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Chemical Engineering/ Mechanical Engineering

Heat Transfer
CHEM3000 / MECH3408
Lab 3
Universal Heat Exchanger

Date: 25-Nov-18
Introduction

Heat exchangers are classified according to the flow type as parallel flow and
counter flow in parallel flow, both the hot and cold fluids enter the heat
exchanger at the same end and move in the same direction. In counter-flow,
the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at opposite ends and flow in
opposite direction.

Tubular heat exchangers is the collective term for a wide variety of heating
systems to heat water thermal oil, crude oil, gas, air for combustion and are also
used in biogas reheating and steam production.

For our application, we used tailor-made heat exchanging equipment and heat
transfer solutions in a tubular design.

 single tube heat exchangers


Objectives:

 To determine the heat transfer rate of tube heat exchanger.


 Difference between parallel flow pattern and counter flow pattern of the
system.
 To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tubular heat
exchanger.

Calculation and observation

ID:0.01 m

OD:0.012 m

Mean diameter = (ID + OD) / 2 = 0.011 m

L=length= 0.88m

………………………… Parallel flow ……………………………

Flow rate, LPM (Lite/min)


Hot Water @ 6LPM
Temperature (oC) Cold Water @ 3 Hot Water @ 6
LPM LPM
Cold inlet 27 27
Cold outlet 32 32
Hot inlet 47.4 47.4
Hot outlet 44.6 44.6
Hot Water

Th,in
Cold
Wate
Tc,in r
Th,out
Th,in Th,in

Fig.1 Fig.2

……………………………cold water@ 3 LPM ……………………………

Hot Water =6 LPM Cold Water=3 LPM


Hot Inlet = 47.4oC Cold Inlet=27oC
Hot Outlet =44.6 oC Cold Outlet=32oC

∆T1 = Th, in − Tc, in = 47.4 − 27 = 20.4 oC

∆T2 = Th, out − Tc, out = 44.6 − 32 = 12.6 oC

∆𝑇1 − ∆𝑇2 20.4 − 12.6


∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 = = = 16.188𝐶
∆𝑇1 20.4
ln ln
∆𝑇2 12.6

The Overall heat transfer coefficient from cold water:


L 1 min 1 m3 3
V̇ c = 3 × × = 5 × 10−5 m ⁄sec
min 60 sec 1000 L
𝑘𝑔 m3 kg
̇
ṁ c = ρ × V c = 997 3 × 5 × 10 −5
= 0.0499 ⁄sec
m sec
𝑄̇𝑐 = 𝑚̇ 𝑐 𝐶𝑝 𝑐 ∆𝑇𝑐 = 0.0499 × 4185.5 × (32 − 27) = 1044.3 W

𝑄̇ = 𝑈 𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛

𝑄̇ 1044.3
𝑈= = = 2120.63 W⁄ 2
𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 0.03042 × 16.188 m 𝐶

The Overall heat transfer coefficient from Hot water:

L 1 min 1 m3 3
V̇ h = 6 × × = 1 × 10−4 m ⁄sec
min 60 sec 1000 L
𝑘𝑔 m3 kg
̇
ṁ h = ρ × V h = 997 3 × 1 × 10 −4
= 0.0997 ⁄sec
m sec

𝑄̇ℎ = 𝑚̇ ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ℎ ∆𝑇ℎ = 0.0997 × 4186 × (44.6 − 47.4) = −1168.56 W

𝑄̇ = 𝑈 𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛

𝑄̇ 1168.56
𝑈= = = 2373 W⁄ 2 Glycerin
𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 0.03042 × 16.188 m 𝐶
20C
Ethylene

60C

Y%=(Qcold/Qhot) *100 =(1044.3/1168.56) ∗ 100


=0.897*100
=89.4%
…………………………………… Counter flow ……………………………………

Flow rate, LPM (Lite/min)

Hot Water @ 6LPM

Temperature (oC) Cold Water @ 3 Hot Water @ 6


LPM LPM

Cold inlet 27.7 27.7

Cold outlet 32.9 32.9

Hot inlet 47.6 47.6

Hot outlet 44.8 44.8

Cold Water

Hot Water
…………………………… cold water@ 3LPM ……………………………

Hot Water =6 LPM Cold Water=3 LPM

Hot Inlet = 47.6oC Cold Inlet=27.7 oC

Hot Outlet =44.8 oC Cold Outlet=32.9 oC

∆T1 = Th, in − Tc, out = 47.6 − 32.9 = 14.7 oC

∆T2 = Th, out − Tc, in = 44.8 − 27.7 = 17.1 oC

∆𝑇1 − ∆𝑇2 14.7 − 17.1


∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 = = = 15.869 𝐶
∆𝑇1 14.7
ln ln
∆𝑇2 17.1

The Overall heat transfer coefficient from cold water:

L 1 min 1 m3 3
V̇ c = 3 × × = 5 × 10−5 m ⁄sec
min 60 sec 1000 L
𝑘𝑔 m3 kg
ṁ c = ρ × V̇ c = 997 3
× 5 × 10 −5
= 0.0499 ⁄sec
m sec

𝑄̇𝑐 = 𝑚̇ 𝑐 𝐶𝑝 𝑐 ∆𝑇𝑐 = 0.0499 × 4186 × (32.9 − 27.7) = 1086.18 W

𝑄̇ = 𝑈 𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛
𝑄̇ 1086.18 Glycerin
𝑈= = = 2250.06 W⁄ 2
𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 0.03042 × 15.869 m 𝐶 20C
Ethylene

The Overall heat transfer coefficient from Hot water: 60C

L 1 min 1 m3 3
V̇ h = 6 × × = 1 × 10−4 m ⁄sec
min 60 sec 1000 L
𝑘𝑔 m3 kg
ṁ h = ρ × V̇ h = 997 3
× 1 × 10 −4
= 0.0997 ⁄sec
m sec

𝑄̇ℎ = 𝑚̇ ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ℎ ∆𝑇ℎ = 0.0997 × 4186 × (44.8 − 47.6) = −1168.56 W

𝑄̇ = 𝑈 𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛

𝑄̇ 1168.56
𝑈= = = 2420.71 W⁄ 2
𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑛 0.03042 × 15.869 m 𝐶

Y%=(Qcold/Qhot) *100 =(1086.18 /1168.56) ∗ 100

=0.929*100

=92.95%