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A simple method for assesment for muscle force, velocity

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Zivkovic JSS 2load 16

A simple method for assesment for muscle force, velocity

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1221521

A simple method for assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power producing

capacities from functional movement tasks

Milena Z. Zivkovica, Sasa Djurica, Ivan Cuka,b, Dejan Suzovica and Slobodan Jaricc,d

a

Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, The Research Centre, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; bDepartment of Kinesiology, College of

Sports and Health, Belgrade, Serbia; cDepartment of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA; dBiomechanics

and Movement Science Graduate Program, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA

A range of force (F) and velocity (V) data obtained from functional movement tasks (e.g., running, Accepted 2 August 2016

jumping, throwing, lifting, cycling) performed under variety of external loads have typically revealed

KEYWORDS

strong and approximately linear F–V relationships. The regression model parameters reveal the max- Regression; mechanics;

imum F (F-intercept), V (V-intercept), and power (P) producing capacities of the tested muscles. The aim parameter; output; load

of the present study was to evaluate the level of agreement between the routinely used “multiple-load

model” and a simple “two-load model” based on direct assessment of the F–V relationship from only 2

external loads applied. Twelve participants were tested on the maximum performance vertical jumps,

cycling, bench press throws, and bench pull performed against a variety of different loads. All 4 tested

tasks revealed both exceptionally strong relationships between the parameters of the 2 models (median

R = 0.98) and a lack of meaningful differences between their magnitudes (fixed bias below 3.4%).

Therefore, addition of another load to the standard tests of various functional tasks typically conducted

under a single set of mechanical conditions could allow for the assessment of the muscle mechanical

properties such as the muscle F, V, and P producing capacities.

(Jaskolska, Goossens, Veenstra, Jaskolski, & Skinner, 1999;

Routine procedures for testing muscle function have been

Morin, Samozino, Bonnefoy, Edouard, & Belli, 2010; Rabita

usually conducted under a single mechanical condition. As a

et al., 2015). Note that such tasks reveal only the outputs that

result, the muscle capacities, such as those for producing high

reflect the capacity of the active muscles as a whole to produce

F, V and P outputs, cannot be distinguished from single out-

high external F and V, but not the same capacities of individual

comes of such tests (Jaric, 2015). This inevitably leads to a

muscles (McMahon, 1984; Winter et al., 2016). Nevertheless, the

fundamental problem in the contemporary literature both

applied regression modelling inevitably revealed the maximum

regarding the design of various research and testing proce-

F (i.e., the F-intercept; Fmax), maximum V (V-intercept;

dures, as well as an ambiguity in interpreting their results.

Vmax = Fmax/a), and maximum power (P) [Pmax = (Fmax · Vmax/

A solution of the discussed problem could be based on a

4); (Driss et al., 2002; Jaric, 2015; Samozino et al., 2012)]. In the

number of recent studies that have been focused upon the

further text, this approach will be referred to as the multiple-

force–velocity (F–V) relationship of muscular systems perform-

load model. Of particular importance could be that the multiple-

ing various functional movement tasks [i.e., multi-join move-

load model parameters depicting the external F, V, and P out-

ments represented in either everyday behaviour or various

puts of the tested muscles (i.e., Fmax, Vmax, and Pmax, respec-

sport activities such as jumping, cycling, or lifting; (Jaric,

tively) proved to be highly reliable and at least moderately valid

2015)]. Specifically, a manipulation of external loads provided

with respect to the same variables directly measured through

a range of F and V data that allowed for applying various

standard tests (Jaric, 2015). Therefore, the F–V relationship

regression models revealing V-associated decrease in F.

could provide a comprehensive and valuable set of information

Outcomes of the applied regressions typically revealed excep-

regarding different mechanical capacities of the tested muscles,

tionally strong and linear F–V relationship (i.e., F = Fmax−aV)

particularly when compared with the standard testing proce-

from functional tasks such as lifting (Garcia-Ramos, Jaric, Padial,

dures typically performed under a single set of mechanical

& Feriche, 2016; Sanchez-Medina, Gonzalez-Badillo, Perez, &

conditions (Bobbert, 2012; Jaric, 2015; Rabita et al., 2015;

Pallares, 2014; Sreckovic et al., 2015) jumping and leg push

Samozino et al., 2012, 2014).

offs (Cuk et al., 2014; Feeney, Stanhope, Kaminski, Machi, &

Several authors have already suggested that the method of

Jaric, 2016; Giroux, Rabita, Chollet, & Guilhem, 2015; Meylan

obtaining the linear F–V relationship from loaded functional

et al., 2015; Nikolaidis, 2012; Samozino, Rejc, Di Prampero,

movements procedure could be developed into a routine

Belli, & Morin, 2012, 2014), cycling (Driss, Vandewalle, Le

CONTACT Slobodan Jaric jaric@udel.edu Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Rust Arena, Rm. 143, 541 South

College Avenue, Newark, DE 19716, USA

© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

2 M. Z. ZIVKOVIC ET AL.

procedure for testing the muscle mechanical capacities (Cuk applied testing protocol and also instructed to avoid any

et al., 2014; Garcia-Ramos et.al., 2016; Jaric, 2015; Meylan et al., unusual strenuous activities over the course of the study.

2015; Nikolaidis, 2012; Sreckovic et al., 2015). However, the Both the experimental protocol and the informed consent

same procedure could be too demanding due to a need for a signed by the participants were in accordance with the

number of loading conditions and, therefore, being prone to Declaration of Helsinki and approved by Institutional Review

fatigue, as well as due to the required regression modelling. A Board.

possible solution of the stated problems could be based on

the 2 findings. First, since the F–V relationship obtained from a

Functional movement tests

series of loaded functional movements proved to be excep-

tionally strong, the number of the different loads applied Participants were tested on maximum counter-movement

could have only a minor effect upon the shape of the jumps without arm swing (JUMP) on a F plate (AMTI;

observed F–V relationship. Second, due to the typically linear Watertown, USA) wearing a weighted vest and belt (MiR Vest

shape of the observed F–V relationships, the magnitude of the Inc; San Hose, USA). Although loaded bars positioned upon

applied loads should also play a minor role. Therefore, a subjects’ shoulders have been more frequently employed, we

plausible simplification of the standard procedure of obtaining selected the applied loading method because it brings the

F–V relationship referred to as the multiple-load model could load closer to the body centre of mass, reduces loading of the

be based on drawing a line through just 2 pairs of F and V spine, and less affect the jumping pattern. No specific instruc-

data obtained from 2 distinctive loads (i.e., the two-load tions were given regarding the depth of the counter move-

model). Such a two-load model could accurately replicate the ment. Two trials per load were performed and the rest period

F–V relationship obtained from a multiple-load model applied between consecutive jumps was 1 min and 2–3 min between

on a number of trials performed under different loads. As a different loading magnitudes (Feeney et al., 2016; Leontijevic

result, the two-load model might discern among the F, V, and et al., 2012).

P capacities of the tested muscles in the same way as the A 6-s maximal cycling sprint test (CYCLING) performed on a

parameters of the typically applied multiple-load model does, Monark 834E leg cycle ergometer (Monark, Varberg, Sweden)

while still avoiding ambiguity of interpretation of routine tests consisted entirely of testing the maximum P output (Jaskolska

typically performed under a single mechanical condition. et al., 1999). Participants were instructed to perform an “all

To explore to what extent the two-load model replicates out” effort from the very beginning of the test and to remain

the actual F–V relationship obtained from the multiple-load seated during the entire sprint. The seat height was individu-

model, we conducted 4 functional movement tests under ally adjusted to individual satisfaction, and toe clips with

various external loads. We specifically hypothesised that straps were used to prevent the feet slipping off the pedals

there would be a high level of agreement between the para- (Driss et al., 2002). One trial per each resistance was performed

meters depicting the F, V, and P producing capacity of the and the rest period between consecutive sprints was 4 min.

tested muscles (i.e., Fmax, Vmax, and Pmax, respectively) Maximum bench press throws test (BPRESS) was performed

obtained from the two-load models and the corresponding on a Smith machine [see (Sreckovic et al., 2015) for details]

standard multiple-load models. If the hypothesised concurrent with the instruction “to throw the bar as high as possible.”

validity of the evaluated two-load model can be confirmed, Two stoppers were standing aside and catching the bar during

that could motivate its routine use for a comprehensive its descending trajectory. For safety reasons, mechanical stops

assessment of muscle mechanical capacities from various not only kept the bar about 1 cm above the chest prior to the

functional movements. test, but also prevented (if needed) the collision of the bar

with the subject’s chest. To avoid fatigue, the rest periods

between 2 consecutive trials were 45 s, while the rest between

Methods different loading conditions was about 3 min (Leontijevic,

Pazin, Kukolj, Ugarkovic, & Jaric, 2013; Sreckovic et al., 2015).

Participants

During the maximum bench press pull test (BPULL) the

We employed the sample size estimate (Cohen, 1988) for an participants were instructed to lay face down the high bench

alpha level 0.05 and P 0.8 based on previously observed and placing their chin on the padded edge of the bench. Their

effects of similar magnitudes of loading (Cuk et al., 2014; lower legs and the upper body were strapped to the bench

Sreckovic et al., 2015) assessed by one-way ANOVA. Between with padded rope. They pulled up the bar with maximum

3–12 participants appeared to be necessary to detect the effort until the bar struck the cushioned underside of the

differences among the F and V outputs obtained from differ- bench. The rest periods were the same as in BPRESS.

ent tests and loading conditions. Therefore, we recruited 12

healthy male participants (age 22.1 ± 3.4 years; body height

External loading

184.1 ± 7.1 cm; body mass 80.8 ± 8.2 kg, body mass index

24.5 ± 1.5 cm/kg2, and per cent body fat 11.2 ± 2.8 %; data The applied external loads in JUMP were 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 kg

shown as mean ± SD). IPAQ questionnaire (Taylor-Piliae et al., of weights that allowed all participants to perform the jumps.

2006) revealed low, moderate, and high level of physical In total, they performed 10 jumps (5 loads × 2 trials). Based on

activity in 3, 5, and 4 participants, respectively. None of them a pilot testing, all subjects were able to jump (i.e., to reveal a

reported either medical problems or recent injuries. They were flight phase) with the 32 kg of added weights. Regarding

informed regarding the potential risks associated with the CYCLING, participants performed 5 sprints against the external

JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES 3

loads of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kg (i.e., 1 trial per load). The model was obtained from a linear regression applied on the

individual maximum load lifted in BPRESS and BPULL data observed from all loading conditions, while the two-load

appeared to be between 62 and 90 kg. Therefore, the applied model was drawn through the data obtained from only the

external loads were 20, 27.5, 35, 42.5, 50, and 57.5 kg. The lightest and heaviest load. Each model separately revealed the

minimum load of 20 kg consisted of the bar and arm seg- parameters Fmax (F-intercept), Vmax (V-intercept), and Pmax

ments (Sreckovic et al., 2015), while the weight plates were (Pmax = Fmax · Vmax/4).

added for higher loads. In total, participants completed 12

bench press throws and 12 bench pulls (i.e., 6 loads × 2 trials

Statistical analyses

each).

The analyses were performed on the parameters Fmax, Vmax,

and Pmax and correlation coefficients obtained separately from

Experimental protocol

the multiple-load and two-load model. Descriptive statistics

Each participant completed 4 sessions separated by rest per- were calculated as mean and standard deviation, while the

iods of 5–7 days. The first session consisted of anthropometric correlation coefficients were presented through their median

measurements, followed by familiarisation with 2 functional values and ranges. Initial testing revealed that none of the

tests. Specifically, body height and body mass were assessed dependent variables significantly deviated from their normal

by a standard anthropometer and digital scale, respectively. distribution (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). Student’s t-test was

For the assessment of per cent body fat, a bioelectric impe- employed to test the differences between the same para-

dance method (In Body 720; USA) was used. Familiarisation meters observed from 2 models applied on the particular

with another 2 tests was conducted during the second ses- sets of data, while Pearson’s correlations were used to test

sion. The third and fourth testing sessions served for data their relationships. To assess systematic bias and the limits of

collecting. Note that the order of the tests was partially ran- agreement of the 2 models, we also used Bland–Altman plots

domised for each participant. Namely, to avoid fatigue, each (Bland & Altman, 1986). The level of statistical significance was

familiarisation and testing session involved 1 test of upper set to P < 0.05. All statistical tests were performed using SPSS

limbs and 1 test of lower limbs. The sequence of loads was 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY).

randomised for each particular test. For all tests except

CYCLING, the first trial was used as practice trial, while the

Results

second trial was used for further analysis. Standard 10-min

warm up procedures of the lower and upper body muscles Figure 1(a) shows the averaged across the participants F and V

were conducted prior to each test. A strong verbal encourage- data obtained from individual loads applied on 4 functional

ment was systematically provided. performance tests. The multiple-load model revealed excep-

tionally strong and approximately linear relationships. When

applied on individual sets of data, the same model revealed

Data analysis

the correlation coefficients 0.951 (0.877–0.992) in JUMP, 0.995

The first step of data analysis was the calculation of the F and (0.978–0.999) in CYCLING, 0.984 (0.963–0.991) in BPRESS, and

V values averaged either across the trials concentric phase (in 0.990 (0.940–0.997) in BPULL [all data shown as median

JUMP, BPRESS, and BPULL), or from the entire test interval (range)]. Figure 1(b) illustrates the similarity of the multiple-

(CYCLING). A custom-designed LabVIEW (National load and two-load model outcomes observed from a repre-

Instruments, 2013; USA) programme was used to acquire and sentative set of individual data. Although the two-load model

process the vertical component of the ground reaction F (solid line) was observed from only the first and the last point

exerted during JUMP. The F signal was sampled at 1000 Hz used to obtain the linear regression (i.e., the multiple-load

and low-pass filtered with a second-order recursive 10 Hz low- model; all points and dashed line), the 2 lines are almost

pass Butterworth filter. Integration of the acceleration signal overlapping. As a result, the values of the parameters of the

calculated from F was conducted to calculate V (Cuk et al., 2 models should have been very similar.

2014). Regarding CYCLING, the device software was used to The following figures show a high level of agreement

acquire P and the frequency data. To assess the corresponding between the 2 models through the similarity of their para-

linear measures, V was calculated from the frequency and the meters observed across the participants. Specifically, Figure 2

crank length, while F was calculated as P divided by V. presents the differences between the magnitudes, the same

Another custom-made Lab VIEW programme was used to parameters observed from the multiple-load and two-load

assess F and V from BPRESS and BPULL. 3D kinematic record- model applied separately on different functional performance

ing (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) sampled at a rate of tasks. Although 4 out of 12 comparisons revealed significant

240 Hz with recursive Butterworth 10 Hz low-pass filter was differences (P < 0.05; paired t-test), note that the magnitudes

used to assess the vertical position of the bar. V and accelera- of the differences were exceptionally small. Figure 3 shows the

tion of the bar were calculated from the first and second relationships between the same parameters. All correlation

derivative of the position, respectively, while F was calculated coefficients proved to be strong (all r > 0.952; P < 0.01).

as a sum of the weight (i.e., mass times gravity acceleration) Although the correlation coefficients obtained from BPRESS

and inertia (mass times acceleration) of the total mass lifted. appear to be somewhat lower than in the remaining 3 tests,

The second step of the data analysis was the assessment of none of the 12 correlation coefficients was either above or

2 models and their parameters. The individual multiple-load below the 95% confidence intervals of others.

4 M. Z. ZIVKOVIC ET AL.

Figure 1. (a) The linear regressions obtained from the averaged across the

participant data recorded from 4 functional movement tests. The individual

points represent F and V values recorded from particular loads, while the

correlation coefficients are also indicated. (b) Comparison of the 2 models

applied on a representative set of individual data obtained from BPRESS.

While the standard “multiple-load model” is based on a linear regression

applied on all experimentally recorded F and V values (both the open and filled

squares; dashed line), the “two-load model” represents the line drawn through

only the first and last point (circled; solid line) of the tested individual.

Figure 2. The averaged across the participant values of the parameters Fmax

The Bland–Altman plots also revealed a high level of agree- (top panel), Vmax (middle panel), and Pmax (bottom panel) obtained from the

ment between the 2 models. Specifically, for all parameters the multiple-load (open bars) and two-load model (filled bars) for different tests

(means with SD error bars). Significant differences (*P < 0.05) between the 2

fixed bias was below 3.4%, while the proportional bias was models are also presented (corresponding effect sizes in parentheses).

R < 0.60 (all P > 0.05). Finally, the averaged 95% limit of

agreements was 5.6%, ranging from 2.9% (Vmax obtained from

CYCLING) to 10.7% (Vmax obtained from JUMP) (Figure 4). level of agreement between the multiple-load and two-load

model.

Previous studies revealed that the F–V relationships

Discussion

observed from the multiple-load model applied on loaded

Within the present study, we compared a model observed functional movements proved not only to be linear and

from just 2 distinctive loads with the outcomes of the stan- strong, but also that their parameters Fmax, Vmax, and Pmax

dard multiple-load model used to obtain the F–V relationship could be reliable and valid indices of muscle F, V, and P

from various tasks performed under a number of loading producing capacities, respectively (Jaric, 2015). The obtained

conditions. The results obtained from 4 different functional results strongly suggest that the two-load model that requires

movement tasks strongly supported our hypothesis. Namely, neither the regression modelling nor more than 2 different

both the absolute values, the relationships and the bias loads applied provides virtually identical outcomes regarding

observed between the models’ parameters revealed a high the magnitudes of the F–V parameters. This could be

JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES 5

see also Introduction].

Various functional movements, such as maximum perfor-

mance jumping, cycling, running, throwing, and lifting, have

been routinely employed to assess the mechanical capacities

of involved muscles, detect differences among various popu-

lations, and explore the effects of various rehabilitation and

training interventions. As already pointed out in Introduction,

they have been typically tested under a single set of mechan-

ical conditions including a single external load. Just a quick

glance at Figure 1(b) reveals the main problem of such an

approach: a single experimental point does not allow for the

assessment of the F–V relationship and, therefore, the muscle

F, V, and P producing capacities cannot be assessed. Moreover,

the position of the point relative to the maximum F (i.e., zero

V), V (zero F), and P (the middle section of the line) of the

tested muscles cannot be assessed. One could only speculate

to what extent such an approach has created ambiguity in

Figure 3. Correlation coefficients between the same parameters obtained from literature regarding whether the outcomes of standard func-

the multiple-load and two-load model (corresponding 95% confidence intervals tional movement tests reveal F, V, or P producing capacities of

also shown). the tested muscles.

The present data, however, suggest that adding of just

considered as an outcome that supports the concurrent valid- another external load could allow for using the two-load

ity of the two-load model with respect to the multiple-load model that distinguishes among the discussed muscle capa-

model already extensively used in literature. It is plausible to cities. Conversely, the obtained results also suggest that add-

assume that the level of agreement between the outcomes of ing more than just 1 external load may not be needed. That

the two-load and multiple-load model originate from both the eliminates a need for a linear regression modelling and also

strength and linearity of the F–V relationships of muscles makes the procedure both quicker and less prone to fatigue.

Figure 4. Bland–Altman plots illustrating the agreement of the 3 parameters (Fmax, Vmax, and Pmax) obtained from 4 different tests by means of the multiple-load

and two-load model. Dashed lines show the fixed bias, while the dotted lines show 95% limits of agreements.

6 M. Z. ZIVKOVIC ET AL.

Finally, a question could be the method of selection of the Nevertheless, further research is needed to standardise the

particular 2 loads. A plausible solution could be the selection testing procedures regarding the magnitudes of external

of 2 more, rather than less distinctive loads (as shown in loads applied, their type (Leontijevic et al., 2013), and addi-

Figure 1(b)). Namely, if each individual load provides F and V tionally explore the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the

magnitudes with a similar error score, the error of the observed parameters.

obtained F–V relationship (and, therefore, of Fmax, Vmax, and

Pmax) would be smaller if calculated from more distant experi- Disclosure statement

mental points.

Regarding the possible limitations of the discussed two- No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

load model, note that it could be applied only on multi-joint

functional movement tasks, since the F–V relationship Funding

observed from in vitro muscles and single-joint movements

is generally considered to be curvilinear (Kaneko, Fuchimoto, This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health, USA:

[Grant Number R21AR06065]; and the Serbian Research Council: [Grant

Toji, & Suei, 1983; McMahon, 1984). Nevertheless, it should be Number 175037].

noted that the functional movement tasks are not only exten-

sively used in routine testing, but also more ecologically valid

and typically more familiar for participants (Jaric, 2015). In

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