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The qualitative design that was used in this study was the case study.

study design is generally used to uncover the interaction of significant factors and
characteristics of a phenomenon (Merriam, 1998).
Merriam described a case study as having the following characteristics: particularistic, descriptive, and
heuristic (p. 29). (Merriam (1988) defines a qualitative case study as "an intensive, holistic description
and analysis of a single entity, phenomenon, or social unit. [They] are particularistic, descriptive, and
heuristic and rely heavily on inductive reasoning" (p. 16). A case study is particularistic because it
focuses on a specific phenomenon such as a program, event, process, person, institution, or group.
When Merriam states that a case study is descriptive, she is referring to the end product of the study
which is a "rich, thick description of the phenomenon under study" (p. 11). Heuristic refers to a case
study’s power to "illuminate the reader’s understanding of the phenomenon under study" (p. 13), and
Merriam (1988), quoting from Stake, says "previously unknown relationships and variables can emerge
from case studies leading to a rethinking of the phenomenon being studied" (p. 13). Case studies utilize
inductive reasoning since new understandings, concepts, and relationships arise from studying the data
(Merriam, 1988)).This study reflected these characteristics. It was particularistic because it focused on
a particular group of students who were migrant farm workers and enrolled in the CAMP. The case
study concentrated attention on the influences that led migrant students in CAMP to enroll in college.
The study was descriptive through the documentation of events, quotes, and samples of student work
such as journals, autobiographies, and discussions (Merriam).
Qualitative analysis for my study began with an initial questionnaire. “In collective case study, an early
commitment to common topics facilitates later cross-site analysis,” Stake writes (1995, p. 25). For this
reason, the questionnaire hosted pre-determined categories. In January of 2016 Cleo, Rocio and
Socorro completed a questionnaire that asked them for demographic data, such as ethnicity and
education level, and opinion data, such as how they perceive their student population (Appendix E).

Since this qualitative study is a case study, I will

focus on that approach. “Case studies concern in-depth study of a single or few
programs, events, activities, groups, or other entities defined in terms of time and
place. Multiple methods of data collection are used, including observations,
interviews, and analysis of documents and reports (p. 12).”
This case study is an in-depth analysis of how technology was used to
facilitate multicultural awareness in teachers and teacher candidates in a master’s
teacher education program. Specifically the bounded system is a graduate course at a
Southwestern University, between January and May 2004 (or the spring semester).
Data was collected from the Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey (see Appendix D);
reflection pieces written by the participants, research conducted about their ethnicity
and curriculum projects they designed. Case studies are well suited to developing
detailed descriptions of certain research projects, they focus on contemporary
phenomenon by studying a single instance of the phenomenon, the phenomenon are
studies in their total context, involving multiple data sources, and researchers follow a
conceptual framework (Bog, Gall & Gall, 1993). The ideas to be studied are
embedded within the research questions.

This case study is an in depth analysis of students’ awareness and
implementation of multicultural ideas facilitated by the integration of technology in
an education course at a Southwestern University. James H. McMillan (2000)
describes a case study as an in depth analysis of one or more events, settings,
programs, social groups, communities, individuals, or other “bounded systems.”
More specifically, it is an observational case study. Observational case studies as
mentioned by Robert C. Bogdan and Sari Knopp Bilkin (1998), utilize participant
observation as the major data gathering technique, which can be supplemented by
review of documents. The focus of the study is on a particular organization and
typically targets a particular place in the organization, a specific group, and some
activity (p. 55). In this case I observed students in a particular class I taught,
reflection pieces were sent to me on a scheduled basis, and curriculum projects were
This case study is an in-depth analysis of how online media is used to make public and private change
possible for people of color.