lights.
Nonflight instrument light dimming Rotated between OFF and BRT, concrols intensity' of secondary instrument ligh ts.
knob (5, figure 1-28)
Emergency floodlight swi tch Effective when console light dimming knob is in position other tha n OFF .
(2, figure 1-28) DIM or MED - select two levels of intensity of o nly the console floodlights, which
burn whenever the console lights are o n.
BRT - turns o n the instrument, gyro horizon indicator and console flood lights at
h ig h int ensity.

53
Section I NAVAIR 01- 45HHD-I
Systems

INTERIOR LIGHT CONTROLS - - - - - - - - - - - - -


I

o Panel relocated to rear of right console


o
o after AFC 490 Parts I and II.
o o
o o
o o
o
o o
o o
o
o o
o•
o
o
o
o o
o o

o
o • .0
00
00

o 00
o

o
o
o
o

00
00
o· .0

o 00
o
o 00
o 00
o 00

o o· I. Chart board ligh t switch


2. Emergency flood light switch
3. Approach indexer dimming knob
4. Flight instrument light dimming knob
S. Non-flight instrument light dimming knob
6. Console light dimming knob
7. Armament panel dimming knob
63762- 4 - 14 -1 0- 66

Figure 1-28

54 Changed 15 Janua ry 1967


NA VWEPS 0 I -45HHD- I Section I
Systems

LANDING GEAR
DESCRIPTION
Normal operation is accomplished by means of utility
hydraulic system pressure. Two doors covering each
A mechanical linkage will center the nose gear during
retraction provided the nose gear is within 30° of
center position. If the nose gear is turned beyond the
I
3D· limit, the land ing gear handle can be raised and
main gear autOmatically unlock and open when gear the mai n gear will retract, but the nOse gear will
extension is selected. A third m ain gear door (fairing) remain extended due to interference between the cen-
and the nose gear doors arc mechanically linked to tering linkage and the strut. The main gear must be
the gear and extend wi th it. In emergency extension extended and the nose gear steering switch depressed.
of the gear, pneumatic system pressure unlocks and This moves the nose gear toward center to permit the
extends the main gear doors, unlocks the main gea r, mechanical centering mechanism to center and release
and extends and locks the nose gear. The main gear the nose gear for retraction.
falls by its awn weig ht and is locked by aidaads acting
on it. A down-lock solenoid safety circuit prevents Refer to figure 1-29 for system illustration.
accidental gear retraction while weight is on the left- The armament system is dearmed. when the landing
hand main gear. This circuit can be overridden to gear handle is down, and the approach lights are
permit emergency retraction. energized when the gear is extended.

LANDING GEAR CONTROLS


NomctlcltJture Putlction

Landing gea r handle WHLS U P - with aircrafc airborne and Dose gear ccncered, retracts and locks gear in
(23, fig ure 1-4) up posicion.
WHLS DOWN - extcnds and locks gear in down position.
Emergency extension (pneumatic) is obtaincd by placing handlc in WH LS DOWN,
pushing in, rotating clockwise, and pulling aft. Landing gear handle must be
placed in W HLS DOWN for nose gear down lock and indication.
Landing gear position indicators UP - indicates correspo nding gea r up and locked.
( three) (6, figure 1-3) M iniature w heel, indicates correspo nding gear down and locked.
Barberpole, indicates position of corresponding gca r differs from se l ect~ position,
gcar moving to selected position, or electrical power not co nnected.
Landing gea r warning light On, indicates position of one or more gears differs from selected position, or gcar
(in landing gear handle) moving to selected position.
Off, indicates all gears locked in position indicated by ha ndle position.
Emergency downJock release switch For Emergency Use Dilly. Up, permits moving landing gear handle to W HLS UP
(inboard side forward LH w hile aircraft is on g round (nose gear need not be centered).
console)

I
Wing-wheels-droop warning light Flashing (WING-WHEElS-DROOP) w hen:
(5, figure 1-3) Landing gear handle up - wing not down and locked
Landing gear handle down - wing not up
Wing dow n - one or more land droop pistons unlocked

Changed 15 July 1965 55


LANDING G E A R - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - -
1-_"'--
Em e rg e ncy Down
lock Re le ase Switch
(permits handle to be
1. Nose Gear Cylinder
2.
3.
Nose Gear Door
Torque Tube
-
place d in " WHEELS UP" 4. Down lock Arm
in emergency with 5. Restrictor
airplan e on ground.) 6. Shuttle Valve
7. Emergency Air Control Volve
From Main Gear 8 Deleted
External lock 9. Door Cylinder
10. Main Gear Door
Utility 11 . Main Gear Cylinder
Hydrauli 12. Down·lock Indicator Microswitch
To Opposite Sid e
Re t u rn ~- "'''''.00 13. Bypass Valve
Utility 14. Selector Valve
Hydrauli 15. Up--Lock Indicator Microswitch
Press u 16. Ch e ck Valve (Arrow denotes
1 free flow )
10
Landing Gear Handle 5 Main Gear z
(wa rning light in
hondl e)
Lock
~
:E
...
m
OJ>
o

To Structure To Utility
Hydraulic Re turn

To RH
Main Ge ar
Ihaui.'
Pressure I ! I I Pneumatic Supply
Return linkag e
Wing-Wheels-Droop To left Hand
:=
~~~=
~ Open and Exte nd n 0 Wiring
Warning light Main Gea r
= = Retract and Clo se --- - * Pivot
Emerg ency Air

From Incid ence


landing Gear
and Droop Syst ems
Indicators 6176~ -1-1 )

Figure ' 29
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

I
LANDING GEAR

DESCRIPTION example, if the landing gear hydraulic selector valve

r
became jammed (the pneumatic system has its own
Normal operation is accomplished by means of utility
selector valve) or if the hydraulic return lines had
hydraulic system pressure. Two doors covering each become restricted (use of the pneumatic system causes
main gear automatically unlock and open when gear hydraulic return fluid to be relieved overboard).
extension is selected._A third main gear door (fairing)
and the nose gear doors are mechanically linked to
the gear and extend with it. In emergency extension A mechanical linkage will center the nose gear during
of the gear, pneumatic system pressure unlocks and retraction provided the nose gear is within 30° of
extends the main gear <loors, unlocks the main gear, center position. If the nose gear is turned beyond the
and extends and locks the nose gear. The main gear 30° limit, the landing gear handle can be raised and
falls by its own weight and is locked by airioads acting the main gear will retract, but the nose gear will
on it. A down-lock solenoid safety circuit prevents remain extended due to interference between the cen-
accidental gear retraction while weight is on the left- tering linkage and the strut. The main gear must be
hand main gear. This circuit can be overridden to extended and the nose gear steering switch depressed.
permit emergency retraction. This moves the nose gear toward center to permit the
mechanical centering mechanism to center and release
The pneumatic system is normally used to extend the the nose gear for retraction.
landing gear following loss of utility hydraulic pres-
sure. However, the pneumatic system also can be effec- Refer to figure 1-29 for system illustration.
tive in extending the gear in some cases where utility The armament system is dearmed when the landing
hydraulic pressure remains but has proven ineffective gear handle is down, and the approach lights are
in extending the gear. This would be the case, for energized when the gear is extended.

LANDING GEAR CONTROLS

r Nomencl(lIure

Landing gear handle


(23, figure 1-4)
WHLS UP -
Function

with aircraft airborne and nose gear centered, retracts and locks gear in
up position.
WHLS DOWN - extends and locks gear in down position.
Emergency extension (pneumatic) is obtained by placing handle in WHLS DOWN,
pushing in, rotating clockwise, and pulling aft. Landing gear handle must be
placed in WHLS DOWN for nose gear down lock and indication.
Landing gear position indicators UP - indicates corresponding gear up and locked.
( three) (6, figure 1-3) Miniature wheel, indicates corresponding gear down and locked.
Barberpole, indicates position of corresponding gear differs from selected position,
gear moving to selected position, or electrical power not connected.
Landing gear warning light On, indicates position of one or more gears differs from selected position, or gear
(in landing gear handle) moving to selected position.
Off, indicates all gears locked in position indicated by handle position.
) Emergency downlock release switch For Emergency Use Only. Up, permits moving landing gear handle to WHLS UP
(inboard side forward LH while aircraft is on ground (nose gear need not be centered).
console)
Wing-wheels-droop warning light Flashing (WING-WHEELS-DROOP) when:
(5, figure 1-3) Landing gear handle up - wing not down and locked
Landing gear handle down - wing not up
Wing down - one or more land droop pistons unlocked

Changed 15 July 1966 5S


LANDING GEAR-- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - --
Em e rg e ncy Down
lock Rel e a se Switch
I-_-,<_-( pe rmits handl e to be
1. Nose Gear Cylinder
2. Nose Gear Door
3. Torque Tube
--- -
placed in " WHEELS UP" 4. Down lock Arm
in e me rg e ncy w ith 5. Rest rictor
airplane on ground. ) 6. Shuffle Valve
7. Em ergency Air Control Valve
From Main Gear 8 De leted
Exte rnal lock 9. Door Cylind e r
10. Main Gear Door
6 h om 11 . Ma in Gear Cylinde r
«cc.a . . . . . . . Pneumatic To Opposi te Side
12. Down-Loc k Indicator Microswitch
Supply 13. Bypass Valve
14. Se le ctor Valve
15. Up-Lock Indicator Microsw itch
16. Ch e ck Valve (Arrow de notes
free flo w )
10
Landing Gear Handle Main Gea r
(w arnin g light in lock
han d le)

Micr0 5witch dosed


wh e n g e a r is
locked dow n
To St ru ct ure

To RH
Mai n G e ar
.ID!~j~a~l~i~i~·'~Ir
I I I I Pn e umat ic Supply

l
~~~ Retessure
Pr urn linka ge
Win g-Whee ls-D roop To l e ft Ha nd = = Op e n a nd Exte nd o Q Wir ing
Warni ng Light Ma in G e ar
= = Re trad and Close --- -* Pi vot
Em e rg e ncy Air

From Wing Inci dence


landing Gear
and Droop Sys te ms
Indicators

Figure 1-29

,
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

MA-l COMPASS
DESCRIPTION
The MA-l compass system combines the action of the
remote compass transmitter and the directional gyro
to a drift of less than 4° per hour, the navigation
indicator should be reset whenever an accurate head-
ing can be obtained.
I
to provide accurate, reliable, and continuous azimuth A standby compass mounted on the windshield frame
headings on the navigation (bearing-distance-heading) indicates magnetic heading.
indicator. The system can be set to operate by either
of two methods - slaved or free gyro. The slaved
method is normally used since inherent gyro drift
errors are automatically corrected by the remote com-
pass transmitter. During operation by the slaved
method the system has a normal slaving rate of approx- With the gunsight camera installed and the
imately 1~ 0 per minute. For example, if aerobatics camera motor operating, the standby compass
cause a 3° heading error, the directional gyro will be is unreliable.
properly aligned and the navigation indicator will
read true magnetic heading in about 2 minutes.
There are times when the remote compass transmit- Refer to figure 1-30 for controls illustration.
ter is not dependable, such as when making sustained
turns, or when fiying in polar regions or near large NORMAL OPERATION
masses of iron. If it is likely that the compass trans-
mitter will be subjected to such magnetic disturbance Slaved Method
for more than 1 or 2 minutes, the free gyro method 1. Power failure indicator flag - NOT SHOWING
should be used. When this method is used the com-
pass transmitter is disconnected from the directional 2. Mode selector switch - AFTER 2-MINUTE WARMUP,
gyro, and since the directional gyro is then subjected PLACE IN SLAVED

MA-l COMPASS CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Compass setting knob Pulling and turning (clockwise or counterclockwise as applicable) when operating
(7, figure 1-30) system by slaved method, synchronizes directional gyro with remote compass
transmitter and aligns navigation indicator compass card with exact magnetu: head-
ing of aircraft.
Pulling and turning when operating system by free gyro method adjusts navigation
indicator compass card to any desired heading.
Latitude setting knob Adjusts system to the degree of latitude at which you are flying, when operating
(5, figure 1-30) system by free gyro method. This compensates for apparent drift of gyro due to
earth's rotation.
Navigation (bearing-distance- Top index indicates aircraft magnetic heading on compass card.
heading) indicator
(2, figure 1-30)
--------~---------
Mode selector switch SLA VED - connects remote compass transmitter to system which constantly corrects
(6, figure 1-30) gyro drift.
FREE N. LAT-disconnects remote compass transmitter from system to allow free
gyro operation north of the equator.
FREE S. LAT - disconnects remote compass transmitter from system to allow free
gyro operation south of equator.
Synchronizer indicator Alignment of the white bar of the synchronizing indicator with the arrow above the
(3, figure 1-30) window (by turning compass setting knob) indicates that the compass system is
"slaved in" and correctly synchronized. Constant oscillation of the white bar is a
normal condition and provides another check that the system is operating normally.
Power failure flag OFF - indicates that power is not connected to system. (Flag disappears 5 to 10
(4, figure 1-30) seconds after power is turned on.)

57
Section I NA VWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Systems

3. Setting knob - PULL OUT AND SET Free Gyro Method

I • Turn until white bar of synchronizing indicator


is centered under arrow.

f CAUTION i
1. Power failure flag -
2. Mode selector switch -
NOT SHOWING

FREE N. LAT or FREE S. LAT

• After 2-minute warmup, set selector to hemi-


sphere in which you are flying.
The w hite bar must move to the right with
3. Compass setting knob - PULL OUT AND SET
clockwise rotation or to the left with coun-
terclockwise rotation of the compass setting • Turn until 1l3vigarion indicatOr reads desired
knob. If it does not, the navigation indicator heading. (Ignore synchronizing indicator).
compass card will reOect an erroneous indi-
4. Latitude setting knob - SET
cation. Continue rotation of knob until white
bar moves in correct direction and is centered. • Turn knob to latitude at which you are flying.

COMPASS C O N T R O L S - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MA-l COMPASS AND STANDBY COMPASS

... ..
.. ..
••
·•
· .. .. .. ..
... .. ••

.... ...... ....


... .....

1. Standby compass
2. Navigation (bearing-distance-heading) indicator
3. Synchronizing indicator
4. Power failure flag
5. latitude setting knob
6. Mode selector switch
7. Selling knob

Figure 1-30

58
NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l Section I.
Systems

DATA RECORDING CAMERA SET*


DESCRIPTION
The data recording camera set photographs radarscope
presentations (IR or radar) on 16 mm film as an aid
TITLING
If desired, a mission tide can be placed at the begin-
ning of the film at some time before initiating the
I
to pilot training. The scope presentations are reflected radar or IR intercept. Using a grease pencil, write
through a periscope (13, figure 1-31) that covers the the desired information on the transparent tider that
scope face, into the lens of a camera which is mounted comes with the camera set or on a similar clear piece
on top of the scope housing. The periscope may be of plastic. Insert the tider in the tider slot (1, figure
adjusted to control the intensity of the scope image 1-31), and proceed as follows to photograph the tide
to the pilot without aHecting the scope image to the on one frame of the film:
camera. An intervalometer automatically varies cam-
era speed according to the mode of radar or IR opera- 1. Scope presentation - SEARCH MODE
tion. Film can be reloaded in flight and, on F-SE 2. Titler - INSERT
aircraft, a camera-erector assembly (9, figure 1-31)
can be removed in flight and stowed in a container on 3. Power switch - ON
the right console to improve forward visibility. Elec-
trical power is supplied by the secondary ac and dc 4. Test switch or radar acqUISition switch - HOLD
buses. DEPRESSED (3 to 5 seconds), then RELEASE
5. Power switch - OFF for approximately 15 seconds,
BEFORE OPERATING
then ON
Before using the camera set, adjust the radar set to
the minimum intensity compatible with an acceptable 6. Test switch or radar acquIsition switch - HOLD
presentation (excessive intensity will cause apparent DEPRESSED (2 to 3 seconds), then RELEASE
defocusing or overexposure). Make all further adjust- 7. Titler-REMoVE
ments with the variable red polaroid control (14, fig-
ure 1-31) or the intensity polaroid control (12, figure Note
1-31). Install the viewing hood provided for use with
the camera set if radarscope observations are to be If not desired to continue filming the search
made and the camera set used with bright sunlight mode after tiding, return power switch to
entering the cockpit. OFF.

*F-SD aircraft with ASe 407 are equipped for the KS-75A set. F-8E aircraft BuNo. 150335 and subsequent and those with ASe 422
are equipped for the KS-76A set.

DATA RECORDING CAMERA SET CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Power switch ON - initiates set operation with radar or IR in search, track or acquisition modes,
(2, figure 1-31) or when test switch is depressed.
Test switch Depressed, permits camera operation to be tested without scope presentation.
(11, figure 1-31)
Intensity polaroid control Rotated, varies light intensity of image seen by pilot.
(12, figure 1-31)
Variable red polaroid control Rotated, varies redness of image seen by pilot.
(14, figure 1-31)
Camera-on light On, indicates camera operating.
(8, figure 1-31)
Film remaining light On, indicates five to fifteen feet of film remaining (exact footage at which light
(7, figure 1-31) illuminates is preselected).

59
Section I NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l
Systems

DATA RECORDING CAMERA SET CONTROLS - - - - - - - - - -


I
1. Titler slot
2. Power switch
3. Erector release handle
4. Film magazine door
S. Film magazine door latches
6. Velcro tape (connector stowage)
7. FilmMremaining light
8. Camera-on light
9. Camera-erector assembly
10. Camera electrical connector
11. Test switch
12. Intensity polaroid control
13. Periscope
14. Variable red polaroid control

•••

••

KS-76A Set KS-75A Set


IF-8E Airplanes) IF-8D Airplanes)

Figure 1-31

60
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I

NORMAL OPERATION
Operation of the set is initiated by placing the power
installed. ) The new magazine must be installed in
the camera with the recessed sprocket gear on the
bottom left side of the magazine. Slide the magazine
Systems

I
switch (2, figure 1-31) in ON with the radar or IR in (without using excessive force) until it is posi-
operating in search mode. In search mode, one frame tioned against the stops. To ease installation, place
of the film is exposed during each azimuth sweep. A the power switch in ON before closing -the door. The
green camera-on light (S, figure 1-31) is illuminated switch can be returned to OFF after the door has been
when the camera is operating. In acquisition or track closed. The door will not close if the magazine has
mode, or with the test switch (11, figure 1-31) de- been installed improperly.
pressed, the intervalometer increases film rate to. 3.3
frames per second. An amber film remaining light Note
(7, figure 1-31) comes on at a predetermined point Make sure (by feel and by visual alignment
which is 5 to 15 feet from the end of the film. of the white stripe below the power switch
Note with the corresponding stripe on the peri-
scope) the camera-erector assembly ball
When the camera set is running, do not rely detent snaps into position when the assembly
on bearing information from the standby is swung back to its normal recording posi-
compass. The camera motor produces a mag- tion. Failure ,to detent properly (going past
netic disturbance which causes the compass the detent position is the most probable
to deBect. cause of misalignment) will result in optical
misalignment and, consequently, poor pic-
INFLIGHT FILM RELOADING
tures.
The method used to reload the camera with film dur-
ing Bight varies somewhat with the installation. On CAMERA·ERECTOR REMOVAL AND
F-SE aircraft, the camera is mounted on an erector. STOWAGE (F.8E)
The camera-erector assembly must be rotated hori-
zontally (maximum rotation is IS0 0 ) to provide room During Bight, the camera-erector assembly is removed
for reloading. On F-SD aircraft, the camera is sta- for stowage by disconnecting the camera electrical
tionary and is reloaded in its recording position. With connector (10, figure 1-31), securing the connector on
either installation, the film, contained in a magazine, the Velcro tape (6, figure 1-31), pulling out on the
is removed by squeezing together on the film maga- erector release handle (3, figure 1-31) and lifting the
zine door latches (5, figure 1-31), allowing the assembly off the periscope. If continued radar viewing
spring-loaded door (4, figure 1-31) to swing open, is desired after the camera-erector assembly has been
and detaching the magazine from the door by pulling removed and stowed, an opening in the top of the
the magazine straight back. Whenever the door is periscope ( housing the ambient light attenuator
opened, the mechanism controlling the film remaining lens) must be covered to prevent sunlight from enter-
light is automatically reset to 50 feet, the capacity of ing the periscope. A cover provided for this purpose
the film magazine. (Because of this automatic reset- is attached by Velcro tape to the outside of the camera-
ting feature, a reliable indication of film remaining erector stowage container when not in use. Erector
is not available when a partially run magazine is assemblies are not interchangeable.

NOSE GEAR STEERING


DESCRIPTION 1-32) permits powered centering of the nose gear for
retraction and provides shimmy damping. The steer-
In addition to providing directional control during ing and centering operations are pilot-controlled,
ground operation, the nose gear steering system (figure while shimmy damping is accomplished automatically.

NOSE GEAR STEERING CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Nose gear steering switch Depressed while taxiing, directs hydraulic pressure to steer-damper cylinder. Steering
(leh side of Bight control is effective when rudder pedals are moved.
stick grip) Depressed after takeoff, directs hydraulic pressure to steer-damper cylinder to center
nose gear if automatic centering has not been effective, permitting gear to be
retracted.
Rudder pedals Control steering with steering switch depressed.

61
Section I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Systems

NOSE GEAR STEERING - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


I
-:::~i~ press ure
I ~eturn

... W I Steering Pressure


~ Check Valve
(Arrow denotes fre e flow)
....ll....D- Electr ical
Shu toff Valve
(En ergized Utility
Hydraulic
Pressure

Steering
Potentiometers

Nose Gear Utility


Steering Switch Hydraulic
(opens shutoff Return
valve)

Accumulator

*" Op ens past 60 0


of gear
rotation to permit full swivel

Figure 1-32

Steering action is obtained by pressing the nose gear emergency electrical power or when the utility hydrau-
steering swiech and pushing the appropriate rudder lic system has failed.
pedal, which admits utility hydraulic pressure to the
sccer·damper cylinder to rotate the nose gear. Powered Mechanical centering is provided for nose gear off-
steering is limited to 60° right or left by the steering center condition up to 30° right Or left. If cravel
cutout switch, which is actuated to deenergize the beyond 30° exists when nose gear recraction is selected
system whenever the nose gear rOtates more than 60° che gear cannot be fully retracted. In this case powered
in either direction. centering is made available by reextending the gear
and depressing the steering switch, which drives the
Because of rudder stop engagement, the full nose gear gear co the centered position regardless of rudder
steering range is not available with the wing down. pedal position.
Unpowered 360° nosewheel swivelling is available
w hen the steering system is not actuated. The system The damping function is automatically accomplished
is energized only when aircraft weight is on the main by the steer-damper cylinder. An accumulator is pro-
landing gea r and the nose gear is down and locked. vided to ensure adequate damping pressure for all
Nose gear steering is not available when operating on operating conditions.

62
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

OXYGEN
DESCRIPTION NORMAL PROCEDURE
I
·r' · · ,
"
ri

I
Pure gaseous oxygen is supplied by a 5-liter vacuum-
insulated liquid oxygen converter through the pilot's
oxygen valve on the left-hand console to the miniature
regulator of the modified face mask. This regulator
Before each flight, check the following:
1. Vent and buildup valve - BUILD UP
• Access panel cannot be secured unless valve is
in BUILD UP.
delivers a constant positive safety pressure during use.
Above 35,000 feet, the mask-mounted regulator will 2. System quantity - CHECKED
automatically deliver the required pressure for pres-
sure breathing in the event cabin pressurization is lost.
Figure 1-33 presents a graphic illustration of oxygen
duration. Note
An emergency oxygen supply in the seat pan provides The liquid oxygen system must not be per-
breathing oxygen upon manual actuation while in the mitted to go dry or be exposed to surrounding
cockpit or upon automatic actuation in the case of atmosphere. Water vapors or other gases may
I ejection from the aircraft. condense in the converter bottle, causing sys-
tem malfunction or contamination. If ex-
The emergency oxygen supply can be activated by posure to atmosphere has occurred for any
either of two means. A "green apple" located at the extended period, the system should be
forward edge of the seatpan permits manual opera- purged with hot dry nitrogen prior to use.
tion of the emergency oxygen supply. A separate
lanyard is attached to the structure of the aircraft so
as to activate the oxygen bottle automatically upon
ejection.
3. Pilot's oxygen valve - OFF

I Oxygen controls and indicators are illustrated in figure


1-34. 4. Oxygen warning light - ON

OXYGEN D U R A T I O N - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CABIN GAGE INDICATION - LITERS
ALTITUDE Below
FEET 5 4 3 2 1 1/2 1/2
40,000
" Above 30:18 24:12 18:12 12:06 6:00 -
35,000 18:30 14:48 11:06 7:24 3:42 1:48
~
0
30,000 13:36 10:54 8:12 5:24 2:42 1:24 -;~
~~
25,000 10:12 8:12 6:12 4:06 2:00 1:00 -a~
Co
20,000 8:00 6:24 4:48 3:12 1:36 :48 ~o
Uo
15,000 6:24 5:06 3:48 2:36 1:18 :36 me
~'I""I
10,000 5:00 4:00 3:00 2:00 1:00 :30
5,000 4:12 3:18 2:30 1:36 :48 :24
Sea Level 3:30 2:48 2:06 1:24 :42 :18

Consumption data per Specification MIL-1-19326 (AER) taken from NAVAER 03-50-517.
M§I.JiM
Duration is given in hours and minutes.
Consumption data assumes the use of properly fitted oxygen equipment
Face mask leakage will decrease tabulated duration

Figure 1-33
63
Section I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Systems

OXYGEN CONTROLS ( T Y P I C A l ) - - - - - - - - - - - -
I
t5l [:)
@ '-.

••
••
••
2 ••
••

1. Oxygen re ceptacle
2. O xyge n valve
3. Oxyg en warning light
4. liquid oxygen gage

!! 70 - ' - 1'

Figure 1-34

,
;. Mask conn ecrions - CONNECTED lig ht may indicate that ox'}'gen connections are
not fully engaged.
Pur o n face mask and con necr face mask hose to
hose lead ing from aft right-hand side of seat 9. Emerge ncy bottle - CHECKED
pan. Co nnect hose lead ing fro m af t left-hand Check bottle for I ,SOO pou nds pressure when
side of seat pan to the oxygen rece ptacle to ejection seat is inspected before each flight.
complete the connection to the aircraft supply.
During fli g ht, frequently check the following:
6. Pilot's oxyge n va lve - PRO P ER OPERATING POSITI ON
1. Gage indication - OXYGEN REMAINING

7. Ox ygen wa rnin g lig h t - OFF 2. Mask - CHECK FOR LEAKS

Check oxygen flow by brea thin g severa l times. 3. Breathing tube coupling - CHECK FULLY ENGAGED
Jf difficulty in breath ing is experi enced, th e face
Upon completion of flight:
mask regu lator or the o::...'ygen supply system is
nOt fun ctionin g p rope rl y. 1. O~1'gen valve - OFF
Following se rvici ng in which the bottle has
2. Mask - DISCONNECTED
been fill ed, the light wi ll sometimes illuminate
inter mittently. • If flow continues from mask after shutoff, check
for possible inadvertent actuati on of the emer-
S. Oxygen connections - CH ECKeD gency sys tem. If the system has been actuated,
Complete or intermittent loss o f radio commu- do nOt disconnect supply hose until emergency
nications or illumination of the oxygen war ning supply is depleted.

64
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

OXYGEN SYSTEM CONTROLS


Nomenclature

Emergency bottle pressure gage Indicates emergency bottle pressure.


Function I
r I Liquid oxygen quantity gage
(4, figure 1-34)
Oxygen valve
(2, figure 1-34)

Vent and buildup valve (in area


Reflects quantity of liquid oxygen in converter.

OFF -
ON -
closes oxygen supply.
opens oxygen supply.
BUILD-UP - normal position. Close system for automatic buildup of operating pres-
behind liquid oxygen filler valve sure.
access panel on right side of nose VENT - opens system to allow venting during refilling.
section)
Oxygen warning light On (OXYGEN) when liquid oxygen quantity is at, or below, ~ liter or when oxygen
I (3, figure 1-34) pressure drops in line to oxygen receptacle.

POWER CONTROL HYDRAULIC SUPPLY


DESCRIPTION package is connected to the PC 1 hydraulic circuit to
permit pressurization of the PC 1 system in case of a
The two power control hydraulic systems ( figure failure that does not involve loss of fluid from the
1-35} , PC 1 and PC 2, each supply hydraulic p'ressure system (pump failure). The emergency pump is placed
at 3,000 psi. The systems are completely separate and in operation whenever the emergency power package
operate independently of each other. Both systems is extended, but the pump will pressurize the system
function in the same manner through identical com- only when normal system pressure has been lost.

r ponents and act together to operate the flight control


surfaces through the slider valves of the surface power
control cylinders. The slider valves, positioned by the
control stick, the rudder pedals or the trim and
stabilization system servo actuators control the direc-
tion and amount of control surface deflection. The use
Refer to section V for procedure to be employed upon
failure of the power control hydraulic systems; to
section I, part 4, for llight restrictions imposed with
one PC system inoperative; and to section IV, part 2,
for llight characteristics encountered when operating
of dual power control hydraulic control systems en- on only one PC system.
sures full controllability of the aircraft in case of
failure of one of the systems. Note

The only difference in operation of the two systems


is that the aileron spoilers and the yaw stabilization
The engine oil/hydraulic pressure warning
light will illuminate when either PC pressure
I
system operate only off the PC 2 system, while roll drops below 1,500 psi, when the utility hy-

I
stabilization operates only off the PC 1 system. An draulic pressure drops below 700 psi or when
emergency hydraulic pump in the emergency power the engine oil pressure drops below 34 psi.

POWER CONTROL SYSTEM CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Hydraulic pressure indicators Indicate pressure in power control systems.


(28, figure 1-3)
I Engine oil/hydraulic pressure warn- On (ENG/HYD OIL PRESS) when pressure drops excessively in either power control
ing light system, utility hydraulic or engine oil system.
(29, figure 1-3)
Emergency power handle Pulled to extend emergency power package and connect emergency hydraulic pump
(21, figure 1-4) to PC 1 system. (Refer to ELECTRICAL SUPPLY for information on emergency
generators. )

65
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD· l
Systems

POWER CONTROL HYDRAULIC SUPPLY - -- ----------


I Engin e
PC 1
Hydraulic
Filler
Reservoir

Pump
Pressure
Tran smitter

Snubber

Emerg ency
Pressure
Indicating
Sw itch

PC 1 Shown
PC 2 Identical
With Exception Of
Em ergency Pump Circuit
Em ergency
PC 2 Serves Pump
Wing Spoiler Pressure Pump (Em erg ency
Circuit Transmitter 'qani.. Powe r Packag e)
== Pressure ~ On e Way Res trictor
lX"XJa) Em erg PC Press - (Arrow Denotes Free Flow)
~ Return ~ Ch eck Valve
...a..JL W iring

Typicol PC Cyl ind e r


(RH Ail e ron Sho wn )
'~ Aileron Hing e
Port (
" ,
*

"'-
PC
*
Spring
CONTROL SURFACE NEUTRALIZED

CONTROL SURFACE IN Control Stick ~ Press ure Trapp ed Fluid


MOVEMENT (DOWN) Mo ve d To Left
~ Retu rn * Pivot
6 ., 7 6.t _. _ . O

Figure 1-35

66
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

PNEUMATIC SUPPLY
DESCRIPTION

This system (figure 1-36 ) supplies air from twO


listed. There is no cockpit indication of air bottle
pressures. Bottle pressures arc checked before Hight
during the exterio r in!pecrion ( fig ure 3-1) _ ( Refer
I
high-pressure bottles for operation of (he circuits to part 3, this section, for servicing information.)

PNEUMATIC SUPPLY

1 Manifold
2 Check Valve ( lH Con,ole -Fwd)
3 Pressure Reducer Valve
4 Minimum Pressure Valve To landing Gear
5 Emergency Air Valve Emergency Air Valve

>
6 Pressure Gage, (one for each bottle ) (fig. 1-29) To Cruise Droop
Em e rg e ncy Air Valve
7 Filler Valves (one for each bottle) To Wheel Brake (fig. 1-44)
8 Pressure Re I ·Ie f V a Ive Em erg ency) Air Valve
(fig. 1-29 \ .
~ ~~~~~~

Em e rgency Power
To Gun Circuit Packag e and
2 (fig . 8-2) Actuat ing Cylinder

To Wing Incidence and


Landing Droop Em e rg e ncy
cu·in. Air Valve, (fig. 1-44)

~
Air Bottle ~~~ 375 cu in. Air Supply
1,100 cu-in. ) 1,100 cu-in. Air Supply
Air Bottle 1 Emerg e ncy Air
- - - Linkage (Emerg e ncy )

Pneumatic Circuit Function

l ,100.Cu.ln. Air Botlle Circuih

Gun charging To arm guns.


Gun vent doors To open and clo se doors.
Emergency power package For extension of packag e.
landing gear For e m erg enc y exte nsion of landing g e tn.
Wheel brakos For e me rge nc y operation of w hee l brakes.
Wing leading edg. For e me rge ncy extension of cru i5e droop sid e of w ing le odin g ed ge duol· e le me nt cylinders .

37S..cu· ln . Air Bottle Circuits

Two·pasitian wing For e me rg ency rai sing o f two.positio n win g.


Wing leading edge For em erge ncy extens ion of landing droop side of w ing le oding edge duol--elem ent cylinders.

Figure 1--36
67
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l Section I

I
Systems

RADIO EQUIPMENT
DESCRIPTION provided by ram air circulated around the outside of
the package. An internal fan, powered by secondary
The aircraft is equipped with UHF command radio, ac bus power, provides air circulation within the pack-
I ADF, TACAN, radio altimeter, and IFF radar. An age. If pressurization is lost due to engine ftameout
integrated electronics package provides a cooled and or a system malfunction, a check valve traps the
pressurized housing for the UHF, ADF, and IFF com- pressure in the package. Tests have shown that the
ponents. electronic package may be operated for extended
periods of time without the internal fan in operation
Primary ac and dc bus power is connected to the with no damage to the equipment. However, con-
modified UHF receiver-transmitter, IFF receiver-trans- tinuous use of the integrated electronic package equip-
mitter, and an ADF electronic control amplifier in the ment without forced air cooling may result in damage
electronic package through the UHF function switch
(figure 1-37).
from overheating. During ground operation, do not
operate the UHF, IFF, or ADF systems longer than 30
minutes. When this limit has been reached, shut the
I
I Compressor bleed air is directed to the integrated equipment off and wait 30 minutes before continuing
electronics package for pressurization, and cooling is operation.

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
Loclllion
T'/Jo Dosignalion Funclion
of ConIrols

Direction Finder AN/ARA-25 Indicates bearing of received Line of sight UHF panel
(ADF) Group (modified) rf signals (right console)
Radar Identification AN/APX-6B Identifies aircraft as friendly Line of sight IFF panel
(IFF) Set (modified) when challenged. (right console)
I AN/APA-89 Coder group for IFF. Line of sight SIF panel
(right console)
Radio Navigation AN/ARN·21B Provides range and bearing Line of sight TACAN panel

I (TACAN) Set

UHF Command
AN/ARN-52 (V) *
AN/ARN-21Dt
AN/ARC27A
information in reference to a
selected beacon.
Two-way voice communication. Line of sight
(right console)

UHF panel
Radio Set (right console)
Throttle grip

I Radar control
grip

I *F-8E aircraft BuNo. 150349 and subsequent and those with ASC 356A.
tAircraft before BuNo. 150349 with Electronics Material Change No. 90-62.

69
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l
Systems

COMMAND RADIO SET ANIARC·27A

I DESCRIPTION the knob counterclockwise. Stop rotation the


instant the background noise disappears.

,"
This set provides the pilot with 1,750 channels for
• To increase reception range, it may occasionally
radio-telephone communications in the ultra-high-
be necessary to adjust sensitivity to a point
frequency range (225.0 to 399.9 mc). Twenty chan-
where background noise is audible.
nels and a guard channel can be preset for automatic }
selection.

NORMAL OPERATION CHANNEL PRESET PROCEDURE

1. Function switch - T/R or T/R +G Channel presetting is a mechanical procedure which


aoes not require electrical power. -
• Allow a I-minute warmup time before attempt- 4

ing to transmit.
1. Channel selector switch - DESIRED CHANNEL
2. Channel selector switch - DESIRED CHANNEL
2. Frequency selector dials-FREQuENCY TO BE PRE-
3. UHF volume control knob - ADJUSTED
SET
4. Sensitivity trim knob - ADJUST 3. Channel setting button - SET
• Sensitivity must be adjusted for each frequency
(except guard, which is preset) to assure max- • Turn button one-quarter turn clockwise, de-
imum reception. press and release.
• Rotate sensitivity trim knob' clockwise until a • Channel is correctly preset if index line assumes
background noise is heard, then slowly rotate a vertical position.

COMMAND RADIO CONTROLS


Function

Channel selector switch M - permits manual selection of frequency channels.


(7, figure 1-37) G- permits reception and transmission on guard channel.
At all other positions, permits selection of 20 preset channels.

Preset channel indicator Indicates which of 20 preset channels is selected for operation.
(1, figure 1-37)

Frequency selector dials Used for selecting frequency when channel selector switch is at M or for presetting
(3, figure 1-37) frequencies in channels selected by channel selector switch.
Function switch T/R - puts main receiver in operation and transmitter in standby.
(;, figure 1-37) T/R +G- puts main and guard receivers in operation and transmitter in standby.
ADF - puts direction finder group (ANI ARA-25) in operation.
I -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OFF - turns off ANIARC-27A and ANIAPX-6B sets.
Microphone switch Puts receivers' in standby and operates transmitter.
(29, figure 1-4)
I (l9A, figure 8-1)
Channel setting button Locks preset frequencies in related channels for automatic channel selection.
(2, figure 1-37)
Sensitivity trim switch Adjwts receiver sensitivity.
(4, figure 1-37)
UHF volume control knob Controls headset volume.
(6, figure 1-37)

70
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

COMMAND RADIO C O N T R O l S - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1. Preset channel indicator


2. Channe l setting button
3. Frequ e ncy selector dials
4. Sensitivity trim sw itch
S. Function switch
6. Volume control knob
7. Channel se le ctor switch

... .. .. ..

.... ..... ...

637!2 _ • • •

Figure 1-37

DIRECTION FINDER (ADF) GROUP AN I ARA-25


DESCRIPTION NORMAL OPERATION

The ANIARA-25 direction finder group operates in To start operation :


conjunction with the UHF command radio set. ADF 1. UHF function switch - ADF
signals are received by the main receiver of the com- 2. Channel selector switch - DESIRED CHANNEL
mand set, and a command set cootrol is used for operat- To stop operation:
ing the ADF system. 1. UHF function switch - ANY POSITION EXCEPT ADF

ADF CONTROLS
Nomenclature FU'lCl iOIl,

UHF fu nction switch ADF - starts direction finder group operatio n,


(5, figure 1-37)
Navigation (bcaring-<iista nce- Pointer No. 1 indicates magnetic bearing of UHF statio n in relation to aircraft.
beading ) indicator
(2, fi gure 1--40)

71
Sed ion I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD·l
Systems

IDENTIFICATION SET AN/APX-6B CODER GROUP AN/APA-89

I DESCRIPTION
The ANIAPX-6B identification set (figure 1-38) is
an airborne transponder used in conjunction with the
are in any position except OFF. Modes 2 and 3 are
energized by switches on IFF panel.

NORMAL OPERATION
ANIAP A-89 coder group to provide a system of elec-
tronic identification and recognition. The purposes of To place the ANIAPX·6B and ANIAPA-89 equip-
the equipment are: ment in operation, proceed as follows:
• To identify the aircraft in which it is installed 1. UHF function switch - Any position except OFF
as friendly when correctly challenged by 2. IFF master switch - STDBY for 3 minutes then NORM
friendly shore, shipboard, and airborne radars.
• To permit surface tracking and control of air- 3. Mode switches (IFF and coder) - Position deter-
craft in which it is installed. mined by mission
• To transpond automatically with an emergency 4. IFF lip switch - OUT
reply signal following ejection, providing UHF
function switch is in any position except OFF. Note
AN/APX-6B should be energized (master
The use of the ANIAPA-89 coder permits changing switch in NORM, LOW, or STDBY) during every
of mode 1 and 3 codes from cockpit; mode 2 is preset. flight to minimi~e the possibility of packag~
Mode 1 code is on anytime the UHF and IFF switches failure due to moisture condensation.

IFF CONTROLS
Nomenclature Function

I/p switch IIp - provides reply impulse for approximately 30 seconds, after releasing switch,
(4, figure 1-38) in mode 1 interrogation only. *
OUT - deenergizes circuit.
MIC - transfers reply impulse activation from IIp switch to microphone switch.

Master switch OFF - deenergizes set.


(2, figure 1-38) smBY - energizes receiver-transmitter for immediate operation if UHF function
switch is in a position other than OFF.
LOW - provides partial receiver sensitivity when in the presence of strong nearby
interrogations.
NORM - allows full receiver sensitivity to provide maximum performance.

I
EMERGENCY - provides full receiver sensitivity and allows special emergency replies
to be transmitted when a mode 1 interrogation is received. With Interim Avionics
Change No. 170, emergency replies will be transmitted also when a mode 3 interro-
gation is received. A pushbutton guard (next to the master switch) prevents
accidentally switching the AN/APX-6B into emergency operation.
Mode switches Permit selection of reply signals and codes.
(3, figure 1-38)
Code selector dials Permit selection of mode codes as determined by mission.
(1, figure 1-38)

I*Also in mode 3 with COMNAVAIRPAC General Avionics Bulletin No. 45-62 or COMNAVAIRLANT General Avionics Bulletin
No. 46.

72
NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

IFF RADAR CONTROlS·- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1. Code selector dials


I
2. Master switch
3. Mode switches
4. li P switch

.
..• ••
.....
.. .
.
.....

............ ...... .

Figure 1---38

73
Section I NAVWEPS 01 ·4SHHD· 1
Systems

RADAR SET (RADIO ALTIMETER) AN/APN-22

I DESCRIPTION

The ANI APN·22 radar set is a microwave radio altim-


RADIO ALTITUDE INDICA TOR - - -
eter which is designed to measure the terrain clearance
of the aircraft without the necessity for externally
mounted equipment. The equipment operates in the Dropout Mask
4200· to 44()()-mc band and is designed to provide
reliable operation from 0 to 10,000 feet over land and Index~

o to 20,000 feet over water. This equipment is accurate Marker


to 2 feet from 0 to 40 feet and 5% of tbe indicated
ter rain clearance from 40 to 20,000 feet.
The radio altimeter (figure 1-39) may be set to pro·
vide a reference for Bight at constant terrain height
or to provide a warning of descent below a preset
terrain clearance up to 20,000 feet. The adjustable
index marker (bug) at the outside of the scale can
be positioned at the desired reference beight by turn-
ing the on-limit knob.
A reliability circuit disables the indicator when tbe On-limit
signal is tOO weak, and the head of the pointer will Knob Limit Light
assume an offscale position behind the dropout mask
below the 0 scale mark. 8 37 8 1 · ' _ 9

WARNING I Figure 1-39

Radio altimeter indications become erroneous


at airspeeds over 300 KIAS. Aircraft bank
angles of more than 30 0 will cause the
CAUTION f
pointer to become erratic and assume the
offscale position. Allow at least 12 minutes warmup time after
starting the equipment to ensure final accu-
NORMAL OPERATION racy.
T o start operation : 2. On-limit knob - SET TO DESIRED HEIGHT

I. On-limit knob - ON 3. Limit light-ON (if below designated height )

RADIO ALTIMETER CONTROL AND INDICATIONS


Nomtm cltSJure Function

Radio altitude indicator IndicalCs terrain clearance on a scale w ith increments that va r y from IO feet, at
(figu," 1-39) low Ic\'els, to 5,000 feet, at high levels.
On- limit knob Initial clockwise rocation - turns set on. Further clockwise turning increases setting
of height index marker.
Turned co unterclockwise-decreases scning of height index marker. Turned
fuUy counterclockwise [urns set off.
Limit light On - if aircra ft is below height indica ted by index marker.
Off - jf aircraft is above heig ht indicated by index marker.
Index marker Indicates reference heig ht selected b)· the pilot.

74
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

RADIO NAVIGATION (TACAN ) AN/ARN-21 B, AN/ARN-21 D* , OR AN/ARN-S2(V)t


DESCRIPTION
The signal transmitted by the surface beacon contains
reference (fixed) and variable bearing information,
interrogating another distant aircraft on the
same channel, the distance information dis-
played in the interrogated aircraft may be
unreliable.
I
the range reply signal, and the station identification
signal.

The aircraft receiver-transmitter compares the differ-


ence between the fixed and the variable bearing sig- The AN/ARN-52 (V) or AN/ARN-21D TACAN wiJI
nals, and transmits the resulting bearing signal to furnish r ange information between twO similarly
pointer No. 2 of the navigation (bearing-distance- equipped aircraft simultaneously operating 63 chan-
heading) indicator_ nels apart on the bilateral air-to-air mode.
The slant range in nautical miles from the aircraft to Controls are illustrated in figure 1-40_
the surface beacon is determined from the time it
takes a coded interrogation signal from the receiver-
transmitter to reach the surface beacon and the time
NORMAL OPERATION
required for a reply. The resulting computation is
shown in the range indicator window of the naviga-
ti on indicator.
1. Master switch - REC (bearing only)
Station identification signals are received in the head- - T/R (bearing and range)
set in the form of Morse code identifying characters. - AlA (air-to-air r ange)
TACAN is operative on emergency generatOr power
• Allow 90·second warmup_
when emergency generator switch is in ON.
2_ Channel selector knobs - DESIRED CHANNEL

f CAUTION 1 3. Volume control- MIDPOINT OF RANGE

When operating in the air-to-air mode, if If either REC or T/R is selected, pointer No.2 of the
more than one aircraft in a formation is navigation indicator should stop and indicate bearing

*Aircraft before BuNo. 150349 with Electronic Material Change No. 90-62.
tF-8E aircraft BuNo. 150349 and subsequent and those with ASC 356A.

TACAN CONTROLS
Nomenclature Function.

Cha nnel selector switch Combined settings of both knobs seleer d esired channel.
(5, figure 1-40)
Course indicator Vertical bar shows position of aircraft in relation to the set course.
(I, figu re 1-40) To-from window indicates whether selectcq course will take aircraft to o r from
the station.
Course set knob permits setting of course heading in cou rse window.
Relative headi ng needle indicates angle between m ag netic heading of aircraft and
selected course.
Warning flags show as result of power failu re or loss of station signal.
Horizontal bar nOt used.
Master switch OFF - dcenergizes radio set.
(3, figure 1-40) REc - cnerg izes bearing ci t cuit only.
T / R- energ izes both bearing and r ange circui ts.
AI A t - energizes ai r-to-air range circuits.
Navigation (bearing-distance- Pointer No. 2 indicates magnetic bearing of TACAN surface beacon w ith relation
heading) (2, fi g ure 1-40) to aircraft.
Numerals in window display slant range (nautical miles ) to surface beacon station
1-:~________~~~________________~o_r__a~
~_-t_~_w
~-_
r _s_la_n~t~r_a_n~g~c~t__
(n~a_u_b~-c_ru~nu
__- I~~~)__t_o_c_oo~pe
__ra_u_-n_g~WI_-_cr
__ah
__- _____________
Volume control knob Controls volume of audible signal [0 headset.
(4, figure 1-40)
tANjARN-21D and ANjARN-52(V) only_

Changed 15 July 1965 75


Section I NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l
Systems

IACAN C O N I R O L S - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

CHAN

T
,
3
'"~
lie
",,/
A
,- II
c

~rl
A t
N

11 II II
.. ......
.. ..............
.
............ .
..............

Alternate Panel·

1. Course indicator
2. Navigation (bearing-
distance-heading) indicator
3. Master switch
4. Volume control knob
*AN/ARN-21D and AN/ARN-S2V 5. Channel selector switch

Figure 1-40

I of surface beacon with relation to aircraft. If


selected, pointer No.2 will continue to rotate.
AI A is
f CAUTION i
If T/R position was selected, the range dials will rotate
I (or a short period, then stop to display slant range of
surface beacon from aircraft. If AI A is selected, only
T urn AN/ARN-21B or AN/ARN-21D TA-
CAN set off at altitudes above 50,000 feet to
prevent damage to equipment as a result of
slant range between cooperating aircraft is displayed. arcing.

SPEED BRAKE
DESCRIPTIO N To prevent the brake from contacting the runway
when the override feature is used, the pilot must
The system is illustrated in figure 1--4l. remember to retract the brake before touchdown.
The speed brake is operated by utility hydraulic pres- The speed brake will partially close wben excessive
sure and can be fully or_partially extended. T he btake airloads exerted on the extended surface neutralize
is autOmatically closed and the speed brake switch hydraulic pressure and cause a pressure relief valve
circuit is broken by the wing-up switch when the to open. The brake is prevented from being fully
wing is raised. An override circuit permics brake exten- extended by the same function at very high speeds. As
sion with the wing up. airspeed decreases the brake can be further extended.
76
NAVWEPS Ol·45HHD·l Section I
Systems

SPEED BRAKE - - - - - - - -----------


Wing Up Switch

To Utility
Hydraulic Return
(closes speed brake and
opens speed brake switch
circuit w ith wing up)
I
Caution Light Red ucer-Re li ef Valve " Se lector
(permits partial des i
of speed brake with
high a ir leads)

.... Utility
Hydrau li c
Pressure
Actuating
Cylinder

Microswitch - -- -:E>,/
(Fuselage mo unted )

=- Pressure a a Wiring

--
: iCIII
Return
Extend
ex:::n=.
~
Restrictor

Check Va lve
= Retract (Arrow denotes
free flew)

Figure 1-41

With loss of main generator electrical power the ON). During ground ope rati ons. a safety circuit pre-
speed brake automa ticall y closes and is inoperative vents opening of the speed brake when weig ht of [he
until electrical power from the emergency power aircraft is on [he main gear.
package is connected (emerge ncy generator sw itch in

SPEED BRAKE CONTROLS


Nomenclature FrmctiolJ

Speed brake light On (SPEED DK OPEN), indicates speed brake is open.


0, figure 1-3)
Speed brake ovecrid e switch OVERRIDE - p ermits exte nsion of speed brake ( by u se of speed brake swi tch ) with
(2, figure 1-4) wing raised.
NORMAL - is normal flight position.

Speed brake switch OUT - ex tends sp eed brake.


(30, figure 1-4) OFF - holds speed brake in an y exte nded intermediate position .
IN - doses and hold s speed brake d osed .

77
Section I NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-l
Systems
TRIM AND STABILIZATION

DESCRIPTION signals are initiated by lateral accelerometers. The


stabilization functions can be turned off and on by
This system senses flight deviations about the yaw and controls on the left-hand console. Roll and pitch trim
roll axes and automatically applies corrective stabiliza- knobs are located on the stick grip and the rudder
tion signals to the control system. Normal yaw, pitch trim knob is on the left-hand console. Pitch trim is
and roll trimming, and emergency pitch trimming are calibrated with the wing in the landing condition and
provided through cockpit controls. System operation the control stick in neutral. With the wing in the
is illustrated in figure 1-42. clean condition, full nose up trim at the control sur-
face is reached prior to full movement of the control
Roll stabilization signals are automatically initiated knob. Movement of the trim knob does not affect the
by roll rate gyros. Yaw stabilization and "stiffening" position or feel of the control stick.

TRIM AND STABILIZATION CONTROLS


N omellcialure FUllcl;on

Roll
Aileron neutral trim light On (AIL NEUT) indicates ailerons at 20 0 droop neutral (0 0 trim).
(2. figure 1-3) light off indicates ailerons not in neutral.
light inoperative with weight off landing gear.
Roll stabilization switch OFF-RESET shuts off roll damping and trim circuits, and resets system after cutout
(25. figure 1-4)
I by comparator circuit. Also causes autopilot to disengage (in both axes) if in
operation.
ON makes hydraulic power available for roll damping and trim.

Roll trim knob Rotated left or right. adds corresponding roll trim.
(On control stick grip)
Roll stabilization warning light light on (ROLL STAB OFF) indicates system not operating.
(18, figure 1-4) light off indicates system operating.
Yaw

Rudder neutral trim light On (RUD NEUT) indicates rudder in neutral (0 0 trim).
(1, figure 1-3) light off indicates rudder not in neutral.
light inoperative with weight off landing gear.
Rudder trim knob Rotated left or right adds corresponding yaw trim.
(28, figure 1-4)
Yaw stabilization switch OFF RESET -shuts off yaw damping and trim circuits, and resets system after cut-out
(13, figure 1-4) by comparator circuit.
ON - makes hydraulic power available for yaw trim and damping.

Yaw stabilization warning light light on (YAW STAB OFF) indicates yaw stabilization system not operating.
(15, figure 1-4) light off indicates system operating.
Pitch
Pitch trim knob Rotated forward (nose down) or aft (nose up) adds pitch trim. (Calibrated in
(On control stick grip) degrees of trim for wing up position.)
Nose trim indicator OFF - indicates instrument inoperative. (Deenergized with weight off landing gear.)
(36, figure 1-3) Degrees UP or DOWN indicates amount of pitch trim attained by the control surface
with stick in neutral and wing up. Pitch trim available exceeds the limits of the
indicator, but the indications are true within limits.
Emergency pitch trim channel Allows selection of either of the two pitch trim channels when emergency pitch
selector switch (24, figure 1-4) trim has been selected.

I
Emergency pitch trim handle Pulled, cuts off normal pitch trim and places emergency trim circuit in standby.
(16, figure 1-4) Also causes autopilot to disengage in both axes if in operation.
NOSE DOWN or NOSE UP - adds desired trim to horizontal tail through emergency
trim channel selected with emergency pitch trim channel selector switch.

78 Changed 1S July 1966


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

TRIM AND STABILIZATION -----R-O-LL-T-RI-M-A-N-D-D-AM-P-IN-G-----


I
Damping Signals
Roll rate gyros det ect roll •• .. ......... (Landing Condition)
motions (oscillations) and
signal am plifier to oppose ••• .......... Trim Signala
(damp) these motions. • ........... , Autopilot Signals
Roll stabilization
warning light
Amplifier relays signal from Roll acbJator moves alleran
roll trim potentiomenter and power control cylinder linkage
gyros and autopilot signals to to reposition ailerons in direc-
roll actuator. tion and amoWlt commanded
by amplifier.

Roll Stabilization Switch

In the landing condition, the


roll gain changers modify
signal from roll rate gyros
as stick position changes.

Roll trim potentiometer


Signals amplifier that
8w"face trim is needed.
1. Roll trim and damping operates el ectrically from emergency buses
and hydrau li cally from PC No.1 system.
2. A monitor system maintains a constant check of 1'011 actuator. If the
tw o channe ls within the actuator get more than 20% out of agreem ent)
the monitor shuts off the system and it lo cks in neutral.
3. With the emergency power package extended and the emergency
generator switch in LAND) the roll monitor is overridden. To
prevent energiz ing a malfunctioning system (if the monitor has
previously shut off the system because of a malfunction and the
system could not be reset») the roll stabilization switch should
be placed in OFF before the emergency generator switch is
pl aced in LAND.
4. No emergency roll trim is provided because the electrohydraulic
actuator will lock at neutral if electical or hydraulic power is lost.
S31 GZ_I _ZO

Figure 1-42 (Sheet 1)

79
Section I NAVWEPS 01 -45HHD-l
Systems

TRIM AND STABIlIZATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


I Yaw actuator moves l'uddel" power
con trol cyli nder linkage to reposition
YAW TRIM AND DAMPING
Aileron interconnect
gain chan ge r modifies
Yaw gain changer modifie s
signal fr om acce lerome ter
rudder in direction required to signal from a ileron in th e clean condition as
tr im airp lane or provide yaw position pote ntiom et er a ltitude changes. Gain is
stiffening and damping. as altitude cha nges. fixed in th e land ing
condition .
Accel erom et er detec ts nose -
l eft and nose - ri ght motions
(oscillations) a nd signals
ampliliers to o ppose (damp)
these motions.

Yaw st:lb:ilt,a'tiom switch

Horizontal tail position potentiom-


eter modifies signal from aileron
position potentiometer as horizontal
ta il moves.
Amplifi er transmits
Rudder trim potentiometer (left-hand
Aileron pos itio n potentiometer sig- s ignaLs from acce ler- console) signals am ' that sur-
ome ter, trim poten- face trim is needed.
nals amplifier to deClect rudder an
tiom et er, and aileron
amount de pendent upon aileron de-
position potentiometer
fl ection from the clean co ndition
ne utral, alti tude, and defle c tion of to yaw actuator.
NOSE
the horizonta L tai l. LEFT

1. Yaw trim and damping operates elec trically from primary buses and
hydraulically from PC No . 2 system.

2. T his system incorporates dual s ervo channels with dual components


throughout. .naib·M
3. No emergency yaw trim is prov ided because th e actuators will l ock at Damping Signals -
ne utral if electrical or hydraulic power is lost. ••••• ......:: •••• • • Clean Condi tio ns
••••• ......:: •••••• Trim Signals
4. A mo nitor system maint ains a constant c heck of yaw actuator. II the
two channels with in the actuator get mor e than 20% out of agreement, -------c------- Aileron - Rudder
the mon itor shuts off th e system and it locks in ne utral. I nterconnect

Figure 1-42 (Shee t 2)

80
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

TRIM AND STABILIZATION


PITCH TRIM
I
Wing incidence potentiometer
automatically signals ampli-
fier to retr im hor izontat tail
when wing incidence is changed.

Emergency Pitch Trim


Channel Selector Pitch trim actuator moves horizontal
tail power control cylinder linkage to
reposition horizontal tail in direction
and amount commanded by amplifier .

Emergency Pitch
Trim Handle .~ .....
...... .. .j..
.. ....
. . . ..
••••• I- _--------:::;:;~~f:=~

. ......... .. ...................... ..
... ...
<:t
... . . ........-_ .... -......---
: .- -------~ ..-----
•........ ..................

Pitch amplifier transmits normal


and emergency trim signals to pitch
trim"actuator. Also processes auto -
Pitch trim potentiometer pilot correction and damping signals • • • _lIIIh • • , Normal Trim Signals
signals am plifier that sur- and transmits them to actuator. ,•• _ •••• Emergency Trim Signals
face trim is needed.
, • ......U •• 1 Autopilot Signals

1. Normal and emergency trim circuits are powered from the


emergency ac bus
2. The dual channel pitch trim system includes a two -channel
amplifier and a dual electro- mechanical screwjack which
acts as an extendible link in the control linkage to the horiz-
ontal tail power control cylinder_
3. Pitch damping is provided only with autopilot engaged.

4. Actuation of the emergency pitch trim handle automatically


disengages the autopilot.

Figure J-42 (Sheet 3)

81
Section I NAVWEPS OI-45HHD-I
Systems

TWO-POSITION WING

I DESCRIPTION
The two-position wing provides increased visibility at
Tbe wing is normally raised or lowered and the lead-
ing edge simultaneously extended to Or retracted from
low takeoff and landing speeds by permitting tbe the landing droop position by utility hydraulic system
angle-of-attack of the wing to be increased without pressure. If hydraulic pressure is lost, the wing can
increasing tbe fuselage angle. Tbe wing leading edge be raised and the leading edge extended to the landing
and ailerons are automatically drooped when the wing droop position by pneumatic system pressure.
is raised to provide increased lift and stability during
takeoff and landing. Tbe system is illustrated in fig- Figure 1-43 illustrates changes automatically effected
ures 1-43 and 1-44·. by raising or lowering the wing.

WING INCIDENCE C H A N G E - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CLEAN CONDITION
Rudder Stops
Overridable Clean Condition Stops (9'12°) Engaged Engaged - 6° Throw
Available Aileron Throw-15° Up and 15° Down Yaw Damper In and
Roll Damper In and Roll Gain Changer Out Yaw Gain Changer In
Ailerons at Normal Neutral

Cruise Droop selected - Center


Section leading edges drooped 6.8°and
outer panel leading edges drooped 7°

Automatic Trim
Change-5 0 Nose Up
(actual trim is more
Wing Down nose up than trim
knob calibration)
Droop Up

LANDING CONDITION Rudder Stops


Disengaged _ 17 ° Throw
Yaw Damper In and
Clean Condition StoPS Disenga;:ed Flaps Drooped 20° Yaw Gain Changer Out
Aileron Throw Changed to 15 Up and
45° Down
ROll Damper In and Roll Gain
Changer In
Ailerons Drooped 20°

Autopilot Disengaged

Pitch Trim at Neutral


(trim knob and surface
throw are calibrated)

Land (Full) Droop Position (center


section leading edges drooped 25°
and outer panel leading edges dr'?Oped 27°)
6l76Z_1_ 'N O

Figure 1-43

82 Changed 15 July 1965


NA VWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems
The wing actuating cylinder has both a mechanical
downlock, controlled by the down lock handle, and an
integral locking mechanism. The downlock handle
must be fully engaged in the UNLOCK detent before
The wing cylinder internal lock locks the cylinder in
position when it is not actuated or when pressure is
lost. During wing positioning, the lock will engage
if g forces are applied due to hydraulic pressure being
I
the wing incidence 'handle is actuated. Positioning the neutralized. The wing will continue movement when
wing incidence handle with the downlock handle out g forces are removed.
of detent will cause misalignment of wing cylinder
mechanical downlock and binding of handles. During The wing hydraulic selector valve has a solenoid-
subsequent wing DN selection, mechanical interference operated dual lock latch, which locks the valve in the
between retracting cylinder and mechanical downlock up or down position and is controlled by the release
will prevent further hydraulic or pneumatic operation switch. The dual lock latch is engaged when energized
of the wing and leading edge. by secondary bus power and is unlocked by spring
With a force applied to the handle, it will be possible action when the circuit is broken by depressing the
to move the handle toward the LOCK detent, due to release switch or when electrical power is lost.
action of spring struts in the rigging, but not suffi-
ciently so as to engage the detent. When the down lock The wing leading edge is drooped by six actuating
handle is in LOCK, a cam is positioned to prevent the cylinders. Normal operating pressure is supplied by
wing incidence handle from being placed in UP. the utility hydraulic system. Each cylinder is divided

TWO·POSITION WING CONTROLS


N omencLzture Function

Cruise droop switch DOWN - extends leading edge to cruise position with wing incidence handle in DN
(throttle grip) position.
UP - retracts leading edge from cruise droop to clean position with wing incidence
handle in DN position.
Leading edge droop indicator UP - indicates leading edge in clean position or in travel toward the cruise droop
(40, figure 1-3) position.
DN - indicates leading edge in cruise droop position or in travel toward the clean
position, or land droop pistons mechanically locked in land droop position.
Barberpole indicates one or more land droop pistons unlocked, or electrical power
not connected. Indication will normally occur during wing transition, but will not
occur when cycling droops between cruise and clean position.
Wing downlock handle UNLOCK - unlocks wing cylinder mechanical downlock and permits movement of
(5, figure 1-4) the wing incidence handle.
LOCK - with wing incidence handle in DN, locks wing in down position and turns
out wing-wheels or wing-wheels-droop warning light with gear retracted and
landing droop locked up.
Wing incidence release switch Held depressed, unlocks wing hydraulic selector valve to permit positioning of wing
(8, figure 1-4) incidence handle.
Wing incidence handle UP and DN - positions wing and leading edge selector valves for raising or lowering
(7, figure 1-4) of wing and simultaneous extension or retraction of leading edge (see figure 1-43
for other changes taking place automatically when wing is raised or lowered)
when related controls are properly positioned.

I Emergency droop and wing


incidence guard
(6, figure 1~)
Raised, permits moving wing incidence handle to EMERG UP to raise wing.
Raised, permits moving wing incidence handle forward to blow landing droops down.

Wing-wheels-droop warning light Flashing (WING-WHEEL5-DROOP) when:


(5, figure 1-3) Landing gear handle up - wing not down and locked

rl Landing gear handle down - wing not up


Wing down - one or more land droop pistons unlocked

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

83
Section I NAVWEPS Ol-4SHHD-l
Systems

WING AND LEADING EDGE - - - - - - - From


- land
-------
I Droop Uplock
Switches

From
Pneumatic

---
From
Supply

r -- ,;;;;;;;0;;;;; ~
Pneumatic
Supply

I Pn e umatic
Supply
I
I
\ iF"" ~ ~,~C Hydroulk ;1i~~~
l ea ding Edg e

Return

Microswitch

Droop Cylind er
(Typkol )

Throttle (Cruise
Droop Switch IIU PII)

1 Wing Incid e nce Cylind e r (w ing down )

2 Em e rgency Air Val ve =- Pressure

3 Shuttle Valve = Return

4 Se le ctor Valve (Mechanically Ope rate d ) lower (wing ) and Re tract (lea ding e dge)
5 Selector Val ve (Soleno id Ope rated )
Raise (wing ) and Exte nd (leading e dg e )
6 Bypass Valve
7 Rest rictor (Arrow denotes fre e flo w ) =
=
Eme rg e ncy Ai r

Pne umatic Pressure


8 Sequ e nce Val ve
=
9 Pr ess ure Relief Val ve linkag e (Red denotes emergency )
10 Restrictor Relief Val ve Wiring
11 Ch eck Val ve

1>31 1>Z _ L _ L L

Figure 1-44

84
NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l Section I
Systems
into two elements by a wall inside the cylinder bar- NORMAL OPERATION
rel, and each has two pistons. One piston rod extends
from each end of the cylinder barrel, with one rod
connected (directly or indirectly) to the wing and the
other to the leading edge. Both elements of the
cylinder are used to obtain the land (full) droop
To raise the wing and extend the leading edge, proceed
as follows:
1. Wing down lock handle - UNLOCK
I
2. Wing incidence release switch - DEPRESS
position and only one element is used to obtain the
cruise droop position. One piston ( in the cruise 3. Wing incidence handle - UP
element) is controlled by the cruise droop selector
To lower the wing and retract the leading edge:
valve which is actuated electrically by the cruise droop
switch (throttle grip). The other piston (in the land 1. Wing incidence release switch - DEPRESS
droop element) is controlled by a hydraulic valve 2. Wing incidence handle - DN
which is actuated by direct linkage from the wing inci- 3. Wing down lock handle - LOCK
dence handle in the cockpit. When the wing incidence
handle is put in the UP position, the cruise droop To raise the wing and extend the droop pneumatically:
selector valve is energized to include the operation of
1. Wing down lock handle - UNLOCK
the cruise elements in obtaining full extension of the
leading edge to the land droop position. 2. Wing incidence handle - DN
Mechanical locks in the land droop elements provide 3. Emergency droop and wing incidence guard-RAISE
droop locking. Emergency land droop can be obtained 4. Wing incidence release switch - DEPRESS
by using the pneumatic system. However, there is no 5. Wing incidence handle - Full forward to extend
emergency provision for obtaining cruise droop. droop, then inboard and aft to EMERG UP

WHEEL BRAKES

DESCRIPTION cations when utility system pressure is not available.


Manual (no boost) operation of the brakes is possible
The self-adjusting wheel brakes are normally actuated
for ground handling without the engine running and
by utility hydraulic system pressure. Mechanical link-
with brake accumulator pressure depleted. If all brake
age from the rudder pedal tips actuates the piston in
hydraulic pressure is lost a pneumatic metering system
the power-boosted brake cylinder which hydraulically
provides emergency brake pressure. Differential brak-
operates the brake assemblies. The force applied to
ing action (applying pressure to one brake at a time)
the rudder pedal tips governs the amount of braking
is not possible when using pneumatic pressure.
action. A brake accumulator provides hydraulic pres-
sure for approximately 6 to 12 "boosted" brake appli- The system is illustrated in figure 1-45.

WHEEL BRAKE CONTROLS


Nomenclature Function

Rudder pedals Depressing tips directs hydraulic pressure to wheel brake cylinders in proportion to
amount of force applied.
Emergency brake handle Pulled toward ON, directs pneumatic pressure to both wheel brake cylinders simul·
(12, figure 1-4) taneously. Pressure is proportional to handle movement. (If emergency brake
system is used, hydraulic brake system must be bled before Bight.)
OFF - shuts off pneumatic pressure and releases brakes.

85
Section I NAVWEPS 01-4SHHD-l
Systems

WHEEL BRAKES
I Utility
Hydraulic
Return

Pressure
Shutoff
Preuure Valve
Relief
Valve

Accumulator

Check Valve - - - - - - - "


(Arrow denotes Free Flow)

Power Boosted
r Brake Cylinders
'- - - - - - -

,naUI .• landing Gear


Tension Strut
Pressure
Return
Broke Pressure
! ) ) I
Emergency Air
O
! ![li[lIIIr(1;
! Pneumatic Supply

-:: :-:-= Linkage (Emergency)


Exhaust Air
$ Valve
From Pneumatic
Accumulator Air System

Figure 1-45

86
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

UTILITY HYDRAULIC SUPPLY - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Fluid Quantity
Indicator Pressure Regulator
and Relief From
I
Valve ...d~~~~ .~'" Engine
.. Compressor

Check Valve

Systems

To Systems

/'
Pump Case
Drain line
(Pump /
cooling )
Pressure
Filter Transmitter
Engine Driven
Utility Pump

~ PreS5ure 09 Wiring

:.::== Return ~ Check Valve


(Arrow denotes
= Air Supply
free flow)

~7r.2 1-9

Figure 1-46

UTILITY HYDRAULIC SUPPLY


DESCRIPTION p~essure has dropped below 1,500 psi, or the engine

The system, illustrated in figure 1-46, provides hydrau- 011 pressure has dropped below 34 psi. If illumination
lic power to operate the following systems: occurs, check hydraulic pressure and oil pressure indi-
catorS to verify the system affected.
Arresting Hook Speed Brake
Fire Control Radar Antenna Two-Position Wing
In flight Refueling Probe Wheel Brakes Note
Landing Gear Wingfold Utility hydraulic pres... ure may surge to 3,500
Nose Gear Steering Wing Leading Edge psi when any of the systems are actuated.

An engine-driven hydraulic pump supplies pressure


(3,000 psi) for tbe operation of tbe utility hydraulic There is no utility hydraulic emergency system. Emer-
circuits. Hydraulic pressure failure will be indicated gency operation of major utility circuits is provided
I by illumination of the engine oil/hydraulic pressure
warning light (29, figure 1-3).
by air pressure from the pneumatic system. A hydraulic
pressure indicator (28, figure 1-3) indicates utility
pressure.
I Illumination of the engine oil/hydraulic pressure
warning light indicates that the utility hydraulic pres-
sure has dropped below 700 psi, either PC hydraulic Refer to parr 3, this section, for servicing information.
87
Section I NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Systems

WINGFOLO
I Utility Hydraulic
Therma l Relief Valve Utility Hydraulic
Return

//
To opposite
side

Pressure Spread Sequ ence


Check Valve Valve .(Mechanically
opened with wing spread)

To aft hing e pin


cylinder

Fwd Hinge Pin


Wingfold Cylinder (Unlocked)
lever

Pressure
Return
Warning Flags c;a:::-=: Unlock and Fold
cc::c:I Spre ad and lock
,,
* Energized open
On e-Way Restrictor
(Arrow d enotes fre e flow )
with hinge pin
cylinder retracted / / Lock Safety Latch
(Refer to figure 1-49
Linkage
--D..L- Wiring
I for locking details I

Figure 1-47

WINGFOLD

DESCRIPTION energize microswitches which open the fold sequence


va lves, permitting tbe w ing fo ld cylinders to fold the
The wi ngfold system is illustrated in figure 1--47. outer p ane ls.
The wi ng outer panels are folded or spread by utility
During spreading the folding sequence is reversed.
hydra uli c pressu re. They may be fo lded or spread w ith
T he w ing is mechanically locked in the spread posi-
the w ing raised or lowered. W hen the w ings are tion by the wing hinge pins and the lock safety latches.
folded, red warning liags ( figu re 1--48) are ex tended
The warning flags will be visible any time the lock
mecha nically and tb e lock safety latches are re leased. safety latches are not engaged.
At t he same time a selector valve is mechanica ll y posi-
tioned to supply hydraulic pressure to the hin ge p in
cylinders a nd the wingfatd cylinders. The hinge pin Inspectio n ports are provided to permit a visual check I
cylinders retract the hinge pins. The w ing fold cylin- of the wing hinge pin and lock mechanism to ascertai n
ders are nOt actua ted until the retracting hinge pins a positive wing-lock condition. (Refer to fi gu re 1-49.)

88
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems

WINGFOLD WARNING FLAGS - - - - - - - - - - - - - _

'ia·tiwaN (LEFT WING TYPICAL'

The wings are NOT LOCKED in tho spread position


if the warning flags are visible. Check both left
and right. Red Wingfold
Warning Flag
Do not clear tho airplane for flight if any warning
flag is visible.

(lEFT WING TYPICAL)

Red Wingfold -~.,..---....0::4'"


Warning Flag

Figure 1-48
89
Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-1
Systems

WINGFOlD SAFETY INSPECTION PORTS - - - - - - - - - - -


I

(LEFT WING TYPICAL)

LATCHED LATCHED
Forward Port Aft Port

UNLATCHED UNLATCHED
Forward Port Aft Port
InU-I_!

Figure 1-49
90
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section I
Systems
WINGFOLD CONTROLS
Nomenclature Function

Wingfold lock lever Up (depress tab, squeeze latch and pull up and back until the lever engages the

r
(14, figure 1-5) detent) mechanically releases lock safety latches and extends warning flags.
Down (only after wings fully spread by placing wingfold lever in down position)
mechanically positions lock safety latches to lock the hinge pins and to retract
warning flags.
Wingfold lever Ailerons mmt be neutral. Do not deflect stick during folding.
(under wingfold lock lever) Up (squeeze and pull up), hydraulically folds wings.
Down, hydraulically spreads wings.
Warning flags Extended, indicates hinge pins are not locked.
(top and bottom wing Retracted, indicates hinge pins are locked.
leading edge - wingfold area)

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

CATAPULT PROVISIONS mounted on the inboard side of the right-hand con-


A catapult pin on the underside of the fuselage front sole.
section transmits the thrust of the catapult to the
aircraft structure. The holdback pin on the underside GUN CAMERA PROVISIONS
of the fuselage aft section restrains the aircraft during Inflight recording of gunfiring performance is pro-
the buildup of thrust, then releases it when a break- vided by a gunstrike camera (F-8D aircraft only)
able link snaps. The throttle catapult handle on the installed in the nose section to photograph action along I
left-hand console permits the throttle lever to be held the gun boresight line. A gunsight camera, which
in full forward position during catapult acceleration photographs images on the gunsight reflector plate,
without locking the throttle lever. can be used on F-8D aircraft and F-8E aircraft through
BuNo. 149227 without ASe 395. Either camera is
started automatically when the trigger is depressed
REAR VISION MIRRORS to the first detent for gun firing. Film capacity of
Three adjustable rear vision mirrors are mounted in- either camera permits approximately 44 seconds of
board on the canopy frame. recording; the gunsight camera has no overrun and
the gunstrike camera has 3 seconds overrun. The gun-
sight camera test switch on the right console permits
MAP CASE ground testing of the gunsight camera. Aircraft having
A fixed map case is mounted on the inboard side of provisions for either camera can not use both cameras
the left-hand console. A removable map case is at the same time.

Changed 15 July 1965 91


Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l
Aircraft Servicing and Handling

PART 3 - AIRCRAFT SERVICING AND HANDLING


SERVICING
Refer to NA VWEPS 01-45HHD-2-1, General Infor- If the aircratt is fueled with the fuselage aft section
mation and Servicing, for permissible panel removal removed, check fuselage cells vent airflow at vent line
and detailed servicing instructions. Figure I-50 illus- disconnect on upper left-hand side of disconnect bulk-
trates aircraft servicing points. head. If engine has been run with aft section removed,
the CVI5-206325-1 drain hose must be removed from
FUELING the vent line before fueling. If aircraft is fueled with

I
Authorized fuels are listed under FUEL GRADE in the wings folded, check wing vent airflow at fuel
part 4 of this section. dump line ( donut) seal on right-hand wingfold rib.
If the fueling facility is not equipped with a flow- All fueling personnel should be properly instructed
meter, only procedural checkpoints applicable to before attempting refueling operation. The complete
aircraft fuel quantity gages will be used. The aircraft fueling procedure cannot be accomplished while the
main and transfer indicating systems must be operat- engine is in operation and is supplying electrical
ing properly to obtain valid checks. power since primary and secondary checks require
external ac power with the master generator switch in
A pumping pressure of 40 to 60 psi should be used
TEST. Pressure fueling on the deck with the engine in
with a flow rate not to exceed 300 gpm.
operation should be limited to one such cycle between
No radio or radar activity is permissible within a normal ground fueling operations. During every pres-
radius of 75 feet during refueling. Check that the sure fueling on the deck, with or without the engine
aircraft and fuel truck are properly grounded. Dis- operating, the vents must be checked. During every
charge any static electricity from the fuel nozzle pressure fueling without the engine operating, pri-
before attaching it to the fueling manifold. mary and secondary checks must be performed in
accordance with the fueling procedure. To permit com-
Failure of the vent system during fueling can cause plete fueling with the engine operating, the inflight
cell rupture and structural damage. refueling probe must be extended and the inflight re-
Station a man at the fuselage vent and (aircraft before fueling probe switch left in the OUT position. There
BuNo. 150335 without ASC 426) another at the vent must be enough wind across the deck to dissipate fuel
outlet on the right-hand wingtip to check vent airflow fumes from the wing and fuselage vent outlets.
throughout the complete fueling procedure. Check
venting by holding the hand near the vent and feeling
airflow. Do not block the vents by holding cupped Fueling Procedure
hand over them. At the start of the fueling cycle, 1. Check that fueling nozzle, aircraft and fueling unit
after completing the primary and secondary checks, are grounded.
there will be a strong continuous flow of air from the
fuselage vent, with a barely detectable airflow from 2. Place engine master, fuel dump, all radio/radar,
the right-hand wing vent. As the airflow from the inflight refueling probe, emergency generator and
fuselage vent decreases, the airflow from the right-hand master generator switches in OFF.
wing vent will increase and remain as a strong con-
3. Connect external electrical power.
tinuous flow. Aircraft BuNo. 150335 and subsequent
and those with ASC 426 have a quick-disconnect fitting 4. Place master generator switch in TEST.
installed in the wing pressure sensing line. A gage
and hose (special support equipment) may be con- 5. Open manual shutoff valve in wing fuel transfer
nected to this fitting (underside of the right-hand line. Rotate fuel selector switch to CHECK SEC-
ONDARY. Check flowmeter and aircraft main trans-
wing) during fueling. The gage will indicate approx-
imately 1~ to 1Y2 psi during fueling if wing tank fer fuel quantity gages.
fueling and vent systems are functioning properly. 6. Attach fueling nozzle to fueling manifold. If
Should the gage reading exceed I Y2 psi, stop fueling nozzle has manual lever, lever must be locked fully
immediately. open. Start fuel flowing into aircraft.

92 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVWEPS OI-45HHD-1 Section I
Aircraft Servicing and Handling

7. Fuel £low must stop before fuel admitted to aircraft

I
QJlali{icatioll.
exceeds 45 gallons on flowmeter, or 300 pounds Manufacturer 1denti{icntioll
Reference
total increase on gages. If fuel flow does not stop,
disconnect nozzle immediately and notify proper American Oil and
maintenance personnel. Supply Company PQ 1296 WCLT R59·47
Bray Oil Company Brayco 756
Note Code P·l90 WCRT R55·11
Brayco 756A ASRCE 61·88
This step is performed to prime the shutoff Brayco 756B ASRCE 61·89
system. California Texas Oil
Company Calrex RPM
S. Check flowmeter and aircraft main and transfer No.2 TSEAM 047·7
fuel quantity gages. Rotate fuel selector switch to PED 2585 ASRCE 61·92
CHECK PRIMARY. Fuel flow must StOp before addi- TL·3969
Code 662 WCLT R59·17
tional 30 gallons on flowmeter or 200 pounds on
Humble Oil and
gages is admitted to aircraft. If fuel does not stop, Refining Company Univis J-43
disconnect nozzle immediately and notify proper Code WS2997 WCRT R55·140
maintenance personnel. Monitor flowmeter and Golden Bear Oil
gages for no less tban 30 seconds. If /low rate after Company Code 566 WCRT R55·42
shutoff exceeds 3 gallons per minute on flow meter Pennsylvania Refin-
or 20 pounds per minute on gages, disconnect ing Company Code 3587 WCLT R58·41
nozzle and notify proper maintenance personnel. Code 475 1 ASRCE 61·65
Royal Lubricants
9. Rotate fuel selector switch to CHECK SECONDARY Company Rayco 756 WCRT R55·11
and with switch in this position, repeat check Rayco 756A ASRCE 61·90
of step 8. Rayco 756B ASRCE 6 1·91
Shell Oil Company Aeroshell No.4 WCLT R58·42
10. If steps 8 and 9 are acceptable, rotate fuel selectOr Socony·Mobil Oil
switch to fuel load desired. While monitoring Company Mobil RL·102A TSEAL 4·044·61
fuselage and wing vents, complete desired fueling. Standard Oil Com-
pany of California RPM No.2
11. Remove nozzle, place master generatOr switch in 3 12798B·R TSEAM 047·7
OFF and remove external electrical power. PED 2585 ASRCE 61·92
Texaco Incorporated TL·3969
12. Rotate fuel selector switch to the OFF position. Code 662 WCLT R5 9·1 7
ENGINE OIL SYSTEM
Service the engine oil system with gas turbine lubri- POWER CONTROL HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
eating oil, MIL-L-23699 (Wep) *. Do not overfill.
I Cbeck oil level within 5 minutes after engine shut·
down. If this is not practical, operate engine for a
Service the systems with red hydraulic fluid, MIL·H·
5606A and dry air or nitrogen. Use only the hydraulic
minimum of 30 seconds at 75% rpm before checking fluids listed under UTILITY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.
oil level. If checked at any other time, an erroneous
reading will be obtained. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

I Wben cbanging oil, tbe required oil quantity is ap-


proximately 5 gallons.
OXYGEN SYSTEM
Service with dry air or nitrogen to the pressures listed
on the appropriate system decal.

TIRES
Service oxygen system with MIL·O·21749 (grade A,
type I; or type II) liquid oxygen only. Liquid oxygen Service with dry air or nitrogen as follows:
boils at -183°C (-297.4°F) . Keep oxygen away from Main gear - With aircraft gross weight less than
oil, grease, or other combustible materials. Ensure ade- 30,000 pounds:
quate ventilation. 265 pSI (land)
400 psi (carrier)
UTILITY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 300 psi ( FMLP )
Service the system with red hydraulic fluid, MIL-H· - Witb aircraft gross weight 30,000
5606A and dry ai r or nitrogen. Use only hydraulic pounds Or greater:
fluid manufactured by one of the companies listed 300 psi (land)
below with the correct identification as shown. 400 psi (carrier or FMLP)

*MIL-L-7808 oil will be used until 1 Jan 1965. After this date,
MIL·L·7808 oil will be used until stocks of the oil are
substantially depleted.
Changed 15 July 1965 93
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Aircraft Servicing and Handling

SERVICING P O I N T S - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I

1. Electrical power 6. Oxygen system

2. Engl~e oil 7. Pneumatic system


8. Tires
3. Engine starter
9. Power control hydraulic systems
4. Fuel system (central-point fueling) (PC 2 shown, PC 1 in same location
In LH wheel well)
5. Utility hydraulic system 10. Nitrogen (aircraft with IR system)
6376l-t-7 (1) N E

Figure 7-50

Nose gear - With aircraft gross weight less than Engine starting requires one of the following starting
3CJ,OOO pounds: units:
165 psi (land) GTC-85 or GTE-85 gas turbine compressor
265 psi (carrier or FMLP) MD-IA jet starting trailer*
- With aircraft gross weight 30,000 USAF Model MA-l T A gas turbine compressor
pounds or greater: USAF Model MA-2 gas turbine compressor*
265 psi (land, carrier, or FMLP) Boeing Model 502 gas turbine compressor

MINIMUM TURNING RADIUS


HANDLING Minimum turning radius and approximate ground
clearances while taxiing are illustrated in figure 1-51.
EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL POWER REQUIREMENTS
115-volt, 400-cycle, 3 phase ac DANGER AREAS
Exhaust, inlet, turbine, and noise danger areas are
ENGINE STARTER REQUIREMENTS illustrated in figure 1-52.

.*Set to low pressure ratio.

94 Changed 1 5 July 1966


NAVWEPS 0l-45HHD-l Sedion I
Aircraft Servicing and Handling

MINIMUM TURNING R A D I U S - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(TAXIING)
Turning radius with full nos. gear
steering deflection 1>0· RIGHT 0' LEFT
I
Nose gear radius
22 FEET

/
Nose cone radius
35 FEET --------
-4--- \
Wing tip radius
30 FEET

I--------Cloo'onco fo, 180· turn is 65 FEET

APPROXIMATE GROUND CLEARANCES.

A _ Wing tip (wing down) - 5 FEET 6 INCHES


fwlng up I - 3 FEET 6 INCHES

I-Dutllip
C - Tail cone ~;::====~.32 FEET 9 INCHES
FEET
0 - V."tral fin 1 FOOT .. INCHES

B D A C
• Clearance. vary slightly with aircraft
loading and strut and tire servicing_

t! 7 a2 - J -I O

figu,e J -5 J
95
Section I NAVWE PS Ol-4 SHHD- l
Aircraft Servicin g an d Ha nd lin g

DANGER AREAS - ENGINE GROUND OPERATION---------


I NOISE DAN GE R AREAS

250 ' r-----~----_,r_----~----_r----_,------r_----_r----_,r_----._----_,

200' ~~----~----_t------1_------+_----_+------1_------+_------~----_+------~

150 ' ~----"~----_t------1_------+_----_+-------

100' ~---_t--'tr_-+_--_+---1_--_+__,
120db 140db
to
Ear protec tion r e-
qui red - U se caution
50' ~------t------f~- ;n exposu r e time .

0'
---
50' r----4---+_--_+--f-~--~-~

100 ' r---_t---+_-r-_+--\-1_--_+---r---_+---1_--_t---~

150' r-------i-------t-------r-------f\-----1-------t-------t-------+-------t-------+

200' r-------r-----_t------1_------+_--~~------1_------+_----~~----_t------~

2 5 0 ' ~--~---~--~---~--~-~~~--~---~--~---~
250' 200' 150' 100' 50' 0' 50' 100' 150' 200' 250'

-u-n-
Approved ea r -protect ive d evices
ar e specifi ed in Bu Med I nst. 6260.
BASED ON , EST IMATED DATA
SEE: NATe Pro ject Report
T ED NO. PTR-P P-3675

Figure 1-52 (Sh ee t 1)


96
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Sect ion I
A ircraft Servicing and Handling

DANGER AREAS- ENGINE GROUND OPERATION - - - - - - - - -


I EXHAUST , INLET, AND TURBINE DANGER AREAS I
MILITARY

59K
'!,'lin·u,
105°F Jet wake will shift with wind. Remove
all obj ects under th e aircraft that may
112K cause damag e if blown by t he Jet wake.
TURBINE BLADE
FAILURE
155°F Rocks and dirt can be blown as far as
DANGER AREA 206K 1 mile by afterbu rne r blast.
210°F
430K
325°F

/! ;I~' I
~ 1020304050 100
I
150
I I I
200

TI~ I FEET

160K
360 ° F
SUCTION
DANGER 83K
AREA 220 ° F
53 K
180 ° F
39K
140 ° F

IDLE 475K 178K 95K 59K


600°F 390 ° F 280°F 225°F
MAXIMUM
6316. _ ~_ I I (2)

Figure 1-52 (Sheet 2)

97
Section I NAVWEPS Ol·4SHHD·l
Aircraft Operating Limitations

I PART 4 - AIRCRAFT OPERATING LIMITATIONS


INTRODUCTION For extension of emergency
power package........................690 KIAS or 1.50 IMN,
whichever is less
This section specifies limitations that must be observed
during the normal operation of the F-SO and F-SE Note
aircraft. They are derived from actual flight tests and Refer to EMERGENCY POWER PACKAGE

I demonstrations. Refer to Supplementa l NATOPS


Flig ht Manual for additional information.
Limitations which are merely associated with a certain
in section IV for handling characteristics
when extending the package above 500 KIAS.

technique or specialized phase of operation are dis- With wing up, landing gear extended........... .220 KIAS
cussed appropriately in sections III , IV, and V and JO Note
other parts of this section.
00 nOt exceed 220 KIAS until a positive
indication of manual wing incidence locking
is observed.
Witb arresting hook extended .......................... 350 KIAS
INSTRUMENT MARKINGS Witb speed brake extended ............... _............. 1.50 IMN
For operation of in flight
The operating limits indicated by flight and engine refueling probe ...................... 350 KIAS or 0.92 IMN, I
whichever is less
instruments are illustrated in figure 1-53 ..These limits
are nOt all repeated in the text. Should engine over-
temperature or overspeed occur in excess of limita-
tions listed, the engine should be shut down as soon
as possible and the required maintenance inspection
POWER CONTROL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
be performed before further operation. With one power control hydraulic system inoperative,
operation is restricted to the following limits:

AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
T he maximum permissible indicated airspeeds in
smooth or moderately turbulent air are as follows:
Maximum airspeed --600 KIAS or 0.92 IMN,
./ whichever is less
Maximum acce1eration '- (PC lout) 4.0 g
- (PC 2 Out) same as yaw
stab out (refer to Supple·
mental NATOPS Flight
I
I

\Vilh arresting hook, landing Manual.)


gear, and speed brake reo Bank angle is not to exceed 90°.
tracted, wing leading edge No abrupt flight control movements.
droop retracted and '''ing No slipping or skidding.
down ..................................... Refer CO the Supplemental
NATOPS Flight Manual When operating on emergency power control hydrau-
With leading edge cruise droop Hc pressure with no electrical load on the generator
Extending or retracting .................................. 500 KIAS (as in a dead·engine approach and landing), the mini-
Extended ......................................................... .550 KIAS mum airspeed for adequate flight control response is
With wing down and leading edge landing 140 KIAS for the F·80 and 135 KIAS for the F·8E.
droop extended pneumatically ...................... 300 KIAS With the emergency generator switch in LAND under
With leading edge droop unlocked the same circumstances, minimum airspeed is 145 KIAS
(barberpole indication) ....... _...... _............... 300 KIAS for tbe F·80 aad 140 KIAS for tbe F·8E.

98
NAVAIR OI·45 HHD·1 Section I
Aircraft Op e rating limitations

INSTRUMENT MARKINGS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
BASED ON JP·5 FUel
I

ACCelERATION ENGINE SPEED


Refer to figures 1- 1
lhrough 1-3, Suppl emental
o 106 .3% - Absolute maximum rpm
68 to 70 ''( - Sea level idle rpm
NATOPS Fl ight Manual.

OIL PRESSU RE

37 to 53 ps i - Normal ran;,!"c

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
TRANSFER FUel QUANTITY
• Tran sfer pump s hou ld h(: (urned olT :U :IP-
proxim:m: ly 1.000 Ihs. {lid n:main in,l.!. pro- ?,800 to 3.200 ps i - Normal range
\'idin.L: the tr:lnsf(:r fm:1 pump elU tion li.z.: ht
is illuminatl'(1 slI.::Hlil y.

EXHAUST TEMPE RA TURE

J57·P-20 J 57 - P- 20A
0
Above Maximum (afterburner) - 665 C Maximum (afterburner) - 665°C
Military - 655°C Mil itary _ 665°C
1
30. 000 [t.

I
Below
Maximum (a ft erbu nl c r) - 63SoC
Military - 625°C
i..,l aximulll (afterburner) - 635°C
Mililary - 635°C

Fi gure J-53

Ch anged 15 July 1966 99


Section I NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Aircraft Operating Limitations

TRIM AND STABILIZATION SYSTEM To ensure adequate fuel flow to the engine at all times,

I In the clean condition, with only the roll stabilization


system inoperative, restrictions are not changed from
basic aircraft restrictions. With yaw stabilization and
rudder-aileron interconnect systems inoperative, the
flight in the range from +0.3 g to -0.3 g is restricted
to .rapid transient conditions only.
Avoid prolonged operation in the g ranges listed in
figure 1-54.
following restrictions apply:
Maximum airspeed - 675 KIAS or 1.50 IMN,
whichever is less FUEL AVAILABILITY
Aileron deflection - Limited to clean condition
stops and 180 0 roll. No abrupt The following minimum fuel quantities must be main-
lateral stick movement. tained in the main fuel system to prevent flameout
Maximum permissible load factors - Refer to the under the operating conditions stated:
Supplemental Level flight ____________________Military thrust - 150 pounds

I NATOPS
Flight Manual.
With any of the stabilization systems inoperative, the
Maximum thrust - 300 pounds
Best glide ratio ____________________ Idle thrust - 150 pounds
Normal landing
maximum permissible speed in the landing configura- attitudes __________________ Military thrust - 50 pounds
tion is 180 K1AS. Maximum thrust - 300 pounds
90 0 climb __________________Military thrust -1,000 pounds
Maximum thrust - 2,000 pounds
MANEUVERS 70 0 climb __________________Military thrust - 800 pounds
Refer to the Supplemental NATOPS Flight Manual. Maximum thrust - 1,500 pounds
Nose down attitudes_Military thrust - 150 pounds
ACCELERATION LIMITATIONS Maximum thrust - 1,000 pounds

Refer to the Supplemental NATOPS Flight Manual.


Note
FUEL SYSTEM ACCELERATION Since there is no instrument that indicates
the very high afterburner fuel flow rate,
LIMITATIONS monitor main system fuel quantity carefully
when using afterburner following depletion
The fuel system is not designed to operate at zero g of transfer fuel.
for extended periods. However, the system will func-
tion properly during rapid transient periods between During operation in the allowable negative grange,
positive and negative accelerations. fuel flow is not sufficient to maintain military thrust

FUEL SYSTEM ACCELERATION LIMITATIONS - - - - - - - - - -


( Note)

With 1,500 pounds or more of main fuel, adequate fuel flow is available for sus-
tained operation at military thrust or less at any altitude and any Mach number
while in the g range of +0.3 and above or in the range of -O.3g and below.

Power Altitude
Main Fuel Quantity
Setting Below 4',000 It Above 4',000 It
MIUTARY More than 1,500 pounds +0.3g to -O.3g* + 0.3g to -O.3g*
MIUTARY Less than 1,500 pounds +0.3g and below* +0.3g and below*
MAXIMUM More than 2,200 pounds +0.5g to -1.0g* +0.3g to -1.0g*
MAXIMUM Less than 2,200 pounds +0.5g and below* +0.3g and below*
* Avoid prolonged operation in these granges.

Figure J-54
100
NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-l Section I
Aircraft Operating Limitations
with less than 1,500 pounds of fuel in the main sys- If engine pump warning light is on, use afterburner
tem or to maintain maximum thrust with less than only in an emergency.
2,200 pounds of fuel in the main system.
To maintain adequate cooling for the engine com-
In shallow dives (less than 10°), 1,400 pounds of wing partment, observe the limitations presented under
tank transfer fuel will not be available because the COOLING FLOW LIMITATIONS.
fuel outlets are at the aft end of the tank.
In dives exceeding 10°, the transfer booster pump
shuts down and neither wing tank nor transfer fuse- OVERTIME ENGINE OPERATION
lage fuel is available during the dive.
No intentional slips or skids are permitted below Engines should not normally be operated beyond the
35,000 feet during afterburner operation with less than specified time limitations for maximum thrust and
2,000 pounds of main fuel. military thrust; however, if this becomes necessary for
a particular mission, the engine should be operated
ENGINE LIMITATIONS continuously for the required period of use. Overtime
Note operation can be sustained without immediate adverse
Refer to the Supplemental NA TOPS Flight results but the total operating life of the engine will
Manual for classified limitations. be shortened. Operating continuously for one slightly
longer period instead of using two or more shorter
ENGINE OPERATION periods will avoid an additional heat cycling of the
For engine operating limitations, refer to figure 1-55. engine, which is detrimental to engine life.

ENGINE OPERATING LIMITATIONS


-u-u-
r--
./ .t, ..
Umitations apply to both J57-P-20 and J57-P-20A engines
unless otherwise designated.

~ Max Exhaust
GtJs Temp (CO)
Max
Rpm Below Above Time Oil Pressure
Operati", COn4itio" (%) 30,000 30,000 Limits NortntJl RtJ"ge (psi)

Starting -- 610 610 Momentary --


Idle -- 340 -- Continuous 35 minimum
Acceleration * -- 675 675 4 minutes 45 (±8)
Military Thrust (J57-P-20) 106.3 625 655 30 minutes 45 (±8)
Military Thrust (J57·P·20A) 106.3 635 665 30 minutes 45 (±8)
Maximum Thrust (Afterburner) 106.3 635 665 5 minutes takeoff and 45 (±8)
ground operation
15 minutes in flight
Normal Rated Thrust 106.3 560 580 Continuous 45 (±8)
Zoom Climb above 50,000 feet -- -- 665 -- 30 minimum
(momentary)

Figure 1-55

Changed 15 July 1966 101


Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Aircraft Operating Limitations

COOLING FLOW LIMITATIONS FOR BANNER TOWING--------


BANNER-TOWING CONFIGURATION
t: 40
/ / ' /'f'/
§ l I .I . I I I. I

30
Banner-iowlDg
With Wing Up
/ / ./ / Banner-Towing
With Wing-
J,It
Q ~~/~ Down

- ~
~
<
20
1/ Prolonged
Banner.Towing/
II' Flight In This
/

~ * In Excess Of
5 Minutes
Q
J,It
f-I 10
V a
[/ / v/ A ~ . ..

< ~/ / VV~
-
U
Q ~
-< V V V V ~.
-
Z 0
80 100 12Q 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
INDICATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS

Figure I-56
FUEL GRADE COOLING FLOW LIMITATIONS
Ram air from the engine inlet duct is used for cooling
many compartments and components, the most impor-
Note
tant being the engine compartment, air conditioning
F-30 and F-34 fuels shall not be defueled into compartment, electronic compartment and radar unit.
JP-5 (F-44) fuel storage on aircraft carriers
During most flight conditions, the ram air pressure in
because of their low flash points.
the inlet duct is greater than ambient pressure, and air
will flow from the inlet duct into the various compart-
Approved fuels are: ments. On the ground and during flight at low air-
speed with a high engine power setting, the cooling
Ashore air flow reverses. Under these conditions, engine suc-
Primary grade tion creates a low-pressure area in the inlet duct
JP-5 (F-44) causing air to flow from the compartments into the
inlet duct.
Acceptable alternates
There are certain flight conditions for which the
JP-4 (F-40) engine suction exactly matches the ram air pressure in
F-30* the duct, and there will be no cooling flow. The Bight
F-34 conditions for no cooling depend on airspeed, altitude
F-42 * and engine power setting, but generally occur only
Emergency fuelst during transient conditions, such as climb or landing
AvGas grades 91/96, 100/130, approach. However, there are three steady-state flight
and 115/145 conditions that can cause reduced or no cooling from
the inlet duct and are therefore restricted. These are:
Afloat
Primary grade • Flight in the landing condition above 175 KIAS,
limited to 5 minutes.
JP-5 (F-44)
• Flight in the clean condition below 200 KIAS,
Emergency fuelst limited to 5 minutes.
AvGas grades 91/96, 100/130, • Banner target towing, limited as shown in figure
and 115/145 1-56.

*May not be used for high altitude maximum range missions because of relatively high fuel freeze temperature.

I
tUse of emergency fuel imposes restrictions which are required to prevent excessive fuel cell pressures or to prevent flameout due
to booster pump cavitation. Emergency fuel restrictions, none of which apply to the primary or acceptable alternate fuels, are
as follows: .
• No aherburner operation above 6,000 feet or above 300 KIAS.
• Maximum rate-of-climb, 1,500 feet per minute.
• If less than 2,200 pounds of emergency fuel remains in the transfer system prior to reaching 10,000 feet, do not exceed this
altitude. This restriction does not apply when this fuel loading is reached at altitudes above 10,000 feet.

102 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Section I
Ai reraft Operating limitations

CENTER-Of-GRAVITY LIMITATIONS Wh en carrying stores in combination, the more restric-


The center of gravity of the fighter or accack·config-
ured aircraft w ill remain within acceptable limits if
fuel sequencing is normal. Refer to section V for
effects of the center of gravity exceeding aft limits as
a result of fuel transfer system failures. Minimum take-
tive limits apply. All scores are clea red for catapule and
arrested landings unless otherwise noted in the Supple-
mental NATOPS Flight Manual. Operating limitations
for the basic aircraft apply with fuselage pylons and
stores, and wing pylons and Aero 7A-l bomb racks
I
off distance and airspeed is increased when the center installed. Operating limitations for the attack con-
of gravity is forward of 20% MAC ( refer to T AKE- figured aircraft appl y wh en carrying wing StOres.
OFF PLANNING INFORMATION, se([ion Xl)_ Empty rocket packs and empty multiple bomb racks
Takeoff ceoter-oE-gravity locations forward of 20% are considered to be wing stores. External armament
will- occur with m OSt external store configurations. combinations appear in fig ure 1-;7 with weights useful
Refer to the Handbook of \'{leight and Balance Data in plan~ing attack missions.
AN 01-IB-40 to determine actual center-of-gtavity
In landing configuration, lateral control effecti veness
location.
is marginal in rolls away from a maximum asym-
WEIGHT LIMIT AnONS metrical load at normal approach speeds. As lAS is
"riorates rapidly.
approach turns
ked away from
:hen be allowed
CIDillGE SECT.IOH 1, PilliT. 4 , PAGE I €):3 0]' REF A UNDER "WEI GHr LI/liI'rATIONS" occurs, the air·
TO REl, D AS. FOLLOI.JS : attitude. Both
marg inal when
10 knots from
"FHLD ARRESTJi:D LANDIN G (ROLL-IN ) •••• 24 ,000 POUNDS al load_ (Refer
-"FLELD LAND lllG ( OTH8R THAN HTIHHtlM
RATE OF DESCEH'l '), FMLP, l1ND FIELD
.!ffiRESTED LANDnm (FLY- IN) 22,000 POUNDS
WITH ASC NO . 439 INC ORiX)R1lTED •• ___ •• _22 ,500 POUNDS
C, ADD NEVi FllUiT i:i"NTENCB '1'0 PARAGRAPH AFrER \IE IGHr nitted at gross
TliliULAT.IONS: 4 nds with asym-
"ROLL--IN FH:LD ,ul.HE::;TED L.iNDING l'lES'rRIC'rIOl'lS, lli}.iUIRE dings.
'fRaT 'l'lili LANJi}ING TOUCHOO\liN l'lUST BE AT LlCA;H 500 :BEET
FR011 THG ARR.;S'r ll~G "lik:S , AIRPLJili.8 GiWUWD SP~D AT
ENGAGENJ};N'r i'JUS .c ili LESS T"JUiN, 1A8 KNarS , AND ALL 'l'EL.'tEE
LANn ING G.!:AR I'jUST ilE IN L:Ol~rAC'r WITH 'l'HF. RTI1'MAY AT
HOOK gNGAr1F:i·,ir-:l'·i T . is signifi-
11..LLO\ JA'R L1i! C01riRl"Ni.\.IJ'JON OF \i8 J(;Hl' .HNDj
OR SPEt>D OF F- fJ 1\ THPJ."NES CAN J<D:.CEEll r: APAG1' l'Y LIl"iITS n excess of
OF SOi>lE F lli LD AllHE:3TTIliG m::;TALLATIONS: tricai wing
lard. Nose-
- - -======-=>J- - - - - - - - - - --.wneer sreernrg- Is-rotally Inern:;l.lJ . . e to the left
with a 2,000 pound asymmetrical load on the
With full fuel and ammunitton load , the
starboard wing.
maximum gross takeoff weight of 34,000
pounds can be exceeded with some combina· • Catapult launches with an asymmetrical external
tions of external stores. Refer to AN OI-IB·40 wing loading imbalance in excess of 2,000 pounds
Handbook of Weight and Balance for specific are not permitted.
aircraft weight and to figure 1- 57 for station • Asymmetrical external wing srores loading im-
weights for various combinations of stores. balance should be such that the greater weight
If the total weight exceeds 34,000 pounds, is ro port.
wing fuel may be removed to reduce the Arrested landings with external stores should be
gross weight. Do not remove more th an 3,000 avoided wherever possible. However, if required,
pounds of wing fue l or the center of gravity arrested landings with nonexpendable/nonjetti-
will move forward of the takeoff limit. sonable stores, o r under emergency conditions,
EXTERNAL STORES LIMITATIONS may be conducted within current gross weight
limitations providing external wing stores loading
EXTERNAL ARMAMENT LIMITATIONS per station and asymmetrica l wing stores loading
Only the external armament stores listed in the Supple- imbalance, if any, tloes not exceed 2,000 pounds.
mental NATOPS Flight Manual may be carried and • Barricade engagements are permitted. Jettison
released singly or in combination to the limits shown . external stOres if possible. Stores will not interfere
Changed 1 5 July 1966 103
Section I NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l
Aircraft Operating Limitations
with barricad6 engagement but may tear loose and Maximum permissible airspeed ____________________ 500 KIAS

I present a hazard to flight deck personnel. Refer


to applicable Aircraft Recovery Bulletins for
recommended engaging speeds.
• Lateral stick force in addition to full lateral trim
Maximum permissible acceleration range __ Og to 4.0 g
Maximum permissible bank angle
change _________________________________________________________________ 1800

will be required for catapult launches and arrested Full aileron deflections _________________________________ .400 KlAS
landings with asymmetrical external wing stores Clean condition stop deftectioDS _________________ .500 KIAS
loadings approaching an imbalance of 2,000 Avoid abrupt aileron reversals
pounds.
TOW TARGET LIMITATIONS The maximum recommended airspeed for the tow tar-
get system, including the target, is 380 KIAS with the
The Aero 38B tow target launcher and the Aero 43 target in the basket or the airspeed limit determined
tow reel can be carried to the following limits: from wire limitations, whichever is less.

,~ ..

')

1 I

104 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section I
Aircraft Operating Limitations

EXTERNAL ARMAMENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

·r, ·'· , WEIGHT AND COMPATIBILITY TABLE - LIVE STORES


This table lists wing and fuselage store contigurmions for F·SE
anack aircraft. and provides several weights for each configuration
useful in mission planning. To use the table. select desired wing
weight added to the aircraft by all stores and supporting equip·
ment •. For an asymmetrically loaded aircraft (mixed store loading).
locate the weight of each side separate!)., then add the tViO weights
I
Store and quantity in left vertical column headed "WING STORE" to determine total weight added by all stores and supporting equip·
t and the desired fuselage store and quantity to the right of .. FUSE· ment.. (Refer to Note 5.) Any wing store configuration shown .:an
" LAGE STORE". At the intersection of the twO choices is a weight be carried without fuselage stores. or vice versa. Station weight is
which is the total loaded weight of one side of the aircraft. For a defined in Note 1.
symmetrically loaded aircraft. double this weight to determine total

One Side· Two Zuni Two Side· Four Zuni


winder Rkts ( In Zuni winders Rkts \In Two
FUSELAGE STORE (ONE SIDE ONLY) (210 Ibs) Pack) (107 (2101bs Zuni acks)
Note 2 Ibs each) each) Note 2 (1071bseach TOP VIEW
STATIO~
WEIGHT 313 Ibs 3651bs 6701bs 774lbs MBR DROPPING
WING STORE (ONE SIDE ONLY) Note 1 SEQUENCE
(Note 6)
One AN·M64Al G.P. Bombt 813 lbs 1.1261bs 1.1781bs 1.4831bs 1.5871bs
(5861bs)
One MK 83 Bombt 1.2121bs 1.525 lbs 1.577 Ibs 1.8821bs 1.9861bs
(985Ibs)
One AN·M65AI Bombt 1.432 Ibs 1.745 lbs 1.797 Ibs 2.102 lbs
(1.105 Ib ) 2.206 Ibs

One MK 84 Bombt 2.1971bs 2,51Olbs 2.5621bs 2.8571bs 2,9711bs


(1,9701bs) (Note4) (Note 5)
One AN·M66A2 Bombt 2,434 lbs 2.747 Ibs 2.799 lbs 3.104 lbs 3.20S Ibs
(2.207 Ib ) (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5)
Four MK 81 Bombst 1.4261bs 1,739lbs 1,791 Ibs 1.096 Ibs 2.2001bs
(260 Ibs each) Note 3 (Note 4)
Approximate Aircraft Weight
Four MK 82 Bombst 2,494lbs 2.8071bs 2.8591bs 3.1641bs 3.2681bs (Less Usable Fuel. Ammuni·
(527 Ibs each) Note 3 (Note 4 ) (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5) tion, Pylons, Stores. and
Four MK 81 Snakeye I Bombst 2,2561bs 2,360lbs Pilot ....•................. 18.800 lbs
1.5861bs 1,8991bs 1.9511bs
( 300 Ibs each) Note 3
(Reter to AN 01·18-40
Four MK 82 Snakeye I Bombst 2.6461bs 2.9591bs 3,Ol11bs 3.3161bs 3.4201bs Handbook of Weight and
r:
····/'· (565 11» each) Note 3 (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5) Balance for specific air·
I
plane weisht.)
Four AN·M88 FRAG BombsU 1.3101bs 1,623lbs 1,6751bs 1,9801bs 2,0841bs
r·· (231 Ibs each) Note 3 Aero 7A·l Ejector Bomb
Rack (Used with all wing
Four AN·M81 FRAG BombsU 1,4941bs 1.8071bs I,S591bs 2,1641bs 2,268lbs stores) ............ 52 Ibs
(277 Ibs each) Note 3
Wing Pylon ....... 175 Ibs
Four AN·M57Al G. P. BombsU 1.542Ibs 1.855 Ibs 1.9071bs 2,2121bs 2.3161bs
(289Ibs.each) Note 3 MBR (A/A37B·l Multiple
Bomb Rack ...... 159 lbs
One MK 77 Mod 1.2 Fire Bombt 747lbs 1.0601bs 1,I121bs 1,4171bs 1.5211bs
(5201bs) Ammunition
(500 Rounds) ........ 355 lbs
One MK 79 Mod 1 Fire Bombf 1.139Ibs 1,452 lbs 1.5041bs 1,809lbs 1,913lbs
(9121bs) Full Fuel Load
(]P·5) .................9.167 lbs
One Aero 7D Rocket Packt 658lbs 971 Ibs 1,0231bs 1.3281bs 1.4321bs
(431 lbs with 19 rds 2.75" FFAR) LAU· 7/ A Launcher
( Fuselage) .. ........... 90 Ibs
One LAU·3AI A Rocket Packt 644lbs 9571bs I,009lbs 1.3141bs 1.4181bs
(417 Ibs with 19 rds 2.75" FFAR) Aero 3A Launcher
(Used with
One Aero 6A. ·1, ·2 Rocket Packf 400lbs 7131bs 7651bs 1.0701bs 1,174lbs AIM·9B) .•.............•._A91bs
(1731bswith 7 rds2.75" FFAR)
1,174 lbs 2.75" FFAR ...... IS.5 lbs
One LAU·32AI A or ·32BI A Rocket Packt 400lbs 713lbs 7651bs 1,070lbs
(1731bs with 7 rds 2.75" FFAR)
One LAU·IO/A Rocket Packt 760lbs I,0731bs 1,125lbs 1,430lbs 1.534 Ibs
(5331bs with 4 Zuni rockets)

tAttached to the Aero 7A·1 Ejector Bomb Rack


tAttached to the AI A37B·I Multiple Bomb Rack (which is attached to the
Aero 7 A·I Ejector Bomb Rack)
§Banded Lug Bombs

Additional bombs shall be loaded on the outboard stations only.

r
1. Station weight is store weight rlus the weight of all equipment
(pylon and racks or launchers necessary to fire or release the Dependent upon release mode employed. additional trigger
store. squeezes may be required to bypass vacant inboard MBR sta·
tions. The MBR dropping sequence is independent of which (LH
2. AIM·9B (164 lbs). AIM·9D (178 lbs) and AIM·9C (210 Ibs) or RH) pylon the rack has been attached to.
missiles may be used. Table reflects AIM·9C weight.
4. Use of AIM·9D or AIM·9C missiles (weight shown) may result in
3. Bombs loaded on the multiple bomb rack (MBR) need not exceeding the limitation described in Note 5. This limitation can
necessarily occupy positions corresponding to the dropping not be exceeded using AIM·9B missiles.
sequence of the rack. (See illustrations of MBR dropping
sequence.) Under present limitations. carriage of bombs on the
inboard stations of the MBR is not permitted. If only two bombs 5. Configuration may exceed maximum allowable takeoff gross weight.
are loaded on the MBR. they should occupy stations 1 and 2. Refer to "Weight Limitations."
63762-1-37N E

figure 1-57 (Sheef J,


Changed 15 July 1966 104A
Section I NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-1
Aircraft Operating Limitations

I WEIGHT AND COMPATIBILITY TABLE - PRACTICE BOMBS AND PARACHUTE FLARES


This table lists practice bombs and parachute flare configurations for F·8E attack aircraft
and provides store and station wei,hts for these configurations useful in mission plan·
ning. For a symmetrically loaded aircraft, double the station wei~ht to determine total
weight added to the aircraft by wing stores and supporting equipment. For an asym·
metrically·loaded aircraft (mixed store loading), add the separate station weights.
Station weight is defined in Note 1.

WING STORE (ONE SIDE ONLY) STATION WEIGHT


Note 1

One MK 86 Practice Bomb* 4441bs


(217 Ibs) Note 2

Two MK 86 Practice Bombst 8201bs


(217 Ibs each) Notes 2 and 3

One MK 87 Practice Bomb* 560lbs


<333 Ibs) Note 2

Two MK 87 Practice Bombst 1,0521bs


( 33 3 Ibs each) Notes 2 and 3

One MK 88 Practice Bomb. 1,010 Ibs


(783Ibs) Note 2

Four MK 76 Mod 4 Practice Bombs* 6921bs


(25 Ibs each)

Six MK 76 Mod 4 Practice Bombs§ 4641bs


(25 Ibs each)

Four MK 106 Mod 2/3/4 Practice Bombs* 6121bs


(5 Ibs each)

Three MK 89 Mod 0/1 Practice Bombs§ 4851bs


(57 Ibs each) Note 4

Four MK 24 Mod 2A/3 Parachute Flares§ 4221bs


(27 Ibs each) Note 5

• Attached to the Aero 7 A·l _Ejector Bomb Rack


tAttached to the AI A37B·l Multiple Bomb Rack
*Loaded in the Aero 8A·l Practice Bomb Container
§Attached to the AI A37B·3 Practice Multiple Bomb Rack

Aero 8A·I Practice Bomb


COAtainer .............. 365 Ibs
AI A37B·3 Practice Multiple
Borpb Rack ............. 87 Ibs
A/A37B·l Multiple Bomb
Rack .................. 159 Ibs
Aero 7A·l Ejector Bomb Rack (Used
with all wing stores) ..... 52 Ibs

1. Station weight is store weight plus the weight of all equipment (pylons and racks
or launchers) necessary to fire or release the store.
2. Weight is for practice bomb loaded with wet sand.
3. MK 86 and MK 87 practice bombs may be carried only on stations 1 and 2 (the
centerline stations) of the multiple bomb rack due to tail fin interference.
4. MK 89 Mod 011 practice bombs will fit only on stations 2, 3, and 4 of the
A/A37B·3 practice multiple bomb rack.
5. Carriage of flares on inboard stations of the practice multiple bomb rack is not per.
mitted due to possible fiare/airplane collisions after release.

63762-1-38N E

Figure J-57 (Sheet 2J


1048 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l

section II
indoctrination
I

CONTENTS
Ground Training Requiremeots ________________________________________________________ 105
Flight Training________________________ _ _________ 106
Flight Qualification Requirements ______________________________________ 106
Personal Flying Equipment_______________ __________________________ 107

GROUND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS to each course depends upon the progress and circum-
stances pertaining to each command.
The overall ground training syllabus for each activity
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
varies according to local conditions, field facilities,
requirements from higher authority, and the imme- Prior to familiarization flights in the F-8, the FAM
diate unit commander's estimation of squadron readi- pilot must:
ness. However, in order to ensure that all F-8 pilots
are properly indoctrinated, thoroughly briefed, and 1. Possess a current medical clearance.
adequately prepared to fly the aircraft, certain specific 2. Meet physiOlogical requirements of the current
courses must be standardized. An outline of those edition of OPNAV Instruction 3740_3_
courses and subjects wbich are required for all F-8
pilots is presented below_ Also presented are the 3_ Complete the F-8 NAMT Pilot's Familiarization
subjects upon which continued ground training is Course consisting of approximately 40 hours of
based. The frequency and number of hours devoted instruction.

Changed 15 July 1965 105


Section II NA VWEPS 01-45HHD-1

4. Receive lectures o n the following subjects from the DR NAV


RCVW or an operating F·8 squ adro n : Special equipment
Powerplants 4. Flight safety
Electrical system
AAR REVIEWS
Fuel system
Emergency procedures
Hydraulic and pneumatic systems
Fl ig bt safety equipment
Ejectio n seat, canopy, and pressurization.
Use of emergency arrestin g gear

I Variable incidence wing


Flight controls and emergency power package
Trim and stabilizat ion
Emergency procedures
Flight characteristics and o perating limitations to
5. Intelligence
Military situation in theaters
Functions and organi zation of Air Intelligence
Security of information
include high speed, high altitude flight Aircraft recognition
Stall and spins ( including LTV movie) Maps, charts, and aerial photographs
Prefl ig ht and hand sig nals Enemy aircraft aerial tactics
Local area and facilities Amphibious operations
5. Complete a torso harn ess suspension drill. Intelligence reports
F·S versus enemy fighter and bomber briefs
6. Satisfactorily co mp lete a minimum of twO pro-
ced ures trainer fli g hts within two weeks of first 6. Communications
FAM Aig ht. Types of communications
Brevity code
7. Practice a dry- run e jection in an F-S e jectio n seat.
App licable commun ications, NWP, NWIP, ACP
8. SatisfactOrily com plete a blindfold cockpit check. Authenticator tables

9. Complete a supervised eng ine starr and taxi 7. Survival


checkout. Physiological and medical aspects
Physical fitness and lirst a id
10. Satisfactorily complete test on F-S operating limits,
Survival on land/sea
normal and emergency procedures, and aircraft
Pilot rescue techniques
systems.
11. Complete an appropriate course rules exami nati on.
FLIGHT TRAINING
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
The geographic location, the specific flight traIDIng
The fo llowing subjects as g uidelines should be concept, local command restrictions, and other factOrs
included in the normal grou nd school syllabus which influence the actual fli g ht syllabus and the seq uence in
is supplemental and complementary to the fli g ht which it is completed. This training is accomplished
training. in the CRAW andlor sq uadron.

1. Tech nical subjects


NA TOPS Flight Manual FLIGHT QUALIFICATION
Ai rcraft maintenance manuals REQUIREMENTS
Fire control system manuals
Ordnance
A\.L'Xiliary equipment FAMILIARIZATION PHASE REQUIREMENTS
Aerodynamics
The following criteria will be m et before specific
2. Tactical su bjects
flight phases.
NATOPS Flight Manual
NWP and NWIP 1. Prior to the familiari zation phase, all pilots will
Weapons System Tactical Handbook have :
Tactics publications • Completed the ground training syllabus cov-
Ru les of engagement ered under GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
• Prior landings in a swept-wing aircraft
3. Instrument flight planning cross-country nav igation • Satisfactorily completed tbree OFT/WST pro·
Flight planning cedures familiarization Bights, at least two of
Rest computer which must have been within twO weeks of
I Current OPNAV Instruction P3710 series the first familiarization flight
106
NAVWEPS Ol-4SHHD-l Section II

2. A qualified chase pilot will be assigned for a mini· If these requirements are not met, familiarization
mum of four familiarization flights. phase requirements with the exception of NAMT I
must be completed.
3. An experienced F-8 pilot will monitor all familiari -
zation landings from the runway. Training requirements, checkout procedures, evalua-
tion procedures, and weather minima for ferry squad·
rons are governed by the provisions contained in
ADDITIONAL PHASE REQUIREMENTS OPNA V Instruction 3710.6 series.

Additional requirements for various phases are:


1. Instruments (Actual)
• Be basic instrument qualified in series :
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Any pilot not flying for a two·week period after
commencing a training syllabus will complete at least
one OFT/WST or COT procedures trainer flight (if I
I
Three satisfactory simulated instrument sorties available) prior to his next F·8 flight. Any pilot not
Three satisfactOry TACAN penetrations flying the F-8 for a two·week period will be required
Five satisfactory GCA approaches to fly a day flight prior to any F-8 night flight.
• Have satisfactorily completed an instrument
Nate
progress check on the instrument training por-
tion of the aircraft series training syllabus and Commanding Officers are authorized to waive
an in-type instrument check minimum flight requirements and/or OFT/
WST or COT training where recent experi- I
2. Night eace in similar models warrants.
• Be instrument qualified in series
3. Cross· Country PERSONAL FLYING EQUIPMENT
• Have 25 hours in series The following equipment will be worn or carried on
• Be instrument qualified in series all Bights unless other safety considerations indicate
• Have completed a servicing checkout otherwise. All flying equipment will be modified in
• Have had at least one night familiarization accordance with current Aviation Clothing and Sur-
flight vival Equipment Bulletins.
4. Air·to·Air Gunnery 1. Antibuffet helmet.
• Have 25 hours in series 2. Oxygen mask.
• Perform gun camera flights until considered
qua lified for live gunnery. (Dummy flights for 3. Anti G suit.
F-8E if camera is not available.)
4. Flight suit.
5. Carrier Qualification
5. Ankle·high laced hoots.
• Day qualification:
6. Life vest.
Have completed 8 FMLP periods
Have a minimum of 50 hours in series 7. Integrated torso harness.
• Night qualification:
Have completed 15 night FMLP periods 8. Sheath knife and shroud line cutter.
Be day carrier qualified 9. A red lens flashlighr (for all nighr and cross·
Make a minimum of twO day traps during the country flights).
day of night qualification and have had a
minimum of five day traps during the preceding 10. A pistol with tracer ammunition, or BuWeps
ten days approved substitute, for all over-water flights,
night flights, and flights over sparsely populated
areas.
CURRENCY, AIRCRAFT FERRY, AND 11. Flight gloves.
REQUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
12. Identification tags.
To be considered qualified i n the F-8, the pilot must
meet the following requirements : 13. Anti-exposure coverall on aU over-water flights
when the water temperature is 59°F (15°C ) or
below; or OAT is 32°F (O.OO·C) or below; or
T otal Time in Pilot must have lVitbin when the combined air/water temperature is
F-8 Series /lawn .. . last .. . 120°F (48.89°C) or below. Exceptions to these
requirements are as follows:
10 - 100 hours 5 hours 3 months Not required when the water temperature is above
100- 300 hours 10 hours 6 months
50°F (lO·C) and aircraft is within gliding dis·
300 hours or more 10 hours 12 months
tance of land.
Changed 15 July 1965 107
Section II NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l

\\then high ambient cockpit temperature would 16. Navigation packet.


creace a hazardous debilitadng eiIecc on the piloc,
cype commanders are auchorized co grant a waiver. 17. Pocket checklist.
14. Survival kit.
Survival equipment will be secured in such a
15. Operacional equipment appropriace co climace or manner as [0 offer ready accessibility and to ensure
the area. recention during ejeccion or landing.

108
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l

section III

normal procedures

CONTENTS
PART 1 - BRIEFING/DEBRIEFING
B ri efi ng ________________________________ ____ __ ____ ______________________ ___ ____________________ ___ __________________________ 110
Debriefing ___________ ____________________________ ____________________________ _______________________ ________________________ III

PART 2 - MISSION PLANNING

PART 3 - SHORE-BASED PROCEDURES


Line Operations ___ ._____ .__.._. ________ ___________ __________ _.____ ____ ___________________ ___ _______ ______________________ 112
Taxi and Takeoff _____________________________________________________________ _________ _______________________________ 122
Climb, Cruise, and Descent ____...____________._ .... _.______________________________ _______________________ ._._. 127
Traffic Pattern and Landing 128
Field Mirror Landing Practice . ..... _ _. .. ..... _.. _.. _ 130
Field Arrescments ._ .... "." _.... _ 131
W ave-Off ________________________ ___________ _________________________ ___ __ ._____ ___ _________________________________________ 131
Touch-and-Go Landing ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 131
After La n ding _________________________ ____________________ _________________________________________________________ 131
Night Flying _____ ________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________________________________ 132

PART 4 - CARRIER-BASED PROCEDURES


Briefing _____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________________________ 133
Flight Deck Operation ______________________________________________________________________________________ 133
Hangar Deck Operation ________ ___________________________________________________________________ 133
Launch Operations _______________________________________ _______ ____________________________ 134
Carrier Landing ___________ ___________________________________ _______________________________________ 136

109
Section III NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·1
Briefing/Debriefing

PART 1- BRIEFING/DEBRIEFING

BRIEFING Navigational aids


Identification and ADIZ procedures

I The flight leader is responsible for ensuring that all


flight members are properly briefed on the operation
and conduct of the mission. The briefing will be con-
ducted using a briefing guide and a syllabus card, if
applicable. Each pilot in the flight will maintain a
WEATHER
Local area
Local area and destination forecasts
kneepad and will record flight numbers, call signs, Weather at alternate
and all other data necessary to assume the lead and High altitude weather for jet stream, temperature,
complete the assignment if it should become necessary. and contrail band width
The following information will be covered during the
briefing: NAVIGATION AND FLIGHT PLANNING

GENERAL Takeoff
Climbout
Aircraft assigned, call signs Mission route, including ground controlling agen-
Engine start, taxi, and takeoff times cies (GO, APe, etc.)
Visual signals and rendezvous instructions FueVoxygen management
MarshalVholding
MISSION Penetration
GCAorCCA
Primary Recovery
Secondary
Ope~ating area
Control agency EMERGENCIES
Time on station or over target Aborts
Divert fields
WEAPONS Bingo and low-state fuel
Loading Wave-off pattern
Safety Ready deck
Arming, dearming Radio failure
Duds Loss of visual contact with Bight
Special routes with ordnance aboard SAR procedures
Minimum pull-out altitude System failures
Jettison area
Tow/escort AIR INTELLIGENCE AND SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

COMMUNICATIONS Friendly and enemy force disposition


Current situation
Frequencies Targets
Radio procedure and discipline Safety precautions

;
'- .

110
NAVWEPS 01·4SHHD·l Section III
Briefing/Debriefing

OPERAliNG AREA BRIEFING DEBRIEFING


Prior to air operations in and around a new area, it is
mandatory that a comprehensive briefing be given Immediately after the flight, all pilots will assemble
covering (but not limited to) the following: for a debriefing and critique. It will be conducted or
supervised by the flight leader and will cover the
Bingo Fields following:
Instrument approach facilities • Interrogation by an intelligence officer if

I
Runway length and arresting gear applicable
Terrain and obstructions • General discussion covering all phases of the flight
• Operational and tactical information that can be
Emergency Fields given to squadron operations for relay to flight
Fields suitable for landing but without required leaders of subsequent flights (include weather,
support equipment etc.)
Instrument approach facilities • Critique of breakups and landings
Runway length and arresting gear
Terrain and obstructions The importance of the postflight debriefing and cri-
tique cannot be stressed too highly. To derive maxi-
SAR Facilities mum benefit, constructive criticism and suggested
improvements to doctrine, tactics, and techniques
Type should be given and received with frankness, purpose,
Frequencies and in the spirit of improving the proficiency of the
Location unit as well as the individual pilot.

111
Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l
Mission Planning

PART 2 - MISSION PLANNING


Refer to section XI, NWIP 41-2, and WSTH, Volumes I and II, for detailed
instructions concerning mission planning.

PART 3 - SHORE-BASED PROCEDURES


LINE OPERATIONS COCKPIT ENTRY (See figure 3-2)

The canopy is opened manually by the canopy release


ACCEPTING THE AIRCRAFT handle, located on the left side of the fuselage directly
Check the yellow sheet for flight status, fuel load, below the canopy frame. Depress the forward part
configuration and armament loading. Review at least of the handle, grasp the handle arm and pull forward
the ten previous B sections for the discrepancies noted to unlock the canopy. Raise the canopy by using the
and the corrective action taken. When satisfied with handle on the canopy frame.
the yellow sheet information, sign the applicable por-
tions and proceed with the exterior inspection.
COCKPIT CHECKS
Perform the following checks before connecting
EXTERIOR INSPECTION external power:

The exterior inspection is presented in figure 3-1, and General


is reproduced in the pocket checklist. During flight
operations away from the parent organization, ensure 1. Ejection system - INSPECTED as outlined in fig-
that the following additional systems postflight and
ure 3-3
servicing procedures are completed:
2. Rudder pedals - ADJUSTED
Engine accessory gear drive oil level Left Side
Constant speed drive generator

I
Viscous dampers 3. Pilot's services - CONNEcrED
Generator turbine oil level 4. G valve knob - AS DESIRED
Wing fuel quantity (external indications) 5. Speed brake override switch - NORMAL
liquid oxygen system 6. Antiexposure coverall ventilation switch - NORM
Hydraulic systems CABIN PRESS
7. Antiexposure coverall ventilation knob - AS
DESIRED
The airplane may be cleared for flight with fasteners 8. Emergency droop and wing incidence guard-
missing from access doors and panels provided that the DOWN
following restrictions are observed: 9. Wing incidence handle - MATCH WING POSITION
10. Safe-standby-ready switch - SAFE
• No fastener shall be missing from any door or
panel in the cockpit area. Missing fasteners 11. Radar power switch - OFF
could affect cockpit pressurization. 12. Approach power compensator switch - OFF
• Not more than 10% of the total fasteners in any 13. Fuel control switch - NORMAL
row on any door or panel may be missing. Two 14. Rudder trim knob - NEUTRAL
fasteners in a row of 20 or more fasteners may 15. Throttle - OFF
be missing only when the two missing fasteners 16. Speed brake switch - IN
are separated by two installed fasteners. 17. Cruise droop switch - UP
• The first and last fastener in any row must be 18. Throttle friction wheel- ADJUST
installed. No fastener may be missing from the 19. Emergency brake handle - OFF
leading edge of any door or panel if an unfas- 20. Engine master switch - OFF
tened gap longer than three inches is created. 21. land/taxi light switch - OFF
• No fastener which performs a secondary func- 22. Exterior light switch - OFF
tion of supporting a bracket or other equipment 23. Salvo jettison switch - OFF
may be missing. 24. Yaw stabilization switch - OFF RESET

112 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR OI-45HHD-l Section III
Shore .. Based Procedures

EXTERIOR INSPECTION
G) NOSE SECTIO N
Access dooes and paneI5.. _____ _. _____ ... SECUREO *
Pitot cover .. __ ........... __ ...................... REMOVED
Nose cone ......................................... SECURED
Intake d uct....................................... NO OBSTRUCfION,
WRINKLES, OR
MISSING RIVETS
A/ A transducer vane ............. __ .... _. NO DAMAGE
Oxygen 6.1 Ier .......................... ......... CAP SECURE, ON
BUILDUP, COVER
CLOSED
Gun camera window_... _.. _... __ .. _... _.. NO DAMAGE
Emergency air venL_...... _......... _..... CLOSED

I
I R receiver .................. _... __ .. _. __ .... __ .. _. CLEAN, NO

o NO SEWH EEL W ELL


Nose gea r doors_. ___ ._. ____ ....... _._ .. ___.... SECURE
DAMAGE

Nose gear.. _............ _.... _____ . __. __ _.... __ ._ STRUT, TIRE


Spoiler .... _ _ ................... _._ .... ______.. NO DAMAGE
Flap .... ..... .. ........................ NO DAMAGE
App roach ligh ts .. _______ ._ .... _... __ ._. ____ ... NO DAMAGE, External stores.............. _._._... _. _______ .CHECK SECURITY
LENSES CLEAN Of RACKS, RAILS
Dow nlock._... _..... ____ ._ .. ____________ .... _____ INSTALLED AND LAUNCHERS
Armament disable sw itch .... _... __ .... GUARD DOWN RIGHT AFT FUSELAGE
Underside of fuselage ... _________ . ___ .. _.. NO HYDRAUUC PC No.2 rese rvoir ___ . __ .. _._ ..... _. __ ._. PROPER SERVICING

CD RIGHT FORWAR D FUSEL AGE


Pylons and launchers ___ ............ _..... SECURED
LEAKS Access doors and panels.
Fuel cell cavity "ent portL ___ ....... NO OBSTRUCTION
.SECURED*
Rig ht ventral fin .... _... __ .. _... ___ .. __ .. ___ SECURE, NO
Ordnance.......................................... SECURED, SAFETY DAMAGE
PINS INSTA LLED Und erside of fu selage_. __ ... _ _ ___ ..... NO FLUID LEAKS
Fo rm ation light.. __. __ . ___ ............ _ .... NO DAMAGE Formation ligh ts .. ___ . __ . __. __ .. ___ . ___ .. _.... NO DAMAGE
Static ports ... _._ .. __ .......... __ .. _.. ___ . ________ CLEAR EMPENNAGE AND TA I L CONE
H ydrauli c reservoir ..................... __ .. PROPER SERVICE
Pn eumatic gages .. __ .__ ... PROPER PRESSURE Tail hook. ........................................ SECURE. NO LEAKS
Unde rside of fu selage ._ __ ..._._ NO FLUID LEAKS Horizont al taiL ..... __ . __ _.............. _.. NO DAMAGE
Vert ica l taiL ..... _ ......... __ .. __ . ___ . ___ . ___ .. NO DAMAGE
Lowe r antico ll ision lig ht _....... _... __ . NO DAMA GE
Access doo rs and panel s__ .. ___ .. __ .___ .. SECURED * Rudde<.. ......... .. .. .................... NO DAMAGE,
BATTEN REMOVED
Speed brake.......... .. .... NO DAMAGE OR Positio n lig h t.. .. ..................... NO DAMAGE
CD RIGHT MA IN WHE el WelL
Gear door and actuator __ ... __ .. _ .. __ ._ SECURE, NO CRACKS
FLUID LEAKS Tailpipe .. ................ NO WRINKLES OR
CRACKS, COLOR
NORMAL
Wheel welL ................................ NO HYDRAULIC Nozzle bearings ... _.. ................. NO RUST OR
LEAKS BI NDING
Ge. r ....................._.... ........... ....... STRUT EXTENSION. Nozzle flaps.. .. .................. NO DAMAGE,
TIRE INfLATION BINDNG OR RUST
Brake pucks.... _.. _. __................ _....... W ITHIN LIMITS ON LI NKAG E.
Wheel hoi IS ........... ...... ..................... SECURE, NONE Upper wing su rfaces . _. ___ ...... _.... PA N ELS SECURE,
MISSING NO WRINKLING OR
Landing t axi light_.. __ ... ____ ._ .. __ .. _____ NO DAMAGE BUCKLIN G
Fuel system ve nt port. .... _..... ___ ._..... NOT COVERED LEFT AFT FUSelAGE
Down lock. .. _............ _........... _........... l NSTA LLED
PC accumulato!.. _.. __ . _______ . _... __ . _______ NO LEAK S Repea t step 6
Tiedown ring._ ........ _....... _... _...._ ...... FLUSH Fuel ve nt ... ___ ._. . NO OBSTRUCfION
Gea r·up lockpin .. _... _. ____ .. ___ ._. __ ._. _____ SECURE PC No. 1 reservo ir ... PROPER SERV ICI NG
Uploc k rolle<.. ................................. NO BINDING LEFT MAIN WHEel WelL
Main fuel line...... _...._. __ .. __ .. __ . ______ __ . NO LEAKS
Repeat step 4
RIGHT WING Wing fuel man ual shutoff va lve _ . OPEN
Check ge neral condition ................. NO FLUID LEAKS Fuel selec[Q r switch.. POWER OFF
Access doors and panels .... ___ ........... SECURED* Pressu re fuelin g cap _.. __ . ___ ... __ ........ SECURED
Leading edge .................................... NO DAMAGE OR H ydra ulic ha nd p ump ha ndle .... STOWED
HYDRAULI C LEAKS
Wing hinge pins_............... __..... ___ LOCKED ( PANELS
SPREAD AND
@ Repeat step 5
LEFT W ING

LOCKED)
W ingfold wa rn ing fiag s................. RETRACTED
( PANELS SPREAD
@ Access doors and panels..
LEFT FORWARD FUSelAGE
.. __ . SECURED*
AND LOCKED) Formalion li ght ......... NO DAMAGE
Don ut seaL ...................................... NOT LEAKI NG Upper a nti co lli sio n light __ ..... NO DAMAGE
OR DEFORMED Pylon s and laun chers ..... SECURED
For mat ion lig ht. ........................... NO DAMAGE Ordn:lncc ..... __ .. SECURE D, SAfETY
P ositi on ligh t ............... ..... NO DAMAGE PINS INSTALLED
Aile ro n .. NO DAMAGE OR Ca nop}'_... _ __ .CRAZING OR
LEA KS. BATTEN CRACKS WITHIN
REMOVED LIMITS
* Refer to EXTER IOR INSPECTION pamg raph for informatio n on a ll owab le mi ssin g fa ste ne rs. 63762-2- 12 NE

Figure 3-1

Changed 15 Jul y 1966 113


Section III NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Shore-Based Procedures

COCKPIT E N T R Y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

e;&;zRelea~ Buttons
To open top step, press
lower release button.

I
-,

-~
To extend lower step, press re-
lease mechanism and pull step.

~_ _ Step Extension - (SSE)


Right Foot U76Z-Z-Z

Figure 3-2
114
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section III
Shore-Based Procedures

UECTION SYSTEM INSPECTION~~~~~~~~~~~~

"4.1jW*I
'f
r .'······
."
i
.
Ensure that all six ejection system safety pins (sheet 3)
are installed before entering the airplane .
BEFORE ENTERING SEAT, CHECK:
1 Check seat type (MK-F5 or -F5A) to determine
ejection capability.
1A Canopy interrupter release handle stowed.
2 Link line passed through guillotine trap
(yellow door) and connected to parachute with-
drawal line with no gap between connector
halves.
2A Top latch plunger not protruding from end of
top latch housing*.
I
AFTER ENTERING SEAT, CHECK:
28 Indicator plunger flush with end of top latch 15 Secondary firing handle stowed.
plunger*.
16 Leg restraint lines pulled to check snubber
3 Parachute O-ring stowed. action.
4 Shoulder harness-to ensure proper attachment. 11 Emergency canopy jettison handle stowed.
4A Check that the indicator on the bottom of the 18 Remove remaining safety pins in the following
drogue gun firing mechanism extends about order:
one-half inch from the bottom of the mechattism. a. Guillotine firing mechanism pin
This indicates the mechanism is cockedt b. Secondary firing handle pin
c. Face curtain pin (plane captain may re-
5 Drogue gun trip rod (LH side) pinned to bulk- move)
head behind seat. Red painted section ot triprod (Pins and locations are illustrated in sheet 3.)
not showing (should be covered by trip rod outer
barrel) *. 19 Hand safety pins to plane captain who will dis-
play the six pins prior to stowing them in the
6 Face curtain handle stowed. safety pin container.
1 Face curtain firing cable undamaged and con- 20 Route leg restraint lines as shown and attach
nected to ejection gun sear.
plug-in fittings to front of seat. The leg restraint
8 Canopy interrupter cable undamaged, properly lines must be hooked up at all times during
routed, and connected to interrupter release flight to ensure that the legs will be restrained
pin and to canopy bulkhead. in the aft position following ejection. This will
9 Drogue parachute withdrawal line routed as prevent leg injury and enhance seat stability
shown and lying aft and below level of canopy by preventing the legs from flailing.
breaker points.
10 Timed-release mechanism trip rod (RH side)
pinned to bulkhead behind seat. Red painted g"jimUi
section of trip rod not showing (should be cov- Do not cross the leg restraint lines or pass
ered by trip rod outer barrel)*. them around the control stick. Misrouted
11 Emergency harness release handle stowed and lines can result in serious pilot injury upon
attached to guillotine firing mechanism. ejection.
12 Lap harness - to ensure proper attachment. 21 Push leg restraining release lever and extend
13 Emergency oxygen bottle pressure. Emergency legs to normal operating position. If too much
oxygen bottle lanyard secured to structure, lan- line has been released from the restraint snub-
yard quick-disconnect locked, and lanyard not ber, raise the seat and have plane captain

r
foul~d on seat or cockpit floor. manually pull the line from the aft side of
14 Pull the first group of safety pins in the follow- the snubber.
ing order:
a. Canopy actuator initiator pin
b. drogue gun pin
i4.NdUI
c. ejection gun pin Too much slack will hinder release of
(Pins and locations are illustrated in sheet 3.) the leg restraint lines.
tSeats with Air Crew Systems Change No. 56.
*Seats with Air Crew Systems Change No. 19. 6376l-l-4N E

Figure 3-3 (Sheet J)

Changed 15 July 1966 115


Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Shore-Based Procedures

EJECTION SYSTEM INSPECTION

"'.
See Detail C

~.

~~
I ~"':\:.-.-,.. -;: - Guillotine \

Parachute \:Tra p Door


\!ithdrawal ~ /
Line
/- ~~, ~.

'·'i'·"'·'
Drogue Gun
Trip Rod
) /
t~.....~
(

•.'i,.,,++ '·'i'·1I·' 6376Z-Z-3 (Z) N E

Figure 3-3 (Sheef 2J


116 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-l Section III
Shore-Based Procedures

UEcnON SYSTEM INSPECnON~~~~~~~~~~~~

.'·······'"
;.~

r···

Pin 1

: (~
:i~Q.---
/'0
Pin 1 - Face Curtain \ '

Pin 4 - Guillotine Firing Mechanism

Pin 2 - Ejection Gun

""
('..... /' ..

SAFETY PIN
PROPERLY
INSTALLED

Pin 3 - Drogue Gun


,.nt."'.'
figure 3-3 (Sheet 3J

Changed 15 July 1966 117


Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Shore-Based Procedures
25. Roll stabilization switch - OFF RESET However, a down indication can usually be
26. Emergency pitch trim handle - STOWED obtained by cycling the master generator switch
27. Emergency power handle - STOWED between TEST and OFF several times.
28. Autopilot master switch - OFF • Do not crank the engine until a positive down
29. Landing gear handle - WHLS DOWN indication is received for all landing gear.
30. Emergency downlock release switch - OFF 6. Main fuel shutoff valve - CHECK
Instrument Board • Give the plane captain the drinking ~ignal.
When he is at the starboard wheel well, place
31. Inflight refueling probe switch - OFF the engine master switch ON.
32. Radio altimeter - OFF • Plane captain will check that the main fuel
33. Oil cooler door switch - AUTO shutoff valve opens and will signify proper
34. Fuel dump switch - OFF operation by a thumbs-up signal.

I 35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Fuel transfer switch - OFF
Armament selector switch - OFF
Mechanical fusing switch - SAFE
Master armament switch - OFF
Gun arming switch - SAFE
7.
8.
9.
Pitot heat - CHECKED
Manual fuel control light - OFF
Fuel pump warning light - ON
I
40. Missile jettison or selective jettison switch - OFF 10. Engine oil/hydraulic pressure warning light - ON
11. Fuel low level warning light- OFF (press to test)
Right Side
12. Fire warning light-OFF (press to test)
41. Arresting gear handle - HOOK UP
13. Warning lights - PRESS TO TEST
42. Engine anti-icing switch - OFF
43. Pitot heat switch - OFf • Press to test any warning lights not illuminated
44. Master generator switch - OFF RESET Starting Engine (Pilot Controlled)
45. Emergency generator switch - OFF
46. Air-conditioning manual override switch - AUTO 1. External starting source - CONNECTED
47. Cockpit temperature knob - AS DESIRED • Give the plane captain the two-finger signal.
48. Cockpit pressure switch - CABIN PRESS He will check with the GTC operator and will
49. Rain removal switch - OFF return the signal when ready for start.
50. Defogger switch - OFF 2. Throttle - CRANK (momentarily)
51. Autopilot altitude hold switch - OFF - IGNITE (at 5% rpm)
52. TACAN master switch - OFF - IDLE (at 12% rpm)
53. UHF function switch - OFF • The ignition circuit remains energized for 30
54. IFF master switch - OFF to 40 seconds.
55. Cockpit emergency ventilation knob - CLOSED • Ignition normally occurs within 3 seconds.
56. Instrument and console lights - AS DESIRED • Acceleration to idle rpm is normally attained
40 to 45 seconds after throttle is placed in IDLE.
Stick Grip
3. Engine instruments - CHECK
57. Pitch trim knob - NEUTRAL
58. Roll trim knob - NEUTRAL • After placing the throttle in idle during engine
59. Radar control grip - LOCKED start, the PC-I, PC-2, and utility hydraulic
pressures will rise rapidly to operating pres-
STARTING ENGINE sures. The engine oil/hydraulic pressure warn-
ing light should remain on, since the oil pres-
Prestart Check sure will still be below 34 psi (generally about
1. Starting equipment in position. 20 psi). If the light goes out as soon as the
hydraulic system pressures are up and the oil
2. Fire guard standing by. pressure is still below 34 psi, a malfunctioning
3. Danger areas (figure 1-52) dear. oil pressure switch is indicated.
• Check EGT, oil pressure indicators, and tach-
4. External power - CONNECTED ometer for proper indication and that limita-
• Give plane captain one-finger signal. When tions are not exceeded.
signal is returned, place master generator switch 4. External starting source - REMOVED
to TEST. • Starter air supply should automatically shut off
between 46% and 53% engine rpm. When the
5. Landing gear indicators - DOWN engine reaches 40% to idle rpm, give the plane
• If landing gear indicators do not show the gear captain the two-finger unplug signal. The GTC
down, a possible electrical malfunction exists. will be disconnected.

118 Changed 15 July 1966


r

NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Sedion 111


Shore-Based Procedures

5. External electrical power - DISCONNECTED fuel drainage period, purge engine, and
• When the engine stabilizes at idle rpm and repeat STARTING ENGINE procedure.
main generator indicator shows ON, turn master Retard throttle to OFF immediately if engine
generator switch OFF. Barnes out. The aircraft is down until cause
is determined.
• Give the plane captain the one·finger unplug
signal and ensure external electrical power
disconnected. UNSATISFACTORY ENGINE STARTS

6. Master generator switch - ON Hot Start


If the exhaust temperature exceeds the starting tem-

I
7. Main generator indicator - ON
perature limit, proceed as follows:
8. Attitude indicator - OFF not showing
L Throttle - OFF
9. Engine, fuel, and hydraulic warning lights - OFF 2. Master generator switch - OFF RESET
• Fuel pump warning light - OFF 3. Investigate cause of difficulty and possible damage.
• Fuel boost pumps warning light - OFF 4. Perform PURGING ENGINE procedure before
• Engine oiUhydraulic pressure warning light- attempting another Start.
OFF

f CAUTION 1 Failure To Start

If the engine does not ignite within 20 seconds after


If throttle is inadvertently retarded to OFF,
do not advance throttle to regain light as a throttle is placed in IDLE, or after ignition the engine
hot Start or fire will result. Allow a 3D·second does not stabilize to idle condition, proceed as for a
HOT START.
fuel drainage period, purge engine, and repeat

I
STARTING ENGINE procedure. Retard
throttle to OFF immediately if engine flames
out. The aircraft is down until the cause is
determined.
f CAUTION 1
Normally, no engine warmup is required. After the
engine has stabilized to idle conditions, the throttle Do not attempt another start until a check has
may be advanced to full power. At ambient tempera- been made to ensure that all excess fuel has
tures below -35°C (-31°F), operate engine at idle drained from the aft section of the aircraft.
for 2 to 5 minutes before making higher power set-
tings. Cold Start Hang-Up
10. Communications and navigation equipment - ON Below 25% ,.p"" if engine hangs "p:
Starting Engine (Ground Controlled) L Throttle - OFF
The ground crew will notify the pilot that the start If mgine ha1Jgs up before reaching idle rp",:
will be ground controJled before cranking is initiated.
Give the two-finger signal for the ground crew to 1. Fuel control switch - MANUAL
initiate cranking. Move the throttle to CRANK, to 2. Throttle - slowly advance if necessary
IGNITE at 5% rpm, and then follow the normal engine
starting procedure. 3. Fuel control switch - NORMAL

When the start is ground controlled, automatic shutoff • When engine reaches idle rpm.
of the starter air supply will not occur. Give the two-
finger unplug signal at 40% to idle rpm so the ground
crew can shut off the starter air supply.
PURGING ENGINE
Normally, no engine warmup period is required. After
the engine has stabilized at idle, the throttle may be If strong tail winds exist, it may be necessary to turn
advanced to full power. At ambient temperatures the aircraft into the wind prior to purging the engine.
below -35°C (-31°F), operate engine at idle for 2
to 5 minutes before making higher power settings. To clear e1J,gine of t·t ·apped ftlel or vapo1'S:

f CAUTION 1 1.
2.
3.
Master generator switch - OFF
Throttle - OFF
External starting source - CON N ECTED
If throttle is inadvertently retarded to OFF, 4. Give plane captain two-finger signal for turnup.
do not advance throttle to regain light as a 5. Allow engine to rotate for 15 to 20 seconds.
hot start or fire will res ult. Allow a 30-second 6. Give plane captain signal to disconnect air.

Changed 15 July 1965 119


Section III NAVWEPS OI·45HHD- I
Shore-Based Procedures
7. Allow a 3D-second fuel drainage period and have

I
7. Stab switches - OFF, lights ON
plane captain inspect tailpipe for excess fuel before
starting engine. 8. Stab switches - ON, ligbts OFF

9. Cockpit switcbes - AS DESIRED


Note
Operation of the integral starter is limited
to 1 minute. Af£er twO unsuccessful starting Manual Fuel Switch Check
cycles, a IS-minute cooling period is required
1. Throttle - IDLE
before attempting a third start.
2. Fuel control switch - MANUAL
GROUND CHECKS • Modulate throttle to keep engine rpm between

I Note
For each 5 minutes of static ground operation,
cycle wing and flight controls to prevent
overheating of hydraulic lIuid.
65% and 74% to prevent the possibility of
engine damage during acceleration.
3. Manual fuel control ligbt -
4. Throttle - ADVANCE
ON

• Check for engine response.


Initial Check
5. Tbrottle - IDLE
1. Boost pump pressure - CHECKED
6. Fuel control switcb - NORMAL
• Give plane captain the drinking signal. He will
check the boost pump pressures and if satis- 7. Manual fuel control ligbt - OFF
factory give a thumbs-up signal.

2. Fuel transfer switch - ON


With Wing Down
• Observe flicker of transfer pump caution light Refer to section VII for information concerning hand
(flight instrument ligbt rheostat must be OFF). signals.
3. Fuel flow - CH ECKED 1. Emergency pitcb trim - CHECK

Occasionally the fuel flow indication may appear • Raise tbe emergency pitcb trim T -handle upon
abnormal for idle (more tban a 1,000 pph signal from the plane captain.
error). This is usually a phase error in the gage • Wben directed, move tbe T-bandle to obtain
and can be corrected as follows: full UHT trim in each direction (both trim
a. After ensuring that the danger areas are channels must be utilized to obtain full throw).
clear, advance th e throttle until the fuel flow • Monitor the nose trim indicator for movement
needle has rotated clockwise to O. in the proper direction.
b. Place master generator switch OFF. • Zero tbe trim and stow tbe T -handle.
c. Retard throttle to IDLE and allow engine to • After the T-handle is stowed, check the nose
stabilize. trim indicator for a value equal to the stick
d. Place master generator switch ON. pitch trim knob setting plus 50 .
e. Check main generator indicatOr ON and atti-
tude indicator off flag not showing. 2. Contrnl surfaces - CYCLE

f. Fuel flow should now read normal. If not, • On signal from the plane captain, "wipe out
repeat procedure. the cockpit" witb the concrol stick.
4. Landing gear down locks - REMOVEO
• Follow a rectangular pattern and ensure that
tbe stick contacts all lateral and lnngitudinal
• The plane captain will display tbe tbree down- stops.
locks after removal. • The plane captain will ensure that all controls
move properly.
5. Fuel quantity test switch - PRESS
• Main and transfer fuel quantity indicators drop
to zero, and return to original readings when
Note
released. If control binding occurs, maintain the
binding position and notify maintenance
6. Hydraulic pressures - CHECKED, WARNING LIGHT
personnel. Do not release control pressure,
OFF change configuration, or shut down until a
• All pressure gages read 3,000 ( ± 200) psi. thorough inspection has been made.

120 Changed 15 July 1965


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section III
Shore-Based Procedures
3. Aileron-rudder interconnect - CHECK With Wing Up
• Apply full aileron in each direction while 7. Angle of attack system - CHECK
holding rudder pedals neutral.
• Check that rudder neutral light flashes as • Move transducer vane (RH side of fuselage, just
ailerons are moved. aft of emergency vent door) through entire
• The plane captain will check rudder deflection range, noting operation of the angle-of-attack
in a direction opposite to aileron movement. indicator and indexer. Cross-check indexer
and indicator within the approach range
4. Cruise droop operation - CHECK
(figure 1-13).
• Check the leading edge droop indicator UP.

I
8. Control surfaces - CYCLE
• On signal from the plane captain, place cruise
droop switch DOWN. • On signal from the plane captain, cycle the
• Observe droop movement and check leading control surfaces.
edge droop indicator DOWN. • Check that the clean condition stops have dis-
• Leave the cruise droop switch in the DOWN engaged.
position. 9. Aileron-rudder interconnect - CHECK
5. Autopilot - CHECK • Apply full aileron in each direction while hold-
• Engage autopilot and check for normal opera- ing rudder pedals neutral.
tion. • Rudder should not move from neutral.
• Turn off the roll stab switch and check that the 10. Rudder trim - CHECK
autopilot disengages and the autopilot light • On signal from the plane captain, rotate the
goes out. Return the roll stab switch to ON rudder trim knob full left, full right, then to
and reengage the autopilot. Raise the emer- zero.
gency pitch trim handle and check that the • Check that the rudder neutral trim light is on.
autopilot disengages and the autopilot light
goes out. Stow the handle and reengage the 11. Aileron trim - CHECK
autopilot. As the wing is raised, check. that the • On signal from the plane captain, rotate the
autopilot disengages and the autopilot light roll trim knob full left, full right, then to zero.
goes out. • Check action of ailerons and that the aileron
neutral trim light is on when trim is at zero.
6. Wing - RAISE
12. Normal pitch trim - CHECK
• On signal from the plane captain, unlock the
• On signal from the plane captain, rotate the
wing and try to place the wing incidence handle
pitch trim knob to obtain full nose-down trim,
to the UP position without first depressing the
full nose-up trim, and then to zero. Plane cap-
release switch. Do not use excessive force.
tain will visually check each UHT for zero trim

I
position.

WARNING • Numerical values of the nose trim indicator


should closely correspond to the values of the
-- stick pitch trim knob.
If the wing incidence handle moves, down
the aircraft. There should be no forces oppos- 13. Viscous d~mper - CHECK
ing the movement of the wing incidence • On signal from the plane captain, push the
handle when the button is depressed, nor control stick fully forward. When released, the
should there be any forces which would tend stick should reposition smoothly to its original
to move the handle unassisted when it is out position.
of either detent. If any such forces are noted, • Repeat the check, releasing the stick from the
the proper rigging and condition of the inci- full aft position.
dence control cable should be investigated. • If the stick snaps back, or overshoots its origi-
nal position, down the aircraft.
• Depress the release switch and move the wing 14. Exhaust nozzle - CHECK
incidence handle to UP. • The plane captain will assume a position to the
• Observe that the leading edge droop, flaps, and rear of the aircraft.
horizontal ~il move to the landing condition. • On signal, advance the throttle briefly to a max-
• Check that lhe nose trim indicator has auto- imum of 75% rpm Ilnd return it to IDLE.
matically corrected to a value corresponding to • The plane captain will confirm proper exhaust
that of the stick pitch trim knob. nozzle operation.
• Place hands outside the cockpit and have the 15. Brakes - CHECK
plane captain check the wing well for leaks, • On release brake signal from plane captain,
damage, or foreign objects. pump brake pedals and release.
Changed 1 5 July 1966 121
Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD·1
Shore-Based Procedures
• Plane captain will check the brake discs for • Check canopy lock indicator for locked indica-
freedom of movement. tion.
16. Arresting hook - CHECK • Stow locking handle.
• Turn on cockpit pressurization.
• On signal from plane captain, place arresting
hook handle in HOOK DOWN. 21. Oxygen - CHECK
• Place arresting hook handle in HOOK UP when
cleared by plane captain.
• Observe arresting hook warning light for
proper operation. TAXI AND TAKEOFF

17. Inflight refueling probe - CHECK BY CYCLING IF
USE IS CONTEMPLATED
TAXIING

I
On signal from the plane captain, extend the
probe.
• Check probe out light on. 1. Fuel control switch - NORMAL
• The plane captain will inspect the probe for • Do not taxi with the fuel control switch in
integrity arid for proper operation. MANUAL.
• Retract the probe on signal from the plane
captain and hold the probe switch IN for 5 2. Throttle - 70% to 80% rpm
seconds after the probe out light goes off. • Clear area fore and aft before adding power.
• Check probe out light off. • The aircraft will normally move at 70% rpm
18. Wing - FOLDED (if necessary) with the brakes released.
• Turn the roll stab switch off and center the 3. Brakes - RELEASE
control stick.
• Pull wingfold lock lever up and back until it 4. Throttle - AS DESIRED
engages the detent. • Idle power should be adequate for normal op-
• Raise the wingfold lever to fold the outer wing eration.
panels. • Do not ride the brakes or use excessive differen-
• Do not taxi long distances with the wing panels tial braking during normal taxi.
folded. • If the aircraft tends to pull laterally in one
• Never actuate any of the wingfold controls direction, return to the line.
without utility hydraulic pressure. • Do not taxi with the canopy open at airspeeds
19. Wing-sPREAD AND LOCKED greater than 60 KIAS. When opening canopy,
• Turn the roll stab switch off and center the manually restrain to prevent combination of
control stick. rotational velocity and air loads from shearing
• Place wingfold lever down to spread outer wing canopy actuator rod end shear pin.
panels.
• Place wingfold lock lever down to lock the 5. Nose gear steering-cHEcK
hinge pins.

I
• The wing must be up to obtain full nose gear

WARNING I steering.
• Neutralize the rudder pedals before depressing
the nose gear steering switch or the nosewheel
If wingfold lock lever springs back during will be abruptly displaced in the direction of
operation or an excessive force is required to rudder deflection.
move the lever to the lock position, down • If the aircraft turns with nose gear steering
the aircraft. The wingfold lock system must engaged and the rudder pedals in neutral, re-
be checked for proper operation and rigging turn to the line.
before Hight. • Steering will disengage abOve 60° angle of
deflection. Brakes and power will be required
• Plane captain will check that red warning Hags to bring the nosewheel within the controlled
are retracted and visually check that the hinge steering limits.
pins are locked. • If steering is sluggish, cycle the rudder pedals
20. Canopy - CLOSE, LOCK, STOW HANDLE or make gentle S turns to build up accumulator
• Turn cockpit pressurization and defog off. pressure.
• Pull canopy down and hold with left hand. 6. Magnetic compass - CHECK
• Actuate canopy locking handle full aft, then
full forward, making certain that full travel • Check for indication of proper direction and
has been achieved (over center). for freedom of movement.
122 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section III
Shore-Based Procedures
7. Turn and bank indicator - CHECK
• Check that needle moves in the direction of
THRUST CHECK DATA - J57·P·20 - -
turn and that the ball is free in the race.
MINIMUM MINIMUM
PRESSURE PRESSURE
TAKEOFF OF RATIO °c OF RATIO °c
Refer to section XI for takeoff distances and speeds -38 2.86 -38.9 40 2.48 4.4
required at varying gross weights, temperatures, and ·-36 2.85 -37.8 42 2.47 5.6
field elevations. Maximum thrust ( CRT) is recom- -34 2.84 -36.7 44 2.46 6.7
mended for takeoffs at gross weights in excess of -32 2.83 -35.5 46 2.45 1.8
30,000 pounds or if more than 10,000 feet of runway
would be required using military thrust. -30 2.82 -34.4 48 2.44 8.9

Instrument Checklist

1. Altimeter - SET
-28
-26
-24
2.81
2.80
2.79
-33.3
-32.2
-31.1
50
52
54
2.43
2.42
2.41
10.0
11.1
12.2
I
-22 2.78 -30.0 56 2.40 13.3
2. Radio altimeter - ON
-20 2.77 -28.9 58 2.39 14.4
1 • Allow at least 12 minutes warmup time to en-
sure final accuracy.
3. Airspeed indicator - ZERO
-18
-16
2.76
2.75
-27.7
-26.6
60
62
2.38
2.37
15.6
16.7
-14 2.74 -25.5 64 2.36 17.8
4. Vertical speed - ZERO
-12 2.73 -24.4 66 2.35 18.9
5. Gyro horizon - ERECT AND SET -10 2.73 -23.3 68 2.34 20.0
6. Clock - RUNNING AND SET
-8 2.72 -22.2 70 2.33 21.1
7. MA-l compass-sET -6 2.71 -21.1 72 2.32 22.2
• Check that white synchronizing bar moves to -4 2.70 -20.0 74 2.31 23.3
the left with counterclockwise rotation of com- -2 2.69 -18.8 76 2.30 24.4
pass setting knob and to the right with clock- 78 2.29 25.6
wise rotation. 0 2.68 -17.8
8. TACAN-ON 80 2.28 26.7
2 2.67 -16.7 82 2.27 27.8

I
9. Course indicator - SET AS DESIRED
4 2.66 -15.6 84 2.26 28.9
10. ADF - CHECK 6 2.65 -14.4 86 2.24 30.0
11. IFF/SIF - AS DESIRED 8 2.64 -13.3 88 2.23 31.1
12. Pitot heat - ON 10 2.63 -12.2 90 2.22 32.2

1
13. Engine anti-ice - AS REQUIRED 12 2.62 -11.1 92 2.21 33.3
14. Rain removal- AS REQUIRED 14 2.61 -10.0 94 2.20 34.4
16 2.60 -8.9 96 2.19 35.6
15. Engine pressure ratio indicator - SET
18 2.59 -7.8 98 2.18 36.7
• Set the EPR indicator counter to the minimum
acceptable value for existing ambient tempera- 20 2.58 -6.7 100 2.17 37.8
ture (figures 3-4 and 3-5). 22 2.57 -5.6 102 2.16 38.9
24 2.56 -4.4 104 2.15 40.0
TakeoH Checklist
26 2.55 -3.3 106 2.14 41.1
The takeoff checklist will be completed prior to take- 28 2.54 -2.2 108 2.13 42.2
off. Figure 3-6 presents the short, cockpit-mounted
checklist. 30 2.53 -1.1 110 2.12 43.3
32 2.52 0 112 2.11 44.4
1. Fuel- CHECKED 34 2.51 1.1 114 2.10 45.6
• Check for proper quantity in the main and 36 2.50 2.2 116 2.09 46.7
transfer systems. 38 2.49 3.3 118 2.07 47.8
• Check fuel transfer switch ON.
• Check fuel control switch NORMAL and manual 6376Z-Z-1

fuel control light out. Figure 3-4


123
Section II I NAVA IR 01 -45HHD-l
Sho re-Based Pr o ced ures
2. Wing -
THRUST CHECK DATA - J57-P-20A-- SPREAD AND LOCKED

• Visually check that w ings are spread.


MINIMUM MINIMUM • Check w ingfold lock lever down.
PRESSURE PRESSURE 3. Wing - RAISED
'F RATIO 'c 'F RATIO 'c • Check wing incidence handle up.
-38" 2.99 -38 .9 40 2.60 4.4 • Visually check that the wing is raised and that
-37.8 42 2.58 5.6 the landing droop is extended .
-36 2.98
• Check wing-wheels·droop warning light OFF.
-34 2.97 -36.7 44 2.57 6.7
- 32 2.97 - 35 .5 46 2.56 7 .8 4. Yaw and roll stab lights - O FF

-30 2.96 -34.4 48 2.55 8.9 • Check stabilization switches ON , lights off.

I -28
-26
-24
2.95
2.94
2.93
- 33 .3
- 32 .2
- 31. 1
50
52
54
2.54
2.53
2.52
10.0
11. 1
12.2
5. Trim - SET FOR TAKEOFF

• Set pitch trim 0° to 3° nose up ( 1 0 nose up for


CRT takeoff), rudder and aileron trim neutral.
• Check trim neutral lights on.
-22 2.92 -30.0 56 2.51 13 .3
6. Speed brake -

-20 2.91 - 28.9 58 2.50 14.4 RETR ACTE D

• Check speed brake switch UP and lig ht off.


-18
-16
2.90
2.89
- 27.7
-26.6
60
62
2.48
2.47
15.6
16.7 7. Harness - LOCKED, ALL SAF ETY PINS REMOVED I
_1. 2.88 - 25.5 64 2.46 17.8 • Check shoulder harness lock lever locked In
-12 2.86 - 24.4 66 2.4 5 18.9 the forward posi tion.
-23.3 68 2.44 20 .0 • Strain aga inst the harness to ensure that it is
-10 2.85
locked .
-8 2.84 -22.2 70 2.43 21. 1
8. Compass - SET
-6 2.84 - 2 1. 1 72 2.42 22 .2
-4 2.83 -20 .0 74 2.41 23.3
-2 2.82 - 18 .8 76 2.40 24.4
78 2.39 25 .6
0 2.8 1 -1 7 .8
26.7
TAKEOFF CHECKLIST - - - -
80 2.38
(COCKPIT MOUNTED)
2 2.80 - 16.7 82 2.37 27.8
4 2.79 -15.6 84 2.36 28.9
6 2.77 -1 4 .4 86 2.35 30 .0
8 2.76 - 13 .3 88 2.34 31. 1

10 2.75 -12.2 90 2.33 32 .2


12 2.74 - 11. 1 92 2.32 33.3
14 2.73 -10 .0 94 2.3 1 34.4
16 2.72 - 8 .9 96 2.29 35.6
18 2.7 1 -7.8 98 2.28 36.7

20 2.70 -6.7 100 2.27 37.8


22 2.69 -5 .6 102 2.26 38.9
24 2.68 -4.4 104 2.25 40.0
26 2.67 -3 .3 106 2.24 41.1
28 2.66 - 2.2 108 2.23 42.2

30 2.65 -1. 1 11 0 2.22 43.3


32 2.64 0 112 2.2 1 44.4
34 2.63 1. 1 114 2.20 45 .6
36 2.62 2.2 116 2. 19 46.7
38 2.6 1 3.3 118 2. 18 47.8
6 37 62 _ ~_ 1 7

figure 3-5 figure 3-6


124 Changed 15 July 1966
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section III
Shore-Based Procedures

TAKEOFF - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(TYPICAL) Wing-UP
Cruise droop switch - DOWN
Throttle - Military
Release brakes

7
Nose gear steering
used In Initial ground
roll

. •• ••
••
Start nose up rotation-
125 KIAS (no ext.rnal stores'
I
•• ••
•• •••
Break ground-
approximately 1 50 KIAS

Gear- UP

Airspeed - 170-1 80 KIAS


Altitude - 200 FEET
Wing-ON
Oownlock handle - LOCK

-n·IiM
Spuds are for military thrust takeoff at gross weight of
28,000 pounds. At takeoff gross weights greater than 28,000
pounds, increase wing lowering speed approximately 3 knots
for each additional 1,000 pounds. Refer to section XI for The gear must be retracted and the wing must be down and
additional data at other gross weights. locked before reaching 220 KIAS.
6376Z-Z-7

Figure 3-7
9. Canopy - CLOSED, LOCKED, HANDLE STOWED, GUST • Check engine speed within limits. If 106.3%
LOCK REMOVED rpm is exceeded, return to the line. If 106.3%
• Check canopy fully closed with locking handle rpm is exceeded during or after takeoff, reduce
in full forward position and stowed. thrust to the minimum acceptable for Bight,
• Check canopy gust lock removed and stowed. and land as soon as practicable.
10. Cockpit pressurization - ON • Check hydraulic pressures within limits.
11. Anticollision lights - ON 3. Brakes - RELEASE
12. Antiexposure coverall ventilation switch - NORM

1 CABIN PRESS
13. Continuous engine ignition switch - ON

• Place switch ON just before advancing throttle


• Release brakes and nose gear steering if en-
gaged. Nose gear steering should only be used
during the early part of the takeoff roll to cor-
rect for poor lineup.
for power check.
• For afterburner takeoffs, move throttle sharply
Takeoff (MRT feRT) to the outboard detent after releasing brakes. A
Refer to figure 3-7 for illustration of typical takeoff. noticeable increase in thrust and acceleration
will occur as the afterburner ignites. Abort the
1. Throttle - MILITARY
takeoff if the afterburner fails to ignite. A rapid
• Advance throttle to MILITARY pressure ratio rise without subsequent decrease,
• If brakes do not hold, return to the line. and rapid rise in exhaust temperature accom-
panied by a decrease of 4% rpm indicates that
2. Engine instruments - CHECK
the exhaust nozzle Baps have failed to open.
• Check engine oil pressure and EGT for indica- Stop afterburning immediately.
tions within limits.
• Check that the engine pressure ratio equals or • Maintain directional control with differential
exceeds the preset value. If it does not, the braking until the rudder becomes effective
engine is not acceptable for Bight. (approximately 60 KIAS).
Changed 15 July 1966 125
Section III NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Shore-Based Procedures

I • At 125 KIAS (no external stores), ease the nose


wheel off the runway to establish takeoff atti- ALLOWABLE CROSSWINDS----
tude. Refer to section XI for takeoffs with FOR TAKEOFF AND LANDING
external stores.
• The aircraft will become airborne at approxi-
I mately 150 KIAS.
4. Landing gear - RETRACT
• After a positive climb has been established,
move the landing gear handle to WHLS UP.
Check the landing gear position indicators UP
and the warning light in the gear handle out.
• Do not hold the nose gear steering switch de- o'"z
pressed while retracting the gear. If the nose ~

gear fails to retract fully, lower the landing I


gear and depress the nose gear steering switch a
z
to center the nosewheel. Release the switch and i
move the landing gear handle to WHLS UP.
• Do not exceed 220 KIAS until the landing gear
is up and locked.
• If hot brakes are suspected, leave the landing
gear down for 5 minutes to allow the wheel
assembly to cool.
ANGLE OF WIND RELATIVE
5. Wing - LOWER AND LOCK TO RUNWAY - DEGREES

• Lower the wing at a minimum altitude of 100


feet (200 feet during FAM stage) in a positive
I climb at 170 to 180 KlAS. Increase lowering
speed approximately 3 knots for each 1,000
Figure 3-8

pounds in excess of 28,000 pounds.


• Depress the wing incidence release switch. Crosswind Takeoff (MRT /CRT)
• Place the wing incidence handle DN.
• Observe wing transition to full down and that Refer to figure 3-8 for allowable crosswinds for take-
the landing droop retracts. off. The allowable crosswinds are reduced when carry-I
• Actuate the wing downlock handle to LOCK ing a heavy asymmetric wing store on the downwind
and note that the wing-wheels-droop warning side of the aircraft because of aileron trim require-
light goes out. Do not force the down lock han- ments.
dle forward. Wait until it moves easily. If the The aircraft tends to roll into the downwind wing
handle cannot be placed in LOCK, or the wing- and turn into the wind because of the narrow wheel
I wheels-droop light remains on, recycle the wing.
• Do not exceed 220 KIAS until the wing is down
tread and high vertical fin. However, the ailerons
become effective at low speed and are effective in
and locked. reducing the heel angle.
• Wing transition will require very little stick
movement if proper trim is used for takeoff. During takeoff, oppose rolling tendency with aileron,
6. Droop indicator - NO BARBERPOLE while maintaining directional control with the brakes
until the rudder becomes effective. In extreme cross-
• If indicator shows the droop unlocked (barber- winds, keep the nosewheel on the runway until flying
pole), do not exceed 300 KIAS or an accelera-
tion range of 0 to 3.5 g.
speed (approximately 150 KlAS) is obtained; then I
lift the aircraft from the runway. This technique de-
7. Fuel transfer switch - ON creases the lift generated while on the runway, mini-
mizing the tendency of the aircraft to drift laterally.
• Check fuel transfer switch ON and note pump
light is out. Whenever practical, takeoffs under substantial cross-
• Observe that main fuel gage holds between wind conditions should be individual rather than
2,200 and 3,100 pounds during fuel transfer. section.

126
NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l Section III
Shore-Based Procedures
Formation TakeoHs (MRT /CRT) When the scramble order is received, restart the en-
gine and ensure that all gear downlocks and safety
Formations will normally take off in two-aircraft sec- pins are removed. When ground crew and equipment
tions. If a flight of four aircraft is involved, the second are clear, taxi expeditiously, hut safely. Energize all
section will delay the takeoff roll until the first section electrical and electronic equipment.
becomes airborne. Should either aircraft of a section
abort, a radio transmission will be made stating " - - Complete the takeoff checklist and the engine turnup
(call sign) aborting." The other aircraft will continue check before takeoff.
the takeoff unless the abort occurs early in the take-
off roll. CLIMB, CRUISE AND DESCENT

I
The section leader will line up on the downwind side
CLIMB
of the runway. The wingman will form in echelon
with a wingtip separation of approximately 10 feet Refer to section XI for climb speed schedules, dis-
which will be maintained throughout takeoff. tances covered during climb, and climb rates.
When both aircraft are in position, the leader will
give a two-finger signal to complete the takeoff check-
Climbs are initiated with the aircraft in a clean or
cruise droop condition. If climb is initiated in clean
I
list and the engine turnup. When these checks are condition, select cruise droop as airspeed drops below
completed, each pilot will visually check the exterior 300 KlAS.
of the othees aircraft. A thumbs-up signal will be
If
given when ready for takeoff. If afterburner is used for takeoff and a CRT climb
is to be made. establish a steady-state climb of 450
After receiving the thumbs-up signal from the wing-
KlAS until intercepting 0.92 IMN. If an MRT climb
man, the leader will decrease rpm 1% and raise his is desired, secure the afterburner at a minimum air-
hand to a vertical position. To commence takeoff roll,
speed of 300 KlAS and establish a steady-state climb
the leader will simultaneously drop his hand and re- of 350 KIAS until intercepting the climb schedule,
lease the brakes. If afterburner is to be used, it WIll During the climb, it may be necessary to modulate
be selected by both pilots when the leader turns his the throttle to maintain operation within exhaust gas
head smartly to the left. Minor adjustments to power temperature limits.
setting may be made by the leader to compensate for
mismatched aircraft.
During the takeoff, the leader will monitor the prog- CRUISE
ress of the wingman. When both aircraft are definitely
airborne, the leader will retract his landing gear Refer to section IV, part 2, for a description of flight
without signaling. When the leader observes the characteristics, to section I, part 2 for fuel manage-
wingman's gear retracted, he will place his head ment information, and to section XI for cruise data.
against the headrest as the preparatory signal for
lowering the wing. Both pilots will lower the wing
when the leader nods his head smartly forward. After- DESCENT
burner, if used, will be deselected simultaneously by
Refer to section XI for time, fuel, distance and rate
both pilots when the leader nods his head smartly to
of descent data for both maximum range and constant
the right.
speed descents and to section IV for dive recovery
information.
Scramble Takeoffs
Aircraft scrambles will generally occur under varying
conditions of radio silence. Before Descent Checklist
When assuming an alert posture that may result in 1. Altimeter - SET
actual launching of the aircraft, conduct the normal
2. Defogger switch - DEFOG
preflight, start and poststart checks. If practicable,
conduct radio checks with the controlling agencies • To avoid fogging during rapid descent, place
and the other aircraft of the flight. Check radar opera- defogger switch to DEFOG at least 5 minutes
tion, observing ground radiation safety precautions. prior to descent.
Shut down the engine, but leave the aircraft as ready 3. Cockpit temperature - AS DESIRED
for flight as possible. Check that ground equipment
is positioned to provide for rapid removal during 4. Pitot heat - ENSURE ON
scramble.
If the radio is being monitored to receive the scramble
5. Engine anti-ice -
6. Fuel- QUANTITY
AS REQUIRED

CHECKED
I
order, observe the ground operating limitations (sec-
tion I, part 2). 7. Autopilot - AS REQUIRED
127
Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Shore-Based Procedures
3. Landing gear -
LANDING CHECKLIST o
DOWN
At 220 KIAS, move rhe landing gear handle ro
(COCKPIT MOUNTED) WHLS DOWN.
• Check indicators down and the warning light
in rhe gear handle off.
4. Speed brake swirch - IN

• Check that the speed brake light goes out.


5. Wing - RAISE

• Raise the wing after lowering gear.


o U nlock the wing down lock handle.

I
Depress the wing incidence release switch.
• Move the wing incidence handle up.
• Check the wi ng -whee ls-d roop warning light-
OFF.

6. Leading edge droop - CHECK FULL DOWN

• Visually check droop in land ing condition.


• Check droop indicacor DN.
7. Arresting hook - AS REQUIRED

• If hook is to be used for a n arrested landing,
check that the hook warning light is out.
B. Hook bypass swirch - AS REQUIRED

• For unarrested landings, place the hook bypass


switch in FIELD CO prevent approach lights from
flashing due to retracted hook.
Figure 3-9 9. Continuous engine ignition - ON

Before Entering Traffic Pattern


FIELD LANDING
1. Speed brake override switch - NORMAL See figure 3-10 for typical field landing pattern. Refer
co section XI for landing speeds and ground roll dis-
2. Shoulder harness - LOCKED
tances. Permissible acce leration range in the landing
3. Fuel- QUANTITY CHECKED configuration is 0 to 2.0 g.
4. Cruise droop - OUT When maki ng fa miliarization la ndings, use center-of-
gravity loadings forward of 32% ( refer to Handbook
5. Armament switches - OFF
of Weight and Balance ) a nd do not attempt to closely
6. Radar power switch - NORMAL control the point of couchdown . Enter the downwind
leg of rhe traffic pattern for final landing with a
7. Radar mode switch - IR minimum of 1,000 pounds of fuel remaining.
8. Radar range selectOr switch - 60 MILES At the 180 0 position, the aircraft shou ld be wings
level, 145 to 150 KIAS, with sufficien t power to main-
ta in altitude and airspeed. Adjust the 180 0 position
TRAFFIC PATTERN AND LANDING to permit approximate ly 304 mile of straigh taway on
th e final approach. Plan the turn from the 180 0 posi-
TRAFFIC PATTERN
tion to reach the 90 0 position at 500 Ieet above field
Refer to section I, part 4 for maximum recommended elevation, with the angle-oI-atrack indexer circle
landing gross weights. (donue) illuminated and the power at approx ima tely
85 %. Check the cockpit emergency ventilation port
Enter the traffic pattern in a clean condition with
closed to obtain accurate readings from the a ngle-of-
cruise droop extended. At 250 KIAS (minimum) to
attack indicating system.
350 KIAS, execute a level break. Perform cockpit
check (cockpit moun ted checklist presented in figure If a mirror is available on the landing runway. fl y a
3-9) as follows: standard FMLP approach from the 90· posirion to
touchdown. If no mirror is available, set up a powe r-on
1. Throtrle - 75% MINIMUM RPM
rate of descent wi th the angle-oI-attack indexer indi-
2. Speed brake - AS REQUIRED cating a circle (do nut ), and aim for a touchdown

128 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Section III
Shore-Based Procedures

q .."

. 1NfTlA1.· APPROAOI
Do not U5e a higher ongle of attock than the opt;mum cani;" TralfK patIem 01_
approach angle indicated by the reference index marker of 250 to 350 K1AS
the angle-of-cttack indicator Cru;" dn>op . _

BREAK
250 (minimum) to 350 KIAS

I
Ex!ondocI speed brab en roqui.ed

. DOWNWIND
_ _ -220 KlAS
-, . -wing

·Ainpoed ."" 20,300 .--h


pounds of '"" ~ in
speed at difh.....t grotS
ing Speed a-t in ~ XI.

Figure 3-10

Chan ged 15 July 1966 129


Section III NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Shore-Based Procedures
point 500 to 700 feet beyond the runway threshold. Just before touchdown, align the aircraft with the
Use the throttle primarily to control rate of descent, runway by using rudder. Maintain a wing low attitude
and the stick to control attitude. If, at any time, the with aileron. Once on the runway, use moderate aero-
sink rate becomes excessive, correct first by adding dynamic braking, maintaining directional control with
power, and then adjust attitude. It is important to rudder. Keep aileron into the wind to prevent heeling
maintain proper touchdown attitude to prevent land- and to keep more weight on the upwind wheel.
ing either on the tailpipe or nosewheel. Hold the
donut to touchdown. The aircraft has a tendency to weathercock (turn into
the wind). Oppose this tendency by using downwind
On touchdown, the nose has a tendency to rock for- rudder. As speed decreases and the rudder loses effect-
ward, and unless a small amount of back pressure is iveness, the weathercocking tendency also decreases.
applied, the nosewheel will contact the runway. If Nose gear steering may then be used to assist in main-
the aircraft bounces, reestablish the proper landing taining directional control. The rudder pedals must

I attitude and adjust sink rate with the throttle. If a


porpoise develops, or if doubt exists as to the success
of the landing, execute a wave-off.
On the roll out, adjust the fuselage attitude to pro-
be neutralized before the nose gear steering switch
is depressed.
Below 80 KIAS, weight distribution is generally
equalized enough to permit normal braking. Do not
duce optimum aerodynamic braking. As the airspeed apply excessive pressure to the upwind brake or it
approaches 90 KIAS, the nose will fall through. Once may lock, skid, and blow the tire.
the nosewheel is on the runway, normal braking may
be applied. Apply constant friction braking and grad- Downwind drift, sometimes erroneously interpreted
ually increase back stick. Keep the stick full aft even as downwind weathercocking or weathercocking out
after the nosewheel is on the runway since the UHT of the wind occurs during a crosswind landing roll
is still effective in creating drag. On wet runways, out. It is the result of the aircraft being literally
intermittent braking may be necessary to avoid skid- blown across the runway while still "light on the
ding. gear." The effect on roll out is primarily one of ending
up downwind on the runway relative to the point of
Rudder control will be effective down to about 60 touchdown. Accept the downwind drift, which will
KIAS. occur to a greater or lesser extent depending upon

r:~~~~~~ :1
the severity of the crosswind. When landing in severe
crosswinds (in excess of 15 knots) , consideration
Neutralize the rudder pedals before depress- should be given to landing at a gross weight greater
ing the nose gear steering switch or the nose- than normal. Additional weight will help keep the
wheel will be abruptly displaced in the aircraft on the runway and reduce the downwind drift.
direction of rudder deflection. When the nose falls through, continue to apply aileron
and rudder as necessary to maintain directional con-
At normal landing gross weight, elect to go around trol. Ailerons are effective down to approximately 60
when speed is in excess of 105 KIAS with 4,000 feet KlAS. Above all, continue to fly the aircraft until aero-
of runway remaining. Failure of the exhaust nozzle dynamic control is no longer effective.
to open may result in excessive runout and high taxi
speed. Employ normal engine shutdown to avoid these
effects, if necessary. FIELD MIRROR LANDING PRACTICE
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
CROSSWIND LANDING
Conduct a normal preflight inspection and give spe-
Refer to figure 3-8 for allowable crosswinds for land- cial attention to strut and tire condition. Check the
ing. The maximum perpendicular crosswind compon- angle-of-attack system as soon as possible after engine
ent recommended for landing is 15 knots for symmetri- start. Place the hook bypass switch in the PIELD posi-
cally loaded aircraft and for asymmetrically loaded tion to keep approach lights from flashing.
aircraft when the asymmetric wing load is on the up-
wind side. A maximum of 10 knots is recommended TAKEOFF
when the asymmetric wing load is on the downwind
side. With proper technique, it is possible to land the Conduct the takeoff as briefed.
aircraft safely with a component in excess of these
limits. RADIO PROCEDURE
Allow extra spacing behind the preceding aircraft Before letting down, it is advisable to call the LSO to
and sufficient straightaway on the final approach to ascertain that the briefed Charlie time is still good.
establish a stable crab/wing low approach. Maintain The approach to the field will usually be controlled
normal approach speed, and line up so that touchdown by tower personnel who will advise when to switch
will be on the upwind side of the runway. to control frequency. Do not make approaches without
130 Changed 15 July 1965
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section III
Shore-Based Procedures

radio contact with the LSO, and do not remain in a Roger and a high or low indication is 75 feet. At
the pattern without a radio receiver. the ramp, the difference is 5.5 feet and at touchdown,
only 2 feet. As a pass progresses down the groove,
Give the following report upon reaching the meatball smaller corrections are required to move the meatball

r
acquisition point and on each subsequent pass: a certain distance on the mirror face. A 3.25 0 glide
Aircraft call sign slope is normally used during FMLP to approximate
Fuel state (nearest 100 pounds) the rate of descent encountered when landing aboard
a carrier. Any time the meatball is lost close in, ini-
"Crusader"
tiate a wave-off. Maintain the optimum angle of
"Meatball"
attack. Do not overrotate, and do not turn.
If the meatball is not visible, transmit the code word
"Clara" to the LSO.

PATTERN
In the FMLP pattern, do not commence another
approach with 1,000 pounds of fuel or less remaining.
All procedures and techniques that apply to day FMLP
I
apply to night FMLP. Exterior lights should be on
Refer to the LSO NATOPS Manual for further pattern bright and anticollision lights as desired. For night
information, and to section I, part 4 for maximum CCA pattern, refer to carrier air traffic control manuals.
recommended gross weight at touchdown.
The break interval will be approximately 12 to 16
seconds. Initiate subsequent turns in the downwind FIELD ARRESTMENTS
portion of the pattern when the preceding aircraft
bears 60 0 relative. There are several types of field arresting gear. These
include the anchor chain cable, water squeezer and the
Fly a race track pattern with the 1800 position approx- MOREST type equipment. At most Air Force bases,
imately 1~ miles abeam at an altitude of 500 feet and many USN/USMC fields, there is some form of
above the terrain. Perform cockpit checks and cross jet barrier, usually a Davis type. It is imperative to
check the airspeed indicator with the angle-of-attack know the type and location of the arresting gear in
indicator while on downwind. Although the airspeed use.
indicator is more than adequate for attitude control,
use the angle-of-attack indicator as the primary instru- In general, engage the arresting gear, or barrier, on
ment for this purpose. Check the emergency CQckpit the runway centerline at as slow a speed as possible.
ventilation port closed or angle-of-attack indications If the arrestment is to be made at night, request to
may be erroneous. Adjust the length of the groove have the position of the arresting gear illuminated.
to give a wings-level descent on the glide slope of 18
to 20 seconds (about ~ mile). WAVE-OFF
0
Recommended airspeed at the 180 position is approx- When executing a wave-off, place the throttle in MRT
I imately 145 KlAS. From the 180 0
position, an increase (or CRT if required). Leave the landing gear and wing
tn power is required to effect a constant altitude turn in the landing condition and level the wings while
to the 90 0 position. At this point, you should pick maintaining optimum angle of attack.
up the meatball.
As the aircraft is rolled wings level in the groove, TOUCH-AND-GO LANDING
reduce power slightly to intercept the glide slope. When making a touch-and-go landing, allow all three
Ideally, the meatball will be centered when rolling wheels to make firm contact with the runway, then
wings level and the required descent initiated im- follow normal takeoff procedures.
mediately. In any event, center the meatball before
starting the descent.
AFTER LANDING
APPROACH AND LANDING
A poor approach rarely tesults in a good landing. A AFTER-LANDING CHECK
good pass on the mirror requires: 1. Canopy - OPEN
Angle of attack and/or speed commensurate with
• Do not open the canopy in excessive wind con-
landing gross weight.
ditions.
Meatball in the center of the mirror/lens face.
• Turn cockpit pressurization and defog off.
Aircraft lined up with the runway (or simulated
• If cockpit altitude indicator shows a negative
carrier) centerline.
reading (indicating cockpit is pressurized),
At the point where the meatball is first observed dur- open the emergency ventilation knob to relieve
ing the turn to final approach, the difference between cockpit pressure before opening canopy.

Changed 15 July 1965 131


Section III NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-l
Shore-Based Procedures

• Open canopy only after clearing the landing 3. Engine master switch - OFF
runway. • Do not shut engine down with the engine mas-
• Place left hand on canopy rail. Unlock canopy ter switch except in an emergency or damage
and immediately place right hand on right to the engine-driven fuel pump may result from
canopy rail. cavitation.
• Monitor canopy opening by holding canopy
rails to prevent excessive opening speed and 4. Oxygen - OFF
possible overtravel which will shear the canopy • If flow continues from mask after shutoff, check
actuator rod-end shear pins. for possible inadvertent actuation of the emer-
• Turn radar off since maximum coling is not gency bottle. If bottle is actuated, do not dis-
available with the canopy open. connect supply hose until emergency supply is
2. Trim knobs - NEUTRAL depleted.

I 3. Rain removal switch -


4. Engine anti-ice -
5. Pitot heat - OFF
OFF
OFF
BEFORE LEAVING AIRCRAFT

1. All electrical switches - OFF

6. Anticollision lights - OFF 2. Ejection seat pins - INSTALLED (5)

1
7. Yaw and roll stab switches - OFF RESET 3. Canopy actuator safety pin -
4. Wheels - CHOCKED
INSTALLED (1)

BEFORE SHUTDOWN
5. Perform postflight walkaround inspection.
1. Wing - DOWN
• Check wing-wheels-droop warning light flash-
• .
109 . h wIng
WIt . down.

2. Cruise droop switch - UP NIGHT FLYING


3. Wingfold - AS DESIRED
• If wing panels are to be folded, the ailerons
The instructions contained in the following para-
must be centered, yaw and roll stab switches off.
graphs are supplemental to those covered in the normal
4. Landing gear ground locks - INSTALLED VFR or IFR flight procedures.
5. Communications and navigation switches - OFF

STOPPING ENGINE PREFLIGHT

1. Throttle - OFF

• When the engine has been operated at high After starting the engine, check operation of all in-
power settings for an appreciable length of terior and exterior lights with the exception of the
time, operate at 80% rpm for 3 to 5 minutes to land/taxi light which is not checked in the chocks.
allow time for cooling. This prevents seizure of
the rotors.
• Prior to shutdown, stabilize engine at 75% rpm Turn on the position lights during the period 30 min-
for at least 30 seconds to scavenge the oil. utes before official sunset until 30 minutes after official
• Check tachometer for free engine deceleration. sunrise or at any time when the prevailing visibility as
• Plane captain will signal engine cut after gear seen from the cockpit is less than three miles. (This
downlocks have been installed and wheel chocks applies to aircraft in flight or opeJ:ated on the ground,
are in place. or if stationary and likely to cause a hazard.)

2. Master generator switch - OFF TAXIING


• Place switch off by the time the engine deceler-
ates to 45% rpm. Taxi with caution and use the taxi light as necessary.

132 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-l Sedion III
Shore-Based Procedures

TAKEOFF the leader's turn. When in formation, fly a position


further aft and more stepped down to compensate
for a lack of depth perception and visual references.
Perform the takeoff using the same techniques and

r
procedures used during day flight, but be prepared
for transition to complete instrument flight imme- Except for the last aircraft, exterior lights will be on
diately upon leaving the runway. It is common to dim and the anticollision lights will be off. The last
experience distracting reB.ections of ground lighting aircraft will have lights set to bright with the anti-
from the gunsight glass and windshield. collision lights on unless the tactical situation dictates

FORMATION
otherwise (during actual weather penetrations, etc).

During night landings, fly the angle-of-attack and


airspeed indicators, and use a mirror if available.
I
The basic principles of formation remain unchanged. Visual signals for lead change at night:
However, exercise extra vigilance since it is difficult
to accurately determine depth, closure rate, and rela- • With two aircraft - Lead aircraft switches
tive motion. Fly a rendezvous bearing that is slightly lights to BRIGHT, and flashes them. Wingman
aft and more stepped down than that employed during switches lights to DIM when he accepts the lead.
daytime operation. Rendezvous speed must be pre-
briefed. • With more than two aircraft - Leader places
flight in echelon and proceeds as described for
two aircraft.
Reduce the closure rate. If recognized to be danger-
ously high, immediately break off the rendezvous to • With external light failure - Use flashlight

r assure separation. Cross under and to the outside of procedures presently in effect.

Changed 15 July 1966 132A


NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-1 Sedion III
Carrier-Based Procedures

PART 4 - CARRIER-BASED PROCEDURES


r BRIEFING ENGINE START
Engines will normally be started 10 minutes before
Briefings will include the items outlined in the brief- launch time. Perform the system functional checks
ing guide, with particular emphasis placed upon bingo thoroughly. Adjust the rudder pedals and be prepared
procedures, carrier's probable launch and recovery to hold the brakes when the tiedowns are removed.
course, position in force, PIM, and ready deck. Opera-
tions Department and Air Department briefings cov- POSTSTART
ering the following procedures are required prior to
actual carrier air operations: Adjust cockpit light intensity to desired level. <Anduct
Deck Handling an exterior lights check and then the systems checks
Air operations outlined in normal procedures. Be ready to taxi when
Communications directed. As the carrier turns into the wind, either
Catapult launch close the canopy or secure it with a lanyard to pre-
CATCC vent damage by wind or jet blasts. Spread the outer
SAR
Prior to initial night operation, additional briefings
wing panels on signal from plane director as soon as
possible after engine turnup to prevent damage to the
wingfold casting. Cycle inflight refueling probe and
I
concerning night operations will be given by the check probe out light operation.
flight deck officer, catapult officer, arresting gear offi-
cer, and 'the landing signal officer. The ready room TAXI

r will be lighted for night adaptation (red lights) dur-


ing briefing. In addition, pilots may wear night
adaptation glasses while going from the ready room
to the flight deck to prevent loss of night vision.
Normally, any signal by the plane director that is
above his waist is intended for the pilot; any signal
below the waist is intended for deck handling per-
sonnel.
Taxiing aboard ship is similar to taxiing ashore. Nose
gear steering permits the aircraft to be maneuvered
FLIGHT DECK OPERATION easily and should be used to prevent the nose gear from
castering and the nose from swaying with the ship's
PREFLIGHT roll. Keep taxi speeds under control, particularly in
Man the aircraft when directed by air operations the landing area where the deck is slippery from cable
.. (generally not in excess of 30 minutes prior to launch lubricant. Use both brakes to stop sideways motion
time). Conduct a normal preflight with particular of the nose, since use of a single brake will only
emphasis given to the condition of the landing gear, provide a different pivot point and the sideways
shock struts, tires, arresting hook, and to the underside motion will continue.
of the fuselage for launching pendant or arresting During night deck operation, the tempo is consider-
cable damage. A complete inspection of the aft fuselage ably reduced from daytime operation. Slow and careful
may not always be possible due to aircraft spotting. handling by aircraft directors and pilots is mandatory.
Leave the tiedowns installed until the engine is If any doubt exists as to the plane director's signal,
started. During night operation, conduct the exterior stop the aircraft.
preflight using a red-lensed flashlight. Ensure that
the exterior light switches are properly positioned
for a poststart light check. Observe the general rule HANGAR DECK OPERATION
(
I'
(""
of not showing a white light on the flight deck at
night. Ensure that the land/taxi light switch is off Occasionally, the assigned aircraft will be manned on
prior to connecting external electrical power. Set all the hangar deck. Follow the same procedures as those
colored lights to DIM, and rotate the instrument and concerning flight deck operation. If the aircraft is not
console lights out of OFF. This will prevent daytime already on the elevator, it will be towed or pushed
illumination of the red and amber system lights when (with the pilot in the cockpit) into position to be
external power is applied. Emergency flood lights, raised to the flight deck. The signal to stop an aircraft
chartboard lights, and extension lights may be used that is being moved by other than its own power is
as desired. either a hand signal or a whistle blast. The whistle
Changed 15 July 1966 133
Section III NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Carrier-Based Procedures
blast signifies an immediate or emergency stop. Leave
I canopy open and the hard hat off to ensure hearing the
whistle and keep the plane director in sight at all
times. If unable to see the plane director, or if in doubt CATAPULT TRIM SETTING - - -
of safe aircraft movement, stop the aircraft immedi-
ately.

LAUNCH OPERATIONS
,. I' ""
A. 15
:::» 1..
Refer to the applicable aircraft launching bulletin for
... J. 13 "'!iii
- en 12
offcenter spotting and launching limitations, and for :! ~ 11 "'"
~ ~ .............

~
minimum permissible endspeeds. Refer to CARRIER ... 10
""',,- t\... r--.....
c(1i: ~
......... JSt,,,. 'It,"III e
OPERATING LIMITATIONS, section I, part 4 for
!Z~ : "" Iio..
..... i'oo... 41.
"
'III" ltd
launching limitations with wing stores. ~ ',,"III" III 'f.. l -4" ;'Po

~~
Ou
Nail:
7
~Ci
o
6 "'~ 'f.. <04; ......
CATAPULT HOOKUP
:c=Z .
5
"" ~0.t
I
.........
X I .......... .........
~

Current deck procedures aboard CVA class carriers 3 I I 1'-...


:::» 2 ""-
provide for astern and angling approaches to both 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 """"'29
"
forward and waist catapults. Approach the catapult
track slowly, lightly riding the brakes, with the nose
AIRCRAFT C.G. POSITION (0/0 MAC)
gear steering engaged. Watch the plane director's sig-
nals, using peripheral vision to sight down the cata-
pult track. Anticipate the initial hold immediately
after the nosewheel drops over the shuttle. The come figure 3-77
ahead signal will be received after the tension bar is
placed in the holdback. Use very slow movement to position and end airspeed. The following trim setting
prevent overstressing the tension bar. recommendations are the results of tests conducted at
the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland.
At night, it is very difficult to determine speed or These settings can be checked at altitude by trimming
motion over the deck. Rely on the plane director's
the aircraft for level flight at reduced airspeed at the
signals and follow them closely. As the catapult is
weight involved with wheels down and wing incidence
approached, the plane director should position him-
handle up and power settings as near to takeoff condi-
self forward of the aircraft and remain stationary.
tions as practicable:
Use him as a visual reference to determine aircraft
movement. It is very difficult to properly spot the
aircraft on the catapult when the carrier is in a turn
or listing. SYMMETRICAL LOADING
Rudder trim - 0
During all catapult hookups, personnel designated as
checkers will visually inspect the aircraft to ensure Aileron trim - 0
that it is suitable for flight. The inspection includes, Horizontal tail trim - Refer to figure 3-11
but is not limited to: Checking the entire aircraft for
evidence of fuel or hydraulic leaks; security of access
panels; proper extension of struts; condition of the ASYMMETRICAL LOAD OF 2,000 LB AT 30,000
hook point; relative symmetry of control surfaces; LB GROSS WEIGHT (F-8E ATTACK AIRCRAFT)
proper UHT trim setting; wheels, wheel wells, and
tires for damage or foreign matter; a positive check Rudder trim - 0
of wing hinge pin locks; and that the wing is raised. Aileron trim - 5 units (full aileron trim) unloaded
wing down and expected end airspeed above 160
TRIM SETTINGS KIAS. When expected end airspeeds less than 160
KIAS are anticipated, approximately 5 pounds ail-
The recommended horizontal tail trim setting for eron stick force is required at the end of the power
catapult launching is a function of center-of-gravity stroke to maintain wings level.

134
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Section III
Carrier-Based Procedures
CATAPULT LAUNCH (MRT) Be prepared to establish a wings level, climbing atti-
tude on instruments. A 50 to 7 0 nose-up rotation is
Complete all cockpit checks, except for engine turnup, recommended after dearing the catapult. Do not make
prior to catapult hookup and tensioning. On run- clearing turns. When established in a wings level
through-the-deck periods, actuate the controls and pos- climb, retract the landing gear. Lower the wing at a

r
itively check that the aileron and rudder neutral trim minimum altitude of 500 feet. At 2,500 feet, or above,
lights illuminate as the control surfaces pass through turn exterior lights to bright and turn on anticollision
neutral. Failure of either light to illuminate is a lights.
downing discrepancy unless the controls are near
center and it can positively be established that the AIRCRAFT OR CATAPULT MALFUNCTION

I
fault lies in the indicating circuit. During the control If, after establishing power at MRT or CRT, It IS
check, Bight deck personnel will note freedom and determined the aircraft is down, signal this fact to
response of all control surfaces, that they return to the catapult officer by shaking the head from side to
relative symmetry when pressures are released, and side. Never raise a hand into the catapult officer's view
that the UHT trim is properly set. to give a thumbs down signal or it may be miscon-
Upon receipt of the standard tensioning signal, apply strued to be a salute and the catapult will be fired.
military thrust and at the same time release the brakes
and nose gear steering. When the turnup signal is The catapult officer will relay a no-go situation to the
received from the catapult officer, thoroughly check deck edge catapult operator by crossing his forearms
all engine instruments. Grip the throttle and the cata- in front of his face. He will then give the release
pult handgrip firmly. When satisfied that the aircraft tension signal and walk in front of the wing to give
is functioning properly, place your head against the the throttle back signal. Then, and only then, reduce
headrest, salute, and wait. Normally, a 3 to 5 second the throttle to idle.
delay will occur before the catapult fires. The same signals will be used to signify a .catapult
Normal catapult launches provide 10 to 15 knots excess malfunction. Leave the throttle at MRT fCR T until
end-speed. The aircraft leaves the catapult in a near- the catapult officer walks in front of the wing and
level attitude. A slight nose-up rotation may be benefi- signals for power to be reduced to idle.
cial, depending upon degree and angle of deck pitch If a no-go situation arises during night operation, do
and the UHT trim setting. Retract the landing gear and not turn on the exterior lights. Call on the landf
lower the wing according to land-based procedures. launch frequency and advise that U--(call sign) on
Clearing turns off the catapult will depend upon the catapult number - - is down." Maintain MRT until
ship's catapult configuration and the policy established the catapult officer walks in front of the wing and
within the air wing. Check alignment of the BDHI gives the signal to reduce power.
(bearing-distance-heading indicator) once in stabi-
lized flight. LAUNCHING CHARACTERISTICS
When spotted off center, the aircraft oscillates direc-
tionally during the catapult power stroke. The oscil-
CATAPULT LAUNCH (CRT) lations increase in magnitude with increasing forward
The afterburner is not used under normal launch center-of-gravity position, increasing main gear off-
conditions and is not recommended at night. The center distance and decreasing catapult pressures. Yaw
catapult officer must know when an afterburner launch will be noticed during the power stroke which will
is to be made. increase and reverse direction twice as the aircraft
travels down the catapult. As the aircraft leaves the
After reaching MRT and upon receipt of the two- catapult, it tends to roll in the direction of the yaw.
finger turn up signal, check the engine instruments. When spotted 6 inches off center (using minimum
When the catapult officer signals with 5 fingers (open catapult pressures with a 20% MAC center of grav-
hand towards the pilot), assume position for launch, ity), approximately one-half lateral stick defleCtion
select afterburner, check engine instruments, and will be necessary to stop the roll. This control input
salute. The catapult officer observes afterburner light is a natural reaction and should cause no difficulty.

r
and pilot's salute, then gives the fire signal. It is rec-

I
ommended that a minimum speed of 300 KIAS be
obtained hefore deselecting afterburner.
NIGHT CATAPULT LAUNCH
MINIMUM END AIRSPEED LAUNCHING
Minimum end airspeed is determined by ability to
rotate the aircraft to the optimum angle of attack
Follow the same cockpit procedures and signals used when the gross weight is less than 25,000 pounds. At
during a daytime launch. When satisfied the aircraft greater gross weights, proximity to the speed at which
is ready for launch, signal the catapult officer by plac- the aircraft drag is equal to or greater than the engine
ing the exterior lights master switch to ON. thrust becomes the limiting factor.

Changed 15 July 1966 135


Section III NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1
Carrier-Based Procedures
At gross weights below 25,000 pounds, sink-off-bow angle of attack indications. Fly a racetrack pattern with
will be about 10 feet with moderate rotation required the 180 0 position approximately 1~ miles abeam
to prevent excessive sink. Do not overrotate. Avoid (check distance with T ACAN, if desired) at 600 feet I
the use of excessive nose-up trim which will cause a MSL. With a 30-knot wind over deck, begin the 1800
high rate of rotation requiring rapid forward stick turn to the final approach when approximately abeam
to avoid stall. Very light buffet will be encountered the LSO platform. To be lined \1p with the angled deck
during rotation. Acceleration is reduced but com- centerline, roll out immediately to the right of the
fortable, and as the usual end airspeed is attained ship's wake. When the meatball is acquired, transmit
acceleration becomes normal. call sign, fuel state (nearest 100 pounds), uCrusader,"
and "meatball." Signify no meatball by transmitting
At gross weights above 25,000 pounds, moderate rota-
the code word uClara."
tion will prevent sink-off-bow. Very light buffet will
be encountered, and acceleration is reduced but com-

I
GLIDE SLOPE
fortable.
The physical glide slope projected from the ship is
approximately 4 0. Due to the wind over the deck, the
aircraft fiies approximately a 3.250 slope through the
CARRIER LANDING air. However, at any given point in the approach, the
pilot is looking at the ship on a 4° slope. This, of
Refer to field carrier landing practice, this section, course, gives the pilot the feeling that he is too high.
for additional information, to figure 3-12 for illustra- This feeling should be disregarded, and only the meat-
tion of typical carrier landing, and to section I, part ball should be relied upon for proper glide slope con-
4 for carrier operating limitations. trol. Closure rate on the ship is on the order of 105
knots, whereas on the field, closure rate is usually
While maneuvering to enter the traffic pattern, at- equal to true airspeed (light wind). This difference
tempt to determine the sea state. This information in udistance/time" relationship further emphasizes the
will be of value in predicting problems that may be need for looking at, and fiying the meatball all the
encountered during the ensuing approach and landing.
way to touchdown, rather than estimating power re-
If the sea state is smooth, the carrier is creating all quired by looking at the deck. It is necessary to carry
(or most) of the wind over the deck by hard steam- a little more power on the glide slope on the ship
ing. Avoid entering the pattern at gross weights near than ashore, in order to maintain the proper glide
the maximum since the approach speed could exceed slope and airspeed.
the maximum engaging speed. Expect the wind to
be down the axial deck which will result in a 10°
crosswind when lined up with the angled deck. Stack FLYING THE MEATBALL
wash ,will be encountered, so expect some turbulence The approach power compensator should not be used
when approaching the ship's wake. Pay particular if operating in manual fuel control or if the wing
attention to lineup. cannot be raised.
With a moderate sea state, the carrier should be able

I
to place the wind down the angled deck so lineup will
not be a problem. As the wind over deck increases,
additional ·power will be required to fiy a proper
approach. It may become desirable to make a manual
approach, instead of an APC approach, under
If blowing spray is observed the sea state is rough and unfavorable approach conditions such as gusty
the carrier will be steaming to maintain steerageway. or extremely high winds.
The wind over deck will be gusty which will neces-
sitate more frequent power and control corrections The technique for fiying the meatball during steady

,
to maintain the glide slope. Turn earlier at the 1800 deck operation approximates that used during FMLP.
position to avoid being long in the groove. However, with increasing rough seas the glide slope
varies, particularly in the vertical plane. The glide
PATTERN slope is stabilized only to the extent that it passes
through a point in space 1,800 to 2,200 feet astern
Enter with a level break from a course parallel to (approximately half way out on the final approach). I

Foxtrot Corpen, close aboard the starboard side of As the deck pitches, the glide slope defiects as neces-
the ship at 800 feet MSL. If in formation, maintain a sary to remain focused on this point. It is apparent
break interval of 12 to 16 seconds. When on downwind that the vertical movement of the glide slope increases
leg, descend to 600 feet and perform cockpit check. in magnitude as distance from the focal point in-
Cross-check angle of attack and airspeed indicators for creases. Therefore, the technique used to fiy the meat-
13 units angle of attack and proper airspeed. Check ball when the deck is pitching varies with position on
cockpit emergency ventilation port closed before using the final approach.

136 Changed 15 July 1966


NAVAIR 01- 45HHD-1 Seclion 11\
Carrier- Base d Procedures

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Changed 15 July 1966 137


Section III NAVWEPS 01-45HHD·l
Carrie ....Based Procedures
Initial Approach Do not overrotate. Maintain a wings level Hight
attitude.
After rolling wings level on the final approach, begin
a rate of descent of approximately 600 feet per minute.
Average out the meatball movement. Maintain a glide
path that shows the same degree, or distance, of meat-
ball movement above and below the datum lights.
I WARNING I
Accept a touchdown short of the number one
Middle Approach cross-deck pendant, accept a bolter, but do
not overrotate and do not turn. In the event
As the aircraft progresses into the middle third of of a ramp strike, select afterburner.
the approach, meatball movement due to carrier pitch
is at a minimum. Use this part of the approach to BINGO FUEL

I advantage. Ad just power carefully and establish the


proper rate of descent.

Final Approach
When the bingo fuel state is reached, clean up the
aircraft and depart on course. Do not orbit the carrier
awaiting instructions. Fly towards the bingo field
and if you are in doubt as to the exact heading, ask
As the aircraft moves into the final third of the for it prior to switching frequency. Shipboard control
approach, the meatball will again begin to cycle on may be contacted for radar monitoring. Check head-
the optical landing system. Hold the power setting and ing to the bingo field with control and ensure that
the rate of descent established during the middle third the BDHI is set properly. If possible, relay a "feet
of the approach, unless instructed otherwise by the dry" message to the ship.
LSO. If the meatball goes high when approaching the
ramp, do not attempt to center it. The ramp could be ARRESTMENT OPERATIONS
cycling down, and an increased rate of descent, coupled
with a rising ramp on touchdown, could exceed air- Fly the aircraft on the glide slope all the way to
craft design limits. If the meatball starts to go low, touchdown and do not attempt a Hare. Add power to
add power to stop it. In this case, the aircraft could MRT as the aircraft touches down. When forward
be descending below the glide path, or the ramp could motion has ceased, reduce power to idle and allow I
be cycling up. In either event, the aircraft is getting the aircraft to roll aft. Apply brakes on signal and
too close to the ramp and the only correction is power. immediately add taxi power. Hold brakes to arrest
Accept the fact that wave-off and bolter rates increase forward movement and raise the hook when directed.
when landing with a pitching deck. The higher rates When the come ahead signal is received, release brakes
are acceptable, particularly when the alternatives are and expedite exit from the landing area. Use brakes
considered (hard landings, ramp contacts, etc). for initial directional control and engage nosewheel
steering after forward motion is established. When
FOULED·DECK WAVE·OFF clear of the landing area, turn stabs off and fold outer
wing panels on signaL
Don't anticipate a fouled-deck wave-off. Aircraft will
repeatedly clear the landing area fractions of a second While the hook is retracting, the aircraft must remain
before the wave-off point is reached, and a clearance static or a reengagement is likely. If a reengagement
to land will be received. Let the LSO give the wave-off. occurs, reduce power, drop the hook when directed,
and allow the aircraft to be pulled aft. Raise the hook
Wave-off characteristics are good and the engine again on signal.
accelerates from approach thrust (about 84% rpm) to
military thrust in about 2.5 seconds. Normally, all night recoveries will be from CATCC
controlled approaches. The LSO will assume control
CLOSE-IN WAVE-OFF when the aircraft is approximately one mile from
the ramp. Exterior lights should be on bright with
Avoid a close-in wave-off whenever possible. How- the anticollision lights off. Following arrestment, re-
ever, if it becomes necessary, move the throttle smartly duce power to idle and immediately turn off the
to MRT or CRT and maintain optimum angle of attack. exterior lights. Allow the aircraft to roll aft, apply
1 J

138 Changed 15 July 1965


NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Sedion III
Carrier-Based Procedures
brakes, raise the hook when directed, and taxi slowly by holding the rails with both hands. Install the lan-
out of the landing area. Do not stare at the director's yard before opening the canopy since wind across
wands, but use them as the center of a scan pattern. the deck makes it difficult to do so after the canopy
When clear of the landing area, signal aircraft status has been opened.
to Bight deck control.
If the aircraft is to be spotted on the hangar deck, open
the canopy and remove the hard hat as you are de-
POSTFLIGHT scending on the elevator. Normally, taxi the aircraft
from the elevator into the hangar bay. Expect the cut
Taxi the aircraft as directed. Do not use excessive signal when clear of the elevator. Lower the wing and
power. Keep the engine running until the chocks and
at least one tiedown are installed. Landing gear down-
locks should also be installed prior to engine shut-
down. Execute a normal shutdown when the cut
signal is received. Always control canopy opening rate
raise the droop prior to engine rundown. From this
point, aircraft handlers will move the aircraft. Keep
speed under control and be alert for stop signals. Hold
the brakes after being spotted until a 3-point tiedown
has been completed.
I

139
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l

section IV
flight procedures
and characteristics

I
CONTENTS

PART 1 - FLIGHT PROCEDURES


Transition and Familiarization .... ____.__________________________________________________________ 142
Parade and Tactical Formation ________________________________________ ________________________ 143
Formation Rendezvous ______________________________________________________________________________ 143
Inllight Refueling _________________________________________________________________ 148A
Flight Test _______________________________________________________ _ _ 149

PART 2 - FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS


Introduction 150
Definitions ________________________________________________________________________________ 150
F Iig h t Con trois _____________________________________________________________________________ ___ _______________________ 150
Ventral Fins ___ . 151
Speed Brake ____ ___ _ 151
Cruise Droop _ __________ .. .._ ............... _... _. ___ .. ____________ .__ ._ ... _______________ ._._ ... __ . 151
Emergency Power Package _________________________________________________ ________________ 152
Stabilization ___________________________________________________________ 152
Trimming _______________ _ __ _________ ___ 152
Level Flight ________________________________________ 153
Maneuvering Flight ______________ ____ _ _ _ ________ 153
Armament __________ ..... ___ . ___ . ___________ . _________________ . ____ .. ______ . ____________ ._ .. _____.... ____ ..... 154
Angle of Attack ___ ... ______ .__ .__ ... _... _ ....._... _____ ...... _.... __ ._. __ .__ .. _ .... __ .. ___ ._.. 154
Autopilot Flight _______ .. _._ ... __ ... ____ ... _.... _. ___ .... _.. _. ________ .__ ._. __ ._ ......... _._. ______ ... ___ ..._..... 154
Stalls _.. __ .... ___________ . _.. ____ ... __ .. _____ ... _.... _. _______ .__ .___ .___ ._____ .__... _. _________________ ._____ ...... 157
Spins ..... .. _.. ___ . _....... _........... __ .__ .... _.... ___ .___ ._ .. __ .. _.. _._. __ ....... _... ___ ......_...... _.. _ 160

Changed 15 July 1965 141


Section IV NA VWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Flight Procedures

PART 1 - FLIGHT PROCEDURES

This section standardizes general Hight and operating The FAM pilot will perform all pre briefed maneu-
procedures to minimize confus ion, maintain air dis- vers, to obtain a general feel of the aircraft in both
cipline, and to achieve maximum effectiveness in the clean and dirty configurations.
air. The general hriefing guide (section III, part 1)
will be used to brief each flight. Any mission not FAM flights will be planned so that approximately
covered by the briefing guide must be briefed by a 2,000 pounds of fuel remain upon return to the home
qualified individual who has thorough knowledge of field. Fuel remaining checks will be given by stating
all aspects of the mission. main fuel quantity first and transfer quantity second,
eg, two eight and one six (2,800 pounds main and
1,600 pounds transfer).
TRANSITION AND FAMILIARIZATION

I The paragraphs below contain operational informa-


tion which will be used in conjunction wi th normal
procedures during the FAM stage of training.
RETURN TO THE FIELD AND LANDINGS

Tbe FAM pilot will lead tbe flight back to the home
field and will make the required radio calls to the
tower. The chase pilot will fly a wing position that
BRIEFING
enables him to closely monitor the F AM pilot'S land-
The familiarization briefing w ill be all-inclusive and ing pattern and approach to coach him as necessary.
will cover all emergency procedures contained in sec- A chase pilot, or a qualified RDO, must be available
tion V . while a FAM pilot is practicing landings, and two-
way radio contact must be maintained. If these condi-
PREFLIGHT tions are not satisfied, the F AM pilot will make a final
landing on the first acceptable approach. A final land-
The chase pilot, or another qualified pilot, will moni- ing will be made when the FAM pilot's fuel state at
tOr th e FAM pilot during his first preflight inspection. the 180 0 position first reaches 1,200 pounds or less.

START
The chase pilot, or another qualified pilot, will moni- CONFIDENCE MANEUVERS
tor the FAM pilot's first flight start and poststart
Aileron rolls, loo ps, Immelmann turns, and Cuban
checks.
eights will be practiced as confidence manuevers. The
airspace will be cleared be~ore starting, and the chase
TAXI pilot will maintain a position that allows adequate
T he FAM pilot should call for taxi instructions and clearance between aircraft and affords observation of
lead the flight to the runway. the surrounding airspace.
The minimum airspeed for a ll confidence maneuvers
TAKEOFF is 220 KIAS.
T he FAM pilot will call for takeoff instructions when Plan the entry (0 any maneuver so that the aircraft
ready, and will be the lead aircraft for tbe takeoff. is level or climbing at a minimum altitude of 10,000
feet above the terrain. Enter overhead maneuvers be-
IN FLIGHT tween 10,000 and 15,000 feet at 500 KIAS and use a
4 g pullup. Use afterburner for tbe first half of the
During the FAM stage, the FAM pilot is required to maneuver when fuel weight is 3,500 pounds or more.
call off the individual items of the 3-point checklist
Enter rolls at an airspeed of 300 to 350 KlAS.
(Fuel Transfer Switcb - ON, Wing - Down and
Locked, and Cabin Pressurization - ON) when he re- Do not exceed tbe flight restrictions outlined in sec-
ports completion of the checklist to the chase pilot. tion I, part 4.

142
NAVAIR 01-45HHD-1 Section IV
Flight Procedures

IPA;;:toA~~o:::!t::rA:r:::~::~N
of 8 to 10 feet. Maintain vertical and lateral separation
and cross under the leader's flight path. When proper
horizontal separation is obtained on the opposite side
of the leader, move vertically until the proper step-
down is attained and then move forward to the wing
position.
PARADE FORMATIONS
Only the four basic parade formations (fingertip, TACTICAL FORMATIONS
echelon, diamond and column) and free cruise forma- Tactical formation is not an exact science. Both offen-
tion are covered. These formations are used for air- sive and defensive techniques are involved, either at
shows, flybys, weather penetrations, rendezvous prac- the same time or successively, in the overall offensive
tice, nontactical point-to-point flight, and in traffic action. As such, there is not one solution to a specific
patterns. tactical problem. Tactical formation is of necessity
FINGERTIP AND ECHELON a compromise between maximum flexibility and max-
imum mutual support. Information concerning spe-
Fly the wing position on a line of bearing 35 0 to 40 0 cific tactical maneuvers and doctrine may be found
aft the lead aircraft's beam, stepped down 5 to 8 feet, in classified Naval Warfare Publications and Weapons

I
with a wingtip clearance of 5 feet (figures 4-1 and Systems Tactical Handbooks.
4-2). When flying through weather, maintain the
same wingtip clearance and stepdown, but hold a posi-
tion 45 0 aft the lead aircraft's beam (figure 4-3). As FORMATION RENDEZVOUS
visibility decreases, decrease lateral separation and
increase.stepdown as necessary to maintain visual con- RUNNING RENDEZVOUS
tact with the lead aircraft.
This type of rendezvous is most effective when aircraft
DIAMOND are launched within visual or radar range. Using a
Fly the wing position on a line of bearing 45 0 aft the predetermined power setting, the leader flies a desig-

r lead aircraft's beam, stepped down 8 to 10 feet, with nated course or TACAN radial at 350 KIAS until the
a wingtip clearance of 5 feet. Fly the slot position climb schedule is reached. The wingman accelerates
in column on the lead aircraft, stepped down as neces- to the applicable climb schedule using MRT (CRT
sary to avoid excessive jetwash. The slot position is only as necessary to expedite the rendezvous). The
equidistant, and on a 45 0 bearing, from each wing- throttle is retarded when approaching the leader (or
man (figure 4-4). desired tactical position) to avoid using the speed
brake to prevent overrunning. If tactical conditions
COLUMN dictate a CRT running rendezvous, the leader desig-
Fly directly behind and stepped down from the pre- nates a base course or T ACAN radial, uses reduced
ceding aircraft. Maintain nose to tail clearance at all CRT, and maintains the climb schedule. Trailing air-
times, though distance between aircraft will vary with craft will maintain the base course and use full CRT
the type of maneuver being performed. For example, until rendezvous is effected. When the last aircraft
while parade column positions may be as close as 10 calls "aboard," the leader advances power to full CRT.
to 15 feet during a flyby, a separation of not less
than 50 feet is maintained while maneuvering or in TACAN RENDEZVOUS
tail chase. Maintain sufficient stepdown to avoid exces-
~his rendezvous is an expeditious method of joining
sive turbulence from jetwash (figure 4-5) .
aIrcraft under all VFR conditions. The flight leader
FREE CRUISE specifies the TACAN facility, channel number, alti-
The free cruise formation is primarily used for non- tude, radial, and distance to be used. This establishes
a point in space where the rendezvous is to be effected.
tactical point-to-point flight for two or more aircraft.
The join up is accomplished as shown in figure 4-7.
This formation facilitates cruise control, permits each
pilot to look around, and allows considerable maneu-
vering. Free cruise positions require nose-to-tail clear- ARA-25 RENDEZVOUS
ance so that each aircraft can slide independently to
The ARA-25 is useful to join aircraft under all condi-
maintain position (figure 4-6).
tions, but is particularly effective for a straight course
running rendezvous. Trailing aircraft select ADF
CROSS UNDER
position with the UHF control. The flight leader
When necessary to cross from one sIde of the leader transmits a short count every minute and includes
to the other, adjust power to slide aft until nose-to- altitude if climbing. Trailing aircraft maneuver as
tail separation of 5 feet is attained. Maintain lateral necessary to keep the number one needle 50 left or 50
s~paration and descend to obtain a vertical separation right of the nose position (the number 2 aircraft holds

Changed 15 July 1966 143


Section IV NAVWEPS Ol-45HHD-l
Flight Procedures

ANGERTIP PARADE
o

1. Line up wingtip nay


light with iunction of
trailing edge of the
wing root and fuse-
lage.
2. Number 4 man line up l
canopies to balance
formation.

I 5 Feet Wingtip
Separation
5 to 8 Feet
Stepdown

Figure 4-1

ECHELON P A R A D E - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
o

1. Line up wingtip nay light with


iunction of trailing edge of the
wing root and fuselage.
2'. Number 3 and 4 men line up
canopies to balance formation.

5 Feet Wingtip
Separation
5 to 8 Feet
Stepdown

Figure 4-2

144
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section IV
Flight Procedures

INSTRUMENT PARADE - - - - - - - - - - - - -

J
".,.,"
.....

I
(

Bearing is maintained by
flying on line with trailing
edge of wing.

3 to 5 Feet Wingtip
Separation
5 to 8 Feet
Stepdown
I
Figure 4-3

DIAMOND PARADE - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1----- 5 Feet Wingtip


Separation
5 Feet Stepdown

Figure ~

145
Sedion IV NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l
Flight Procedures

PA~DE AND ~IL CHASE COLUMN~~~~~~~~~~~

-d-Ji-
PARADE COLUMN Match lead aircraft's wing and
stepdown to avoid excessive
turbulence.

I
TAIL CHASE COLUMN

~~~~4 /!i
I No Le.. I~......::::.ae::::;~~:::::::!~
!-Than
50 Feet
-j

Figure 4-5

146
(

NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-1 Section IV


Flight Procedures

FREE C R U I S E - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

o
45 0 to 50 0

I
I
I
I
I
I
/ Approximately 20 Feet

-A£)
/ / t
Balanced - - -.....

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l. ~
)';u
.~('0- I
/
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/
----------~~

I
. / !i "'t I
; ...iT, ,,,
f :j~~:~'~:: ~::.::~/)
I..' I: ~ I'"
.... :: f' I
:...·\li··Y
. I
I
I
Approximately 20 Feet •
e/
, I
t

-n-"l-
1. Wingman flies on bearing made by
leading edge of wing.
2. Section leader flies on bearing made
by lining up nose and trailing edge
wingtip of lead aircraft.

Figure 4-6

147
Section IV NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-1
Flight Procedures

TAeAN RENDEZVOUS
Position 2 is 90 0 out-
bound of the assigned
radial.
2

~
Position 3 is 1800 of"' - - - 3 - - - - Position 1 is on the
the assigned radial. assigned TACAN radial
at a designated dis-
tance.

I Position 4 is 90 0 in-
bound of the assigned
radial.
-d-iii-
1. Each pilot flies ahead for 1 minute, then turns to take a 300 cut to the
assigned radial. Instrument climb schedule must be maintained.
2. Aircraft track outbound on assigned radial using course line indicator.
3. Division leader calls distance at which to begin ioinup circle and when
passing each position. This informs each pilot of the leader's actual position
in the rendezvous circle.
4. All aircraft begin orbit at designated distance and modify orbit as necessary
to eHect ioinup.
5. If not on top by 45,000 feet, leader will assign an altitude to each aircraft,
allowing 2000 feet separation between aircraft (If not under positive con-
trol),
6. leader uses 300 bank and 300 knots to 30,000 feet and 0.86 above.
- Figure 4-1

the leader 50 left, number 3 aircraft 50 right, etc.) higher authority, or when the urgency of the mission
until the leader is visually sighted. so dictates. Fly the aircraft at a safe maneuvering air-
speed at an altitude that will permit safe ejection.
If a circling rendezvous is to be made, the leader main- Establish radio contact and determine the indicated
tains a 300 bank at a prebriefed airspeed and altitude, airspeed, altitude, and Hight path of the aircraft to
transmitting a short count and heading every minute. be joined. Place all lights on bright and the anticol-
Trailing aircraft correct heading as necessary to place lision lights on. Rendezvous first on a position 1,000
the number one needle on the nose position each time feet out, slighdyaft the beam (4 or 8 o'clock) of the
the leader transmits. Proximity to the leader can be lead aircraft. Cautiously close while assuring nose-to-
determined by the degree of change in azimuth of tail clearance. Maintain a constant relative bearing
the number one needle. As distance to the leader de- since changes in bearing make determination of
creases, the needle will change more degrees between closure rate difficult. Do not allow a rapid closing
counts, requiring larger corrections to keep the leader situation to develop.
on the nose. When the leader is detected visually, a
standard rendezvous is accomplished.

LOW VISIBILITY RENDEZVOUS


The initial procedures will be as previously described Low visibility rendezvous is conducive to
for standard rendezvous. Accomplish this type of ren- vertigo. A high degree of caution and good
dezvous only in an emergency, when directed by judgement must be exercised.
148
NAVAIR 01-4SHHD-1 Section IV
Flight Procedures

SAFETY DURING RENDEZVOUS that the hose is depressurized, then top off just
prior to disconnect.
Keep the aircraft ahead in view constantly and join
the formation in order. Reduce excess speed before Aircraft with Airframe Change No. 449 are subject to
reaching the wing position to avoid overshooting. the following limitation when refueling from the

r Abort the rendezvous if necessary by leveling the


wings, sighting all aircraft ahead, and moving to the
outside of the formation.
Use only enough 'stepdown to ensure separation on
the aircraft ahead.
KC-130F:
• After complete system refueling is accom·
plished, limit hookup to pressurized tanker hose
to 15 minutes. If it is required to remain hooked
up to the tanker for longer than 15 minutes,
ensure that the hose is depressurized, then top
If "sucked" during rendezvous, move to the outside off just prior to disconnect.
of the leader and join after all other aircraft are in All Other Approved Tankers
formation.
Receiver aircraft without Airframe Change No. 449
Stop all relative motion prior to JOlOlOg an inside limited to maximum internal fuel load of 8,000 pounds
wing position. A cross under to the outside may then JP.4 or 8,500 pounds JP·5.
be made.
Airspeed and acceleration limitations applying to the
Use caution during the final steps of joinup of a run- inflight refueling probe are presented in section I,
ning rendezvous. Relative motion is difficult to dis- part 4.
cern when approaching from the rear.
PRE-REFUELING CHECK

INFLIGHT REFUELING Prior to taking on fuel, place the fuel transfer switch
in PRESS DUMP and note transfer fuel quantity reading.
Fuel transfer should cease immediately. Note the
Refer to section I, part 2, for system description. A·l, main and transfer fuel quantities for a period of 3
A·3, A·4, A·5, KC·130F and KC·135 tankers are com· minutes. Main fuel quantity should decrease and trans-
patible for inflight refueling to the limits described fer quantity should remain constant. Return the fuel
under LIMITATIONS. The location Of the refueling transfer switch to ON. When ready for refueling, place
probe, which is 40 inches from the fuselage and abeam the probe switch in PROBE OUT and note that fuel
the pilot when extended, creates several problems. The transfer stops. For this check to be valid, the pressuri-
probe is not within the pilot'S peripheral vision upon zation system must be functioning and the wing tank
engagement; the drogue is influenced by the airflow must contain fuel.
around the fuselage, tending to drift outboard during
run·in; the drogue is in dose proximity to the canopy AIR REFUELING TECHNIQUE
creating a possibility of canopy damage on missed
engagements. When available, another pilot will monitor the refuel-
ing and he will call dock position of missed engage-
LIMITATIONS ments.
KC-135 Tanker Whenever possible, conduct refueling in smooth air
at optimum altitude and airspeed and with less than
Aircraft limited to maximum internal fuel load of
50% receiver fuel remaining. To prepare the receiver
8,000 pounds JP·4 or 8,500 pounds JP-5 when refuel-
aircraft, place the cruise droop down, turn off unneces-
ing from the KC·135.
sary electrical equipment, and extend the probe. Since
KC-130F Tanker canopies have been broken by the drogue during
Aircraft without Airframe Change No. 449 are subject missed approaches, place the helmet visor down for
to the following limitations when refueling from the protection.
KC·130F:
Note
• Refueling from the KC·130F fuselage tanker The permissible acceleration range with the
package is prohibited. probe extended is -1.0 g to 3.0 g.
• Refueling or topping off utilizing the KC-130F
wing tanks is permitted, but the maximum in· Before sliding into position, call "lining up." I
ternal fuel load is limited to 8,000 JP.4 or 8,500 Line up behind the tanker with the probe 10 to 15
pounds of JP·5. feet directly behind the drogue and trim the aircraft.
• After complete system refueling is accomplished, The drogue will be slightly forward of the nose of
limit hookup to pressurized tanker hose to 4 the receiver aircraft. Check that the tanker amber
minutes. If it is required to remain hooked up ready light is on or obtain confirmation from the tanker
to the tanker for longer than 4 minutes, ensure pilot that he is ready for refueling before plugging in.

Changed 15 July 1966 148A


NAVAIR 01-45HHD-l Section IV
Flight Procedures

Execute the approach so that the drogue passes close down and straight back. Speed brakes may be used,
to the fuselage. Any misalignment, sideways move- but are generally not required at high altitude.
ment or other deviation constituting a haphazard ap-
proach, can result in a smashed canopy. Using the BREAKAWAY
tanker and the hose as references, increase power to

r establish a 3 to 5 knot closure rate. This rate will To break away from a successful engagement, reduce
minimize outboard drogue movement, receiver control power and drop back at a rate of 3 to 5 knots. Main-
tain alignment and altitude. The probe/drogue con-
problems, and will seat the probe smartly in the
drogue coupling. The drogue will have a tendency to
move to the left as the nose of the receiver passes it.
Do not fence with the probe. Concentrate on flying
nection will separate when the hose reaches full
extension. After breakaway, when clear of the area
behind the hose and drogue, call cCclear."
I
toward a reference point on the tanker. The gunsight
may be used as an aid to alignment. OPERATION OF THE PROBE SWITCH
Extend the probe prior to the initial run and leave the
switch in the OUT position until all runs are com-
When engagement is made, a slight ripple of the hose

II
pleted. When retracting the probe, hold the switch IN
will occur. Adjust power to remain in refueling posi-
for 5 seconds after the door light goes out to ensure

I
tion and fly formation on the tanker. After engag-
ing the drogue, and the amber light goes out, call that the probe door locks.
"contact."
AIR REFUELING SIGNALS
Note
Refer to section VII.
At high closure rates, hose whip will occa-
sionally follow engagement. FLIGHT TEST
If engagement does not occur, reduce power and move Test flights will be conducted in accordance with cur-
slightly to starboard of normal hose trail position, then rent BuWeps Instruction 4700.2 series.

Changed 1 5 July 1966 149


Section IV NAVWEPS 01·45HHD·l
Flight Characteristics

PART 2 - FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS


INTRODUCTION FLIGHT CONTROLS
Note GENERAL
Refer to section I, part 4, for limitations and All Bight controls, ailerons and spoilers, * unit hori-
restrictions. zontal tail, and rudder, are fully powered through dual
The Crusader's operating regime covers an extremely power control systems in order to overcome the high
wide band of Bight conditions ranging from the low airloads encountered in high-speed Bight. Artificial
speeds required for carrier operations, through the feel is provided by springs in the lateral (roll) and
speeds required for long-range cruising Bight, to high directional (yaw) control systems and by springs,
speed Bight at low and high altitudes. Flight stabiliza- viscous dampers, and bobweights in the longitudinal

I tion, stick variable gain, a two-position wing, and (pitch) control system. This feel system provides a
fixed ventral fins are utilized to permit satisfactory force reference against which the pilot may judge his
operation throughout the Bight envelope. control motions. Feel forces are kept low to make
the aircraft pleasant to By and easy to maneuver. Vari-
able-gain linkages are provided in the pitch control
DEFINITIONS system to permit very small control adjustments when
the aircraft is near trimmed conditions. The ailerons
The following definitions are of terms employed fre- and rudder may also be moved about by signals from
quently in this section: the stabilization systems, but this occurs automatically
without affecting stick or rudder positions or feel.
Dynamic pressure (q) - The product of ~ pv2t
(sometimes called ram pressure).
Equivalent airspeed (EAS) - Calibrated airspeed cor- UNIT HORIZONTAL TAIL
rected for compressibility factors. A constant equiv-
alent airspeed maintains a constant dynamic pressure The unit horizontal tail is effective from the stall to
regardless of altitude. At sea level, true airspeed, cali- the highest Mach number at the highest altitude.
brated airspeed and equivalent airspeed are all equal. Horizontal tail effectiveness, or the g per degree of
At altitude, equivalent airspeed is always less than tail movement, varies considerably with Bight condi-
true airspeed. tions, and is least in the landing configuration and in
high-altitude supersonic Bight and most in low alti-
YIIW during roll- The yaw which almdst always ac- tude, high-speed' subsonic Bight. Adequate effective-
mmpanies any rolling maneuver of any aircraft. It is ness is present to rotate the aircraft for takeoff or for
caused by aileron or spoiler drag and by moments on landing (even to the extent of bumping the tail) and
tail and fuselage caused by rolling velocity and Bow to pull limit g in supersonic Bight at altitudes even
effects from the ailerons. above 45,000 feet. In the areas of greatest effectiveness,
Adverse yaw - During a roll, yaw which causes the such as near Mach 0.95 at low altitudes, care must be
nose to move in the direction opposite to the direction taken to prevent overcontrolling. The variable-gain
of roll. linkage reduces these tendencies in the areas of great-
est horizontal tail sensitivity or effectiveness by intro-
Favorable yaw - During a roll. yaw which causes the ducing a band of insensitive control response near
nose to move in the direction of the roll. neutral stick. These characteristics are described more
Rolling pullout - A maneuver in which g is being fully under MANEUVERING FLIGHT in the SUP_'I
pulled while the aircraft is rolling, such as in turn plemental NATOPS Flight Manual. Longitudinal stick
reversals. forces are also presented in the Supplemental NA TOPS
Flight Manual.
Symmetrical pullout-A maneuver in which g is
pulled without rolling. A symmetrical pullout may be
accomplished in a steady turn. AILERONS AND SPOILERS
Trim change - A tendency of the aircraft to pitch, The ailerons and spoilers work together to provide
yaw, or roll because of the inBuence of movable com- lateral control. The ailerons are effective through most
ponents or of changing Bight conditions. Bight conditions but become completely ineffective
*Spoilers are powered by power control systems No.2 only. at the stall and almost so in high-speed low-altitude

150
NAVWEPS 01-45HHD-l Section IV
Flight Characteristics
Bight. The spoilers improve roll performance at high VENTRAL FINS
speeds but are ineffective at the stall. However, ailerons
The ventral fins increase directional stability through-
are the most effective control in inducing or recovering
out the flight envelope, especially at the high Mach
from a spin. Roll rate is the characteristic that is most
end, to permit the flight envelope to be expanded.
affected by the addition of the spoilers, although a
These fins are fixed and the pilot has no control over
slightly greater pitch down is encountered in low-
them.
altitude rolls.
SPEED BRAKE
Lateral stick forces are light in both the landing and
clean configurations. Clean configuration stops pro- The speed brake, functioning as a controllable high-
vide a reference for observation of roll restrictions. drag device, provides a quick and effective means of
making airspeed adjustments in tactical situations and
RUDDER
of limiting airspeed in dives. Precise speed adjust-
ments, such as those desired in formation flying, are
I The rudder becomes effective at about 60 KIAS on the difficult to make by use of the speed brake because of
takeoff roll and remains so through all flight condi- its high rate of motion. The brake will open to its
tions. It provides adequate directional control for full open position of 60° in about 1.5 seconds if the
crosswind landings. Pedal forces are light in the clean airspeed is below 475 knots EAS. Above this speed, the
configuration and are reduced even more in the land- brake opens only an amount proportional to the speed
ing configuration.

POWER CONTROLS

The loss of either of the power control systems will


because ram pressure overcomes the actuator. At 725
knots EAS, the brake will open only about 15° and has
lost considerable effectiveness.
Full extension of the speed brake results in moderate
I
buffeting that increases in intensity with increasing
produce only a slight reduction in maximum longi- airspeed at subsonic speeds. Partially closing the speed
tudinal control. This reduction occurs only at super- brake will decrease or eliminate buffeting without
sonic speeds between 22,000 and 42,000 feet altitude.
causing an appreciable loss in speed brake effectiveness.
The greatest reduction occurs at Mach 1.1 at an alti- No buffeting will be encountered with speed brake
tude of approximately 35,000 feet.
operation at supersonic speeds.
The loss of one of the power control systems results Because there is insufficient ground clearance to permit
in a general decrease in response to maximum control landing with the speed brake extended more than 30°,
inputs above 400 KIAS. Loss of response will generally the brake is automatically closed as the wing is raised
'lot be apparent except at high airspeeds or during unless the speed brake override switch is used.
extreme maneuvers when PC 2 is inoperative.
Refer to the Supplemental NA TOPS Flight Manual
The effects of the loss of one power control system on for additional information.
maximum lateral conuol vary significantly depending
upon which system is inoperative, as follows: CRUISE DROOP
• With PC 1 inoperative, there is no decrease in The cruise droop position of the wing leading edge
maximum lateral control effectiveness below 400 provides a means of obtaining a more efficient wing
KIAS, but there is a decrease of up to 50% be- under certain flight conditions. These conditions and
tween 25,000 and 35,000 feet altitude at super- the corresponding improvements obtained with the
sonic speeds. The decrease in effectiveness is less leading edge extended to the cruise droop position are:
at other altitudes. In addition, roll stabilization
is inoperative. Condition lmprovemetlt
• The loss of PC 2, which is the only system that
supplies pressure for operation of the spoilers, Military climbs above 35,000 Drag is decreased.
results in significant decreases in maximum lateral feet and afterburner
control effectiveness at speeds above 400 KIAS, climbs above 40,000
feet.
but only minor decreases below that speed. At
Subsonic turning Right, Buffet is delayed and
speeds above Mach 0.92 below 9,500 feet altitude, particularly above diminished.
or at very high airspeeds (above 680 KIAS), lat- 30,000 feet.
eral conuol may be inadequate to correct for an Maximum cruise and loiter. Drag is reduced.
extreme lateral out-of-trim condition. Very low speed Bight with Stall and buffet speeds de-
the wing down, such as crease, thereby providing
Directional control is not appreciably affected by loss inflight refueling and a greater safety margin.
of either power control system. However, yaw stabili- two-position wing (To take advantage of
zation and aileron-rudder interconnect are lost with transitions. this margin, cruise droop
should be extended before
PC 2 inoperative. With loss of PC 2, acceleration takeoff and landing.)
restrictions governing loss of yaw stabiliz