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 The multi-disciplinary nature of health and safety

 The barriers to good standards of health and safety
 Meanings of and distinctions between common terms

The multi-disciplinary nature of health and safety

 Occupational health and safety is a broad subject

 Brings together knowledge from several disciplines of learning:
 Natural sciences: Life sciences, Chemistry, Physics
 Social sciences: Culture and ethics studies, Economics, Psychology, Sociology
 Formal sciences: Computer sciences, Mathematics, and statistics
 Applied sciences: Architecture and design, Business, Education, Engineering, Health care,
Communication, Law

The barriers to good standards of health and safety

Health and safety is a fundamental part of managing an organization

Barriers to achieving good standards of health and safety in the workplace:

i. Complexity

Leads to risks not being identified

The Organization may not provide good solutions to risks

Good solutions may not be effectively implemented

Cooperation is needed across all organizational levels

The complexity of the Organization can mean all types of risk fail to be identified across the disciplines

Financial and budgeting planning may be involved in complex solutions leading to their own problems

ii. Competing and conflicting demands


Competing demands for finite resources:



Focus may be placed on immediate costs rather than longer term health and safety programmed

Conflicting demands placed on managers, supervisors, and workers

Potential conflict on resources between productivity and health and safety to detriment of health and

iv. Behavioral issues

Even when an organization has identified solutions, the behavior of managers, supervisors and workers
can prevent good health and safety standards by:

Managers, supervisors, and workers not being motivated

Managers not encouraging good practice

Workers not following procedures

*Behavioral Practice has been found to be a significant barrier

Meanings of and distinctions between common terms

i. Health
ii. “A state of well-being”
iii. Safety
iv. “Absence of danger of physical harm”
v. Welfare
vi. “Facilities for workplace comfort”
vii. environmental protection


 General argument
 The size of the problem
 Societal expectations of good standards of health and safety
 The business case for health and safety

General argument

Three good reasons for preventing accidents in the workplace:

i. Moral
ii. Social
iii. Economic

The Size of the Problem

 ILO has estimated that globally there are 2.2 million work-related deaths each year
 Biggest groups of work-related diseases are cancers, circulatory diseases and communicable
 Reported that there are 270 million accidents at work each year
 In the European Union (EU), the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work identified that
there were 3,691 work-related deaths in the EU (2011)
 ILO estimates Health and Safety costs 4% of GDP per country
 902 workplace deaths were recorded in Canada in 2013
 On average, this equates to almost four work-related deaths per work day
 In the USA 4,585 people suffered fatal injury which equates to over 12.56 deaths per work day
 In Kuwait during 2006, 2,818 work-related accidents and 31 deaths occurred
 In Bahrain the number of occupational deaths in all industry types almost doubled from 19 in
2006 to 36 in 2008

In the UK the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) statistics reveal that:

 133 workers were killed at work during the year 2013/14, representing 0.44 fatalities per
100,000 workers
 The construction industry (42%) and agriculture (27%) accounted for most of these
 Falls from height, being struck by a vehicle and being struck by a falling object account for
approximately 50% of all fatal injuries
 More than 77,000 other injuries were reported under RIDDOR 2013 and about 28,200,000 days
were lost in total due to work-related ill-health and injury

Number of work-related deaths and accidents/incidents
*Size of The Problem Summary*
Societal expectations of good standards of health and safety

 Societal expectations vary around the world

 Established market economies expect good standards of health and safety
 In developing market economies, the societal expectations may be more of an aspiration and
have less influence

Societal opinion tends to fall into two parts:

1. Strategic, influenced by the general mass of public concerning its tolerance (or intolerance) of specific
workplace hazards or situations
2. Local influences tend to surround acceptability or unacceptability of the practices of a specific

 Many countries have established requirements for good health and safety standards (ILO
Convention C155)

 Employers need to provide five health and safety requirements:

1. A safe place to work

2. Safe plant and equipment
3. Safe systems of work
4. Training and supervision
5. Competent workers

 A number of countries have established an employer’s ‘common law’ duty of care, which is owed
to workers
 A legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of
care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others
 This duty of care could be considered as formalizing the implicit responsibilities held by an
individual towards another individual within society
 In the UK the employer’s duty of care in common law has been established for some time and
obligates the employer to take ‘reasonable care of those that might foreseeably be affected by
its acts or omissions’

Criminal and civil law

In many countries the duty of care is now enshrined in national law with criminal and civil
penalties for non-compliance

The Business Case

Accidents and ill health cost money.

Costs may be:

i. Direct – measurable costs arising directly from accidents.

ii. Indirect – arise because of the event but may not directly involve money.
Often difficult to quantify.
H&S failure can affect the broader economy, as well as individual companies.

Group Discussion

Q. An employee has been injured at work.

Identify potential:

1. Direct costs of the accident.

2. Indirect costs of the accident.

Direct costs include:

i. First-aid treatment, sick pay,

ii. lost production time.
iii. Fines and compensation.

Indirect costs include:

i. Lost time for investigation.

ii. Lost morale and damaged worker relationships.
iii. Cost of recruitment of replacement staff.
iv. Lost reputation.
The Cost of Accidents at Work

Insured Costs:

i. Fire.
ii. Worker injury/death.
iii. Medical costs.

Uninsured Costs:

i. Loss of raw materials due to accidents.

ii. Sick pay.
iii. Overtime.
iv. Equipment repairs.
v. Lost materials.


International Labor Organization (ILO)

 Agency of United Nations.

 Most countries are members.
 Sets international standards for
H&S by publishing:

i. Conventions.
ii. Recommendations.

The International Framework


i. Create binding obligations or policies to implement their provisions.

ii. No legal authority, unless ratified by the member state into its own legal structure.


 Provide guidance on policy, legislation and practice.

Examples of Regulatory International Frameworks

Regulations adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO):

i. Occupational Safety and Health Convention (C155) – a goal-setting policy for companies and
ii. Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation 1981 (R164) – supplements C155 and
gives more guidance on how to comply with its policies.
iii. We'll talk about these a lot during the course!

Employers’ Responsibilities

Article 16 of C155 identifies obligations placed on employers to:

i. Ensure that workplaces, machinery, equipment, and work processes are safe and without
risks to health.
ii. Ensure that chemical, physical, and biological substances and agents are without risk to
health when protective measures have been taken.
iii. Provide adequate protective clothing and equipment to prevent risks of accidents or adverse
health effects.

Article 10 of R164:

i. Provide and maintain workplaces, machinery and equipment and use working methods that
are safe.
ii. Give necessary instruction, training and supervision in application and use of health and
safety measures.
iii. Introduce organizational arrangements relevant to activities and size of undertaking.
iv. Provide PPE and clothing without charge to workers.
v. Ensure that work organization, particularly working hours and rest breaks, does not
adversely affect occupational safety and health.
vi. Take reasonably practical measures with a view to eliminating excessive physical and mental
vii. Keep up to date with scientific and technical
viii. knowledge to comply with the above.

Regulatory Frameworks

ILO has also published Conventions associated with specific hazards:

i. C115 – Radiation Protection (1960)

ii. C162 – Asbestos (1986)
iii. C167 – H&S in Construction (1988)

What Employers Must Provide

i. Safe place of work – and safe access and egress.

ii. Safe plant and equipment – the need to inspect, service and replace machinery will depend
on the level of risk.
iii. Safe system of work – should be safe in all circumstances – appropriate review, planning and
control ensure continued safety of methods.
iv. Training and supervision to ensure competency.
What is “Competence”?




For taking complete course , notes, contact Fire and Safety Experts, Islamabad. Pakistan

Contact: 0515418010 (Landline)

03028968778 (Mobile)

Address: Tipu Boulevard, Sector D DHA Phase II, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory

Directions: https://goo.gl/maps/H7SeXJKA7T12

Website: https://www.safetyfirexperts.com

Fire and Safety Experts

UK Accredited Centre in Islamabad Pakistan
UK IOSH- Managing Safely
UK AOSH- Fire Safety
Contact: 0515418010 (Landline)
03028968778 (Mobile)
Address: Tipu Boulevard, Sector D DHA Phase II,
Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory
Directions: https://goo.gl/maps/H7SeXJKA7T12
Website: https://www.safetyfirexperts.com